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A Guide to

Hull and Machinery

Technical Terms

3rd Edition

Issued by Braemar Technical Services Ltd 2010 - 2015
(Incorporating The Salvage Association)
This booklet should be used for training and educational purposes only
and is not intended for any commercial purpose. All information included
within this technical publication represents the private opinion of the author
(and not advice in any meaning, also in the meaning of any act, regulation or
law of any country) and must not be copied for any commercial purposes.
All data in this booklet should be used as a learning platform providing
guidance only. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any form or means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior
written permission of Braemar Technical Services Ltd (Incorporating
The Salvage Association).
Braemar Technical Services Ltd does not accept liability for any errors or
source reference omissions in the context of this training and guidance
booklet which may arise as a result of Internet transmission, nor accept
liability for statements which are exclusively those of the author and not
clearly made on behalf of Braemar Technical Services Ltd.
Details correct at time of going to press.
Marine survey reports frequently contain nautical and
engineering terminology which can be unfamiliar to anyone
in the shipping and marine insurance industry who does
not have a technical background.
In an attempt to bridge this gap we have produced this small guide book which
covers some of the common terminology, often encountered in survey reports, in
reference to ships, their engines and related operations. By no means should this
guide book be considered a complete dictionary encompassing the entire terminology
but we hope that it will assist the marine community.
The first version (Ver.01) of this booklet was published in 2010 and was very positively
received by the marine insurance and wider shipping markets. The feedback
collected from the various readers prompted us to publish a second edition of the
guide which included additional data such as explanations on gross and net register
tonnages, subdivision and load line, deck mooring fittings and lifting appliances, whilst
some useful guide formulas are included on selection of wires and synthetic ropes.
In the machinery section we also included some additional data regarding gear boxes,
fuel and lubricating oil systems, purifiers, transmission systems, whilst the sheer scale
of marine engines, in comparison to a human body, can now be appreciated within
the section of typical propulsion engines.
In this edition (V3), we include additional information covering basic definitions,
geometry and principal dimensions, definitions of geometry, tonnage definitions,
information on water ballasting and displacement, container ship construction,
types of rudders and components and materials used in rudder construction, rudder
turning, propeller terminology, deck machinery, cargo handling, dry docking and types
of dry docks.
In the machinery section there is further information on types of propulsion, types of
engine, ship service systems and ship motion control. Once again the aim was to
keep the guide book simple and easy to use providing users with a quick reference
tool with easily understood illustrations.

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Service Overview .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9 Cargo Handling - Lifting Appliances . 42-43
Training and Professional Development 10 Dry Docking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-45
Global Surveyor Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Dry Docks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-47
General Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Principal Offices ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Hull
Units .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15 General Cargo Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Navigation ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Bulk Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-52
Basic Definitions ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Hatch Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Geometry & Principal Dimensions . . . . . . 18 Container Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Definitions & Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19 Gas Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Common Naval Architectural Data . . 20-21 Passenger Ferry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Tonnage .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-23 Ocean Going Tug Boat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Water Ballast ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-25 Double Skin Oil Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Displacement ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Common Marine Engineering Data . . . . . 27
Weather Data ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Classification of Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-30
Ship Construction Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-32
Container Ship Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Deck Machinery ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-35
Typical Mooring Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-40
Typical Mooring Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . 41

4 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Types of Rudder ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-64 Engine Scavenge Air
The Components and Materials Used & Exhaust Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
in Rudder Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
How do you turn the rudder? . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Steam Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
What turns the rudder and how? . . . . . . . 67 Vertical Oil Fired & Combined Boiler . . . . . 90
Ship Construction Data Gear Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Stern -Rudder Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Auxiliary Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Steering Gears .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Marine Auxiliary Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Propeller Terminology .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-73
Main Engine Temperature Control . . . . . . . 94
Typical Engines for Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Tube Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Types of Propulsion Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Plate Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Main Engine Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Main Engine Air Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Auxiliary Engines Driving Generators . . . . 76
A Typical Start Air Compressor . . . . . . . . . . 98
Medium Speed Twin Engine
Fuel Oil Treatment System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Configuration ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Purifiers . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Crosshead Type Engine Parts . . . . . . . 78-79
Fuel Purifier Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Slow speed engine - Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Ship Service Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-103
Trunk Piston Type - V-Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Domestic Service Systems . . . . . . . 104-106
Trunk Piston Type - V-Engine Parts . . . . . 82
Ship Motion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Typical Piston
& Crankshaft Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Bearings ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84-85 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-109

Camshaft Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Contents 5
Service Overview
Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association) is an
international marine surveying and technical consultancy firm
general information

operating from a network of offices in leading maritime centres

around the world and providing expert advice to the shipping
and marine insurance industries.
We provide a comprehensive range of specialised marine engineering, surveying and
technical consultancy services for all types of marine transportation with particular
focus on casualty investigations, claims and loss prevention.
Our pedigree has developed from the beginnings of marine surveying through
The Salvage Association. Our reputation is built on independence, integrity, ability to
respond quickly and our long standing relationships developed over many years of
protecting our clients interests.
hull information

H&M damage surveys, A reputation for being the leading provider of hull and
risk assessments, machinery damage surveys, risk assessment surveys,
inspections and audits inspections and audits.
H&M damage surveys
Condition surveys including loss prevention, H&M,
JH2013-007 A, B and P&I condition surveys
Risk assessment surveys including JH2013-007 C
(Joint Hull Committee)
Ship repair costs and advice
On / Off hire surveys
Cargo damage surveys
Crew and ship management company audits,
machinery information

including JH143
International safety management code (ISM) audits
Pre-purchase condition and valuation surveys
Sea trials verification
OVID / CMID inspections
Mooring and lay-up approvals
Bunker management

6 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Marine casualty Rapid response to marine incidents worldwide.
response and Salvage operations and wreck removal

General InformatIon
(acting as SCR)
Collisions, groundings and fixed object damages
Cargo damages and cargo recovery
H&M damages
Pollution advice / management and post
casualty clean-up
Technical investigation and forensic analysis
Expert reports and evidence
Naval architecture assessment for wreck removal
Expert advice and review of claims

hull InformatIon
Marine consultancy Expert technical consultancy services for maritime
services lawyers, P&I clubs, finance providers, owners,
government bodies and others in the maritime industry.
Expert witness services
P&I consulting
Technical due diligence
Marine operations consulting
Port & Harbours consulting
Specialist forensic consulting
machInery InformatIon

General Information 7
International project Experienced project management and hands-on
cargo and transport practical solutions for high risk, high value project
risk services cargoes worldwide.
general information

Marine Warranty Surveys and Approvals

Packing and Packaging Inspection
Suitability Studies, including Risk Assessment
of Shore Based Transportation and Tie Down
Independent Third Party Review and Assessment
Route Surveys
Independent Heavy Lift Assessment and Approval
Roll-on, Roll-off Assessment and Approval
Float-on, Float-off Assessment and Approval
Lift-on, Lift-off Assessment and Approvals
Load-out, Stowage and Securing Assessment
and Approval
hull information

Tug, Tow and Towage Assessment and Approval

Navigational Risk Assessment
Voyage Approvals
Cargo Damage Surveys and Investigation
Expert Investigation and Opinion
Engineering and Sea-fastening Design and
Transportation Manuals
Supply Chain Audits and Risk Assessments
Transhipment Assessment and Approval
machinery information

8 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Yacht services Damage Survey and Casualty Investigations
technical consultants Yacht Safety and Incident Prevention
and marine surveyors

General InformatIon
Litigation Services, Expert Opinion and
Expert Witness
Sales and Purchase Services
Yacht Projects Technical Due Diligence
New Construction, Conversion, Refit and Repair
Naval Architecture

hull InformatIon
Port and Harbours We offer a comprehensive range of services to the ports
Consulting and harbours sector providing advice on issues such as
marine risk, marine operations, mooring and fendering
systems, vessel manoeuvring and scheduling, as well
as offering due diligence services and expert opinion
services on unsafe berth and unsafe port cases.
Marine Risk
Mooring and Fendering
Port Capacity Studies and Operational Simulation
Vessel Manoeuvring
Unsafe Berths and Unsafe Ports
Design Support
machInery InformatIon

PMSC Compliance and Designated Person Services

Technical Due Diligence
Marine incidents and Expert Opinion
Specialist Forensic Consultancy

General Information 9
Training and Professional Development
The company incorporates the world-renowned casualty
expertise of The Salvage Association which was founded in
general information

1856. Knowledge transfer has always been a key part of our

client engagement process providing sustainable improvement
beyond our specific projects. We actively help clients develop
their knowledge and skills so they can make well-informed
business decisions.
In addition to producing this guide Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)
also run a number of short intensive courses for our clients who work in marine
insurance and claims at various locations around the world. Each course aims to
introduce marine underwriters, claims handlers and insurance professionals to the
basic technical aspects of damages encountered in marine losses, the surveying
process, investigating and reporting techniques.
Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association) can also draw upon the resources
hull information

and expertise of its various sister companies within Braemar Shipping Services plc.
The Braemar group comprises three operating divisions: Shipbroking, Technical and
Logistics. These work together to offer a unique combination of skills for clients, at
anytime, anywhere in the world.
For further information regarding our courses please visit our website or contact us
machinery information

