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What You Should Learn
• Use the changeofbase formula to rewrite and evaluate logarithmic expressions.
• Use properties of logarithms to evaluate or rewrite logarithmic expressions.
• Use properties of logarithms to expand or condense logarithmic expressions.
• Use logarithmic functions to model and solve reallife problems.
What You Should Learn
• Solve simple exponential and logarithmic equations.
• Solve more complicated exponential equations.
• Solve more complicated logarithmic equations.
• Use exponential and logarithmic equations to model and solve reallife problems.
Example 1 – Changing Bases Using Common Logarithms
a.
b.
Use a calculator.
Simplify.
Example 3 – Using Properties of Logarithms
Write each logarithm in terms of ln 2 and ln 3.
a. ln 6
b. ln
Solution:
a. ln 6 = ln (2 3) = ln 2 + ln 3
b. ln
= ln 2 – ln 27 = ln 2 – ln 3 ^{3} = ln 2 – 3 ln 3
Rewrite 6 as 2 3. Product Property
Quotient Property Rewrite 27 as 3 ^{3} . Power Property
Rewriting Logarithmic Expressions
Example 5 – Expanding Logarithmic Expressions
Expand each logarithmic expression.
a.

log _{4} 5x ^{3} y

b.


Solution:

a.

log _{4} 5x ^{3} y = log _{4} 5 + log _{4} x ^{3} + log _{4} y

= log _{4} 5 + 3 log _{4} x + log _{4} y
Product Property Power Property
Example 5 – Solution
b.
cont’d
Rewrite using rational exponent.
Quotient Property
Power Property
Introduction
OnetoOne Properties
a ^{x} = a ^{y} if and only if x = y. log _{a} x = log _{a} y if and only if x = y.
Inverse Properties
_{a} log _{a} x _{=} _{x}
log _{a} a ^{x} = x
Example 1 – Solving Simple Equations
Original
Equation

a. 2 ^{x} = 32

b. ln x – ln 3 = 0

c. = 9

d. e ^{x} = 7

e. ln x = –3

f. log x = –1

g. log _{3} x = 4
Rewritten
Equation
Solution
Property
2 ^{x} = 2 ^{5}

x = 5

OnetoOne

ln x = ln 3

x = 3

OnetoOne

3 ^{–} ^{x} = 3 ^{2}

x = –2

OnetoOne

ln e ^{x} = ln 7

x = ln 7

Inverse

e ^{l}^{n} ^{x} = e ^{–} ^{3}

x = e ^{–}^{3}

Inverse

10 ^{l}^{o}^{g} ^{x} = 10 ^{–}^{1}

x = 10 ^{–}^{1} =


Inverse

3 ^{l}^{o}^{g} 3 ^{x} = 3 ^{4}

x = 81

Inverse

Solving Exponential Equations
Example 2 – Solving Exponential Equations
Solve each equation and approximate the result to three
decimal places, if necessary.
_{a}_{.} _{e} – x ^{2} _{=} _{e} – 3x – 4
b. 3(2 ^{x} ) = 42
Example 2(a) – Solution
_{e} –x ^{2} _{=}
_{e} – 3x – 4
–x ^{2} = –3x – 4
Write original equation.
OnetoOne Property
Write in general form.
(x + 1)(x – 4) = 0
Factor.
(x + 1) = 0

= –1
(x – 4) = 0

= 4
The solutions are x = –1 and x = 4. Check these in the
original equation.
Example 2(b) – Solution
cont’d
3(2 ^{x} ) = 42
2 ^{x} = 14
log _{2} 2 ^{x} = log _{2} 14
Write original equation.
Divide each side by 3.
Take log (base 2) of each side.
Inverse Property
Changeofbase formula
The solution is x = log _{2} 14 3.807. Check this in the
original equation.
Solving Logarithmic Equations
Solving Logarithmic Equations
To solve a logarithmic equation, you can write it in
exponential form.
ln x = 3
_{e} ln x _{=} _{e} 3
x = e ^{3}
Logarithmic form
Exponentiate each side. Exponential form
This procedure is called exponentiating each side of an
equation.
Example 6 – Solving Logarithmic Equations
a. ln x = 2
_{e} ln x _{=} _{e} 2
x = e ^{2}
b. log _{3} (5x – 1) = log _{3} (x + 7)
5x – 1 = x + 7
Original equation
Exponentiate each side.
Inverse Property
Original equation
OnetoOne Property
4x = 8

Add –x and 1 to each side.

x = 2

Divide each side by 4.

Example 6 – Solving Logarithmic Equations
cont’d
c. log _{6} (3x + 14) – log _{6} 5 = log _{6} 2x
3x + 14 = 10x
–7x = –14
x = 2
Original equation
Quotient Property of Logarithms
OnetoOne Property
Cross multiply.
Isolate x.
Divide each side by –7.