## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Algorithms for BOC signals
**

A Thesis in the Partial Fulﬁlment of the

Requirements for the Award of the Degree of

Bachelor of Technology

in

Electronics and Communication

by

Rakesh Krishna Velama (06010232)

under the guidance of

Dr. Abhijit Mitra

to the

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Indian Institute Of Technology, Guwahati

Guwahati - 781039, India

June 2010

i

Certificate

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in this thesis entitled “Im-

proved Correlation based tracking algorithms for Binary Oﬀset carrier signals in GNSS

receivers” in partial fulﬁllment of requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of

Technology (B.Tech.), submitted in the Department of Electronics and Communication

Engineering at INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GUWAHATI in June 2010

is an authentic record of my own work carried out during the period from August 2009

to May 2010 under the supervision of Dr. Abhijit Mitra. The matter presented in this

thesis has not been submitted by me in any other University/Institute for the award of

any other degree/diploma.

Date: Rakesh Krishna Velama

Place:

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the

best of my knowledge.

Dr. Abhijit Mitra

Associate Professor

Department of ECE

IIT Guwahati.

ii

Acknowledgment

I would like to thank all the people who have helped and inspired me during this

research project. Without their generosity and assistance, the completion of this thesis

would not have been possible. First of all, I would like to express my deep sense of

gratitude to my advisor Dr. Abhijit Mitra, who introduced me to this ﬁeld and sug-

gested this problem. His sharp insight, consistent guidance, constant encouragement,

contagious enthusiasm, and friendly advice are all echoed throughout this thesis. I will

always be indebted to him for all the things I have learnt from him.

I am also thankful to the members of the evaluation committee, Dr. P.R.Sahu, Dr. A.

Rajesh, Dr. K.R. Singh and Dr. Sonali Chouhan, for their valuable time, comments

and interest in our work.

This work would not have been possible without the love and unfailing faith of my

parents that has sustained me throughout this endeavor. I have no words to express

my thankfulness to them. I would also like to thank all my friends in IITG, who made

my undergraduate experience both memorable and fun. Last but not the least, thanks

be to the God for my life through all tests in the past four years. May your name be

exalted, honoured, and gloriﬁed.

Rakesh Krishna Velama

iii

Abstract

Applications for the new generations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

are developing rapidly and attract a great interest. Both US Global Positioning System

(GPS) and European Galileo signals use Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Ac-

cess (DS-CDMA) technology, where code and frequency synchronization are important

stages at the receiver. Since both GPS and Galileo systems will send several signals

on the same carriers, a new modulation type - the Binary Oﬀset Carrier (BOC) mod-

ulation, has been selected. The main target of this modulation is to provide a better

spectral separation with the existing BPSK-modulated GPS signals, while allowing opti-

mal usage of the available bandwidth for diﬀerent GNSS signals. The BOC modulation

family includes several BOC variants, such as sine BOC (SinBOC), cosine BOC (Cos-

BOC), alternate BOC (AltBOC), multiplexed BOC (MBOC), double BOC (DBOC)

etc. The BOC-modulation triggers new challenges in the acquisition and tracking pro-

cesses, since the receiver can acquire and lock incorrectly on a side-lobe peak around

the maximum peak of the correlation envelope. Reliable receiver positioning requires

accurate estimation of Line-of-Sight (LOS) propagation delays from diﬀerent satellites

to the receiver. The propagation over wireless channel suﬀers adverse eﬀects, such as

the environmental eﬀects, the presence of multipath propagation, high level of noise,

partial or full or obstruction of LOS component, especially in indoor environments. The

synchronization process becomes even more challenging in such conditions.

The results presented in this work focus on tracking algorithms for Galileo and

modernized GPS signals, analyzed in the context of BOC modulations, for various

static and fading multipath proﬁles. This work focuses on the tracking stage, where a

new unambiguous approaches, based on improved correlation are discussed. In order to

remove the side-peaks threat, these techniques can be applied alone or in conjunction

with other various tracking structures. This technique removes the threat brought by

the side-peak ambiguities, while keeping the same sharp correlation of the main peak or

chopping of the main peak itself and, thus, it allows for better tracking performance. In

contrast to other methods already introduced in literature for the same purpose, these

iv

two tracking methods has the advantage that it can be used with any BOC-modulated

signal. In order to cope with the side-peak ambiguities, a separate correlation function

is computed and stored in the receiver and the delay estimation is done according to

this stored correlation function.

v

Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.3 Problem Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.4 Main Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.5 Organization of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2 Overview of Global Navigation Satellite Systems 7

2.1 Satellite-based positioning technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.2 Global and Local Navigation Satellite Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.3 Global Positioning System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.4 European Galileo System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.4.1 Galileo Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.4.2 Galileo Spectrum Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3 Modulation families for Galileo and modernized GPS signals 18

3.1 Binary Oﬀset Carrier (BOC) modulated signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4 Tracking of Galileo and GPS signals 25

4.1 Delay Locked Loop (DLL) Based Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.2 Enhanced Feedback Tracking Algorithms Based on Improved Correlation 28

4.2.1 Received Signal and Synchronizing Signal Correlation Based Dis-

criminator (Algorithm 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.2.2 A PN Based Tracking Algorithm (Algorithm 2) . . . . . . . . . 30

vi

4.2.3 A Proposal -Extension of Algorithm 2 for Rician Channels. . . . 32

5 Results and Discussions 34

5.1 Correlation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

5.1.1 Correlation Functions of SinBOC(5,2) Implementing Algorithm 1 34

5.1.2 Correlation Functions of SinBOC(5,2) Implementing Algorithm 2 36

5.2 Discriminator Structures based on Algorithms 1 and 2. . . . . . . . . . 37

5.2.1 Proposed Discriminator Structure in Rician Channel. . . . . . . 38

5.3 Computational Complexity of receiver using both the Algorithms . . . 39

6 Conclusion 42

6.1 Summary of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

6.2 Possible Future Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

vii

List of Figures

2.1 Galileo frequency plan GJU 2005 [17]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.1 Examples of time-domain waveforms for SinBOC- and CosBOC- modu-

lated signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.2 Examples of power spectral densities for BOC-modulated signals. . . . 22

3.3 Examples of absolute value of ACF for BPSK and BOC-modulated signals. 23

4.1 DLL block diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4.2 Code tracking exempliﬁcation for EML discriminator. . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.3 The template correlation function of SinBOC(3,2). . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.1 Correlation function using standard algorithm and Algorithm 1 . . . . 35

5.2 Synchronization signal s(t) for a chip duration Tc for SinBOC(5,2) . . . 35

5.3 Correlation function using synchronization signal and Received BOC signal. 36

5.4 Correlation function using standard algorithm and Algorithm 2 . . . . 36

5.5 Correlation function in rician channel extending algorithm 2. . . . . . . 37

5.6 Discriminator structure based on Algorithm 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

5.7 Discriminator structure based on Algorithm 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.8 Discriminator structure for rician channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

viii

List of Tables

2.1 SPS Positioning and Timing Accuracy Standard (95 % Probability) . . 12

2.2 Galileo signal structures (as of 2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

5.1 Some design parameters for the discriminators discussed above. . . . . 41

ix

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Background

For centuries, explorers and navigators have craved for a system that would allow

locating their position on the globe with the accuracy necessary to reach their intended

destinations. About two thousand years ago, the ﬁrst lighthouses were erected for

navigational aid. Columbus and his contemporary sailors navigated using an ancestor

of the modern inertial navigation systems, by measuring the course and distance from

some known points.

In the early 1970s the Global satellite-based Positioning and navigation System

(GPS) started to be developed by the United States Department of Defense, initially

for military purposes, but later made it also available to civilian users [1],[2]. The US

GPS, the best-known and currently the only fully operational Global Navigation Satel-

lite System (GNSS), provides autonomous and continuous geo-spatial positioning and

timing information, anywhere in the world [3]. The current GPS system is military

operated, it has only a few signals for civil users, and it does not oﬀer any guarantee

of integrity and quality of service. Over the last decade, several improvements to the

GPS service have been implemented, including new signals for civil use and increased

accuracy and integrity for all users [4], [5]. GPS is a billion-worth industry, saving lives

and helping society in countless ways, and nowadays most of the satellite positioning

applications are based on it. By the time the GPS became fully operational, the pre-

1

dicting rise and advantages of such technology gave the initiative to other countries to

pursue their own GNSS development. Russia runs its own GNSS, called GLONASS,

which is currently in the process of being restored to full operation [6]. China has

also indicated expansion of its regional Beidou navigation system into a global system

Compass, and India and Japan are developing their own regional satellite navigation

systems. The European countries aimed, in the ﬁrst phase, to provide an augmentation

to the existing GPS/GLONASS constellation,via the European Geostationary Naviga-

tion Overlay System (EGNOS) program, while the next step will be to build a civilian

owned and controlled system that meets the requirements of all modes of transport.

This system, referred to as the Galileo positioning system, is the next generation GNSS,

still in the initial deployment phase, and it is scheduled to be operational by 2013. The

Galileo services are primarily intended for civil users and should be interoperable and

compatible with civil GPS and with its augmentations [7].