10 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

24 Hour Marine Casualty Response
Global Surveyor Network

General Information
machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon
General Contact Information
Head Office
Marlow House
general information

1A Lloyds Avenue
London, EC3N 3AA
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)207 648 9650

We will be relocating to the following address in Winter 2015:

5th Floor
6 Bevis Marks
London EC3A 7BA

Global Support Services

24 Hour Marine Casualty Response
365 days of the year
hull information

Tel: +44 (0)20 7648 9655

New York
Tel: +1 212 587 9307
machinery information

12 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Principal Offices
Americas - New York Middle East
5 Hanover Square Dubai World Trade Centre Building

General InformatIon
Suite 202 15th Level, PO Box 9222
New York, NY10004 Dubai, UAE
USA Tel: +971 (0)4 331 3100
Tel: +1 212 587 9300 Email:
Asia Pacific
Mediterranean 1 Pickering Street
5-7 Filellinon Street #08-01 Great Eastern Centre
Piraeus 185 36 Singapore
Greece 048659
Tel: +30 (0)210 429 2690 Tel: +65 6517 6860
Email: Email:

To view our global contact directory, please refer to our website

hull InformatIon
Alternatively to request a copy of our International contact directory, please email us:

For all other enquiries please contact your local office:

Aberdeen, Scotland | Abu Dhabi, UAE | Accra, Ghana | Bremerhaven, Germany
Busan, Korea | Cape Town, South Africa | Dubai, UAE | Durban, South Africa | Hong Kong,
China | Houston, USA | Los Angeles, USA | Istanbul, Turkey | Kobe, Japan | Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia Lisbon, Portugal | London, UK | Liverpool, UK | Manila, Philippines | Miami, USA
Montreal, Canada | Newcastle, UK | New Orleans, USA | New York, USA | Panama,
Central America | Piraeus, Greece | Rio de Janeiro, Brasil | Rotterdam, Netherlands
Seattle, USA | Shanghai, China | Singapore | Southampton, UK South Shields, UK | Toronto,
Canada | Vancouver, Canada | Varna, Bulgaria machInery InformatIon

General Information 13
1 Nm = 1,852 m = 1.852 km Nm Nautical mile
general information

1 yd = 3 ft = 36 in = 0.9144 m km kilometre
1 m = 100 cm = 10 dm = 1,000 mm = 3.2808 ft m metre
1 m =0.001 mm cm centimetre
1 cable = 185.20 m = 0.1 Nm dm decimetre
1 fm = 1.8288 m mm millimetre
1 shackle of anchor cable = 15 fm = 27.5 m m micron
ft foot
in inch
yd yard
cable cable length
fm fathom
hull information

1 m3 = 1000 dm3 lit litre
= 1000 lit gal gallon (UK)
= 219.9692 gal (UK) pt pint (UK)
= 1759.7547 pt (UK) barrels barrels (US)
= 35.31467 ft3
= 6.2898 barrels (US)
1 Kgf = 9.80665 N = 2.2046 lbf = 1 Kpond Kgf Kilogram force
1 tonf = 1000 Kgf = 9806.65 N = 9.80665 KN Lbf Pound force
1 tonef (UK long tons) = 1.01605 tonf (metric) Kpond Kilopond
N Newton
machinery information

KN Kilo-Newton

14 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Pressure / Stress
1 atm = 1.01325 bar atm Atmosphere

General InformatIon
= 101325 N/m2 bar Bar
= 0.101325 N/mm 2
KPa Kilo-Pascal
= 1.03322 Kgf/cm 2
psi Pound per square inch
= 10332.27 Kgf/m2 in Hg Inches of Mercury
= 101.325 KPa mm Hg Millimetres of Mercury
= 2116.21658 lbf/ft2
= 14.6959 psi (lbf/in2)
= 29.9213 in Hg
= 760.0021 mm Hg
1 C = 33.8 F = 274.15 K C Degree Celsius
F Degree Fahrenheit

hull InformatIon
K Degree Kelvin
Flow rate
1 lit/min = 0.0000167 m3/sec
= 0.06012 m3/hr
= 13.1981 gal/hr (UK)
1 Knot = 0.51444 m/s
= 1.852 km/hr
= 1.6878 ft/sec
1 KW = 1000 W W Watt
= 1.3410 HP HP Horse Power
machInery InformatIon

= 1.3596 PS (Metric Horse power) PS Metric Horse power

Moment / Torque
1 Kgf m = 9.80665 Nm
= 0.009807 KNm
= 7.233 lbf ft
= 0.001 tonf m

General Information 15
Most charts are drawn to MERCATORs PROJECTION, to represent the spherical
world on a flat sheet of paper with all the meridians of longitude made parallel.
general information

To keep the same land shapes the parallels of latitude are increased in proportion.
This gives rise to say 600 sea miles being measured on a chart being a bigger
measurement at the top of the chart than at the bottom.
This is because 1 sea mile = 1 minute of latitude and the latitude scale gradually
increases towards the top of the chart. This is why distances are ALWAYS measured
on the latitude scale opposite your position.

Meridians of Longitude
Parallels of Latitude

London 51
30 north
hull information


0 GreenwICH MerIdIan
CaPe Town 33
55 South
CaPe Town
18 22 eaST
machinery information

[Ref: 1]

16 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)



Basic Definitions

En En Sta Sta
tra tra
nc nc AFT (Astern)
AFT (Astern)
e e Por Porrboarrdboard
t t
Par Par
alle alle
l bo l bo
dy dy

v e rseverse Run Run

ns ns Lon Lon
Tra Tra gitu gitu
din din Stern
al al
Bow Bow

General Information
machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon
Geometry & Principal Dimensions
Length Overall (LOA)
general information


Stern Bow


AP Length between perpendiculars (LBP) FP

Length water line (LWL)

AP = Aft Perpendicular
FP = Forward Perpendicular
hull information

Definitions & Geometry

machinery information


Flat of Keel Rise of Floor

18 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Bilge Keel

Breadth Extreme
Definitions & Geometry (continued)

General Information
machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon
Common Naval Architectural Data
The ocean wave geometry resembles a trochoidal shape. The ship structure is designed
to withstand the extreme stresses due to the applied forces when balanced on such a
general information

wave having the ships length in both hogging and sagging conditions.
In a sea way, the structure will be continuously subjected to deformation in all directions.
The generated stresses will alternate and the material forming the structure will therefore
be subjected to fatigue. A well designed structure having a well conceived geometry and
being of suitable material is expected to withstand the fatigue stresses for a substantial
period of time.

Wave Length
Wave crest

Wave trough Wave height

Wave hieght

Main Deck structure in tension

hull information

Bending Hogging CONDITION

Bottom structure in compression

Main Deck stucture in compression


Bottom structure in tension

machinery information

Buoyancy Buoyancy
Buoyancy Buoyancy

Shear Force

weight weight
weight weight weight

20 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Common Naval Architectural Data
= dWT + lightship
Where is the displacement, DWT is the deadweight, (cargo capacity including fuel

General InformatIon
and stores, crew and effects), and the Lightship is the weight of the structure as built
including, water in the boilers and lubes in machinery to working level.
In all normal calculations the lightship figure is taken to be the same as stated in the
vessels approved trim and stability booklet. The lightship is also the figure used for
scrap estimations.
= lbp x B x Tm x x Cb
Where Lbp is the length between perpendiculars, B is the beam, Tm is the mean
draft, is the density of sea water (about 1025 Kg/m3) and Cb is the block coefficient,
(for most cargo type ships between 0.65 to 0.9 passenger cruisers, 0.55 to 0.63).
The larger the block coefficient the more box shaped the vessel is. Thus for a perfect
box type structure Cb is 1, and of course the resistance is larger.
TPC = lbp x B x Cw x /100
Tonnes per centimetre immersion (TPC), is the weight in tonnes added on a ship to
cause her to sink by one cm. In modern cargo ships the TPC remains fairly constant

hull InformatIon
over a moderate range of drafts, closed to the summer draft. Cw is the water plane
area coefficient (between 0.75 to 0.87)
Tm = (Tf + Ta)/2
Where Tm is the midship draft, Tf and Ta are the drafts forward and aft, respectively.
Heel angle, (radians) = wl / GMT x
Where wl is the moment of the weight causing the heel, (the weight times the
transverse distance from midship), GMT is the transverse metacentric height and is
the total displacement. The formula works in radians, (1 rad = 57.3 degrees) and can
be accurate for small angles.
Subdivision & load line
Ships are divided by watertight bulkheads into watertight compartments. These
bulkheads extend up to a continuous deck referred to as the main deck. Depending
machInery InformatIon

on damage scenarios and applicable regulations, ships will remain afloat and stable
if one or more of their watertight compartments have been flooded as a result
of a damage.

