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FINITE ELEMENT METHODS

(BDA 4033)

Lecture Module 1: Introduction

Dr. Waluyo Adi Siswanto


Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Course Objectives

The aim of the subject is to introduce basic finite


element methods and its relevant applications to
the solution of engineering problems.
It will provide a sufficient knowledge in using
application FEM based software creatively for
professional works.

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Learning Outcomes

At the end of the course students


should be able to:
develop computational model based on standard
element stiffness matrices
solve numerically problems in bar/truss/frame
structure, heat transfer and fluid flow
execute problem solving methods using the
available finite element methods software
discuss in group to improve model acquired by
using resources from finite element solution.
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What you can do

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What you can doHeat Transfer

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References

Saeed Moaveni, 2008. Finite Element Analysis, 3rd edition, Pearson
Education International.

N.S. Ottosen & H. Petersson, 1992. Introduction to the Finite Element
Method, Prentice Hall.

G.R. Buchanan, 1995. Schaums Outline Series, Theory and Problems of
Finite Element Analysis, McGraw-Hill.

J.N. Reddy, 2006. An Introduction to the Finite Element Method, 3rd
edition, McGraw Hill

K.J. Bathe, 1996. Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall.

L.J. Segerlind, 1997. Analisis Unsur Terhingga Gunaan, diterjemahkan
oleh Muhamad Her Jantan, Penerbit UTM.

Tirupathi R. Chandrupatla & Ashok D.Belegundu, 2002. Introduction to
Finite Elements in Engineering, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall
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Subject Delivery


Lecturing and Tutoring
Explaining theories, methods and understanding related to the
topics.
Discussing sample problems related to the topics


Software Application on Laboratory Session (A)
Application of finite element methods using FEM software

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Assessment Scheme

Students attendance *
Individual assignment (2) ( 5%)
Simulation Lab Report ( 5%)
Group case study (10%)
Test (2) (30%)
Final Examination (50%)

* Attendance must not less than 80%


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Lecture Time Tables
BDA 4033 FEM, S2
First half
Ref RPP-04 Chap 1 to Chap 5
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7
10/9/12 11/9/12 17/9/12 18/9/12 24/9/12 25/9/12 1/10/12 2/10/12 8/10/12 9/10/12 15/10/12 16/10/12 22/10/12 23/10/12
CAD-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1 CA D-1/2 E15-1 CA D-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1
8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM

Ass-1 Issued Ass-1 Due


8/10/12 14/10/12
Topic: Ch 1-4 (5%)

Test-1
15/10/12
Topic: Ch 1-4
(15%)
Second half
Ref RPP-04 Chap 6 to Chap 10 Week 14
Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 Week 13 Proj Presentation
5/11/12 6/11/12 12/11/12 13/11/12 19/11/12 20/11/12 26/11/12 27/11/12 3/12/12 4/12/12 10/12/12 11/12/12 17/12/12 18/12/12
CAD-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1 CA D-1/2 E15-1 CA D-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1 CAD-1/2 E15-1
8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM 8-10am 2-4PM

Ass-2 Issued Ass-2 Due Pres-Project


13/11/12 18/11/12 17/12/12 18/12/12
Topic: Ch 5-6 (5%) (10% )

Project Start Test-2 F. EXAM


13/11/12 19/11/12 UTHM Tables
Case Study Topic: Ch 5-7 Topic: All, comprehensiv e
(15%) (50%)

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Part 1 (7 Weeks)

1)INTRODUCTION
2)MATRIX ALGEBRA
3)AXIAL and TORSIONAL ELEMENTS
4)TRUSS 2D/3D ELEMENTS
5) BEAM, GRID AND FRAME ELEMENTS

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Part 2 (7 weeks)

6)ONE DIM HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEM


7)TWO DIM STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
8)TWO DIM HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS
9)FLUID FLOW NETWORK PROBLEM
10)THREE DIM SOLID ELEMENTS

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Lab Sessions

Doing example problems


(Guided by the instructor)
Individual task (5) : 5%
Project / Group task (1): 10%
Project Report
Project Presentation

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INTRODUCTION

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What is Finite Element Method

The finite element method is a numerical analysis technique.


technique

The basic principle in FEM is the object of interest (to analysed) is


divided into certain number of regions.

Each region is referred to as ELEMENT and the process of subdividing


a domain into a finite number of elements is referred to as
DISCRETISATION.
DISCRETISATION

Elements are connected at specific points, called NODES,


NODES and the
assembly process requires that the solution be continuous along
common boundaries of adjacent elements.

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Background History
of Discretization and Convergence

Calculating area under the curve

f x dx
a

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External approach Internal approach

Exact solution

Number of elements
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Example of Calculation

Number of lines Result Result


From Inside From Outside

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Discretization
Object/domain/model

Element

Node

SMALLER ELEMENT
MORE ACCURATE

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Element and Node
Element is used to represent the geometry of the object

Node represents the motion flexibility of the point in the object, which is
called the DEGREE OF FREEDOM

Ty

Ry

y
Rx Maximum DOF: 6 per node
x Tx
3 translations: Tx, Ty, Tz
z 3 rotations: Rx, Ry, Rz
Rz

Tz

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Response / Output
follows the defined DOF

Node of element has


only axial translation

FEM model

Responded with
deformation

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Response / Output
follows the defined DOF

Node of element has


only axial translation

FEM model

No response showed

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Line Elements

Axial element Torsional element

Truss 2D Element

Truss 3D Element

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Line Elements

Beam Element

Space Frame Element

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Surface Elements

Plate Triangular Element

Plate Quadrilateral

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Surface Elements

Plate Bending Quadrilateral Element

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Surface Elements

Plate Membrane Quadrilateral Element

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Surface Elements

Shell Quadrilateral Element

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Solid Elements

Solid Tetrahedral 4 and 10 nodes Element

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Solid Elements

Solid Hexahedral 8 and 20 nodes Element

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Axisymmetric Elements

Axisymmetric tapered annulus 2 nodes

Axysymmetric Shell 2 Nodes

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Axisymmetric Elements

Axysymmetric Shell 3 Nodes

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General FEM Procedures

1. Discretize and Select the element types


2. Select displacement function
3. Define strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships
4. Derive the element stiffness matrix and equation
5. Assemble the element equations to obtain equations and
to introduce boundary conditions
6. Solve for unknown degrees of freedom
7. Solve for element strains and stresses
8. Interpret the results

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General FEM Procedures
(known elemental stiffness matrix)

1. Discretize and Select the element types


2. (was 2, 3, 4) Calculate each elemental stiffness matrix
3. Assemble the element equations to obtain equations and
to introduce boundary conditions
4. Solve for unknown degrees of freedom
5. Solve for element strains and stresses
6. Interpret the results

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General FEM Procedures
(FEM application software)

1. Meshing of the geometrical (CAD) data


2. Define material properties and assign to respective regions
3. Define load, boundary condition and assign to respective
nodes, elements or regions.
4. Define intended outputs
5. Run Finite Element Method Solver
6. Calling the outputs and interpret the results.

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General FEM Procedures
(Stage Activity of FEM application software)

1.Pre-processing
by using Pre-Processor
2.Solving
by employing Solver
3.Post-processing
by using Post-Processor

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