The combined use of both GNSS will improve the accuracy, integrity, availability

and reliability through the use of a single common receiver design, especially in urban

environments and it will provide system certiﬁcation and guarantee of service [8]. The

beneﬁts of more satellites in conjunction with improved modernized signals will provide

the potential for sub-meter positioning in a standard handset and enhanced accuracy

with shorter initialization time. The users accessing data from multiple satellite sys-

tems can continue to operate if one of the systems fails and will beneﬁt from a more

reliable signal tracking, also designed for Safety-of-Life applications [9]. In the next

decade considerable growth is expected in the use of GNSS, as the increased position-

ing accuracy and system reliability provide cost savings and other beneﬁts for a wide

range of economic and social activities that rely on location. With such a wide variety

of new signals and satellite systems, receiver designers discover the fact that there are

still many new design challenges from one end of the receiver (the antenna) to the

other (the software providing the user with position). In this context, there is always a

continuous demand for eﬃcient algorithms at the GNSS receiver, in order to fulﬁll the

required quality of service.

2

1.2 Literature Review

The Galileo and GPS interoperability is realized by a partial frequency overlap with

diﬀerent signal structures and/or diﬀerent code sequences. Thus, in order to accom-

modate several signals on the same carrier, a new modulation type, the Binary Oﬀset

Carrier (BOC) modulation, has been proposed in [10]. Its split spectrum property

allows moving the signal energy away from the band center, thus achieving a higher de-

gree of spectral separation between the BOC-modulated signals and other GPS legacy

signals, such as the Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) code [11]. Since its introduction, several

BOC families have been considered, with characteristics deﬁned by the spectral shaping

and the width of the side lobes [12]. The BOC modulation enables combined GNSS

receivers to outperform an equivalent Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation

and to track the GPS and Galileo signals with higher accuracy, even in challenging

environments that include multipath, noise and narrow-band interference [9], [13].

At the receiver the incoming signal is ﬁrst ampliﬁed and after a series of Interme-

diate Frequency (IF) mixers, ﬁlters and down-conversion operations it is brought to

(or near) baseband for subsequent processing. While the GLONASS system uses the

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) scheme and carrier frequencies diﬀerent

from GPS [6], the GPS and Galileo receivers will use direct-Code Division Multiple Ac-

cess (CDMA) [9], [17]. In this context, signal acquisition and tracking at the receiver

play a crucial role in the accuracy of the position solution. The acquisition stage is a

searching process over the code-frequency search space. By performing correlations of

the received signal with the replica spreading code, the incoming code phase and the

Doppler frequency shift of a particular satellite are detected. Each correlation calcu-

lation corresponds to a code-Doppler bin, which deﬁnes the resolution of scanning the

searching space [1]. The acquisition performance is determined to a great extent by the

size of the search space. Since one of the main features of the Galileo system is the in-

troduction of longer codes than those used for GPS C/A signals, with an increased code

uncertainty region, the fully serial search would lead to high acquisition times values,

while the parallel search will increase the implementation complexity. A scheme which

3

can oﬀer a successful trade-oﬀ between the low complexity (the serial search) and the

low acquisition time (parallel search), is a hybrid serial-parallel approach in which the

full length code is divided into several partial codes and the correlation is performed

on each partial code. Also, detector structures based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

have been introduced for fast code acquisition. Such a structure performs correlation

in the frequency domain and provides better performance over the wider correlation

bandwidth of Doppler frequencies, in terms of mean acquisition time, when compared

to the time-domain correlators.

After the signal acquisition, the code phase and Doppler shift need to be tracked

for (selected) visible satellites long enough in order to obtain accurate estimates of the

parameters. If the tracking module fails to track the code-phase changes that occur

over required time, the signal needs to be re-acquired. Since the estimate of the Line-

Of-Sight (LOS) code delay is used to calculate the pseudorange, it consequently aﬀects

on the accuracy of the position solution. Therefore the code-tracking stage is very

critical in the context of GNSS receiver design. The main algorithms used for GPS and

Galileo code tracking (provided a suﬃciently small Doppler shift) are based on so-called

feedback delay estimators, which are implemented based on a feedback loop. The most

known feedback delay estimators are the Delay-Locked Loops (DLL) [14].

1.3 Problem Deﬁnition

BOC modulation triggers new challenges in the delay estimation process, since the

Auto-Correlation Function(ACF) of BOC-modulated signals is characterized by multi-

ple side-peaks with non-negligible magnitudes within the range of two chips around the

maximum peak [15]. Since locking on a false lock point produces a biased measurement

and thus an erroneous navigation solution, the receiver should employ eﬃcient solutions

in order to deal with these ambiguities.

There are other challenges which should be accounted at the receiver. In low Carrier-

to-Noise Ratio (CNR) environments (e.g. urban areas, indoors) the performance is

deteriorated, since the receiver gets the satellite signal via multiple paths and processes

4

the combined signal as if only the direct path were present. A particularly challenging

problem is the situation of closely-spaced paths or short multipath spacing, where

diﬀerent replicas of the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver at sub-chip intervals.

1.4 Main Contribution

The core of this thesis is the analysis of signal processing algorithms suitable for tracking

of European Galileo and modernized GPS signals and mainly SinBOC(5,2) signal. As

emphasized in the previous section, new proposals such as BOC modulated signals or

longer spreading codes, as well as the continuous demand for positioning in diﬃcult

environments trigger new challenges in the synchronization process. The aim of this

thesis is to analyze various receiver parameters in the context of BOC-modulated signals

and to introduce eﬃcient methods for tracking these types of signals.

1.5 Organization of the Thesis

The core of this thesis is in the area of BOC-modulated signal tracking for the Galileo

and modernized GPS systems. It is composed of six chapters. The structure of the

thesis has been chosen with the intention to provide a comprehensive and uniﬁed frame-

work of the challenges in signal synchronization in GNSS systems and to point out the

main contribution of the work. In this thesis, the presented tracking algorithms are

analyzed in static and fading environments for BOC-modulated signals. This intro-

ductory part has deﬁned the challenges addressed in this work and has illustrated the

scope of the thesis including its motivations, objectives and contributions, followed by

the overall thesis outline. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the satellite-based navigation

technology and introduces brieﬂy the GPS and Galileo systems. Signal characteristics,

services and spectrum allocation are presented based on the current public knowledge

on standard developments. The signal model of Galileo and modernized GPS signals

is presented in Chapter 3. The BOC modulation is discussed. Chapter 4 is dedicated

to the tracking of modernized GPS and Galileo signals, presenting the classical DLL-

5

based method and Unambiguous tracking approaches, such as the improved correlations

based algorithms, and a proposal of discriminator in rician channel extending one of the

correlation algorithms are provided. Chapter 5 The results and discussions are given.

Chapter 6 Conclusions and remaining open issues are discussed.

6

Chapter 2

Overview of Global Navigation

Satellite Systems

This chapter presents brieﬂy the principles of satellite-based positioning and gives an

overview of two main GNSS, the Navstar GPS and the new European Galileo system.

The structures of GPS and Galileo signals are introduced, based on standardization

documents, as well as the main diﬀerences between them, from signal processing point

of view.

2.1 Satellite-based positioning technology

The position location services have progressed remarkably during the last decade. These

services can use either satellite-based or network-based positioning technology. The

scope of this thesis is limited to the satellite-based technology, e.g., GPS and Galileo,

which computes the receiver position in time and space using the Time Of Arrival

(TOA) ranging broadcasted by a constellation of satellites. Even if its implementation is

complex, the principle behind TOA ranging is simple and is based on the measurements

of the time interval of the signal transmitted by an emitter (i.e., satellite) at a known

location to arrive at the receiver. The receiver determines the time required for the

transmitted signal to propagate from satellite to receiver and determines the distance

from emitter by multiplying this time by the speed of light (approximately 3×10

8

m/s).

7

The instant time of transmission of the satellite signal is embedded in the navigation

signals and, in order to achieve the true time diﬀerence, the receiver and satellite clocks

have to be synchronized. In order to ﬁx the receiver position in the three-dimensional

space, the trilateration concept is used, which simultaneously performs three range

measurements. By intersecting three uncertainty spheres of the three satellites, the

receiver narrows its possible locations down to two points, from which one of these points

is actually on the surface of the Earth. A GNSS receiver requires computing the distance

to the fourth satellite in order to correct the receiver clock bias. However, the receivers

generally look for more than four satellites, in order to improve the accuracy. The

receiver determines the satellite position by extracting the satellite orbital parameters

(i.e., satellite ephemeris) from the navigation signal [1].

The time oﬀset between the GPS system time and the receiver clock induces er-

ror which corrupts the ranging measurements. In addition to this timing error, the

measurements are also corrupted by incorrect or outdated values of satellite ephemeris,

tropospheric and ionospheric signal delays, receiver noise and multipath signal propa-

gation. Due to these error sources, the range measurement is an estimate of the true

distance between the satellite and the receiver (i.e., a pseudorange measurement).

