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railway paper by Boocock

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ON CURVED TRACK

By D. Boocock*

A simplified linear theory of steady-state curve traversing is developed for bogie and two-

axled vehicles. The approach is based on providing guidance by creep forces in conjunc-

tion with wheel conicity, so that flange contact is normally avoided. It is shown that this

approach is realistic for a wide range of vehicle and track parameters. However, steering

by creep forces is limited by the onset of wheel slip. Representative experimental results

for a two-axled vehicle are presented.

of

A SIGNIFICANT PROPORTION the total length of track on a Flange contact and its associated forces are avoided, since

railway system is composed of curved track. It is therefore steady-state force equilibrium can be attained by balancing

important that the dynamical behaviour of vehicles tra- the yaw restraining couples and unbalanced centrifugal

versing curves be understood, both for assessing the per- forces by longitudinal and lateral creep forces.

formance of existing vehicles and for defining the design Curve traversing under the control of creep forces has

requirements of future vehicles. the attractive advantages of minimizing wear of treads,

A problem which has received the attention of many flanges, and rails; also, the risk of derailment due to flange

authors is that of the steady motion through curves of climbing is diminished. The scope of creep force guidance,

constant curvature. The customary analytical approach- however, is limited by the coefficient of friction between

see, for instance, references (I)+ (2) (3)-is based on the wheel and rail. Excessive suspension stiffnesses or high

view that the outer flange of the leading wheelset bears centrifugal forces demand resultant creep forces greater

against the side of the outer rail, so that the vehicle is than the limiting friction force. I n consequence, the wheels

guided round curves by lateral forces acting on the flange. slip, correct alignment of axles is lost, and the mode of

Theories founded on flange guidance usually assume that guidance degenerates, requiring flange forces to restore

the wheels act as though cylindrical and that axles are equilibrium.

rigidly constrained parallel to each other. These assump- I n the following, a linear analysis is developed to

tions, particularly the second, are frequently justified describe the approximate behaviour of a bogie vehicle on

when applied to many existing vehicles, and the observed curved track; the two-axled vehicle is treated as a reduc-

behaviour on curves often agrees well with the idea of tion of the general case. The analysis is simplified by dis-

guidance by the leading flange. However, an alternative regarding small effects such as wheelset roll, gravitational

approach to curve traversing may be developed; this is stiffness, and spin creepage. The bounds of the linear

based on the concept of avoiding flange contact. theory are defined by the onset of wheel slip. Representa-

The possibility of guidance without flange contact tive experimental results for a two-axled vehicle are

follows from a recognition of the strong guiding forces presented, tests being performed both on a laboratory

acting in the contact area between wheel tread and rail. roller-rig and on the track.

These forces, termed creep forces, are generated as a

result of micro-slip in conjunction with wheel conicity. Notation

It has been shown theoretically in (4) and experimentally a Semi-wheelbase.

in ( 5 ) that, in the absence of excessive constraints, creep ab Semi-distance between bogie centres.

forces cause the wheelsets to take up approximately radial a'h fa,.

e Eccentricity of body mass centre.

The M S . of this paper was received at the Institution on 12th

December 1968 and accepted for publication on.3rdJune 1969. 22 fllYf22 Longitudinal and lateral creep coeffiaents.

* Head of Suspension Section, Advanced Projects Group, British fx (1-%q2V11.

Railways Board, The Railway Technical Centre, London Road,

Derby. fv fm.

t References are given in Appendix 2. g Gravitational acceleration.

J O U R N A L MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Vol I 1 No 6 196'4

STEADY-STATE MOTION OF RAILWAY VEHICLES ON CURVED TRACK 557

Parameters defined in equations (21). bogies each comprise two rigid-axled wheelsets each of

Primary lateral stiffness. mass mywhich are attached to a rigid bogie-frame of mass

Secondary lateral stiffness. mb by primary suspensions having lateral stiffnesses k, and

Primary yaw stiffness. torsional stiffnesses k, in yaw. Secondary lateral and yaw

Secondary yaw stiffness. suspensions having stiffnesses k,,b and &, respectively,

Semi-track of wheelset. connect the bogie-frames to a rigid body of mass m,. Each

Mass of wheelset. suspension is assumed to act in a lateral plane parallel to

Mass of bogie-frame. that of the track. The vehicle moves at a constant speed V

Mass of vehicle body. along the track, which has a constant centre-line radius R,

(1 &e)m,. and uniform angle of cant, or superelevation, 80.