General Information 21
Gross tonnage
Measure of the overall size of the ship - obtained from a formula based on the volume
general information

of all enclosed spaces in the ship. The formula includes an applied constant, which is
either calculated or tabulated.
Indicates the overall capacity of the spaces in the ships hull together with the
enclosed spaces above the deck which are available for cargo, stores, fuel,
passengers and crew.
net tonnage
Measure of the useful capacity of the ship also obtained from a formula.
Basically, the gross tonnage less all spaces used for the accommodation of the ships
Master, officers, crew, and the navigation and propulsion machinery.
lightweight tonnage
The weight of a ships hull, machinery, ships equipment and spares.
This is often the basis on which ships are paid for when purchased for scrapping.
deadweight tonnage (dWT)
hull information

The difference between the loaded displacement and light displacement is the
ships deadweight.
This is a common measure of the ships overall carrying capacity, equalling the
number of tonnes of cargo, stores, and bunkers, that the ship can transport.
To ensure that ships will not sail overloaded, regulations control their freeboard by
the general marking, referred to as the Plimsoll Line, shown below. This Line must
be clearly visible on the port and starboard side of the hull.
All other markings relating to loading the ships in different water densities,
(such as fresh or tropical waters), are derived in relation to the Plimsoll Line.
machinery information

22 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Ships motions at sea
The ships centre of gravity has six degrees of freedom, three linear and three

General InformatIon
angular as illustrated in the fig below. In a seaway it can experience all six motions
An object resting anywhere in the structure is subjected to forces resulting from these
motions. The magnitude of these forces are calculated using Newtons well known
formula F = m x , where m is the mass of the object and is the acceleration
of its centre of gravity.

hull InformatIon
machInery InformatIon

General Information 23
Water Ballast
general information

In Ballast

1. Ballast passage to
the loading port

hull information


2. At the loading port


machinery information

3. On loaded passage
(No Ballast)


4. At the discharge port


24 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

StbdStbd PortPortPort

Stbd Port

Listing toListing
to toto Vessel
Vessel ballasted
Vessel ballasted
ballasted Listing
Listing to Port
Port to Port
Starboard in an in
in upright
in upright upright
position position

General Information
machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Fresh Water Fresh Water

Archimedes principle
The upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully
or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces.

general information hull information machinery information
Common Marine Engineering Data
indicated Power (KW) = Pm x A x l x n x K x n / 0.6
Where Pm is the mean indicated pressure per cylinder in Bar
A is the sectional area of the cylinder in m2

General InformatIon
l is the length of stroke in m
n is the engine speed in rpm
K is the type of stroke per revolution (i.e. 1 for two stroke engines and 0.5 for four
stroke engines)
n is the number of cylinders
Brake Power = Mechanical efficiency x indicated power
The mechanical efficiency of a well designed turbocharged engine can be 90%
Bunker fuel is technically any type of fuel oil used aboard ships. In the maritime field
the type of classification used for fuel oils is:
IFO (Intermediate fuel oil) A blend of gasoil and heavy fuel oil, with less gasoil than
marine diesel oil
n IFO 380 - Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes at 50C
n IFO 180 - Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes at 50C
n LS 380 - Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate fuel oil

hull InformatIon
n LS 180 - Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate fuel oil
HFO 380 (Heavy fuel oil) - Pure or nearly pure residual oil with a maximum viscosity
of 380 Centistokes
MGO (Marine gas oil) - made from distillate only
MDO (Marine diesel oil) - A blend of heavy gasoil that may contain very small
amounts of black refinery feed stocks, but has a low viscosity up to 12 cSt so it
does not need to be heated for use in internal combustion engines.
Parameter unit MGo Mdo iFo 180 RMH 380 RMK 380
Max Density at 15C kg/m3 890.0 900.0 991.0 991.0 1010.0
Max Viscosity at 50C mm2/s 6.0 11.0 180.0 380.0 380.0
Max Pour point, Winter C Ambient Ambient 30 30 30
General recommended
10 15/ 10 15/ 10 15/
injection viscosity and cSt/C Ambient AMbient
110 118 130 142 130 142
machInery InformatIon

1 mm/s = 1 cSt Viscosity (Kinematic) is a measure of the resistance of the fuel. In everyday terms viscosity is thickness.

Typical Engine operating Parametres

Parameter unit Values
Max Exhaust Temperatures C 500
General recommended Lub. Oil pressure for 2-stroke engines kg/cm2 3.5 4.2
General recommended Lub. Oil pressure for 4-stroke engines kg/cm2 2.0 3.0
Jacket water outlet temperature C 65 68
Type of system oil used for 2-stroke engines SAE Viscosity 30
Type of cylinder oil used for 2-stroke engines* SAE Viscosity 70 or 50
Type of system oil used for 4-stroke engines SAE Viscosity 40
*Changeover from TBN 70 to TBN 50 only when operating for more than one week on <1% sulfur

General Information 27
Weather Data - Beaufort Scale
Mean wind Probable
Beaufort descriptive speed equivalent mean wave
deep Sea Criterion
number Term height* in
general information

Knots m/sec metres

0 Calm <1 00.2 Sea like a mirror
Ripples with the appearance of scales
1 Light air 13 0.31.5 0.1 (0.1)
are formed without foam crests
Small wavelets, still short but more
2 Light breeze 46 1.63.3 pronounced crests have a glassy 0.2 (0.3)
appearance and do not break
Large wavelets cress begin to break
3 710 3.45.4 foam of glassy appearance, perhaps 0.6 (1)
scattered white horses
Moderate Small waves becoming longer fairly
4 1116 5.57.9 1 (1.5)
breeze frequent white horses
Moderate waves taking a more
5 Fresh breeze 1721 pronounced long form many white horses 2 (2.5)
are formed (chance of some spray)
Large waves begin to form the white
Strong 10.8
6 2227 foam crests are more extensive 3 (4)
breeze 13.8
everywhere (some spray)
hull information

Sea heaps up and white foam from

7 Near gale 2833 breaking waves begin to be blown in 4 (5.5)
streaks along the direction of the wind
Moderately high waves of greater length
17.2 edges of crest begin to break into
8 Gale 3440 5.5 (7.5)
20.7 spindrift foam is blown in well marked
streaks along the direction of the wind
High waves dense streaks of foam along
20.8 the direction of the wind crests of waves
9 Strong gale 4147 7 (10)
24.4 begin to topple, tumble and roll over,
spray may affect visibility
Very high waves with long overhanging
crests the resulting foam in great
patches is blown in dense white streaks
24.5 along the direction of the wind on the
10 Storm 4855 9 (12.5)
28.4 whole, the surface of the sea takes a
machinery information

white appearance the tumbling of the

sea becomes heavy and shock like
visibility affected
Exceptionally high waves (small and
medium sized ships might be for a time
lost to view behind the waves) the sea
28.5 is completely covered with long white
11 Violent storm 5663 11.5 (16)
32.6 patches of foam lying along the direction
of the wind everywhere the edges of the
wave crests are blown into froth visibility
32.7 The air is filled with foam and spray
64 and
12 Hurricane and sea completely white with driving spray 14 ()
over visibility very seriously affected

[Ref: 2]
28 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)
Classification of Ships

General Information
[Ref: 3]

machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon
Classification of Ships
The terms below refer to design restrictions imposed on a vessel, in order to be able
to trade within standard geographic areas.
general information

Type design Capacity Comments

Dry Bulk Cargo Vessels
Used when economic and size restrictions are imposed
Small Up to 10,000 DWT
for larger sizes
Handysize 10,000- 35,000 DWT General purpose vessels
Handymax 35,000 55,000 DWT General purpose vessels
Panamax 60,000 - 80,000 DWT Largest vessels that can currently transit Panama Canal
Capesize 80,000 200,000 DWT Can transit the Suez Canal
VLBC - Very
e.g. Chinamax, 400,000 DWT vessels for Brazil China
Large Bulk More than 200,000 DWT
Liquid Bulk Cargo Vessels
Used when economic and size restrictions are imposed
Small Up to 10,000 DWT
for larger sizes
Used when economic and size restrictions are imposed
Handysize 10,000- 30,000 DWT
for larger sizes
hull information