2.2 Global and Local Navigation Satellite Systems

Nowadays, most of the satellite positioning applications are based on Navstar GPS,

which was initially meant for military purposes, but, later, it has been ensured for the

maximum civilian use [4]. In mid of 70s, the former Soviet Union began the development

of its own GNSS, called GLONASS, which was declared operational in 1993 [6]. In

contrast to all other CDMA-based satellite navigation systems, GLONASS uses FDMA-

based multiple access technique. The system was never brought to completion, but its

signiﬁcance as an element of the national security issue was recognized and is currently

being updated and modernized. The GLONASS modernization directive, issued at 18

January 2006, stated a constellation of 18 satellites by the end of 2007, full constellation

capability of 24 satellites by the end of 2009, and a comparable performance with that

8

of GPS and Galileo by 2010.

In order to improve the performance of stand alone GPS, besides the GPS mod-

ernization program itself, several Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) have

been or are in process to be developed in order to meet the demanding requirements.

These systems support wide-area or regional augmentation through the use of addi-

tional satellite-broadcast messages and provide better position accuracy, integrity and

reliability by the correction of ephemeris errors. The EGNOS program is the precursor

of Galileo which has been intended to provide a European augmentation to the GPS

and GLONASS systems. It consists of three geostationary satellites and a network of

ground stations. Its open service and commercial data distribution service are cur-

rently available. The EGNOS system started its initial operation in July 2005. The

EGNOS Safety-of-Life service is intended to be available upon certiﬁcation of the ser-

vice provider and ﬁnal system qualiﬁcation in 2009 [16]. The Wide Area Augmentation

System (WAAS) is a system that improves the precision and accuracy of GPS and

is the US counterpart of EGNOS. The WAAS is mainly available in North America.

A Canadian WAAS system is also currently developed. The Japanese Satellite-Based

Augmentation System (SBAS) is a Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System

(MSAS) which is designed to supplement the GPS system, by improving the reliabil-

ity and accuracy of the provided solution. Similar service is provided by the Chinese

SBAS, named BEIDOU. India develops its own GPS-Aided GEO Augmented Navi-

gation (GAGAN) system, with up to three satellites planned initially, which will be

compatible with NAVSTAR GPS and with the upcoming Indian Regional Navigational

Satellite System (IRNSS). It is expected to be fully operational by 2012 [16].

Nowadays, also stand-alone satellite navigation systems are developed, such as

Galileo (the future European satellite system) and Compass (in China). The Chi-

nese GNSS system was initially started as BEIDOU navigation system (made up of 4

satellites) with limited coverage and application. China has decided to upgrade its cur-

rent BEIDOU system to a truly global navigation system, named as Compass, which

was originally meant as military system. Compass is intended to oﬀer open service

with 10 meters location-tracking accuracy [16]. It is planned to work with at least

9

35 satellites, with both local and global coverage. The Compass operational concept

is based on the 2-way active system, which can institute user charges and limit the

number of users. Japan also plans a CDMA-based system, the regional Quasi-Zenith

Satellite System (QZSS). The QZSS is a proposed regional time transfer system and

enhancement for the GPS, which would be receivable within the Asia-Paciﬁc region.

The ﬁrst satellite is currently scheduled to be launched in 2010. The QZSS system has

initially started with three satellites, with possibility of more extensive constellation

afterwards. QZSS can only provide limited accuracy on its own and is not currently

required in its speciﬁcations to work in a stand-alone mode.

The European Commission (EC) in a joint initiative with the European Space

Agency (ESA) aims to build its own independent global civilian controlled satellite

navigation system, referred as Galileo [7]. The largest space project to date, Galileo

will be an autonomous system, interoperable with GPS and globally available. It is

based on the CDMA technology, as the GPS, and it is meant to provide similar or

higher degree of precision and to guarantee the continuity of public service provision

for speciﬁc applications. In order to manage the development phases of the Galileo Pro-

gramme, the EC and ESA have jointly set up the Galileo Joint Undertaking (GJU) in

2003 - the European Programme for Global Navigation Services [17]. Galileo has been

designed to be interoperable with other navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS, SBAS)

or non-GNSS systems (GSM, UMTS, INMARSAT, motion sensors, etc.), in order to

meet the demand for high-precision user applications [13], [8].

The following sections provide detailed information about GPS and Galileo sys-

tems from signal processing perspective, focusing on signal structures and on the most

relevant characteristics for the algorithms presented in this thesis.

2.3 Global Positioning System

GPS is a complex system, which from architectural point of view, consists of three

elements. The ﬁrst element is the space segment, which consists of a constellation of

24 satellites in six orbital planes. The second GPS component is the control segment,

10

which monitors the satellites through checking their operational health and determining

their position in space. It consists of the master control station, monitor stations and

ground antenna for uploading information to the GPS satellites. The master control

station receives GPS observations from the monitor stations and processes them in

order to estimate navigation data parameters, such as satellite orbits and clock errors.

The third component is the user segment, which comprises the GPS receiver equipment

[1], [3]. The user position is determined using the method of trilateration, by solving

the four pseudorange equations, as explained in the previous section.

The Direct Sequence - Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) technique, based on CDMA scheme,

allows the user to receive multiple signals on the same frequency band, with minimum

mutual interference. The transmitted signal is modulated by its own PRN code and

has a spectrum much wider than the bandwidth of the modulating data message. As

a consequence, better resistance to interference and jamming is achieved, as well as

rejection of detection for unauthorized users. Each satellite broadcasts continuously

the navigation message over two L-band carriers, L1 with center frequency at 1575.42

MHz, and L2 at 1227.60 MHz. The L1 frequency is Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)

modulated by the C/A code and in quadrature by the Precision Encrypted P(Y) code.

The L2 frequency is only BPSK-modulated by the P(Y) code. The C/A code is freely

available for civilian use and is the basis for the Standard Positioning Service (SPS). The

C/A code has a length of 1023 chips, with a transmission code rate (chip rate) of 1.023

Mchips/s, resulting in a code duration of 1 ms. Each satellite is identiﬁed by a unique

PRN code, which is a Gold code chosen in such a way to reduce crosscorrelation among

signals. On the other hand, the P(Y) codes are permitted only to US Department of

Defense (DoD) authorized users, which have access to the encoded Precise Positioning

Service (PPS) [4]. The P(Y) code adopts very long sequences, with chip rate ten times

higher than the C/A code chip rate, and has a code length of 6.1871 ×10

12

chips [1].

Each transmitted signal is composed of the carrier (L1 or L2), the PRN code (C/A

or P(Y)) that serves as ranging codes, and of navigation message, transmitted at a

bit rate of 50 bps. The navigation message includes precise satellite ephemeris as a

function of time, atmospheric and almanac data [8]. The GPS system performance

11

is mainly reported in terms of accuracy, which implies the conformance between the

measured and true positioning, velocity and timing information. The last SPS accuracy

speciﬁcation standard deﬁned by DoD on October 4, 2001 [4] is shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1: SPS Positioning and Timing Accuracy Standard (95 % Probability)

Horizontal Vertical Time Transfer

Error Error Error

Global average positioning domain accuracy ≤ 13m ≤ 22m ≤ 13ns

Worst site positioning domain accuracy ≤ 36m ≤ 77m ≤ 13ns

The limitations of current GPS and the new range of GNSS applications trigger

the design of new modernized GPS signals, which will provide an improvement in

system accuracy, availability and integrity. The GPS modernization implies new signal

structures, new modulation types, use of longer codes, introduction of forward error

correction scheme on signals, faster transmission rates and availability of data-free

components [8]. One of the ﬁrst announcements was the addition of a new civilian

signal to be transmitted on a frequency other than the L1 frequency. This new civilian

signal is known as L2C signal as it is broadcasted on the L2 frequency (1227.6 MHz).

The L2C signal is meant to improve the navigation accuracy, providing an easy-to-track

signal and acting as a redundant signal in case of localized interference. In order to

comply with safety critical applications, a new civilian L5 signal was introduced in the

aeronautical radio-navigation services at 1176.45 MHz. It has higher transmission power

than L1 or L2C signal and improves the signal structure for enhanced performance.

Another new signal, the L1C signal, targeted for civilian use, will be available from the

year 2013, at the time when GPS III block is scheduled to launch. Its implementation

will provide backward compatibility with the C/A signal and will enable greater civil

interoperability with Galileo L1 signal.

A major component of the modernization process is the new military signal, called

M-code, which was designed for further improvement of the anti-jamming and secure

access of the military GPS signals. The M-code is transmitted in the same L1 and L2

frequencies, already in use by the P(Y) code. It is modulated by a BOC modulation,

12

with a sub-carrier frequency of 10.23 MHz and spreading code rate of 5.115 Mchips/s,

also referred as sine BOC(10,5) [5]. The new BOC modulation scheme allows compat-

ibility with existing C/A and P(Y) signals, without producing interference problems.

More details about the BOC modulation will be provided in Section 3.1.