Proportional change in wheel load. The configuration of the vehicle in the lateral plane may

Wheel rolling-radius. be described without reference to roll and vertical dis-

Radius of curvature of track. placements by choosing an appropriate set of generalized

Mean radius of wheel. co-ordinates. These are defined for the leading bogie as

Forces in wheel-rail contact area. follows:

Vehicle speed. ~ * ~ , yLateral

* ~ displacements of leading and trailing

Axle load. wheelsets from pure rolling line,

Lateral displacement from track centre-line. & yaw displacements of leading and trailing wheel-

Lateral displacement of pure rolling line. 'sets from radial lines,

Relative lateral displacement. Y*b mean lateral displacement of bogie-frame from

Longitudinal and lateral creepages. line joining wheelset centres,

Cant angle of track. 4*b yaw displacement of bogie-frame fiom line

Angle of cant deficiency. joining wheelset centres,

Effective conicity. Y*C lateral displacement of body from bogie-frame

Coefficient of friction. centre.

Increment in wheelset angular speed.

Yaw displacement relative to track. A similar set of co-ordinates applies for the trailing bogie.

Misalignment angle of yaw suspension. It will be noted that wheelset displacements are specified

Relative yaw displacement. with respect to the pure rolling line. This line is defined as

the locus at rail level of the centre of a wheelset, when its

two rolling-circles form cross-sections of a cone whose

Leading, trailing wheelset. apex lies at the centre of curvature of the track. The

Bogie-frame or body of two-axled vehicle. difference in rolling-radii is then given approximately by

Body of bogie vehicle. rr-rl = -22roZo/Ro . . (1)

Left-hand side. where r, and r are the rolling-radii of the right- and left-

Right-hand side. hand wheels, ro is the nominal mean radius, and Zo the

semi-track of the wheelset. Ify is the lateral displacement

GOVERNING EQUATIONS of a wheelset from the track centre-line, an effective

Bogie vehicle configuration conicity may be defined, both for coned and hollow-

The system shown in Fig. 1 represents the leading bogie profiled wheels, as

of a bogie vehicle on curved track. The leading and trailing X = +(rr-rl)/y . . . ' (2)

Pure //

rolling k

line e

c

ceiire -line

JOURNAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Vol I 1 No 6 1969

558 D. BOOCOCK

Hence, the lateral displacement of the pure rolling line The creepages y1 and y 2 are defined by

from the track centre-line may be written as Y1 = (V.x-V.X)/VY Y 2 = (V3,- V J ! V (9)

y o = -rolo/ARo . . . . (3) where V,, V, are the velocity components of the con-

tact area along the rail, and V,, V , are the components

Forces acting on vehicle round the wheel. The creep coefficients fil and fiz are

The major lateral forces and couples acting on the various functions of the elastic properties of the wheel and rail

mass elements of the vehicle are and of the area of contact. Coefficient values have been

(a) centrifugal forces,

calculated by Kalker and tabulated by de Pater (6).

(b) gravitional forces due to track cant, The velocity components for the right- and left-hand

(c) suspension forces, wheels of a wheelset are approximately

v, = V ( I T Z ~ / R ~ )

( d ) longitudinal and lateral creep forces.

It has been deduced in (4) that forces due to gravitational

stiffness, spin creepage, wheelset roll, and gyroscopic

V = 0

V x= V(lfhy/ro)+Qro

V , = V*

. . . (10)

1

effects are normally small and may be neglected. where is the deviation of the wheelset rotational speed

The extent to which gravitational cant forces fail to from V/ro.If q is the proportional change in wheel load

counterbalance centrifugal forces may be expressed in due to cant deficiency, different creep coefficients apply at

terms of an angle of cant deficiency. Assuming the cant the two wheels since the coefficients vary as (wheel

angle to be small, cant deficiency is defined by Therefore, fll and f i z , when calculated for equal wheel

8, = (V2/gRo)-O0 . . , (4)

loads, must each be corrected by factors approximated by

Hence, the unbalanced centrifugal force acting on a wheel- (1T59).

For a constant wheelset rotational speed, the net couple

set, for example, becomes

applied by the longitudinal creep forces must be zero, i.e.

. . . . (5)

Y = -mgt),

The primary suspension exerts the following lateral

+

Txrr, T,lrl = 0 . . . (11)

Substitution from equations (8), (9) and ( l o ) ,whilst noting

force and yaw couple on the leading wheelset:

that y = y 0 + y * , where y o is given by equation (3), leads

F, = k,(y*b+U#*b) . . . . . . to the following expression for the increment in rotational

speed :

to the leading bogie-frame by the secondary suspension is The increment is seen to vary directly with the differential

in wheel loads.