Used when economic and size restrictions are imposed

Handymax 30,000 55,000 DWT
for larger sizes
Panamax 60,000 - 75,000 DWT Largest vessels that can currently transit Panama Canal
Maximum size under the Average Freight Rate
Aframax 80,000 120,000 DWT Assessment (AFRA) system. Due to size constraints for oil
tankers entering sea-routes highly prone to traffic
Suemax 125,000 - 170,000 DWT Largest vessels that can currently transit Suez Canal
large Crude 250,000 320,000 DWT Cannot transit any of the worlds canals
ULCC Ultra
Large Crude More than 320,000 DWT Cannot transit any of the worlds canals
Container Vessels
Used when economic and size restrictions are imposed
Small Up to 1,000 TEU
for larger sizes
machinery information

Used when economic and size restrictions are imposed

Feeder 1,000 2,800 TEU
for larger sizes
Panamax 2,800 5,000 TEU Largest vessels that can currently transit Panama Canal
Post-Panamax 5,000 10,000 TEU Cannot currently transit Panama Canal
New-Panamax 10,000 14,500 TEU Will be able to transit Panama Canal after expansion
ULCV Ultra
Large Container More than 14,500 TEU Able to transit the Suez Canal
[Ref: 3]

30 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Ship Construction Data
Bow Construction

General InformatIon
Bier End
Spurling Pipe


hull InformatIon

[Ref: 4]

machInery InformatIon

General Information 31
Ship Construction Data
Double Bottom - Deck Construction
general information
hull information

[Ref: 5]
machinery information

32 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Container Ship Construction

General Information
machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon
Deck Machinery
Anchor Windlass
On most ships the anchor may not be used for long periods, but must be available
general information

and functional, ready for occasional use. Correspondingly the anchor windlass, which
is employed to recover the anchor once it has been laid out, must also be retained in
good working condition. These long periods of idleness combined with inhospitable
outside weather conditions require windlasses and other deck machinery to be
robustly constructed and protected from the elements.
The anchor windlass shown in the picture is combined with the forward deck mooring
winches which are regularly used to assist in tying the ship up when alongside in port.
They can be driven by either electric or hydraulic motors.
hull information
machinery information

34 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Deck Machinery
Mooring Winches & Capstans
Mooring winches are basically drums which hold the mooring ropes and enable them

General InformatIon
to be tensioned and adjusted. Vertical capstans are used in situations where manual
handling of the mooring ropes is required to safely berth the ship.

hull InformatIon
drum Winches and Combined Anchor Windlass

machInery InformatIon

Vertical Capstan in use

General Information 35
Typical Mooring Fittings
Anchor and Chains
general information

Ring (shackle)





[Ref: 8]
hull information

Connection to Anchor
Common Link Anchor Crown Shackle

Kenter Joining Link Enlarged Jaw and Jaw Anchor
Shackle Link Swivel Shank
machinery information

Connection to Chain locker

Common Link End Link [Ref: 9]

Enlarged Clinch
Link Shackle

36 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Typical Mooring Fittings
Deck Fittings

General InformatIon
Mooring chocks Fairleads Fairleads universal

hull InformatIon
machInery InformatIon

double BiTT Bollard

[Ref: 10]

General Information 37
Typical Mooring Fittings
Load capacities of this equipment during operations are determined by applying
general information

a safety factor which can be as high as 5 to 1, thus a safe working load (SWL)
is determined.
Components marked with an SWL load must not be loaded above that load.

Screw Pin Anchor Round Pin Anchor

hull information

Shackle Shackle

Safety Type Anchor Screw Pin Chain Shackle

machinery information

Round Pin Chain Shackle Safety Type Chain


[Ref: 11]

38 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Typical Mooring Fittings
Steel Wires

General InformatIon
For steel wire ropes the
approximate safe working
load (SWL) can be
calculated as follows;
Steel wire rope SWL =
(D2 x 8)/1,000
Chain of Grade G SWL =
(D2 x 8 x G x f)/1,000
D is diameter in mm and
SWL is the approximate
safe working load in
metric tonnes
For chain Grade G 80 f =
0.4 and for Grades G 30

hull InformatIon
or 40 , f= 0.3

[Ref: 12]


machInery InformatIon

Correct method
of measuring
a diameter

[Ref: 13]

General Information 39
Typical Mooring Fittings
Synthetic Ropes
The following are the most common types of mooring ropes found onboard ships.
general information

They are supplied in lengths of 220 m.

D is diameter in mm, and SWL is the approximate safe working load in metric tonnes
(for new ropes).

Polypropylene nylon Polyester Manilla

SWL D2 x (1.6/1,000) D2 x (2.25/1,000) D2 x (2/1,000) D2 x (1/1,000)

Strength Satisfactory Excellent Good Poor

Elasticity Good Excellent None None

Buoyancy Good None None None

Weight Heavy Average Light Average

Poor Good Excellent Satisfactory

Rot resistance Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor

hull information

Sun resistance Satisfactory Good Good Satisfactory

Shock resistance Satisfactory Excellent Good Poor

Painter lines Towing

Painter lines Painter lines
Standard uses Floating lines Mooring
Halyard Fender lines
Fender lines Anchor lines

(strength reduced
Main features Elasticity Strength on contact with

Cost Low Medium to High High Low

[Ref: 39]
machinery information

40 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Typical Mooring Arrangements
Typical mooring arrangements are shown below. Normal quay or jetty type moorings
are shown at the top and usually consist of bow and stern lines, breast lines and
spring lines. Additional lines may also be included subject to local conditions.

General InformatIon
A Mediterranean moor allows a ship to be moored perpendicular to a quay using
mooring lines to secure the stern and anchors to secure the bow. It is often used in
ports where berth space is limited.
Bow to stern moorings are often used where ships are laid up either alongside a quay
or on a river mooring (where anchors may also be used). Fenders (of a Yokohama
type) should be used to separate the two ships and protect the hulls from damage.

hull InformatIon
machInery InformatIon

General Information 41
Cargo Handling - Lifting Appliances
Lifting derrick arrangements is one of the oldest lifting arrangements on ships.
general information

They were used mainly on general cargo ships. There are many types of derrick
arrangements. The below figure is only one of them showing the basic principles and
terminology used onboard. Some ships use the above arrangement even today for
heavy lift operations.

Mast head span block

Cross trees
Derrick head
span block

Mast head cargo

Cargo runner
runner lead block Cargo runner
dead end Derrick head
Mast, samson post cargo block
or derrick post sheaves drawn
Upper cargo lead block on one
diametres for
side of derrick boom and cargo
hull information

runner dead end lead block on

Span rope
other side

Cargo runner Derrick Lower cargo

block sheaves
drawn different
Derrick slewing diametres for
guy and cargo clarity
slewing guys
Derrick heel cargo Ramshorn
Derrick heel span
runner lead block hook
lead block

Derrick stool [Ref: 14]

machinery information

42 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Cargo Handling - Lifting Appliances

General InformatIon
hull InformatIon
[Ref: 15]

machInery InformatIon

General Information 43
Dry Docking
Generally all ships are required to be dry-docked for classification society inspections
twice in five years, and passenger ships annually. Unscheduled dry-docking can be
general information

required when an incident has occurred requiring repairs to the parts of the ship that
are inaccessible when it is afloat. This could be bottom or side shell plating damage
due to grounding, collision or allision, corrosion or structural failure, or for repairs on
machinery items such as; propellers, stern tube seals, tail shafts, rudders, stabilisers,
bow thrusters, or ships side valves and fittings. The general procedure for dry-
docking a ship into a graving dock is shown below.

Caisson Docking blocks Land

Open Sea

Dry Dock

The docking blocks are arranged in the dry dock before the ship arrives. The blocks
hull information

are arranged in accordance with the ships docking plan and are carefully arranged
to support the ship at strong points such as major bulkheads and girders, and to
leave clear access to fittings such as sea intakes, tank plugs, valves, etc. The blocks
are often steel or concrete and the tops are fitted with soft wooden caps to protect
the ships hull. The side (or bilge) blocks may have tapered tops to suit the ships
bottom shape and rise of floor.

Outline of ships flat bottom

Caisson Centre blocks

Side/bilge blocks
machinery information

Once the blocks are prepared, the dry dock is carefully flooded with sea water to the
same level as the open sea. The water is let in by opening large valves fitted in the dry
dock close to the caisson. These valves also serve as the suction for the large pumps
used to empty the water out of the dry dock.

44 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

General InformatIon
The ship is moved into the dry dock above the blocks. The ship is usually moved
using shore side winches and wires, although tugs may assist the ship to the caisson.
The dry dock caisson (gate) is then closed and sealed. The ship must be centred up
and positioned accurately over the docking blocks. The ship is prepared for docking
by the crew, ensuring that tanks are either full or empty (wherever possible), that there
is no list, and that the trim is as required by the shipyard. It is usual for vessels to be
trimmed by the stern for docking.

hull InformatIon
Once the ship is confirmed to be in position, the wires are tensioned to maintain the
position. The dock is then emptied by powerful pumps which pump the dock water
out of the dock and into the sea.