2.4 European Galileo System

The upcoming European GNSS system, Galileo will provide high accuracy and guaran-

teed global positioning service under civilian control. It is designed to be interoperable

with GPS and GLONASS systems [17]. When fully deployed, the Galileo system will

use a constellation of 30 satellites, positioned in three circular Medium Earth Orbit

planes at an altitude around 23000 km with an inclination of 56 degree relative to

the equatorial plane. The Galileo ground segment will consist of a Navigation System

Control Center, a network of stations monitoring Galileo satellite orbits and synchro-

nization, and several tracking, telemetry and command ground stations. The Galileo

Control Centers, which will be located in Europe, will receive data from a global net-

work of Galileo Sensor Stations. This will allow to synchronize the time signals of

satellites with the ground station clocks and to calculate data for system integrity. The

ﬁve S-band (2-4 GHz) and ten C-band (4-8 GHz) uplink stations around the globe will

manage the ﬂow of data between the satellites and the Galileo Control Centers. The

ﬁrst spacecraft in the system, GIOVE-A was launched in 2005 and a second one, named

GIOVE-B was sent to the orbit in Spring 2008 (GIOVE stands for ”Galileo In-Orbit

Validation Element”). The two satellites in together test and verify the atomic clocks,

navigation signals and other technologies needed to run the positioning system in or-

bit. As test satellites, GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B broadcast the ﬁrst Galileo signals from

space, but they will not be part of the ﬁnal Galileo system. In order to complete the

testing phase, two more GIOVE satellites will be launched by 2010 and four satellites

should be in the orbit for the system, in order to deliver an exact position anywhere on

Earth. The Galileo service to the general public is expected to start around the end of

2012, when 12 satellites will be in orbit.

13

Compared to the traditional GPS, the Galileo system will oﬀer a series of advan-

tages, which will be highlighted next. While it will provide the same security features

as GPS, Galileo will oﬀer a guarantee of quality and a high level of continuity, which

are essential for many sensitive applications, such as aviation, railway transportation or

rescue operations. It will provide a similar (or possibly higher) degree of precision and

will be more reliable, since it will include a signal integrity message, informing users

immediately of any errors. In addition, the Galileo and GPS systems will be complemen-

tary to each other, since the users could beneﬁt from two independent infrastructures

in a coordinated manner, which will ensure improved availability and security. Thus

Galileo should be compatible and interoperable with GPS and it should not cause any

degradation for GPS users. A combined GPS-Galileo receiver should be able to achieve

position, navigation and timing solutions equal or better than those achieved by either

system alone. Ideally, the goal is to get beneﬁt from a larger number of satellites and

to use the satellites interchangeably, in order to derive an optimal position solution [8].

Thus, Galileo can be considered as an evolution of the navigation systems, which pays

more attention to the user needs.

2.4.1 Galileo Services

Some of the Galileo services will be provided independently by the Galileo system, while

the other services will result from the combination with the other systems. The ﬁrst

category, referring to Galileo satellite-only services, has been grouped into the following

ﬁve service levels [17], [8].

The Open Service (OS) is dedicated to consumer applications and will provide posi-

tioning, velocity and timing information that can be accessed free of charge. The Safety

of Life Service (SoL) is meant to increase safety of professional applications. It will

be oﬀered openly and will have the capability of authenticating the received signal as

being an actual Galileo signal. The main characteristic of SoL service as compared to

the OS is the provision of integrity information at global level. The Commercial Service

(CS) is a restricted-access service for commercial and professional applications. The CS

service has guaranteed service and it is based on adding to the open access signals two

14

signals protected by commercial encryption. It will allow for a higher data through-

put rate, and thus, improved accuracy. The Public Regulated Service (PRS), another

restricted service, will be devoted to government-regulated applications which require

high continuity and availability. Through the use of appropriate interference mitiga-

tion techniques and controlled access, the PRS will provide a higher level of protection

against the interfering threats to the Galileo signal-in-space.

The Search and Rescue (SAR) service will support the humanitarian search and res-

cue activities, by accurately pinpointing the distress messages from anywhere across the

Earth. The SAR will be backward compatible and will improve the existing COSPAS-

SARSAT (Search And Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking) system, by becoming near real

time and more precise, and by improving the average waiting time of distress messages.

In addition, the Galileo SAR service will have the return link feasibility from the SAR

operator to the distress emitting source, thus helping in identiﬁcation of false alarms

[8]. The Galileo system is expected to provide an accuracy of less than 1 meter for

some services. Other Galileo-related services are locally assisted services which use

some local elements to improve performance, e.g., diﬀerential encoding, more carriers

or additional pilot tones.

2.4.2 Galileo Spectrum Allocation

As proposed in the standardization document from 2005 [17], the Galileo Navigation

Signals are to be transmitted in the four frequency bands, illustrated in Fig. 2.1. These

four frequency bands are the E5a band (with frequency ranges of 1164 - 1191.795 MHz),

the E5b band (1191.795 - 1214 MHz), the E6 band (1260 - 1300 MHz) and the E2-L1-

E1 band (1559 - 1591 MHz). They provide a wide bandwidth for the transmission of

the Galileo Signals. The frequency bands have been selected in the allocated spectrum

for Radio Navigation Satellite Services (RNSS) and in addition to that, E5a, E5b and

L1 bands were included in the allocated spectrum for Aeronautical Radio Navigation

Services (ARNS), employed by Civil-Aviation users [17]. Some Galileo frequencies are

overlapping with GPS in E5/L5 and L1 bands [9], thus attaining the interoperability

between the two systems [13].

15

Figure 2.1: Galileo frequency plan GJU 2005 [17].

Table 2.2 shows a summary of Galileo signal speciﬁcations, as proposed in 2005 and

speciﬁed in Galileo Joint Undertaking documents, such as the modulation types, chip

rates, possible availability of pilot signals, data symbol rates and the code length for

each Galileo signal. Compared to GPS, the code length for the OS signal was chosen

as 4092 chips (i.e., four times longer than the GPS C/A code length), while for the

E5 signals, the code length was proposed to be 10230 chips. Also, higher data symbol

rates have been speciﬁed for Galileo (i.e., between 50 and 1000 sps) and the presence

of data-less signals (pilot signals). A new multiplexing scheme (which represents the

modulation type by which two signals are combined), the Alternate BOC (AltBOC)

multiplexing, was proposed for E5 signals [17]. The modulation type proposed for

L1F OS signal (as of 2005) was the SinBOC(1,1). For L1P PRS signals the cosine

BOC(15,2.5) (denoted as CosBOC(15,2.5)) was chosen.

In accordance with the July 2007 agreement between the EU and the US, a Mul-

tiplexed Binary Oﬀset Carrier (MBOC) waveform was selected as the candidate for

Galileo OS signal and the future GPS L1C signal [16]. The MBOC modulation en-

sures a better spectral separation with C/A codes and increases the tracking abilities

of Galileo OS and GPS L1 civil signals. The MBOC modulation outperforms the

SinBOC(1,1)-modulation on the L1 (data + pilot channels) frequency in mitigating the

16

Table 2.2: Galileo signal structures (as of 2005).

Galileo RF Modulation Chip Pilot Data Code

signals type rate availab. symb. length

[MHz] rate [chips]

L1F (OS/ L1 SinBOC 1.023 Yes 250 sps 4092

CS/SoL) (1,1)

L1P L1 CosBOC 2.5575 N/A N/A N/A

(PRS) (15,2.5)

E6C E6 BPSK 5.115 Yes 1000 sps N/A

(CS) (5)

E6P E6 CosBOC 5.115 N/A 250 sps N/A

(PRS) (10,5)

E5A (OS/ E5 BPSK 10.23 Yes 50 sps 10230

CS/PRS) (10)

E5B (OS/ E5 BPSK 10.23 Yes 250 sps 10230

CS/PRS) (10)

eﬀects of multipath or reﬂected signals [16]. The MBOC is implemented either as a

Composite BOC (CBOC)modulation (in the case of Galileo), with a superposition of

BOC(1,1) and BOC(6,1), or as Time-Multiplexed BOC (TMBOC) modulation, as is

planned for the GPS L1C signal [16]. Various characteristics of MBOC signal are de-

scribed in [12]. According to the new standardization proposals, the MBOC modulation

has been proposed to replace the SinBOC(1,1) modulation for OS signal.

17

Chapter 3

Modulation families for Galileo and

modernized GPS signals

In this chapter, the BOC modulation concept is explained and exempliﬁed, and the

challenges brought in the synchronization process by this modulation are highlighted.

3.1 Binary Oﬀset Carrier (BOC) modulated signal

The BOC modulation was introduced by Betz [10], [18] for the modernized GPS system.

Since then, other variants of BOC modulation have also been considered, including

SinBOC and CosBOC modulations types [10], [19], AltBOC modulation [13], Complex

Double BOC modulation (CDBOC) [20] and Multiplexed BOC (MBOC) modulation

[12]. The negotiations for Galileo system structure under the terms of US/EC agreement

in 2005, proposed the use of Sin- BOC(1,1) for the L1 OS signal, which was one of the

BOC modulations considered during this work. Indian Regional Navigational Satellite

System (IRNSS) plans to provide Precision Service which will use BOC(5,2) modulation

[16].

A BOC-modulated signal is the product of a Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ) spreading

code [21] with a synchronized square wave subcarrier, which can be either sine or cosine

phased. The typical notation of a BOC-modulated signal is BOC(f

sc

, f

c

), where f

sc

is

the subcarrier frequency in MHz and f

c

is the chip rate in MHz [10]. For Galileo

18

signals, the BOC(m

1

, m

2

) notation is also used , where m

1

and m

2

are two parameters

computed from f

sc

and f

c

with respect to the reference frequency f

ref

= 1.023 MHz,

m

1

= f

sc

/f

ref

and m

2

= f

c

/f

ref

.