F,b = k,by*, . . . . (74

It now follows that the creepages a t the right- and left-

If it is assumed that the wheelset and suspension displace- hand wheels may be written as

ments are very small compared with the distance between

bogie centres, so that the vehicle body lies approximately

tangential to the track at its mid-length, the expression

for the secondary yaw suspension couple becomes

Ylr

Y11

= -(1+5q)/\y*/ro

= (1-+7)Ay*/ro YZI =

y2 -*-7

(13)

The corresponding longitudinal and lateral creep forces

are

T x , = -T,I = (1-6q2)f11~Y*/ro

Ta r =, ( I - - ; 4 ) 3 f 2 2 4 TVI = (1+Sdf224 } (14)

forces and couples developed by the other primary and It is evident that a difference in wheel loads causes an in-

secondary suspensions are similar in form to equations crease in longitudinal creepage at the lighter-loaded

(6) and (7). wheel and a decrease at the heavier-loaded wheel, until

Creep forces are associated with small relative velocities the associated creep forces are equal in magnitude but of

between wheel tread and rail. These velocities can be opposite sign. These forces are normally only slightly

accommodated without slip, owing to elastic deformations lower than those for equal wheel loads. In contrast,

in the contact zone, which permit conditions intermediate lateral creep forces of different magnitudes are generated

between pure adhesion and pure slip. Since creep forces at the two wheels.

can be large, their magnitudes saturating at the limiting The total lateral force and yaw couple exerted on a

friction force, they are able to exert a strong guiding in- wheelset by creep forces may be written as

fluence during curve traversing.

Assuming the contact angle between wheel and rail to be T,,+Tu1 = 2fy# .. . . (15a)

small, the creep force components in the longitudinal and (T.xl- TxrYO = -2fx&Y*/ro . (1%)

lateral directions may be written as where

T, = -f 11YlY T, = -f 22Yz . . (8 ) f x = (1-$q2)f11 and f, = f 2 2

JOURNAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE VoI I I No 6 1969

STEADY-STATE MOTION OF RAILWAY VEHICLES ON CURVED TRACK 559

Equations of motion

Fourteen equations are required to describe the force

equilibrium of the vehicle. However, because of the

simplifying assumptions associated with equation (7b), (19)

the equations for the leading and trailing bogies and the

vehicle body may be decoupled. By defining the following

parameter alternatives :

**b =

1

[k*(

(k@+jk&b)rO

2fxAloa ) fi- a'b

0 wBdl

Ro + k * b R + k * -

2fY

1

mIc = (1 +e)m,, alb = ab for leading bogie; . . . (20)

m', = (1-e)m,, a',, = -ab for trailing bogie; where

where eab is the longitudinal eccentricity of the body mass (k&+$k@b)

centre from the geometric centre, the motion can be

K O =1+

kya2

described in terms of only seven equations, which are

applicable to both leading and trailing bogies. ( k +!fk#b)k&rO

~

Ki = Kn+ (21)

The relative lateral displacements of the vehicle body 4f x A l o f v a 2

and bogie-frames are given by the simple expressions k@bk,rO

K z = 1+

Y*c = -m'cg8d/2kyb

Y*b = -(mbfqm'c)god/2kg 1

. . (16)

The remaining displacements are yielded by the following

8f x A l o f g a 2

Reduced forms of the above solutions have been derived

by the author (4) (5) and by Newland (8) and applied to

five coupled equations : two-axled vehicles and bogies unrestrained in yaw.

2f!d#l+kya**b

Equations ( 1 8 ) , (19) and (20) are valid only if wheel slip

= 7 and flange contact are avoided. I n general, wheel slip

occurs before flange contact, provided the effective

conicity is not too low (C0.05).Flange contact is not, in

fact, an accurate term when applied to hollow-profiled

wheels, since the contact point follows a continuous path

from tread to flange, causing large increases in effective

conicity and gravitational stiffness. Hence, the bounds of

k* k* the linear theory will be taken to be the slip condition. This

--

a Y*l + k d l f a y *ZCk**Z

is defined as an equality between the vector sum of the

creep forces and the limiting friction force, i.e.

(Tx2+Ty2)1'2 = pTz . . (22a)

. . . (17) where p is the coefficient of friction between wheel and

where W is the axle load, i.e. rail, and T , is the wheel load. Inserting equations (14), the

w = [m+t(mb+$m'c)lg slip equation becomes

It is seen that a vehicle is subjected essentially to two in-

puts during curve traversing, namely, track curvature and

+ r3~~"(f,*~"1''"

K f X A Y */ro)z (1 w = 3P(1Ff4) (22b)

It is apparent that slid develops at the lighter-loaded wheel.

cant deficiency. Since the creep force-creepage characteristic is non-linear,

Equations (17) have been derived in (7), and their the creep coefficients defined by equations (8) do, in fact,

solutions compared with those for the fourteen coupled vary with creepage. At the slip condition the creep co-

equations obtained using rigorous expressions for the efficients are approximately one third of the values at zero

secondary yaw couples, equation (7b). It is shown that creepage, as indicated by Hobbs (9).

the errors introduced by decoupling the equations for the

leading and trailing bogies are not significant from a

practical viewpoint. CHARACTERISTICS OF STEADY-STATE

MOTION

Solution of equations of motion The major features of curve traversing will be explored

Solutions for the lateral and yaw displacements of the initially by considering vehicles with simple suspension

wheelsets and yaw of the bogie-frame are derived, after arrangements. Then an overall picture of how vehicles be-

lengthy manipulation, from equations (17). They are have through curves will be derived by studying the

effects of varying the primary and secondary suspension

parameters.