As the water is pumped out, divers may be deployed to check the ships bottom when
machInery InformatIon

it becomes close to the blocks. The point when the ships bottom first touches the
blocks is the most critical, as at this point the hull receives the most stress, and the
ships stability also changes. If there is any doubt, the dry dock pumps can be stopped
at any time. Once the dock is pumped dry, the repairs can commence.
undocking is the reverse procedure of the docking process. A formal undocking
inspection is undertaken with the Owners representative and the shipyard manager
to ensure that the vessel is ready to be floated. It is crucial that the ship is prepared
for undocking and is to be in the same condition as when it entered the dock. This is
particularly crucial with tank contents, which are often emptied and transferred to other
tanks during repairs. If too much weight is transferred from one side to the other,
there is a possibility that the ship could capsize during the refloating process.

General Information 45
Dry Docks
Generally, all ships are required to be dry-docked for classification society inspections
twice in five years, passenger ships annually. Unscheduled dry-docking can be
general information

required when an incident has occurred requiring repairs to the parts of the ship that
are inaccessible when it is afloat. This can be shell plating damage due to grounding,
collision or allision, corrosion or structural failure. Other reasons for dry-docking could
be for repairs on machinery items such
as propellers, stern tube seals, tail shafts,
rudders, stabilisers, bow thrusters, or ships
side valves and fittings.

Graving dock a dock that has been dug

out of the ground. The opening to the dock
has a water tight gate (or caisson) which
can be opened to allow ships in. When it
is closed it provides a watertight seal and
the dock may be pumped dry. Graving
docks are available worldwide and can
accommodate all ship sizes.
hull information

Floating dock a steel U shaped cross

section floating dock with ballast tanks in
the bottom. The tanks are filled with water
causing the dock to sink down. The ship
to be dry docked is then moved into the
dock. The dry dock ballast tanks are then
pumped out and the dock has sufficient
buoyancy to refloat and lift itself and the
ship out of the water. Floating docks are
available worldwide and can accommodate
all ship sizes.

Synchrolift a moving horizontal platform

machinery information

suspended over an open dock or piece of

water. The platform is lowered down into
the water, the ship is manoeuvred over the
platform, and the platform and ship are then
lifted out of the water using synchronised
winches (hence the name synchrolift).
These are not yet as common as graving
or floating docks but there around 300
facilities worldwide. Originally utilised for
smaller vessels but the largest synchrolift can
now accommodate weights up to 25,000 tonnes.

46 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Once the ship is lifted, the trolley it is
placed on is manoeuvred to a parking

General InformatIon
space within the shipyard up on
the dry ground. A railway track type
system is in place to move the ship,
which is usually moved by a large
Bobcat type truck. An advantage
of this system is that the shipyard
can usually work on multiple ships
simultaneously, and therefore they
usually have space. An advantage
for the Ship Owner is that as soon as
his ship is ready to be refloated, it can be (if more than one ship shares a graving or
floating dock both ships have to be ready to be floated together).

Ship lift a moveable crane/gantry

comprising a lifting gantry fitted above
four vertical legs, each leg being fitted

hull InformatIon
with steerable wheels. The gantry
is driven over an open dock with a
cradle or slings suspended in the
water. The vessel to be lifted is then
moved into the cradle/slings, and the
gantry lifts the vessel out of the water.
The gantry together with the vessel is
then manoeuvred to a hard standing
parking area where the vessel is
usually placed on a cradle or on blocks to free the gantry for other lifts. Only suitable
for small craft. Very common in super yacht repair facilities.

Slipway a ramp on the shore side

going into the water. A wheeled cradle
machInery InformatIon

is lowered down the slipway into the

water, the vessel is moved onto the
cradle and the cradle is retrieved up
the slip to the dry hard stand. Some
cradles are winched up, others towed
using a Bobcat or similar vehicle.
Probably the oldest method of dry
docking. Only suitable for small craft.
Commonly used for smaller fishing
boats. Can be tide dependent.

General Information 47
Hull Information

48 Running Head
Running head 49
No. 5 No. 4 tween deck No. 2/3 tween deck No. 1 tween deck
hold Fore
Machinery No. 3 No. 2 hold No. 2 hold
No. 4 hold peak
space hold

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

A Double boom
General Cargo Carrier

[Ref: 4]
general information hull information machinery information
Bulk Carrier

A geared bulk carrier is shown. If the bulk carrier is not equipped with cranes it is referred to as gearless.

Hull Information
[Ref: 17]

machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon

Bulk Carrier
Hold Arrangement
general information
hull information

[Ref: 18]
machinery information

[Ref: 19]

52 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Hatch Covers

Hull Information
[Ref: 4]
[Ref: 5]

machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)
[Ref: 16]
20ft x 8ft x 8ft 6in uniTS (6.1M x 2.4M 2.6M)
Average interior dimensions Door dimensions Cubic capacity average
L1 B1 H1 B2 H2
5890mm 2345mm 2400mm 2335mm 2290mm 33.3m3
Tare weights vary between 1800kg and 2500kg
Container Carrier

40ft x 8ft x 8ft 6in uniTS (12.2M x 2.4M 2.6M)

Average interior dimensions Door dimensions Cubic capacity average
L1 B1 H1 B2 H2
12,015mm 2345mm 2362mm 2335mm 2260mm 66.9m3
Tare weights vary between 3700 and 4380kg. Gross weight is 30,480kg
40ft x 8ft x 9ft 6in uniTS (12.2M x 2.4M 2.9M)
Average interior dimensions Door dimensions Cubic capacity average
L1 B1 H1 B2 H2
12,015mm 2345mm 2690mm 2335mm 2580mm 76.0m3
Tare weight is 3950kg

[Ref: 20] TEU - Twenty Equivalent Unit (1 x 40 container = 2 TEU)
general information hull information machinery information
Gas Carrier

steel Dome

Aluminium alloy
Types A, B and C tanks tank plating
are known as independent
tank types, categorised in
accordance to their design
pressure. They are completely Water
self supporting and do not Ballast
form part of the ships hull.
The membrane type tank Saddles
is based on having a thin

Hull Information
membrane supported by a
layer of insulation within the

confines of the ships hull. Insulation [Ref: 16]

machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)
Passenger Ferry

[Ref: 16]
general information hull information machinery information
Ocean Going Tug Boat

Hull Information
[Ref: 5]

machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon

[Ref: 16]

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Double Skin Oil Carrier

[Ref: 21]
general information hull information machinery information

Hull Information
machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon
Machinery information
Types of Rudder
Semi-balanced Rudder
A Semi balanced rudder is the most
general information

common type of rudder found on ships.

This term means that a certain proportion
of the water force acting on the after part
of the rudder is counteracted by the force
acting on the forward half of the rudder.
This design requires less torque to turn the
rudder, so the construction can be lighter
and the steering gear powering it smaller,
but with the added pintles and hinges its
design increases the chance of failures.
hull information

Unbalanced Rudder
All of the rudder blade area is aft of the
axis of rotation. This requires a higher Pintles
amount of torque from the steering
gear to turn the rudder. Good alignment
between the upper and lower pintles
is essential. Uncommon on modern
vessels but still found on older tonnage. Rudder
machinery information

62 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Types of Rudder
Balanced Spade Rudder
Balanced rudders are commonly used on

General InformatIon
smaller ships and ferries, about 1/3 part of
the rudder is forward of the rudder stock.
This makes the rudder even easier to turn
than the semi balanced rudder and eases
the load further on the steering motor. As
you can see construction is simple and
streamlined, allowing water to flow over it
undisturbed, reducing cavitation and the
problems associated with it.

2/3 1/3

hull InformatIon
Flap Rudder
The flap rudder is designed so that the
main rudder blade has an extra flap
attached to its trailing edge, as the rudder
turns the flap turns with it but to the same
degree, this increases the aerofoil profile
and can divert the water and hence the
thrust almost sideways, this gives the
vessel much greater manoeuvrability and is
commonly used on ferries. Without the flap
attached if a rudder is turned this far the
machInery InformatIon

water flow tends to bounce back and the

rudder is termed to stall. This type of rudder
was pioneered by an engineering company
called Becker, so is quite often referred to
as a Becker rudder.

Machinery Information 63
Types of Rudder
Schilling Rudder
Rudder design is constantly developing, with greater demands from ship owners for
general information

fuel efficiency and speed recent developments have included the Schilling rudder.
The Schilling Profile is designed with a sort of fish shape section encapsulated by flat
plates top and bottom, this design increases the effective lift generated by the rudder
and hence improves the manoeuvrability of the vessel especially at slow speeds.
The rudder is effective in both forward and astern directions. Due to the nature of the
design, Schilling Rudders are commonly fitted to larger slower moving ships such as
container ships and oil tankers. These types of ships which are generally longer and
narrower, are more prone to lack of manoeuvrability due to their inherent shape.
Other slow moving boats, or boats with slower moving propellers, are also very
suitable to the fitting of a Schilling Rudder.
hull information
machinery information

64 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

The Components and Materials Used
in Rudder Construction
Rudders are usually of hollow construction to reduce the weight and to add more

General InformatIon
buoyancy to the ship, commonly constructed with a cast steel top and bottom and
connected by horizontal and vertical web frames. This design gives the rudder shape
and strength.
The rudder stock which connects to the steering gear is generally of forged steel
construction with a flange at the bottom which is bolted to the top casting of the
rudder blade. Bearings are made of bronze alloys or synthetic composites suitable
for sea water lubrication.

Cast Steel

Horizontal & to fit ste

hull InformatIon
Vertical Webs
Forged S

Cast Steel Welded Steel

Plate Bronze
Cast Steel Construction
Machined Taper
Horizontal & to fit steering
Machined Taper
Horizontal & to fit steering
Vertical Webs
Hollow Rudder Webs
Blade Palm Forged
Type Rudder
Steel Stock
machInery InformatIon

Forged Steel

Welded Steel
Plate Bronze Bearing
Welded Steel
Plate Bronze Bearing

low Rudder Blade Palm Type Rudder Stock

low Rudder Blade Palm Type Rudder Stock
Machinery Information 65
How do you turn the rudder?
The rudder is turned by means of the steering gear arrangement.
The steering gear is a made up of machinery and pumps connected
general information

to form an electro hydraulic system, which is powerful enough

Steering Gear
to turn the rudder in all conditions. The ship is steered from the
wheelhouse by the helm or ships wheel, the turning of the helm is
relayed to the steering gear by a telemotor system that is nowadays
electronic but could be hydraulic or a simple system of cables and
chains. The time it takes for the rudder to respond to a helm order
will determine how rapidly a ship gets into a turn. The quicker the
rudder responds, the sooner the ship will begin to turn.

Neck Bearing
hull information

Electrical cables
machinery information

Helm in the

66 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

What turns the rudder and how?
In this arrangement, the rudder is connected to a tiller which in turn is connected to
the top of the rudder stock. This tiller is driven to port or starboard by large hydraulic

General InformatIon
rams which either push the tiller or push and pull, depending on the configuration.

Hydraulic Actuating Pistons

Cylinder Tiller

Rudder Stock
Oil Oil

hull InformatIon
Schematic Two Ram Hydraulic Operated System

Hydraulic Actuating Pistons

Cylinder Tiller

Rudder Stock
Oil Oil
machInery InformatIon

Schematic Two Ram Hydraulic Operated System

Machinery Information 67
Ship Construction Data
Stern - Rudder Construction
general information

Rudder Blade
hull information
machinery information

68 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Steering Gears

General InformatIon
[Ref: 6]

hull InformatIon

machInery InformatIon

[Ref: 7]

Machinery Information 69
Propeller Terminology
Diameter & Pitch
A propeller is measured by its Diameter and its Pitch. The diameter of a propeller is
general information

the Diameter of the circle the propeller subscribes when it is rotating or double the
distance from the hub centre to the tip of one blade.
The pitch is the distance a propeller would in theory move forward in the water in one
revolution if there was no slippage i.e. a 500m pitch propeller would in theory move
forward 500mm in one revolution.

Diameter Pitch
hull information

Propeller Terminology
Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP)
The Controllable Pitch Propeller or CPP has a mechanism in its hub that rotates the
blade angle by means of a control rod actuated by a piston/ cylinder arrangement.
Oil is pumped into the unit pushing the piston and rod fore and aft. The advantage
of the CPP over a fixed pitch propeller is that the driving engine can be operated at a
constant speed, with the vessel speed and direction being controlled by variations of
blade pitch. This type of propeller can increase performance and manoeuvrability at
slow speed with the advantage of being able to drive
the vessel astern at full engine speed. Oil in/Out
machinery information

Control Rod

Prop Shaft Piston and


70 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Propeller Terminology
Azimuth Propellers (Z Drive)
Azimuth propellers sometimes referred to as Z Drives are steerable propellers.

General InformatIon
The earliest steerable propeller was designed, built and patented as long ago as the
early 1870s and was used in a US naval vessel as well as relatively small craft of the
day. The system included most of the ingredients of todays azimuth propellers and
podded propulsion systems.
In the 1950s the first steerable propellers were developed which were the forerunners
of the azimuth systems that have become increasing popular today as a means
of propulsion.
Because of their ability to provide a vessel with excellent manoeuvrability, azimuth
propulsion systems fitted typically on harbour tugs have been in use for more than
50 years. Their big advantage is that the propulsion is able to rapidly operate in
any direction, rather than just the ahead/astern mode of the conventional propeller.
Generally these systems have direct drive through a series of gears and shafts, which
transfer the engine rotation from horizontal to vertical and then back to horizontal in

hull InformatIon
order to drive the propeller.

Gear Box

View from Below looking up

machInery InformatIon

Gear Box

180 Degree Rotation

Machinery Information 71
Propeller Terminology
Azipod Drives or Pod Drives
Azipods are a further development of this concept in the form of an azimuth electrical
general information

propulsion system, which is capable of turning through 360 degrees. Development of

Azipods commenced in the mid 1980s and the earliest examples of units being fitted
to ships were around 1990 (ABB).
Today, many of the latest generation of passenger vessels are being built with
Azipods. But the technology is also in use in many other types of vessels, including
tugs, icebreakers and various cargo vessels.

Generator Engine
hull information

machinery information

72 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Propeller Terminology
Water Jets
Waterjets are the most successful and efficient method of propulsion for high-speed

General InformatIon
applications. The advantages are not only higher efficiency, but also lower vessel
resistance due to the absence of underwater appendages like shafts, rudders and
shaft struts. The absence of any parts below the waterline also makes waterjets an
ideal solution for shallow water operation.
Waterjets are most commonly used for design speeds between 30 and 50 knots,
and used in fast ferries and military patrol boats, as well as the leisure market.

Fast Ferry Propelled by Water Jets

hull InformatIon
Steerable Jet

machInery InformatIon

Machinery Information 73
Typical Engines for Propulsion

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Four stroke Trunk Piston Type
Two stroke Crosshead Type Medium speed engine
Slow speed engine Range 200 850 rpm
Range 80 180 rpm Reduction Gear Box required

[Ref: 22]
general information hull information machinery information
Types of Propulsion Plant
diesel driven
Slow speed engines (direct drive)

General InformatIon
Medium speed engines driving via a reduction gearbox
Steam driven
Steam turbines driving via a reduction gearbox
Reciprocating steam engines (historic ships)
diesel Electric
Diesel generators supply power to electric motors (e.g. Azipods)
Gas Turbine
Gas turbines driving via a reduction gearbox.

Main Engine Schematic

hull InformatIon
Diesel Engine

Propeller Shaft

machInery InformatIon

Machinery Information 75
Auxiliary Engines Driving Generators


Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Bridge Steering
Power Board

general information hull information machinery information
Medium Speed Twin Engine Configuration
Medium speed engines usually operate
on the four stroke cycle.

General InformatIon
hull InformatIon
Two Engines Driving Twin Propellers

machInery InformatIon

Two Engines Driving Single Propeller

Machinery Information 77
Crosshead Type Engine Parts
general information
hull information
machinery information

[Ref: 23]

78 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Crosshead Type Engine Parts

General InformatIon
[Ref: 24]

hull InformatIon
machInery InformatIon

[Ref: 22]

Machinery Information 79
Slow speed engine - Piston
Piston assembly complete
general information


Piston Rod
hull information

Stuffing box
(Piston rod gland)
machinery information

80 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Trunk Piston Type - V-Engine

Machinery Information
[Ref: 22]

machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon

Trunk Piston Type - V-Engine Parts
general information
hull information
machinery information

[Ref: 22]

82 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Typical Piston & Crankshaft Arrangement

General InformatIon
[Ref: 25]

hull InformatIon
machInery InformatIon

[Ref: 26]

Machinery Information 83
Modern bearing shells are composite structures. They can be bimetal or trimetal,
(as shown in the below figure). Replacement of these bearings under normal
general information

operating conditions is usually judged on the degree of exposure of the barrier layer.
The left and right lower pictures show such bearings used for the crankpin and main
journals, respectively of a medium speed Diesel engine crankshaft. The holes and
grooving areas are in the location of the oil supply apertures in the bearing pocket.
hull information

[Ref: 27]
machinery information

84 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

General InformatIon
[Ref: 28]
Rolling element bearings, (above) come in many shapes and have a large
scope of application. They have low start up friction but their life is limited by

hull InformatIon
fatigue and have high operating noise levels.
Thrust bearings, (figure below), are heavily loaded bearings. They have thrust pads
capable of withstanding thrust levels developed by a ships propeller. The thrust
block transfers the thrust from the propeller to the ships structure. On larger ships
the thrust block is a separate component, on smaller ships it may be incorporated
in the gearbox (as shown in Figure Ref 35) or the engine.

machInery InformatIon

[Ref: 26]

[Ref: 29]

Machinery Information 85

Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Camshaft Arrangement

Cams are used to operate

various engine components
such as; fuel injection pumps,
exhaust valves, or push rods
to open and close the cylinder
head valves.

[Ref: 22]
general information hull information machinery information
Engine Scavenge Air
& Exhaust Arrangement

General InformatIon
hull InformatIon
machInery InformatIon

[Ref: 25]

Machinery Information 87
general information
hull information
machinery information

[Ref: 25]

88 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Steam Turbine

Machinery Information
[Ref: 33]

machInery InformatIon hull InformatIon General InformatIon
Vertical Oil Fired & Combined Boiler
general information
hull information

[Ref: 34]
machinery information

90 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Gear Boxes
Gears are one of the oldest forms of transmission. They date back more than
3000 years. There are many types of transmission.

General InformatIon
In the epi-cyclic type gear box the input and output shafts are in line (with the engine).
In all other types the input and output shafts are in parallel.
Gear boxes are not only used to step up or down the rpm but can also be used
for reversing.
It should always be remembered that the gear box (as any other type of mechanical
device) absorbs power, so the overall mechanical efficiency of the shafting system is
lower compared with a direct drive.
Epicyclical gear box

hull InformatIon
[Ref: 35]

Two stage reduction normal

gear box
machInery InformatIon

[Ref: 36]

Machinery Information 91
Auxiliary Engines
The below shows a typical generating set. The prime mover is the Diesel engine
which drives an alternator. The prime mover can be a high speed or intermediate
general information

speed engine.
On board ships there are more than one generating set depending on the
power requirements, (min, 2 sets), and can be coupled to share the electrical load
between them, thus they must run on the same speed to maintain the correct
frequency (Hertz).
The alternator is often also referred to as a generator. Although the terms are
generally synonymous; technically an alternator produces AC current and a
generator produces DC current.
hull information

[Ref: 36]
machinery information

92 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Marine Auxiliary Machinery
Having covered Marine Engines, Rudders and Propellers in our previous
presentations, I would like to round off the basic principles series with a short

General InformatIon
explanatory of Marine Auxiliary Machinery. These are all the pieces of ship machinery
and pipe systems, which provide services for the function of the engines, services for
the ship and crew and lifesaving and firefighting equipment. As well as the machinery
needed to assist with the loading and discharging of cargo and berthing in port.
If the engine is seen as the heart of the ship; the auxiliaries are the lungs, kidneys,
liver, blood vessels and muscles, which are needed to keep the ship functioning.



CPP oil

Stern tube
oil system


hull InformatIon


Ballast water
Lube oil


machInery InformatIon

air starting
Fuel oil




Machinery Information 93
Main Engine Temperature Control
Ships Engine Cooling Water Systems
For this arrangement to work on a ship you would need to build a radiator as big as
general information

the bridge structure, not very practical. What you do have on a ship though, is an
abundance of relatively cold seawater all around you, which is conveniently used for
cooling. The ships engine has a fresh water cooling system just like a car but often
split into two systems for low temperature cooling and high temperature cooling.
These fresh water systems are in turn cooled by seawater via a heat exchanger.
As seen in the diagram shown.

Water Pump

Main Engine

hull information



Lube Oil Heat

Sea Exchanger
Water Strainer
Sea Water Inlet
machinery information

94 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Tube Heat Exchangers
Straight-tube Heat Exchanger
(one pass tube-side)

General InformatIon
The heat exchanger, sometimes referred to as a cooler but can also be a heater
depending on its function, does the job of a cars radiator by removing heat from the
cooling water or fluid.
There are two common types of heat exchanger, the tube type shown here and the
plate type described next. In the tube heat exchanger seawater is pumped through
horizontal tubes in a single or double pass (single pass is shown below), the tubes are
bunched together in what is called a tube nest and this resides in the cylindrical body
of the exchanger.
The cooling water is pumped into the cylinder and forced to circulate around the
tubes by vertical baffle plates within. This ensures adequate surface contact of the
cooling water and the colder tubes. Common problems are caused by corrosion,
and a loss of efficiency due to blockage or scale build up.


hull InformatIon
fluid in

tube sheet tube bundle with tube sheet

straight tubes

outlet plenum
inlet plenum

machInery InformatIon



tube-side fluid out tube-side
fluid in fluid out

Machinery Information 95
Plate Heat Exchangers
A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat
exchanger that uses metal plates to
general information

transfer heat between the two fluids.

This has a major advantage over a tube
heat exchanger in that the fluids are
exposed to a much larger surface area
because the fluids spread out over
the plates.
This facilitates the transfer of heat,
and greatly increases the speed of the
temperature change. They are more
compact than tube heat exchangers and
are easier to clean and maintain, and are
consequently found on the majority of
vessels today.
Faster temperature control
hull information

Less space required

Easier cleaning
Interchangeable parts
machinery information

The flow through

a plate heat exchanger

96 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Main Engine Air Starting
Compressed Air Starting System
Compressed air is a vital service on a ship, high pressure air at 25 bar or more is

General InformatIon
required to start the main engine and generator engine, while lower pressure air
at 8 bar or less is needed to power remote control and temperature, pressure
regulation systems.
Compressed air is produced by air compressors and stored in large pressure vessels.
A huge quantity of air is needed to start a large 2 stroke main engine and as a rule the
storage bottles have to be large enough to hold enough air for 12 starts of the engine.
Air for control systems needs to be cleaned and dried before use so usually has its
own air treatment system.
Compressed Air Starting System

Main Air Main Air

Receiver 1 Receiver 2
Oil/ Water

hull InformatIon

To Aux.
Non Return Valve

Main Air Compressors

Air Receiver machInery InformatIon

Machinery Information 97
A Typical Start Air Compressor
Two Stage Compression
The average ship will have several air
general information

compressors, 2 high pressure for main

engine starting, at least one control air
compressor, a work air compressor an
emergency and possibly another for
filling up breathing apparatus bottles.
Pictured here is a typical 2 stage
HP air compressor used to start large
slow speed engines.

Fuel Oil Treatment System

The fuel that is used by most ship engines requires heating to a specific temperature
to ensure it is the correct viscosity for injecting into the cylinders. The fuel may also
contain contaminants left over from the refining process, which need to be removed
by on-board treatment using settling tanks, purifiers and filtration systems before use
hull information

in the engine.
The system shown here sees fuel pumped from the storage tanks to a settling tank in
the engine room. Here natural settling allows excess water to be drained off from the
bottom, before it is pumped through filters and heaters to centrifugal separators or
purifiers. These remove any left over water and particles in suspension by centrifugal
force. Clean fuel is then deposited into the service tank were it is stored ready for use
in the engine.

to Sett Tank

Settling Service
Tank Constant Tank
Pressure Valve
machinery information

Water Fuel Purifiers

Feed Filters
Fuel To
Main Engine
Fuel from
Storage tanks Steam

98 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

The operation is based on the principle of centrifugal forces. Shaft and internal
working disks rotate at 8,000-17,000 RPM, thus creating a large centrifugal force

General InformatIon
which separates the oil from any other heavier substances in it. The appropriate
type of gravity disk is selected and installed by the crew depending on the type and
viscosity of the oil to be purified. On ships two sets are usually in service, one of each
is used as a clarifier to further reduce the contents of foreign substances / particulars
in the fuel.

hull InformatIon
machInery InformatIon

[Ref: 38]

Fuel Purifier Room

The fuel treatment plant is usually situated
in its own separate area in the engine space
commonly referred to as the purifier room. It
is usually a hot, dirty and smelly place and a
second home for the junior or fourth engineer
who historically looked after it.

Machinery Information 99
Ship Service Systems
Engine Room Bilge Pumping System
The bilge of a ship is the lowest inner part of the ship. It is in this area that any
general information

water or oil leakage from on-board systems will collect, once collected it is known
as bilge water.
Bilge pumps are strategically placed in these areas usually near the bilge wells were
they can remove the water or oil and pump it to storage tanks or overboard via an oily
water separator. The engine room bilge system is carefully monitored by the ships
engineers as it provides the first warning of serious leakages or holes in the hull,
consequently the bilge wells are fitted with high level alarms.
Port Bilge Well


Clean Water
Oily Water
Hold Bilge
hull information

Tank Top

Pre Filter
Bilge Wells
From Hold

Valve Manifold
To Ballast
Water Tank

Piston Bilge
ER Bilge
machinery information

Stbd Bilge Well

Centre Bilge
From Fwd &

Suction from

100 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Ship Service Systems
The Oily Water Separator
The oily water separator is a piece of shipboard

General InformatIon
equipment that separates oil from bilge water
before the bilge water can be safely discharged
overboard. Bilge water is an almost unavoidable
product in ship operations. Bilge water that is M
generated in proximity to shipboard equipment
(such as in the engine room) often contains Clean
oil and its direct discharge would result in Water
undesirable transfer of waste oil to the marine
environment. By international agreement under
the MARPOL convention, most commercial Oily
vessels need to be fitted with an oily water Water
separator to remove oil contaminants before
bilge water is pumped overboard. Oily water separator equipment has been a Drain
shipboard requirement since the 1970s but recently it has become evident that oily
water separators have not been as effective as had been assumed, and alleged

hull InformatIon
improper operation of this equipment by crewmembers has resulted in several
The Oily Water Separator
criminal prosecutions in the United States and to a lesser extent in Europe.


Solenoid Valve
Oil Sensing
Sample Probe Manual Valve
Valves Check Valve

Oil Water
Pressure Relief Valve

Oil Outlet
Power to Control Box
Media Sample Flow
Polishing Pack

machInery InformatIon

Water OCD
Inlet Monitor Processed Water
Outlet (Overboard)


Drain Pump / Motor

Flush Water

Processed Water
Outlet (Recirculate)

Machinery Information 101

Ship Service Systems
Simple Ballast Water System
A ship is designed to carry a certain amount of cargo, when it is empty that is without
general information

cargo, it needs to be ballasted with sea water. Water is pumped into dedicated ballast
tanks to compensate for the lack of cargo and ensure the trim and stability is kept
within optimal and safe limits. Without cargo the ship is said to be in ballast.
Bilge and ballast systems are often interconnected so the associated pumps
can be used in the event of a singular failure.


Bridge and
Ballast Pump
hull information

Simple Ballast Water System

Double Bottom Ballast tanks


can be used to pump ballast out as well as in.
used in the event of failure. The ballast pump
interconnected so that either pump can be
Ballast and Bilge systems are usually



machinery information



102 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Ship Service Systems
Common Ship Pumps
All of the systems described so far involve the use of pumps, there are always a lot of

General InformatIon
pumps onboard a ship, used for a variety of different tasks.
Two of the main types are shown here:
The most common centrifugal pump, generally driven by electric motor is fast and
efficient, but needs to be primed with fluid if positioned higher than the level of fluid
being pumped.
The positive displacement pump in contrast is able to pick up a suction from way
below its position in the ship, and is therefore useful as a bilge pump.
Common Ship Pumps

hull InformatIon
Centrifugal Pump Positive Displacement Pu
Common Ship Pumps
out Low
pressure in

pressure in

entrifugal Pump Positive Displacement Pump

machInery InformatIon

out Low high
pressure in pressure

e in

Machinery Information 103

Domestic Service Systems
Fresh Water System
Fresh water carried on an ocean going ship is usually produced onboard by
general information

putting seawater through a fresh water generator or reverse osmosis equipment.

This equipment produces enough clean fresh water to supply the boiler, engine
cooling water, domestic hot and cold water for laundry and showering as well as
water for drinking. Drinking water is further treated with ultra violet or chlorine to
purify it and remove bacteria.

Shore Supply
Fresh Water
hull information


Fresh Water

machinery information

Cooling water
Hot Engine
Fresh Water to

Sea Water


104 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Domestic Service Systems
Fresh Water Generator
For heating and evaporation of the sea water in the freshwater generator, the waste

General InformatIon
heat in the jacket cooling water of the main engine is used. The heat exchanger in the
freshwater generator is connected to the engine cooling water system of the main
engine, and is thus working as an extra cooler.
The jacket cooling water, which may reach a temperature between 60 and 90C,
is passed outside the tubes of the heat exchanger. During this passage the
temperature will drop between 4 and 13C depending on the amount of jacket
cooling water used. The controlled amount of sea feed water is led to the interior
of the heat exchanger tubes, where it is heated under vacuum and evaporated by
rising film evaporation, meaning that optimum conditions are achieved and scale
formations minimized.
The vacuum required is obtained by means of a vacuum ejector, which automatically
ensures correct conditions. The generated vapours pass through the separator, in
which the sea water drops are separated to the brine and discharged by means of a
water ejector. The saturated vapour rises to the sea water cooled condenses, and on

hull InformatIon
the outside of the tubes it will condense into fresh water which is collected in a shell
and discharged by the freshwater pump. The salinity of the fresh water produced
is automatically controlled by a salinometer. Vessels that utilise slow steaming
sometimes have difficulties generating enough fresh water due to the reduced
Fresh Water Generator
engine water temperatures.

Sea water
Distilled cooling
Fresh water 0 to 30C
out machInery InformatIon

Hot Engine
Cooling water
Vacuum Line
60 to 90C

Sea water in

Machinery Information 105

Domestic Service Systems
Sewage Treatment
Waste has to be dealt with
general information

onboard as there is no sewer

system and legislation forbids it to
be pumped untreated overboard
in some areas. So it is usually
stored in a tank and fed through
an approved treatment plant to be
pumped over the side or pumped
ashore at ports with suitable
reception facilities.

Ship Domestic Refrigeration

Food may be kept onboard a ship for periods up to 6 months. Meat and fish is
hull information

usually kept frozen in large walk in freezers, or refrigerated in large walk in fridges.
The equipment needed to run these freezers and fridges is usually situated in the
engine room and connected with pipes and cables to the food storage place by
the galley. These fridges and freezers work just like a household unit, but with larger
separate components and condensers that are cooled by seawater again rather
than air. The compressor and condenser units are interchangeable to allow for
singular failure. Ship Domestic Refrigeration

Meat Fish Dairy

Room Room Room

- 25 C Evaporators - 25 C +4C
machinery information


Freeze Compressors Chill


106 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Ship Motion Control
Fin Stabilisers
A ship at sea has six degrees of freedom to move, these are roll, heave, pitch, yaw,

General InformatIon
sway and surge. Of these only roll can be effectively reduced by fitting bilge keels,
fin stabilisers or anti rolling tanks. Reducing roll is beneficial in human terms to make
the voyage more comfortable for the crew or passengers on a cruise ship, but can
also improve safety of cargo as well. These fins are usually retractable so they can
be stowed in good weather to reduce drag, or during berthing where there would
be an increased risk of breaking them off. Due to their inherent vulnerability and high
installation and repair costs they are generally only fitted to cruise ships, ferries and the
like. Cargo ships usually make do with bilge keels or occasionally anti rolling tanks.

Fin Stabilizer
(ship front view)

Center cut view

Fin Stabilizer

hull InformatIon
Bilge Keel (fixed)

Fin Stabiliser

Bow thrusters
To enable a ship to berth efficiently it is desirable
to be able to push the bow sideways onto a berth,
as the stern can be manoeuvred effectively by the
machInery InformatIon

action of the propeller and rudder. Some ships

employ tugs to help with this action, while some
have one or more transverse propellers fitted into
the hull known as bow thrusters, which can be
reversed to either push or pull the bow in either
direction. These units are again vulnerable to
damage by floating and submerged objects, so
grids are usually fitted over the thrusters pipes to
prevent this.

Machinery Information 107

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shackles.html [Accessed 7th April 2011]
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Marine Casualty Response.
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Ships Cargo Handling Gear.
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Butterworth Heinemman.
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The Merchant Shipping (Carriage of Cargoes) Regulations 1999 [Online]. Available from [Accessed 7th November 2010]
19. Eyres, D.J. (1978). Ship Construction. 2nd Edition. London: Heinemman

108 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

20. British Association of Cargo Surveyors (1999). Lloyds survey handbook.
London: LLD Defence Publishing
21. ABS (2003). Surveyors glossary Hull terms & Hull survey terms
Recommendation 82. American Bureau of Shipping
22. Vousouras, E. (1994). Internal Combustion Engines. Athens
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8th Edition. Great Britain: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemman
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brochures/product/engines/low_speed/rta84t_tr.pdf. [Accessed 3rd November 2010]
25. Knak, C. (1990). Diesel Motor Ships Engines and Machinery. Volume II (Diagrams).
London: The Institute of Marine Engineers
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Piraeus: Emmanuel Stavridakis Technical publications
31. Ulstein Propulsion AS Ulstein propulsion marketing leaflet. Ulstein propellers.
Norway: Ulstein propulsion AS
32. Rolls Royce plc. (2008). Introduction of the new Rolls-Royce range of waterjets
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Reference 109

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114 Braemar (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

Braemar Technical Services Ltd
(Incorporating The Salvage Association)
Tel: +44 (0)20 7648 9650
Updated May 2015