The ratio N

BOC

1

= 2m

1

/m

2

= 2f

sc

/f

c

denotes the BOC modulation order and is

a positive integer [22]. For example, N

BOC

1

= 2 represents BOC(1,1) modulation

case, while N

BOC

1

= 12 represents BOC(15,2.5) modulation. A special case of BOC

modulation is the BPSK modulation with N

BOC

1

= 1. In order to consider the CosBOC

modulation case, a second BOC modulation order N

BOC

2

has been introduced, such

that the SinBOC modulation corresponds to N

BOC

2

= 1 and CosBOC modulation

corresponds to N

BOC

2

= 2 [22].

According to its original deﬁnition from [10] the SinBOC s

SinBOC

(t) waveform is

deﬁned as:

s

SinBOC

(t)

∆

= sign(sin(

N

BOC

1

πt

T

c

)) , 0 ≤ t < T

c

(3.1)

where sign(·) is the signum operator and T

c

= 1/f

c

is the chip period. Since the above

waveform is a sequence of +1 and −1, the eq. (3.1) can be also re-written as in eq.

(3.2), as explained in [22].

s

SinBOC

(t) = p

T

B

1

(t) ∗

N

BOC

1

−1

¸

i=0

(−1)

i

δ(t −iT

B

1

), (3.2)

where δ(·) is the Dirac pulse, ∗ is the convolution operator and p

T

B

1

(·) is the rectangular

pulse of amplitude 1 and support T

B

1

= T

c

/N

BOC

1

.

The CosBOC-modulated signal can be expressed similarly, as the convolution be-

tween the modulating signal and the s

CosBOC

(t) waveform [22]:

s

CosBOC

(t)

∆

= sign(cos(

N

BOC

1

πt

T

c

)) , 0 ≤ t < T

c

(3.3)

This can be re-written, equivalently:

s

CosBOC

(t) = p

T

B

1

(t) ∗

1

¸

k=0

N

BOC

1

−1

¸

i=0

(−1)

i+k

×δ(t −iT

B

1

−

kT

B

1

2

), (3.4)

As follows from eq. (3.4), the CosBOC modulation acts as a two-stage BOC modu-

lation, in which the signal is ﬁrst SinBOC modulated, and then, the sub-chip is further

19

split into two parts. The following generation can be straightforwardly inferred [22],

[20]:

s

DBOC

(t)

∆

= p

T

B

(t) ∗

N

BOC

2

−1

¸

k=0

N

BOC

1

−1

¸

i=0

(−1)

i+k

×δ(t −iT

B

1

−kT

B

), (3.5)

where DBOC stands for Double-BOC modulation [22] and p

T

B

(·) is the rectangular

pulse of amplitude 1 and support T

B

= T

c

/(N

BOC

1

N

BOC

2

), expressed as:

p

T

B

∆

=

1, if 0 ≤ t <

Tc

N

BOC

1

N

BOC

2

0, otherwise

(3.6)

Figure 3.1: Examples of time-domain waveforms for SinBOC- and CosBOC- modulated

signals.

The DBOC concept covers both SinBOC and CosBOC modulations, which are

particular cases of eq. (3.5), where N

BOC

2

= 1 represents the SinBOC case and N

BOC

2

=

2 represents the CosBOC case. Thus the N

BOC

2

can be seen as the BOC-modulation

order of the second stage, which, together with N

BOC

1

and f

c

parameters generalizes

the DBOC modulation for both SinBOC and CosBOC cases [22]:

N

BOC

1

= 1, N

BOC

2

= 1, ⇒ DBOC ≡ BPSK

N

BOC

1

> 1, N

BOC

2

= 1, ⇒ DBOC ≡ SinBOC

N

BOC

1

> 1, N

BOC

2

= 2, ⇒ DBOC ≡ CosBOC

(3.7)

20

Examples of time-domain waveforms for SinBOC N

BOC

2

= 1 and CosBOC modu-

lated signals N

BOC

2

= 2 are shown in Fig. 3.1

A DBOC-modulated signal x(t) can thus be seen as the convolution between a

DBOC waveform s

DBOC

(t) and a spread data modulated sequence d(t) as in eq. (3.8)

[20].

x(t) =

+∞

¸

n=−∞

b

n

S

F

¸

k=1

c

k,n

s

DBOC

(t −nT

sym

−kT

c

)

= s

DBOC

(t) ∗

+∞

¸

n=−∞

S

F

¸

k=1

b

n

c

k,n

δ(t −nT

sym

−kT

c

)

∆

= s

DBOC

(t) ∗ d(t),

(3.8)

where b

n

is the complex data symbol corresponding to the n-th code symbol, T

sym

is the symbol period, c

k,n

is the k-th chip corresponding to the n-th symbol, S

F

is

the spreading factor (S

F

= T

sym

/T

c

), δ(t) is the Dirac pulse and s

DBOC

is the DBOC

waveform deﬁned in eq. (3.5).

A generic way to express the normalized Power Spectral Density (PSD) for BPSK,

SinBOC and CosBOC cases is provided in [22]. The PSDs P

DBOC

(f) of DBOC-

modulation family are computed, using eq. (3.5), as follows:

1. if N

BOC

1

= evenand N

BOC

2

= odd :

P

DBOC

(f) =

sin(πfT

B

) sin(πfTc)

πf cos(πfT

B

)

2

2. if N

BOC

1

= evenand N

BOC

2

= even :

P

DBOC

(f) =

sin(πfT

B

) sin(πfT

B

1

) sin(πfTc)

πf cos(πfT

B

) cos(πfT

B

1

)

2

3. if N

BOC

1

= odd and N

BOC

2

= odd :

P

DBOC

(f) =

sin(πfT

B

) cos(πfTc)

πf cos(πfT

B

)

2

4. if N

BOC

1

= odd and N

BOC

2

= even :

P

DBOC

(f) =

sin(πfT

B

) sin(πfT

B

1

) cos(πfTc)

πf cos(πfT

B

) cos(πfT

B

1

)

2

(3.9)

21

where T

B

=

T

c

N

BOC

1

N

BOC

2

and T

B

=

T

c

N

BOC

1

,

An alternative way of deﬁning PSD (instead of P

DBOC

(f) is to normalize it with the

chip period (or, equivalently, the signal power over inﬁnite bandwidth), similar with

[13], [10], [18]:

P

DBOC,norm

(f) =

P

DBOC

(f)

T

c

(3.10)

Using the normalized expression of eq. (3.10), for N

BOC

2

= 1, the same expressions

as reported in [13], [10] are obtained for SinBOC modulation.

Figure 3.2: Examples of power spectral densities for BOC-modulated signals.

Fig. 3.2 illustrates some examples of the normalized PSD, computed according

to [22]. It can be observed that for even N

BOC

1

modulation orders, the spectrum is

symmetrically split into two parts, thus the signal energy is moved away from the band

center. Therefore, there is less interference with the C/A GPS band (i.e., BPSK case)

and the desired spectral separation is obtained [23]. Also, it should be mentioned here

that in case of odd BOC modulations, the interference around DC frequency is not

completely suppressed.

22

The ACF of a DBOC waveform can be derived based on eq. (3.5):

R

DBOC

∆

= s

DBOC

(t) ∗ s

DBOC

(t)

= Λ

T

B

(t) ∗

N

BOC

2

−1

¸

k=0

N

BOC

2

−1

¸

j=0

N

BOC

1

−1

¸

i=0

N

BOC

1

−1

¸

l=0

(−1)

k+j+i+l

×δ(t −iT

B

1

−kT

B

+ jT

B

),

(3.11)

where Λ

T

B

(t) is the triangular pulse of support 2T

B

(i.e., the ACF of a rectangular

pulse of support T

B

).

Figure 3.3: Examples of absolute value of ACF for BPSK and BOC-modulated signals.

Illustration of absolute values of the ideal ACF (i.e., without noise and multipath),

for several BOC-modulated PRN sequences, together with the BPSK case, are shown

in Fig. 3.3. As illustrated, for any BOC-modulated signal, there are multiple peaks

with signiﬁcant magnitudes compared with the magnitude of the central peak. For

example, the sidelobes of a SinBOC-modulated signal appear at the delays given by

τ

sidelobes

=

arg max

τ

(s

DBOC

(τ)) , where s

DBOC

(τ) is deﬁned as in eq. (3.5). Compared

to the BPSK situation, the envelope of a SinBOC(1,1)-modulated signal posses two

additional peaks at about ±0.5 chips apart from the maximum peak, as it can be

23

observed from Fig. 3.3. In general, there are 2N

BOC

1

− 1 sidelobes in the correlation

function for SinBOC-modulated signals and 2N

BOC

1

+1 for CosBOC-modulated signals.

These sidelobes interfere with the channel paths and may create ambiguities, the most

signiﬁcant ones being those with the smallest delay relative to the global maximum.

The additional peaks which appear in ACF envelope within the two-chip interval may

induce a missed detection due to a zero (or very low sampling point) and may thus lead

to a longer acquisition time.

24

Chapter 4

Tracking of Galileo and GPS signals

In the code acquisition process, the delay error between the input signal and the locally

generated replica code is reduced to less than one chip. The goal of the code tracking

loop is to further reduce this error to zero as close as possible and to track any changes

in the code delay. In general, code delay estimators (or code tracking algorithms) can

be categorized as either feedback or feedforward estimators. The main characteristic

of feedback estimators is that the estimated delay is fed back to the tracking loop so

that it can be used to the next estimation stage. Feedforward methods use an open

loop structure, without any feedback information and they are based on a threshold

computation which should be determined according to the channel condition.