The solutions for a bogie without secondary yaw restraint,

and also for a two-axled vehicle, are obtained by setting

kr,,h=O in equations (18)-(21). If it is assumed that the

JOURNAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Vol I1 No 6 1969

560 D. BOOCOCK

primary yaw stiffness is also zero, the solutions degenerate somewhat lower than the limiting friction angle can be

to attained without slip.

y*l = y * 2 = = #2 = **b = 0

The simple but important result defined by equation (26)

indicates three features which promote good curving per-

in the absence of cant deficiency. It is clear, therefore, that formance, namely, low yaw stiffness, short wheelbase, and

independent of track curvature, unrestrained wheelsets high axle load. It is clear from equation (25) that the change

adopt radial positions in the track and roll along the pure in wheel loads with cant deficiency effectively reduces the

rolling line. coefficient of friction. This effect should preferably be

In the presence of cant deficiency, the solutions become small, i.e. the vehicle mass centre should be low.

Y * ~= y*2 = $*b = 0 and = = WOd/2fg

Rigid bogie

. . . (23)

i.e. the wheelsets yaw inwards through a small angle Equations (18)-(21) yield the following solutions for bogies

sufficient to generate lateral creep forces equal and with rigid primary suspensions but flexible secondary yaw

opposite to the unbalanced centrifugal forces, but they are suspensions :

not displaced laterally from the pure rolling line.

If it is now assumed that the wheelsets are restrained in

yaw, but that the lateral suspension stiffness is negligibly . . . (27a)

small, the following solutions are obtained: a WH,

#I,*- = F-+- . .

k r a Ro 2f,

y * l = -Y * 2 -- -2 .- . (24a)

2f &o Ro $*o = 0 . . . . (27~)

It is apparent that the rigid constraints acting within a

bogie free of secondary yaw restraint cause lateral creep

forces of equal magnitude but of opposite sign to act at

k,ro 1 WQ,

-+-

**= 2f,l\l,Ro 2f,

. . (24~) the leading and trailing wheelsets. Both wheelsets, there-

fore, move radially outwards from the pure rolling line by

These equations indicate that the leading wheelset dis- a distance approximated by ( ~ / l , ) (assuming

~y~ f x z fy),

places radially outwards and the trailing wheelset inwards, so that the longitudinal creep forces necessary to sustain

until sufficient longitudinal creep forces are generated to the bogie in yaw equilibrium and overall radial alignment

strain the yaw suspension springs through angles of can be generated. These wheelset displacements are in-

f a / R , and so align the wheelsets almost radially. Again dependent of the absolute values of the creep coefficients;

the deviations from radial alignment are just those neces- they thus have the appearance of kinematic displace-

sary for the unbalanced centrifugal forces to be reacted by ments. However, in contrast with an unrestrained wheel-

lateral creep forces. The bogie-frame takes up a position set, which displaces by y o from the track centre-line to

tangential to the track centre-line, except for a small in- maintain zero creepage, an unrestrained rigid bogie dis-

ward yaw angle in sympathy with that of the wheelsets. +

places by approximately [ 1 (a/lo)2]yo in order to generate

Equations (24) are only valid when wheel slip is avoided. creepage.

Applying equation (22) it is found that the limiting con- Equations (27) show that cant deficiency causes a rigid

dition for slip takes the special form bogie to yaw inwards and produce counterbalancing

lateral creep forces. Although this motion necessitates

inward and outward lateral displacements of a$ at the

leading and trailing wheelsets respectively, equilibrium is

Since this equation applies both to the leading and to the not upset, for the yaw couples generated by longitudinal

trailing wheelsets, they both slip simultaneously. It is creep forces counteract each other. It is evident from

apparent that at zero cant deficiency, slip develops when equation (27a) that secondary yaw stiffness causes both

the yaw couples generated by the limiting friction forces wheelsets of the leading bogie to move radially outwards

are just insufficient to strain the yaw suspensions through and both wheelsets of the trailing bogie to move inwards.

angles of fa/Ro, i.e. when radial alignment cannot be The resulting longitudinal creep forces therefore strain the

sustained. Therefore, slip occurs on all curves of radius secondary yaw suspensions through angles of f a h / R oto

align the bogies radially. A small additional strain is then

required to enable cant deficiency to be reacted. The in-

fluence of the secondary yaw suspension on rigid bogies

If the cant deficiency is not zero, a proportion of the is clearly analogous to the influence of the primary yaw

available friction force is required to react unbalanced suspension on the wheelsets of a laterally flexible bogie-

centrifugal forces. Consequently, the yaw suspension see equations (24).

cannot be strained through such large angles, with the By substituting equations (27) into equation (22) the

result that the wheelsets slip on curves of lower curvature. limiting condition for slip is obtained. The resulting ex-

On very shallow curves, cant deficiencies up to values pression is complex, but if it is assumed that klYb= 6d = 0,

JOURNAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Vol I 1 No 6 1969

STEADY-STATE MOTION OF RAILWAY VEHICLES ON CURVED TRACK 561

a simple form is given. This indicates that the leading and set may be displaced inwards or outwards, depending on

trailing wheelsets slip when the extent of the interaction between the lateral and yaw

suspensions. If the lateral stiffness alone is increased, both

wheelsets move towards the position adopted by a rigid

bogie. It is interesting to note that when k, = 2fya, the

Since creep coefficients vary as (axle l ~ a d ) ~it' ~follows

, lateral displacement of the leading wheelset always equals

that the curving performance of a rigid bogie at zero cant that of a rigid bogie.

deficiency depends almost entirely on its wheelbase. The longitudinal creep forces resulting from lateral

displacements tend to align the wheelsets radially by

Vehicle with bogies unrestrained in yaw straining the yaw suspensions. The angles of yaw sus-

Some of the simplified suspension arrangements con- pension strain at the leading and trailing wheelsets are

sidered above are unrealistic from the standpoint of either

a

structural feasibility or dynamic stability. Practical **I = R, +*1 -(Y*I-Y*2)/2a-**b

vehicles, therefore, have suspensions which lie somewhere

between the extremes of very soft and almost rigid sus- a

pensions. T o determine how the choice of suspension **2 = -R, +A-(Y *I -Y*2)/2u-+*b

parameters controls a vehicle's curving performance, the It follows, using equations (6b) and (15b), that yaw

effects of varying these parameters will be studied using

equilibrium of a wheelset is given when

the example bogie vehicle configuration specified in

Appendix 1. Initially the behaviour of bogies without

secondary yaw restraints will be examined, this being

qualitatively descriptive of two-axled vehicles also.

Fig. 2 shows how the leading and trailing wheelsets of It may be deduced from Fig. 2 that the highest yaw

a bogie displace laterally in response to track curvature. It

strains are developed at the leading wheelset when the

is seen that as the lateral and yaw stiffnesses are both in- lateral stiffness is high and the yaw stiffness low. Equation

creased, the character of the responses gradually changes (19) indicates that the wheelsets depart more and more

from the simple 'anti-phase' response, defined by equation from radial alignment as both the yaw and lateral stiff-

(24a) when k, = 0, to the simple 'in-phase' response, de-

nesses are increased. The yaw strains therefore decrease

and tend to zero. The corresponding'maximum yaw mis-

fined by equation (27a), when k, = k, = w. At inter-

mediate suspension stiffnesses, the leading wheelset is alignments are clearly f a / R o , when the bogie is rigid.

always displaced radially outwards, but the trailing wheel- The influence of cant deficiency on the yaw displace-

ments of the wheelsets is shown in Fig. 3. It is apparent

that the responses for the two wheelsets differ, unless the

bogie incorporates either very flexible lateral suspensions

or fully rigid suspensions, for which the responses are the

same and are given by +/Od = W/2f,. It follows, therefore,

4 / / that lateral stiffness causes the unbalanced centrifugal

0.00

&

\

3

Li- 0.0 0

v)

J

w

W

I

3

g 0.00

w

z

v)

Fig. 2. Effect of primary stiffnesses on lateral responses of Fig. 3. Effect of primary stiffnesses on y a w responses of

wheelsets to track curvature: k*,, = q = 0, A = 0.15 wheelsets to cant deficiency: k,, = 'q = 0, h = 0-15

JOURNAL MECHANICAL E N G I N E E R I N G SCIENCE Vol I I No 6 1969

562 D. BOOCOCK

forces to be reacted unequally at the leading and trailing quently, the overall performance of a vehicle is defined by

wheelsets. This arises because of internal lateral forces, the common area enclosed by the curves of all wheelsets.

which are induced by yaw displacements of the bogie- Fig. 4 shows performance curves for various combina-

frame. tions of lateral and yaw stiffnesses. It is seen that there are

Cant deficiency also causes slight lateral displacements two symmetrical curves. One, curve A, applies to the

of the wheelsets. The longitudinal creep forces arising laterally flexible bogie, whose leading and trailing wheel-

from these displacements align the wheelsets correctly by sets slip simultaneously. The other, curve E, applies to the

straining the yaw suspensions, and so enable the necessary rigid bogie, whose leading wheelset slips at negative cant

lateral creep forces to be generated. With soft yaw sus- deficiencies and whose trailing wheelset slips at positive

pensions the lateral displacements are in-phase and out- cant deficiencies. A further symmetrical curve, which is

wards ;with fully rigid suspensions they are anti-phase, in not shown, is that of a bogie with zero paw stiffness. This

accordance with equation (27a). represents the ultimate in performance, giving slip

As stated previously, the theoretical responses can be boundaries which are independent of track curvature and

supported only if the resultant creep forces do not exceed defined simply by 8, = & p ( l F q ) / ( l F i q ) .

the limiting friction force. The bounds of the theoretical It is clear that, in general, performance degenerates as

responses are therefore defined by the slip equation (22). either of the suspension stiffnesses is increased, the worst

If solutions to this equation are plotted in terms of cant overall performance being that of the rigid bogie. With

deficiencies against track curvatures, the resulting curve low suspension stiffnesses, an increase in yaw stiffness

circumscribes an area which is a useful two-dimensional reduces considerably the maximum curvature which can

representation of a vehicles performance. This curve, the be negotiated without slip, but the maximum cant de-

performance curve, defines the range of operating con- ficiency sustainable without slip is only slightly affected.

ditions over which wheel slip is avoided. In general, a In contrast, an increase in yaw stiffness when both sus-

different curve is obtained for each wheelset. Conse- pension stiffnesses are high has little effect on curvature

performance, but a significant effect on cant deficiency

performance. Raising the lateral stiffness generally leads

to a reduction in cant deficiency performance. Normally,

slip due to excessive curvature is initiated at the leading

wheelset, whereas slip due to excessive cant deficiency

begins a t the trailing wheelset.

Equations (18) and (19) indicate that secondary yaw

restraints between the bogies and the vehicle body sub-

stantially increase the lateral and yaw displacements of the

wheelsets in response to track curvature. The responses to

cant deficiency are not significantly affected. In aligning

themselves correctly, the wheelsets must now generate

additional longitudinal and lateral creep forces to strain

the secondary yaw suspensions. Both wheelsets of each

bogie therefore displace laterally in the same direction, so

that the yaw couples produced by the longitudinal creep

forces augment each other. Since couples of opposite sign

are required at the two bogies, the leading bogie moves

radially outwards and the trailing bogie inwards, as

shown in Fig. 5. Further yaw couples of appropriate sign

are produced by equal and opposite lateral creep forces,

generated as a result of anti-phase yaw displacements, at

the leading and trailing wheelsets of each bogie.

TRACK CURVATURE, i / R o - k c i The increased lateral and yaw displacements of the

wheelsets caused by secondary yaw stiffness carry the

k,, MN/m k M N m/rad penalty of increased rates of creepage on curves. In

A 0 5 consequence, the wheelsets of both the leading and trailing

B 5 5 bogies slip on track of lower curvature. This effect is

C 5 10

D X 10 clearly shown in Fig. 6 , which presents performance

E 33 x. curves for the leading bogie, at which slip is usually

Fig. 4. Dependence of curving performance on primary initiated. T h e cant deficiency performance is seen to be

stiffnesses: k,, = 0, A = 0.15, p = 0.2 only slightly reduced by secondary yaw restraint.

J O U R N A L MECHANICAL E N G I N E E R I N G SCIENCE Vol I 1 No 6 1969

STEADY-STATE MOTION OF RAILWAY VEHICLES ON CURVED TRACK 563

I I I I J

-10; 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

TRACK CURVATURE, I/Ro- km-'

SECONDARY YAW STIFFNESS. kj,b -MNm/rad yaw stif/ness: A = 0.15, p = 0.2

Fig. 5 . Efiect of secondary yaw stifiness on lateral responses ally stable at speeds up to 45 mjs. It incorporated soft

of wheelsets to track curvature: q =. 0, A = 0.15 lateral and moderately stiff yaw suspensions. The general

performance of the vehicle is described in. reference (10)

EXPERIMENTS and its stability characteristics are reported in (11).

The validity of the foregoing linear analysis was partially

tested by performing laboratory and track tests on an Roller-rig experiments

experimental two-axled vehicle having a wheelbase of The behaviour of a two-axled vehicle passing round a

6.32 m. This vehicle, HSFV-1, was specially constructed curve at zero cant deficiency can be readily simulated on a

to have linear suspension characteristics and be dynamic- roller-rig having parallel rollers-Fig. 7-by introducing

JOURNAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Vol I I No 6 I969

564 D. BOOCOCK

contact.

The slip equation (22) may be expressed alternatively in

terms of the angle of yaw suspension strain by substituting

equation (30). It follows that at zero cant deficiency, the

angle of yaw strain required to cause slip is

lated that the coefficient of friction between wheels and

rollers was 0.17.

Track experiments

Track experiments were performed at constant speeds

ranging from 2 m/s to 40 m/s round curves having radii

ranging from 0.12 km to 8.8 km, HSFV-1 being loose-

coupled in the test train. Cant deficiencies were varied

within the range f4". Measurements of the yaw strain

angles q5*, body displacement y**, and body yaw angle

EQUIVALENT TRACK CURVATURE, q,,,/u-krn-' +** were obtained using linear potentiometers. Owing to

severe practical difficulties the lateral displacements of the

Fig. 8. Variation of wheeZset displacements with symmetric wheelsets were not measured.

misalignment of y a w suspensions: X = 0.27 Typical responses for the vehicle rounding a curve

are shown in Fig. 9. Superimposed on the steady-state

responses produced by curvature and cant deficiency are

symmetric yaw misalignments into the yaw suspensions. considerable dynamic variations. These are caused by

If the suspensions at the leading and trailing wheelsets track irregularities and inputs associated with the curve

are misaligned through angles of -+,, and +,, respectively, transitions. Representative results for the steady-state

the vehicle experiences the effects of traversing a curve of components of the yaw suspension strain angles at the

radius a/+,-except That the pure rolling line and track leading and trailing wheelsets are presented in Fig. 10 for

centre-line are now coincident. the unladen vehicle ( W = 52 kN) and for the laden vehicle

A misalignment test on HSFV-1 in the tare condition ( W = 162 kN). Since the tests were performed with

( W = 52 kN) was carried out at a low roller speed hollow-profiled wheel treads, the effective conicity varied

(4-5 m/s). First, the position of zero misalignment was continually and appreciably with the condition and type of

ascertained by slackening off the longitudinal traction bars track. Hence, an exact comparison of theoretical and

and allowing the creep forces to freely set the wheelsets experimental results is not possible. However, the theory

parallel to the rollers. The yaw suspensions were then indicates that the yaw strain angles are relatively insensitive

misaligned incrementally by adjusting the unstrained to variations in conicity, as they are also to variations in

lengths of the traction bars. The resulting lateral displace- cant deficiency. Therefore, two theoretical curves are

ments of both wheelsets were measured by means of dial plotted which delineate the extremes between which the

gauges. The experimental and theoretical results are com- yaw angles should lie for any combination of experimental

pared in Fig. 8. conditions, i.e. for cant deficiencies in the range f4", and

It is seen that the leading and trailing wheelsets are conicities in the estimated range of 0.1 to 0.3.

displaced laterally in opposite directions, so that the It is seen that at low track curvatures the experimental

vehicle adopts a 'crabwise' attitude. The linear theory points, particularly those for the leading wheelset, are en-

predicts closely the initial behaviour of the wheelsets, but closed quite well between the theoretical curves, allowing

an expected divergence between the theoretical and ex- for estimated measurement inaccuracies of up to f0.03'.

perimental results develops as the slip condition for the At the higher track curvatures, the experimental results

leading wheelset is approached. The displacements of the diverge from the theoretical, so indicating that the leading

leading wheelset do, in fact, follow the saturation charac- wheelset has slipped and lost correct alignment. This

teristic of the creep force-creepage curve. The occurrence occurs when the yaw strain angle corresponds to a

of slip results in a loss of parallel alignment at the leading limiting friction coefficient of about 0.2. At this adhesion

wheelset, followed by flange contact. This condition level the minimum curve radii which can be negotiated

causes a sudden reduction in the angle of yaw suspension without slip at zero cant deficiency are approximately

strain at the trailing wheelset, so that it moves back some 1.6 km for the vehicle unladen and 0.6 km for the vehicle

way towards the centre of the rollers. Had the yaw mis- laden.

alignments been increased further, the trailing wheelset The substantial improvement in performance when

JOURNAL MECHANICAL E N G I N E E R I N G SCIENCE VoI I1 No 6 1969

STEADY-STATE MOTION OF RAILWAY VEHICLES ON CURVED TRACK 565

-track--

+o 080-

$7 0 q"J?"--A"A A h"/ Leading wheelset yaw t\ n . -,

-008O-

+o 08Ot

Ji" 0 t

-0 0 8

+5mm

Jc

-5mm

0

ody latera displacement

t

- 0 04'

+: 0 f

+ O 04' I

I

- Seconds

I

5

Fig. 9. Typical response of two-axled vehicle HSFV-I round a simple curve: R , = 1.75 km,0, = -0.5", V = 12.4 m/s

laden follows directly from the increased axle load, as may of Fig. 4, whose shape is typical for vehicles with laterally

be inferred from equation (31). When cant deficiency is soft suspensions.

present, slip is initiated at lower curvatures. But, for the In agreement with the roller-rig experiments, Fig. 10

range of cant deficiencies encountered this decrease is suggests that the yaw strain angle of the trailing wheelset

fairly small, as may be deduced from performance curve A decreases when the leading wheelset slips, and then in-

creases, as curvature is increased, up to a maximum

governed by the coefficientof friction. Once the wheelsets

have slipped the angles of yaw strain should gradually

decrease with increasing curvature as lateral slip absorbs

more and more of the total friction force available. This

characteristic is not displayed in Fig. 10, because, p:e-

s.umably, of increasing coefficients of friction being

generated by mechanical cleaning of the rails due to slip.