4.1 Delay Locked Loop (DLL) Based Methods

The main algorithms usually used for GPS and Galileo code tracking, provided a suf-

ﬁciently small Doppler shift, are based on a feedback delay estimator and they are

implemented based on a feedback loop. The most known feedback delay estimators are

the DLLs. The DLL can be designed as either coherent or non-coherent. The coherent

DLL requires the PLL to be in lock [24]. Non-coherent DLL uses nonlinear devices,

such as squaring or absolute value, in order to remove the eﬀect of data modulations

and channel variations and it is typically preferred, since it is able to track the code

with the navigation data bit present and it is independent of the phase of the local

25

carrier wave [24].

Figure 4.1: DLL block diagram.

A DLL block diagram is presented in Fig. 5.1 [24]. The input signal is multiplied

(in three branches) with an early, an in-prompt and a delayed replica of the PRN code,

nominally generated with a spacing of ±∆ chip. The discriminator correlator spacing

∆ between the in-prompt and early codes determines the noise bandwidth in the DLL.

If ∆ is larger than half of the chip, the DLL would be able to handle wider dynamics

[24]. On the other hand, narrower spacing will provide reduction of tracking errors in

the presence of multipath. The outputs of early, prompt and late correlation channels

are integrated and dumped and these integrations indicate how much the code replicas

correlate with the code in the incoming signal. When there is a phase error on the

local carrier, i.e., the local carrier drifts compared to input signal, the signal energy will

be in both in-phase and quadrature arms. In this case, the tracking loop has to use

both the in-phase and quadrature arms to track the code [24]. The diﬀerence between

the early and late correlations is referred to as discriminator function and produces an

error signal which is driven to zero by the DLL in normal tracking operation. The most

common DLL structure is the so-called Early-Minus-Late (EML) discriminator. For

26

example, a non-coherent EML power discriminator function is given as:

D

EML

(τ) = (I

E

2

+ Q

E

2

) −(I

L

2

+ Q

L

2

), (4.1)

where I

E

, I

L

, are the in-phase, and Q

E

, Q

L

are the quadrature-phase early and late

correlation outputs, respectively.

Figure 4.2: Code tracking exempliﬁcation for EML discriminator.

Fig. 5.2 [24] exempliﬁes the code tracking process for an EML DLL discriminator,

with a correlator spacing ∆ of half of the chip. In Fig. 5.2(a) the late code has the

highest correlation, so the code-phase should be delayed. In Fig. 5.2(b) the code phase

is properly tracked, since the highest peak is located at the prompt replica and the early

and the late replicas have equal correlation output. The classical tracking structure for

spread spectrum systems is the wide correlator, where the two correlators used to form

the discriminator function as in eq. (4.1) are spaced at 0.5 chips or 1 chip from each

other.

27

4.2 Enhanced Feedback Tracking Algorithms Based

on Improved Correlation

In order to eliminate the multiple-peak detection problem and to synchronize the BOC

signals properly, tracking algorithms based on improved correlation are discussed in this

section, here two algorithms are presented which hold good for tracking of SinBOC(5,2)

modulated signal results for these are followed in Chapter 5. Algorithm 1 is based on

a newly deﬁned synchronizing signal s(t) whose crosscorrelation output is a main peak

chopped correlation output of received BOC signal and reference BOC signal with re-

maining part intact [25]. This technique is mainly based on back tracking of correlation

function between received and reference signals. The second technique [26], Algorithm 2

uses the properties of crosscorrelation between received signal and PN sequence gener-

ated at the discriminator. The major objective behind both the techniques is to narrow

down the searching for the prompt code to main peak of the correlation function.

4.2.1 Received Signal and Synchronizing Signal Correlation

Based Discriminator (Algorithm 1)

In early-late discriminator the main correlation peak is searched within a window of

−1 to +1 chip delay. Within this interval we can ﬁnd multiple side-peaks with value

comparable to main peak in case of BOC signal. To eliminate this false synchronization

here a new reference signal which is denoted as synchronizing signal s(t) is proposed.

This method is applicable for any type of BOC signal.

In order to obtain s(t), the main target is to get the signal s(t) in such a way that

crosscorrelation function of received BOC signal with this s(t) will be zero-values at

the main peak of BOC autocorrelation and resemble the shape of BOC autocorrela-

tion elsewhere. This correlation function denoted here as R

s/BOC

(τ) is shown in Fig.

4.3. The unknown signal s(t) has to be derived from the two locally generated known

functions, R

s/BOC

(τ) and the BOC signal.

From R

s/BOC

(τ) we can calculate the unknown signal s(t) by directly using the

28

Figure 4.3: The template correlation function of SinBOC(3,2).

formula of crosscorrelation. Let us ﬁrst deﬁne the discrete-time BOC signal (boc(n))

in vector notation as

boc = [boc(0), boc(1), . . . , boc(N −1)]

and s(n), discrete-time version of the unknown signal s(t) as

s = [s(0), s(1), . . . , s(N −1)]

The discrete-time BOC signal (boc(n)) can be obtained by sampling of locally gen-

erated BOC signal at proper sampling rate. The sampling rate should be greater than

Nyquist rate so that the signal can be reconstructed without distortion.

The crosscorrelation between s(n) and boc(n) is

R

s/BOC

(l) =

N−1

¸

n=0

s(n)boc(n −l)for l = 0, ±1, . . . , ±N −1 (4.2)

where N is the period of BOC signal. This is a linear system of equations which

can be solved for s.

As boc(n) is a periodic signal, boc(n ±N) = boc(n). So we can rewrite the terms in

29

eq. (4.2). After rewriting the terms, we can write eq. (4.2) in matrix form as

R

s/BOC

(−(N −1))

R

s/BOC

(−(N −2))

.

.

.

R

s/BOC

(0)

R

s/BOC

(1)

.

.

.

R

s/BOC

(N −1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

**boc(−1) boc(0) · · · boc(N −2)
**

boc(−2) boc(−1) · · · boc(N −3)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

boc(0) boc(1) · · · boc(N −1)

boc(−1) boc(0) · · · boc(N −2)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

boc(1) boc(2) · · · boc(0)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

s(0)

s(1)

.

.

.

s(N −2)

s(N −1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(4.3)

or, equivalently

r

s/BOC

= B

n

s (4.4)

where B

n

represents the boc matrix in eq. (4.3). Here, the matrix B

n

is a non-

square matrix with dimension (2N −1) ×N i.e. 2N −1 number of equations are there

with N unknowns. But as both R

s/BOC

(l) and boc(n) are periodic with period N,

the lowermost N − 1 number of equations are same as uppermost N − 1 number of

equations. In other words there is a periodicity in the equations also with period N.

We thus form a new square matrix B by removing the lowermost N − 1 number of

redundant equations from B

n

. Converting B

n

to B and solving eq. (4.4), we get

s = B

−1

r

s/BOC

(4.5)

It is to be noted that s(t) is diﬀerent for diﬀerent BOC signal. It is to be noted

that s(t) is generated and stored locally. We need not to generate it each time a signal

is received. In multipath and noisy environment received BOC signal. We will use

already stored s(t) derived from local reference BOC signal.

4.2.2 A PN Based Tracking Algorithm (Algorithm 2)

This technique is based on the properties of the crosscorrelation between a BOC signal

and the PN sequence used to generate it. The BOC signal given in eq. (3.8) can also

be expressed as a product of x(t) the PN sequence of length N, and sq(t), a square

30

wave of alternating values +1 or −1, then the transmitted signal s(t) is given:

s(t) = x(t) · sq(t)

=

N−1

¸

p=0

x

p

p

Tc

(t −pT

c

)

N−1

¸

n=0

(−1)

n

p

Ts

(t −nT

s

)

=

kN−1

¸

n=0

x

n

k

(−1)

n

p

Ts

(t −nT

s

)

(4.6)

where x

p

are the values of the PN sequence, T

c

is the duration of the chip of the PN

sequence, P

Tc

is a rectangular pulse of duration T

c

, T

s

is the duration of the half period

of the square wave, P

Ts

is a rectangular pulse of duration T

s

and T = NT

c

= NKT

s

is

the total period of the BOC signal.

By considering a period of the received signal s(t) and of the local replica r(t), where

r(t) being:

r(t) =

N−1

¸

m

=0

y

m

P

Tc

(t −m

T

c

) =

kN−1

¸

m=0

y

m

k

p

Ts

(t −mT

s

)

The correlation function can be shown to be

R

rs

(τ) =

T

0

r(t)s(t + τ)dt

and for τ = lT

s

is equal to

R

rs

(lT

s

) =

T

0

kN−1

¸

n=0

x

n

k

(−1)

n

p

Ts

(t −nT

s

)

kN−1

¸

m=0

y

m

k

p

Ts

(t −mT

s

+ lT

s

)dt

= T

s

kN−1

¸

n=0

x

n

k

y

n+l

k

(−1)

n

= R

rs

(l)

(4.7)

The correlation function, obtained for the proposed method is odd around the cor-

relation peak, in fact

R

rs

(−l) = T

s

kN−1

¸

n=0

x

n

k

y

n−l

k

(−1)

n

being n −l = p

=

kN−l−1

¸

p=−l

x

p+l

k

y

p

k

(−1)

p+l

T

s

= T

s

(−1)

l

kN−l−1

¸

p=−l

x

p+l

k

y

p

k

(−1)

p

= (−1)

l

R

sr

(l) = (−1)

l

R

rs

(l)

(4.8)

that is odd when l is odd and even when l is even; moreover it is possible to

demonstrate that for l even, the correlation function has zero value.

31

This property is due to the fact that when k is even, i.e. as in the considered case, it

is possible to substitute k = 2h and to write R(2l) as sum of even and odd coeﬃcients:

R(2l) =

2hN−1

¸

m=0

x

2m

2h

y

2m+2l

2h

(−1)

2m

+

2hN−1

¸

m=0

x

2m+1

2h

y

2m+2l+1

2h

(−1)

2m+1

(4.9)

therefore, by deﬁnition of ﬂoor function:

hp ≤ m < h(p + 1) (4.10)

Due to the fact that h, p and m are integer: hp ≤ m+0.5 < h(p +1) and therefore

x

2m

2h

= x

2m+1

2h

and, at the same manner, its possible to demonstrate

y

2m+2l

2h

= y

2m+2l+1

2h

So

x

2m

2h

y

2m+2l

2h

= x

2m+1

2h

y

2m+2l+1

2h

∀h, m, l ∈ N

and

R(2l) =

2hN−1

¸

m=0

x

2m

2h

y

2m+2l

2h

(−1)

2m

+

2hN−1

¸

m=0

x

2m+1

2h

y

2m+2l+1

2h

(−1)

2m

· (−1) = 0

(4.11)

On the basis of the properties mentioned in eq. (4.8) and eq. (4.11), after acquisition

of the BOC signal we can correlate the received BOC signal with the local PN code,

the correlation function exhibits the property of odd function with respect to the peak

of main-peak and even function with respect to peak of other side-peaks. Thereby, sum

of inphase and quadrature components of early and late outputs should be zero when

received signal is in synchronization with the prompt reference BOC signal.

4.2.3 A Proposal -Extension of Algorithm 2 for Rician Chan-

nels.

An important point in the choice of the signal format for the Galileo System is the

multipath transmission channel. Particularly, short delayed reﬂections signiﬁcantly

32

decrease the performance of the receiver. Even the positioning error aggravates if these

reﬂections are strong and slowly varying over time. Therefore it is important to consider

tracking ability of the receiver in land mobile channels.

The multipath scenario we are dealing here is modelled as rician channel with a

strong dominant component along Line of Sight (LOS) of receiver and transmitter,

and diﬀerent paths of propagation with diﬀerent levels of attenuation and diﬀerent

delays relative to LOS. The multipath components will typically be rayleigh if no strong

reﬂector exists, rician can be often considered as a rayleigh fading channel along with

a strong dominant component of LOS.

A generalized equation [27] to represent the Rician fading channel, with x(t) being

BOC modulated signal, is given by

c(τ; t) = L(t)s(t) +

¸

n

α(t)exp

−j2πfcτn(t)

s[τ −τ

n

(t)] (4.12)

where L(t) is the time varying amplitude of the direct component, α

n

is time varying

amplitude of the nth multipath component, τ

i

represents the delay of the ith multipath

component and f

c

is the carrier frequency.

When this multipath signal is crosscorrelated with local PN sequence r(t),

R

rc

(τ

1

) =

T

0

r(t)c(t; τ + τ

1

)dt

considering, the all the components in signal c(τ; t) separately and from eq. (4.7),

eq. (4.8) and eq.(4.11), the dominant signal component in c(τ; t) hold the property

of being odd respect to synchronization point, the other multipath components in the

signal c(τ; t) do not show the same property considering there time delay although near

the discriminator, when the early-late samples are summated the correlation function

value at the synchronization point is bounded by a threshold, as given in Fig. 5.5. The

threshold for particular modulation can be upper bounded iteratively after simulating

the tracking algorithm for certain number of times.

33

Chapter 5

Results and Discussions

In this section the correlation outputs for SinBOC(5,2) modulation implementing the

Algorithm 1 and Algorithm 2 along with the classical correlation function in an ideal

and rician fading AWGN channels, are presented. It is followed by the block diagrams

of the discriminators which are based on the two algorithms proposed. Computational

complexity and various design parameters of the proposed discriminator are also dis-

cussed at the end.

5.1 Correlation Functions

5.1.1 Correlation Functions of SinBOC(5,2) Implementing Al-

gorithm 1

Performance of algorithms are concentrated mainly on SinBOC(5,2) modulation scheme

as Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) plans to provide Precision

Service using this scheme of modulation [16].

The correlation function of SinBOC(5,2) in an ideal channel is presented in Fig.

5.1, the dotted lines show the correlation between received BOC signal and the local

reference BOC signal, and the solid line shows the correlation between received signal

and the synchronization signal s(t).

34

Figure 5.1: Correlation function using standard algorithm and Algorithm 1

Using the eq. (4.3) synchronization signal s(t) can be derived and it is shown in

Fig. 5.2

Figure 5.2: Synchronization signal s(t) for a chip duration Tc for SinBOC(5,2)

The correlation function in rician channel is presented in Fig. 5.3, the dotted lines

show the correlation between received BOC signal and the local reference BOC signal.

The solid line shows the correlation between received signal and the synchronization

signal s(t).

From Fig. 5.3, we can observe that in rician channel, the main peak we are ob-

taining is exactly not going to be zero which was desired. Instead we are getting very

small non-zero value within main peak window for SinBOC(5,2). Thus, the designed

discriminator for this algorithm should use a threshold to track the main peak within

the chip duration.

35

Figure 5.3: Correlation function using synchronization signal and Received BOC signal.

5.1.2 Correlation Functions of SinBOC(5,2) Implementing Al-

gorithm 2

The correlation function of SinBOC(5,2) in ideal channel is presented in Fig. 5.4, the

dotted lines show the correlation between received BOC signal and the local reference

BOC signal.The solid line shows the correlation between received signal and the local

PN sequence code.

Figure 5.4: Correlation function using standard algorithm and Algorithm 2

As expected, this correlation function is odd respect to the synchronization point.

Now extending this algorithm for more practical channels as land-mobile satellite (LMS)

channels as proposed in Section 4.2.3, though the crosscorrelation function of the PN

code-SinBOC(5,2) is not exactly odd respect to the synchronization point, the signal is

still trackable by applying a threshold and an extra condition on early and late samples,

that is shown in next section. Fig. 5.5 shows the performance of the proposed method

36

with the help of properties in Algorithm 2. Here, rician channel is implemented with

one strong signal or Line of Sight (LOS) signal and two diﬀerent delayed rayleigh fading

paths.

Figure 5.5: Correlation function in rician channel extending algorithm 2.

The result in Fig. 5.5 shows that the cross correlation functions in an ideal channel

and rician channel are very close, though the later is not perfectly odd about synchro-

nization point, we can track signal as explained in Section 4.2.3.

5.2 Discriminator Structures based on Algorithms

1 and 2.

The discriminators based on the algorithm 1 is shown in Fig 5.6, in this discriminator

the phase-advanced or early s(t) and phase-delayed(advanced or delayed in comparison

of reference BOC signal) or late s(t) is to be multiplied with received signal (both

inphase and quadrature) and then integrated and dumped. If one of these two outputs

(E

s

and L

s

in Fig 5.6) is non-zero then they are not within main peak position. So,

phase of s(t) must be updated. When both these outputs will be zero, decision can be

taken that main peak window is detected. Now the early-late discrimination can be

applied easily as it is the detection within the main peak window.

In implementing discriminator in practical channels with lower order modulation, we

apply a very small threshold in decision making. If E

s

and L

s

less than the threshold.

we take that we are inside the main peak for tracking.

37

Figure 5.6: Discriminator structure based on Algorithm 1

Coming to the case of discriminator based on PN sequence which is shown in Fig

5.7, in this discriminator the phase-advanced or early locally generated PN sequence

and phase-delayed(advanced or delayed in comparison of reference BOC signal) or late

PN sequence is to be multiplied with received signal (both inphase and quadrature)

and then integrated and dumped. If sum of these two outputs (E

s

and L

s

in Fig 5.6)

is non-zero then they are not synchronized. So, phase of PN sequence will be updated

based on the sign of summation of E

s

and L

s

. When the summation of E

s

and L

s

is

zero, decision can be taken that the received signal is synchronized. Now the early-late

discrimination can be applied easily as there is only one zero crossing in the chip of

duration of ±T

c

.

5.2.1 Proposed Discriminator Structure in Rician Channel.

The discriminator shown in Fig 5.7 is no longer suitable in Rician channel considering

that the Crosscorrelation function between received and local PN sequence is no longer

odd with respect to the synchronization point. The proposed discriminator is given in

the Fig 5.8 the change being introduced is in the decision making here we introduce

threshold and an extra condition of early-late sample product being negative. The idea

behind this is though crosscorrelation is no longer odd but the function still consists

38

Figure 5.7: Discriminator structure based on Algorithm 2

of only one zero crossing and it is very near to the synchronization point using this as

base with early-late sample summation between ±threshold and product negative we

are in the main peak and later standard early late gate is implemented.