However, at a very high track curvature (8.3 km-l), it was

noted that the angle of yaw strain at the leading wheelset

had fallen to almost zero.

CONCLUSIONS

The linear analysis of steady-state curving developed in

this paper, and its experimental confirmation, have shown

that the concept of steering under the control of creep

forces is a realistic and desirable alternative to flange

guidance. The dual inputs of track curvature and cant

deficiency can be accommodated without flange contact

by employing the guidance mechanism inherent in coned

wheels. This attains force equilibrium by causing the

wheelsets to displace laterally and in yaw, and thereby

generate longitudinal and lateral creep forces, which (1)

tend to align the wheelsets almost radially by straining the

yaw suspensions, and (2) resist unbalanced centrifugal

forces.

Creep force guidance is possible only within a certain

FACTORED TRACK CURVATURE, (&)@) !$),)ladm-k61 range of vehicle and track parameters. Outside this range,

-__-_ Theory. which is governed directly by the coefficient of friction,

zZzn) Experiment.

the wheels slip and flange contact ensues. Features which

improve overall curving performance are (1) low primary

Fig. 10. Variation of y a w suspension strain angles with and secondary yaw stiffnesses, (2) low primary lateral

track curvature: A = 0.I to 0-3, ed = -4" to 4" stiffness, ( 3 ) short wheelbase, (4) short distance between

JOURNAL MECHANICAL ENGiNEERlNG SCIENCE Vol 11 No 6 1969

2

566 D. BOOCOCK

bogie centres, (5) high axle load, ( 6 ) high conicity, and fll = 9.6 MN

(7) low centre of vehicle mass. for response studies.

fiz = 7-5 MN

Unfortunately, some of these features are just those

which promote dynamic instability. It appears, therefore,

that there is a fundamental contradiction between good

fll = 3.2MN

f22 = 2.5 M N ,

1

for slip studies.

Some aspects of this problem have been discussed by REFERENCES

Wickens (12). A reasonable compromise between the W., HILLER,

(I) DAUNER, E. and REcK,.W. Einftihrung in die

requirements for curving and stability can be achieved for Spurftihrungsmechanik der Schienenfahrzeuge, Arch.

conventional bogie and two-axled vehicles at current EisenbTech. 1953 2, 1.

speeds, so that most main-line curves can be traversed (2) MULLER, C. T h . Dynamics of railway vehicles on curved

without flange contact. However, for future high-speed track, Interaction between vehicle and track, Proc. Inst71

mech. Engrs 1965-66 180 (Pt 3F), 45.

vehicles the conventional suspension forms may be in- (3) KOFFMAN, J. L. Running through curves, Rly Gaz. 1967

adequate on existing tracks. 123 (No. 8), 307.

(4) BOOCOCK, D. The equations of motion of an elastically

restrained wheelset on curved track and preliminary

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS study of steady-state motion, Briti.qh Railways Research

Department Report No. DYN/35, 1966.

The author thanks Mr S. F. Smith, Director of Research, ( 5 ) BOOCOCK, D. The steady-state performance of experi-

British Railways Board, for permission to publish this mental four-wheeled vehicle HSFV-1 on curved track,

paper. He also acknowledges with gratitude the help re- British Railways Research Department Report No. DYN/51,

ceived from his colleagues in the Advanced Projects Group 1967.

( 6 ) DF PATER,A. D. On the reciprocal pressure between two

of British Railways Research Department. elastic bodies, University of Delft, Lab. Tech. Mech. Report

No. 277, 1964.

(7) BOOCOCK, D. A simplified linear analysis of the steady-state

APPENDIX 1 motion of conventional and cross-braced bogie vehicles

and four-wheelers on curved track, British Railwajis

PARAMETERS FOR EXAMPLE VEHICLE Research Department Report No. DYN/89, 1968.

(8) NEWLAND, D. E. Steering characteristics of bogies, R / y

ro = 0.4 m Gaz. 1968 124 (No. 19), 745.

a = 1.25 m (9) HOBBS,A. E. W. A survey of creep, British Railways

Research Department Report No. DYN/52, 1967.

ah = 7.1 m (10) WICKENS, A. H. Practical research into vehicle dynamics,

k,, = 5 MNini Rly G a z . 1967 123 (No. 12), 467.

(XI) HOBBS,A. E. W. Experiments on the lateral stability of

k,, = 1 0 M Nmi ra d experimental vehicle HSFV-l, British Railways Research

A = 0.15 Department Report No. DYN/53, 1967.

(12) WICKENS,A. H. Recent developments in the lateral

q/ Od = 0.035 deg -

dynamics of high speed railway vehicles, Bull. im. Rlv

W =90kN Conqr. Ass. 1967 44 (No. 12), 781.

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