5.3 Computational Complexity of receiver using both

the Algorithms

Computational complexity of receiver in algorithm 1 can be calculated as, ﬁrstly we

need to locally generate synchronization signal s(t) which involves inversion of a matrix

which is of O(n

3

) but generation of synchronization signal is performed only once and

later it is saved back in the discriminator also the crosscorrelation between received

signal and s(t) is also O(n

3

) as we perform n × n multiplications and 2n additions.

Therefore, it can be stated that Computational complexity for Algorithm 1 is O(n

3

).

Coming to the Algorithm 2 there is only implementation of crosscorrelation between

39

Figure 5.8: Discriminator structure for rician channel.

received BOC signal and the PN sequence which O(n

3

), there the computational com-

plexity becoming O(n

3

).

Other parameters that are important in this type of discrimination receiver are:

• spacing of phase between early and late signal i.e. E-L spacing (∆),

• amount of phase to be updated in each iteration.

If these two are taken too large, the early-samples can skip the main peak. On

the other hand if they are taken too small, the early-late samples will take too much

time(i.e. more phase iterations) to reach the main peak and that will slow down the

process. The number of phase iterations clearly gives a time complexity.

These parameters for all the discriminators discussed in Section 5.2 is shown in

Table 5.1

40

Table 5.1: Some design parameters for the discriminators discussed above.

Parameters Algorithm 1 Algorithm 2 Proposed Discriminator

for Rician channel.

E-L spacing (∆) (

1

2N

BOC

1

−ε) chip (

1

N

BOC

1

−ε) chip (

1

N

BOC

1

−ε) chip

Amount of phase to be (

1

2N

BOC

1

−ε) chip (

1

N

BOC

1

−ε) chip (

1

N

BOC

1

−ε) chip

updated in each iteration

Threshold

1

4N

BOC

1

for SinBOC(5,2)

Time complexity or num- ≈ 2N

BOC

1

≈ N

BOC

1

≈ N

BOC

1

ber of phase iterations re-

quired in worst case

The threshold given in the Table 5.1 for SinBOC(5,2) is determined after simulating

algorithm for multiple times.

41

Chapter 6

Conclusion

6.1 Summary of the Thesis

In this thesis we have investigated for enhanced feedback tracking algorithms which

can be used for tracking of SinBOC(5,2) which is soon going to be implemented in

precision service provided by Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS).

And also proposed a discriminator for practical multipath channels. The proposed

discriminator uses additional conditions to the ones that are proposed for the ideal

channels. The complexity issues and other parameters for the discriminators depending

on two algorithms are given.

6.2 Possible Future Extensions

This thesis deals with the challenges and analysis of tracking complexities, but there

are also challenges imposed in acquisition signal in navigation systems. It is desired

to have least complex acquisition phase in a navigational system. Future work should

be concentrated on complex reducing techniques of acquisition GNSS and modernized

GPS signals.

42

Bibliography

[1] E. D. Kaplan. Understanding GPS - Principles and applications. Artech House

Publishers, Boston, 1996.

[2] B. W. Parkinson and J. J. Spilker. Global Positioning System: Theory and Appli-

cations. vol. 1: Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics. American Institute of

Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1996.

[3] A. Leick. GPS satellite surveying. 2nd edition, Wiley, 1995.

[4] U. S. Department of Defense. Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Ser-

vice Performance Standard. Oct. 2001.

[5] P. Enge. GPS modernization capabilities of the new civil signals. In Proceedings of

the Australian International Aerospace Congress, Brisbane, Australia, Aug. 2003.

[6] P. Daly Navstar GPS and GLONASS: Global Satellite Navigation Systems. In

IEEE Electronics and Communication Engineering Journal, vol. 5, pp. 349357,

May 1993.

[7] Communication from the Commission of 10 February 1999. Galileo - Involving

Europe in a new generation of satellite navigation services. COM(1999)54 ﬁnal.

[8] R. Prasad and M. Ruggieri. Applied satellite navigation using GPS, Galileo and

augmentation systems. Artech House, 2005.

[9] G. W. Hein, J. Godet, J. L. Issler, J. C. Martin and P. Erhard. Status of Galileo

frequency and signal design. In Proceedings of ION GPS, Portland, OR, US, 2002.

43

[10] J. W. Betz. The oﬀset carrier modulation for gps modernization. In Proceedings

of Institute of Navigation National Technical Meeting (IONNTM), pp. 639648,

Cambridge, Massachusetts, US, 1999.

[11] J. W. Betz. Binary oﬀset carrier modulations for radio navigation. In Journal of

the Institute of Navigation, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 227246, 2002.

[12] J. A. Avila-Rodriguez, S. Wallner, G. W. Hein, E. Rebeyrol and O. Julien. CBOC -

An implementation of MBOC. In Proceedings of First CNES Workshop on Galileo

Signals and Signal Processing, Toulouse, France, Oct. 2006.

[13] G. W. Hein, M. Irsigler, J. A. Rodriguez and T. Pany. Performance of Galileo L1

signal candidates. In Proceedings of The European Navigation Conference (ENC-

GNSS), May 2004.

[14] P. Fine and W. Wilson. Tracking algorithm for GPS oﬀset carrier signals. In Pro-

ceedings of the Institute of Navigation National Technical Meeting ION NTM, pp.

2527, San Diego, CA, US, Jan. 1999.

[15] V. S. Lin, P. A. Dafesh, A. Wu and C. R. Cahn. Study of the impact of the false

lock points on subcarrier modulated ranging signals and recommended mitigation

approaches. In Proceedings of the 59th ION Anual Meeting and CIGTF Guidance

Test Symposium, pp. 156165, Albuquerque, NM, US, Jun. 2005.

[16] Inside GNSS Magazine. Policies, Programs, Engineering and Advance

Applications of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Available via

http://www.insidegnss.com.

[17] Galileo Joint Undertaking (GJU) - The European programme for global nav-

igation services. Galileo standardization document for 3GPSS. Available via

http://www.galileoju.com.

[18] J. W. Betz. Design and performance of code tracking for the GPS M code signal.

In MITRE Technical Papers, Sep. 2000.

44

[19] J.W. Betz and D. B. Goldstein. Candidate design for an additional civil signal

in GPS spectral bands. In Proceedings of the US Institute of Navigation NTM

Conference, pp. 622631, San Diego, CA, US, Jan. 2002.

[20] E. S. Lohan, A. Lakhzouri and M. Renfors. Complex double-binary-oﬀsetcarrier

modulation for a unitary characterisation of Galileo and GPS signals. In IEEE

Proceedings - Radar, Sonar and Navigation, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 403408, Oct. 2006.

[21] J. K. Holmes, S. H. Raghvan and S. Lazar Acquisition and tracking performance of

NRZ and square wave modulated symbols for use in GPS. In Proceedings of ION

GPS Meeting. pp. 611625, 1998

[22] E. S. Lohan, A. Lakhzouri and M. Renfors. Binary oﬀset carrier modulation tech-

niques with applications in satellite navigation systems. In Wiley Journal of Wire-

less Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 7, pp. 767779, Jul. 2006.

[23] E. Rebeyrol, C. Macabiau, L. Lestarquit, L. Ries and J. L. Issler. BOC power

spectrum densities. In CDROM Proceedings of ION National Technical Meeting,

San Diego, CA, US, Jan. 2005.

[24] K. Borre, D. M. Akos, N. Bertelsen, P. Rinder and S. H. Jensen. A software-deﬁned

GPS and Galileo receiver - A single-frequency approach. Birkhuser, Boston, 2007.

[25] S. Hazra and A. Mitra, An Improved Correlation-Based Synchronization Scheme

for BOC Signals in GNSS Receivers, in Proc. NCEPEC, PCMT, Kolkata, India,

Feb. 12-13, 2010, pp. 105-109.

[26] M. Musso, A. F. Cattoni and C. S. Regazzoni, A New Fine Tracking Algorithm

for Binary Oﬀset Carrier Modulated Signals, ION-GNSS 2006.

[27] J.G. Proakis, Digital Communications, McGraw Hill International Editions, 2nd

Edition, 1989. pp. 619-621.

45

- Tender Documents Machinery & Equipment MPTC
- geoinformatics 2011 vol05
- inline_antispoofing
- topcon_gr-3_om_revb.pdf
- 1 History and Future of Construction Equipment..Pptx
- CG-5 New Brochure
- RTCM
- Intro_GG
- globalpositioningsystem-130411043725-phpapp01
- Leica ICON Gps60
- 00917045
- commgpsppt-140421094217-phpapp02
- research and links and work
- Intro_GG
- vrngpsseminorslides-140411092828-phpapp01.pptx
- Vehicle Vetting System
- 13. MOBILE COMPUTING
- End Term Surveying 2
- Optech ALTM 3100 specs04
- GPS-May00_22-31
- SSR6-Tr Timing GPS
- guardian usage
- SkyWave DMR-800D Datasheet
- Seminar on GPS
- Spectracom SecureSync
- Micom P127
- Seminar on GPS
- Never Get Lost Again
- MK_III
- Paper 1

Read Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading