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1.

INTRODUCTION

Development of a country depends on the connectivity of various places with


adequate road network. Roads are the major channel of transportation for carrying
goods and passengers. They play a significant role in improving the socio-
economic standards of a region. Roads constitute the most important mode of
communication in areas where railways have not developed much and form the
basic infra structure for the development and economic growth of the country. The
benefits from the investment in road sector are indirect, long-term and not
immediately visible. Roads are important assets for any nation. However, merely
creating these assets is not enough, it has to be planned carefully and a pavement
which is not designed properly deteriorates fast. India is a large country having
huge resource of materials. If these local materials are used properly, the cost of
construction can be reduced. There are various type of pavements which differ in
their suitability in different environments. Each type of pavement has its own
merits and demerits. Despite a large number of seminars and conference, still in
India, 98% roads are having flexible pavements. A lot of research has been made
on use of Waste materials but the role of these materials is still limited. So there is
need to take a holistic approach and mark the areas where these are most suitable.

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2. NEEDS FOR ADVANCED HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS
The needs for seeking advanced highway construction materials include:
Reduced costs get more lane-miles constructed or rehabilitated for a given
constrained budget.
Conservation of resources supports national efforts to create sustainable solutions
to minimize impact of construction on the environment.
Reduced ecological footprint.
Extended service life.
Optimized use of locally available materials.
Achieving environmental benefitsreduced carbon footprint, reduced congestion-
related emissions. Reduced work zonerelated traffic delays and safety concerns
use materials that reduce the potential for early failures.
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION
MATERIALS

The currently used materials for pavement construction can be classified as


follows:
1. Natural (Raw) Materials.
a. Aggregates.
b. Lake asphalt.
c. Natural resins.
2. Manufactured (Processed) Materials.
a. Metallic materials (steel, aluminum, zinc).
b. Ceramic-based materials (portland cement, natural pozzolans).
c. Visco-elastic materials (AC).
d. Industrial by-product materials (fly ash, slag, silica fume).
e. Other waste products (crumb rubber).

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f. Chemical admixtures for concrete.
g. Fillers for AC.
h. Epoxies and polymers.
i. Fibers and fiber-reinforced polymers.
j. Synthetic aggregatestypically, lightweight and slag aggregates.
3. Composite Manufactured Materials
a. PCC.
b. AC.
c. Coated or clad steels.
This paper reviews the availability of advanced construction materials for highway
application to improve or replace the above-listed, conventionally used
construction materials.
These advanced construction materials can be categorized as follows:
1. New/Innovative materials to replace current materials.
2. New/Innovative materials that are less expensive.
3. New/Innovative materials that result in longer service life.
4. New/Innovative materials that result in sustainable solutions.
5. New/Innovative materials that improve the properties of marginal materials.
6. Waste and recycled materials that are optimized for use.

The criteria for including specific advanced construction materials in this paper
include the following:
1. The materials were recently introduced (have been less than 5 years in the
marketplace) and are not widely used.
2. The materials are under development.

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The advanced materials identified include the following:
1. Cementitious Materials.
a. Performance-specified cements.
b. Next-generation sustainable cements.
c. Eco-friendly cements.
d. Energetically modified cement.
2. Concrete Materials.
a. Engineered cement composites (ECCs).
b. Titanium dioxidemodified concrete.
c. Pervious concrete.
d. Self-consolidating concrete.
e. Sulfur concrete.
f. Autoclaved aerated concrete.
g. Geopolymer concrete.
h. Hydrophobic concrete.
i. Ductile concrete.
3. Asphalt Binder Materials.
a. Sulfur-extended asphalt.
b. Bio-derived asphalt binders.
c. High modified asphalt binders.
4. AC Materials.
a. Warm asphalt mixtures.
b. Perpetual asphalt pavement systems.
c. Porous asphalt pavement.
d. Recycled asphalt shingles.
5. Metallic and Polymer Materials.
a. Vitreous ceramic coatings for reinforcing steel.
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b. Fiber-reinforced polymer bars for CRCPs.
c. Fiber-reinforced polymer dowel bars.
d. Zinc-clad dowel bars.
e. Microcomposite steel for dowels and tie bars.
6. Aggregate Materials.
a. Synthetic aggregates.
b. Manufactured aggregate using captured CO2.
c. Materials that allow internal concrete curing.

7. Other Materials.
a. Ultra-thin bonded wearing course.
b. Advanced curing material.
c. Workability-retaining admixture.
d. Concrete surface sealers.

In the United States, there has been continuous interest and effort in developing
improved highway construction materials. Until recently, the development of
improved materials was focused at improving specific properties of locally
available materials by using additives (admixtures, extenders, modifiers). There
was no strong impetus to seriously consider replacing conventional construction
materials with new materials. However, it has now been recognized that the age of
limitless construction materials and the use of conventional materials in their
present form is fast coming to an end, and new technologies need to be developed
to continue to support the rehabilitation and reconstruction of pavements along the
Nations highway system. Today, concerns about limited availability and
sustainability are driving the search for new and advanced materials for highway
construction.

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3. ECO-FRIENDLY CEMENTS FOR CONCRETE MIXTURES
Description
Eco-friendly cements are newly developed cement types that are more ecologically
friendly than ordinary portland cement. Primarily, these cements are capable of
reducing the amount of greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions associated with their
production, but they are also capable of sequestering and using additional CO2 as
part of the curing/hardening process that concrete mixtures undergo. Eco-Cement
is a brand-name for a type of cement that blends reactive magnesia, conventional
hydraulic cement, and pozzolans and industrial by-products to reduce the
environmental impactrelative to conventional cement (TecEco 2009). Typically
about half of the traditional cement raw materials are replaced with ash and other
solid waste by-products. The resultant product absorbs CO2, with absorption
varying with the degree of porosity and the amount of magnesia (FHWA 2005).
Moreover, the reactive magnesia in Eco-Cement uses a lower kiln temperature
(about 750 oC [1382 F]), whereas conventional PCC requires a kiln temperature
of around 1450 oC [2642 F]), which reduces energy requirements and hence fossil
fuel usage and CO2 emissions (TecEco 2009). Eco-Cement has the following
characteristics (FHWA 2005):
Rapid hardening, similar to high-early-strength cement.
Short initial setting time (approximately 20 to 40 minutes).
Handling time that can be adjusted to suit particular applications.
Two other eco-friendly cements with potential highway application are Novacem
and supercritically carbonated calcareous composites (SC4). Novacem is a
patent-pending cement that uses a different raw material than portland cement
(magnesium silicate instead of calcium carbonate [limestone]), which requires a
lower heating temperature: 700 F vs. 1,450 F (371.1C vs. 787.8C) for ordinary
portland cement. The lower heating temperature results in less energy used and less
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CO2 released into the atmosphere. Novacem's carbon negative cement is based on
magnesium oxide, and no carbon is released from the magnesium silicate raw
material used. Novacem is also capable of absorbing large amounts of CO2
(from the air) as it cures when used in concrete mixes (Jha 2008). As a combined
result of these two phenomena, the material can be considered "carbon negative.
SC4 is a very new technology being developed in the United Kingdom (U.K.)
(EPSRC 2010). While the treatment of cementitious materials with gaseous CO2 to
achieve rapid strength development has been studied for many years, treatment
with super-critical CO2 (CO2 at 74 bar pressure and >31 C [87.8 F] temperature)
can fully carbonate the materials through its dual liquid/gaseous state. The
supercritical treatment uses greater amounts of CO2 and, as a result of full and
accelerated carbonation reactions, results in significantly increased strength and
reduced permeability (University of Warwick 2010). The supercritical carbonation
method is typically completed in a few hours.
Applications
Eco-friendly cements can be used in virtually any application where conventional
concrete is used, including pavements, parking lots, bridges, and other structures.
As emerging technologies, Novacem, SC4, and other similar cement types must
continue to undergo testing and evaluation before formal use in the highways
arena. Initial applications of Novacem are expected to be for decorative and other
non-load-bearing concretes (Jha 2008). Several years of testing will be required to
ensure the material is strong enough for load-bearing applications, such as
buildings, roads, and bridge structures. While SC4 appears to have great potential
for load-bearing applications, its use with reinforcing steel could be limited since
the carbonation can be detrimental to the steel (i.e., increased rust formation). A
thick cover layer of plain concrete around the steel would be needed to prevent the
carbonation reaction from reaching the steel.
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Benefits
The primary benefits associated with the use of eco-friendly cements are their
sustainability features and overall environmental friendliness. They incorporate
solid waste and sewage sludge, can be produced at lower kiln temperatures, and
also absorb and sequester CO2, whilealso possessing rapid-hardening abilities.
Once fully developed, ecological cements like Novacem and SC4 will
significantly reduce the carbon footprint of the built environment. In addition,
other eco-cements that incorporate waste materials will help reduce landfill
requirements and the energy and CO2 emissions associated with hauling wastes.
Lastly, it is expected that the improved strength and permeability properties of SC4
will greatly improve the longevity of concrete structures and pavements, thus
increasing the sustainability of infrastructure.
Costs
No information is currently available on the costs of the newly developed eco-
friendly cements.
Current Status
Research on the development and use of eco-friendly cement continues, with
considerable work being done in Australia, Japan, and Great Britain. The latest
indication for Novacem is that an operational pilot plant for producing the
material in the U.K. is expected in 2010 (Novacem 2008), and, if all goes well, the
cement might be on the market within a few years (Jha 2008).
The development of SC4 is not as far along, with major research still being
conducted by a collaboration of U.K. universities and industrial partners
(University of Warwick 2010).

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4. ENGINEERED CEMENT COMPOSITES
Description
ECCs are high-performance, fiber-reinforced cement-based materials. ECCs are
similar to conventional fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) in terms of its constituent
materials, except coarse aggregates are not used (these adversely affect the ductile
behavior of the material) and lower fiber contents are employed (typically 2
percent or less by volume) (Li 2005). Furthermore, unlike FRC, ECC is a
micromechanically designed material, which means that the mechanical
interactions between the fiber, cement matrix, and interface are taken into account
by a micromechanical model which relates these individual constituent properties
to an overall composite response (Li 2005). The end result is a highly ductile
composite material nicknamed bendable concrete by many researchers.
Some of the characteristics of ECC materials include the following (Li 2005; Yang
et al. 2009; PCA 2009):
High tensile ductility (strain capacities of 3 to 5 percent, about 300 times that of
conventional concrete).
High fracture toughness.
Autogenous healing of hairline cracks.
Higher compressive strengths.
Applications
Because of its light weight, ECC has perhaps the greatest potential for use on
bridges, bridge decks, and other highway structures.
Benefits
The benefits of ECC are similar to those offered by conventional FRC materials,
such as improved structural integrity, resistance to plastic shrinkage, and improved
post-cracking behavior. However, ECC goes beyond conventional FRC by also

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offering high tensile ductility and the potential for autogenous healing of hairline
cracks.
Costs
No cost data are currently available regarding ECC. The unit cost of ECC is higher
than conventional concrete, but because of its greater strength and ductility,
reduced cross sections (and hence less material) may be required for a given
application.
Current Status
ECC has seen use as a repair material for a bridge deck in Michigan, for a
lightweight composite bridge deck in Japan, and as an infrastructure patching
material in Japan and the United States. More widespread use and monitoring of
in-service performance of ECC are needed to establish its viability.

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5. SULFUR-EXTENDED ASPHALT
Description
Shell is marketing Shell Thiopave to modify asphalt binder properties that would
improve the performance of the extended AC mixtures. The Thiopave modifier
consists of small pellets of sulfur modifier that are added to the asphalt mixture
during the mixing process. The Thiopave melts rapidly on contact with the hot mix
and is dispersed throughout the asphalt mixture during the mixing process
Applications
During the energy crisis period of the 1970s and early 1980s, the use of liquid
sulfur as an extender of asphalt binder properties in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) was
investigated. However, once the energy crisis was over, the interest in sulfur-
extended asphalt binder subsided. In addition, during this period, sulfur-extended
asphalt mixtures were produced using hot liquid sulfur that emitted a significant
amount of fumes and odors unpleasant to workers. The transportation and supply
of hot liquid sulfur were also problematic.
To replace the use of hot liquid sulfur for asphalt mixture production, solid sulfur
pellets, known as Sulfur Extended Asphalt Modifier (SEAM) and recently renamed
Shell Thiopave, were further improved by Shell in the late 1990s. Thiopave is
both a binder extender and an asphalt mixture modifier. The manufacturer reports
that Thiopave can improve the performance of sulfur-extended asphalt mixtures,
reduce construction costs and production temperatures, and provide more friendly
conditions for sulfur-extended mixture production. Recent technological
improvements in sulfur production, coupled with an increase in sulfur abundance,
have led to resurgence in the exploration of the use of sulfur as an asphalt mixture
modifier.

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While the Thiopave pellets contain some additives designed to reduce odor and
fumes during mixing, temperature control of the mixture and good ventilation
practices are still required.
Thiopave mixtures are typically produced at a target mixing temperature of 140 5
oC (284 41 oF). The mixtures must be produced above a temperature of 120 oC
(248 oF) so that the sulfur pellets will melt and the sulfur will be dispersed
throughout the asphalt mixture. Above mixing temperatures of 145 oC (293 oF),
the potential for harmful emission generation greatly increases and could be
problematic for workers involved in both the mixing and compaction processes.
The sulfur-extended asphalt can be used in warm-mix asphalt (WMA).
Benefits
According to Shell, Thiopave can significantly alter the performance properties of
the mix. The change in these performance properties is dependent both on the
percentage of virgin binder that is substituted with Thiopave and the amount of
time the specimen is allowed to cure prior to performance testing. The most
notable impact of the addition of Thiopave to an asphalt mixture is an increase in
the stiffness of the mixture.
Literature has shown that the addition of Thiopave materials can have a positive
impact on laboratory mixture performance. The addition of Thiopave has been
shown to significantly increase the Marshall Stability and deformation resistance
of asphalt mixtures in the laboratory after a 2-week curing period. The Thiopave
material also had little negative impact in areas that were thought to be
problematic, such as fatigue cracking resistance, low temperature cracking
resistance, and moisture susceptibility.
Costs
No cost data are available. Costs are dependent on the global supply of sulfur and
the state of the energy crisis.
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Current Status of Usage
Thiopave-modified asphalt has been used in many countries and there are many
pavement sections in Canada. In the United States, Shell has been involved in
pavement sections in Los Angeles and Port of Oakland, the NCAT Pavement Test
Track, and a section near Kansas City, Missouri. Shell will be involved the
Louisiana Transportation Research Center/Louisiana DOT Accelerated Load
Facility research project during 2010. Several other trials and projects are
scheduled for 2010.

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6. BIO-DERIVED ASPHALT BINDERS
Description
Vegetable oil formulations (from soybean, corn, sunflower, and canola) are being
investigated as possible modifiers for asphalt binders. Vegetable oilbased
modifiers are considered renewable resources and are beginning to be used in other
countries. These products include rejuvinators (extender oils), bio-polymers, and
resin-like synthetic binders.
Applications
The bio-derived binders are considered applicable to a range of asphalt binders and
uses.
Benefits
Similar to other asphalt binder modifiers and extenders, the vegetable oils improve
specific properties of the asphalt binders and allow for partial replacement of the
asphalt binders with the vegetable oils.
Costs
These materials have not been implemented in the United States, and no cost data
are available.
Current Status of Usage
The bio-derived binders are commercially available in Europe and Australia, but
have found little use in the United States.

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7. HIGH MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS
Description
High modified asphalt binders are asphalt cements that are blended with synthetic
additives or chemical modifiers to enhance their physical properties for use in
asphalt-aggregate mixes. The most common type of high modified asphalt binders
are polymer-modified binders. Polymers are materials with long-chained molecular
structures that, when mixed with asphalt cement (typically, at a rate between 3 and
6 percent by weight of the asphalt) and a chemical catalyst, dissolve and cross
link with the asphalt to form a homogeneous binder material. Polymers include
natural and synthetic rubbers (thermoplastic elastomers, such as styrene butadiene
styrene [SBS] tri-block copolymer and styrene butadiene rubber [SBR] latex) and
plastics (thermoplastic plastomers, such as ethyl vinyl acetate [EVA], ethylene
glycidyl acrylate [EGA], and polyethylene). Polymer-modified binders are seeing
increasingly widespread use in HMA. The modified binder is more elastic and has
improved low- and high-temperature stiffness (viscosity) properties that are better
capable of meeting the performance requirements of the Superpave performance
graded (PG) asphalt binder specification (AASHTO M 320, AASHTO M 323),
which are tied to the environmental and traffic conditions of the project site.
Polymer-modified asphalt binders are typically specified and used in situations
where the PG grade span (i.e., the low-temperature grade plus the high-temperature
grade) is greater than 90 (e.g., PG 7022). They exhibit the following binder-
enhancement characteristics (WAPA 2002):
Lower stiffness at the high temperatures associated with construction, thereby
facilitating the pumping of the liquid asphalt binder as well as the mixing and
compaction of the HMA in which the polymer-modified binder is used.
Higher stiffness at high-service temperatures, resulting in reduced levels of
rutting and shoving in the polymer-modified mix.
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Lower stiffness and faster relaxation properties at low service temperatures,
resulting in reduced thermal cracking in the polymer-modified HMA.
Increased adhesion between the asphalt binder and the aggregate in the presence
of moisture, resulting in a reduced likelihood of stripping in the polymer-modified
mix.
Improved aging characteristics, which help delay the deleterious impacts of
oxidation and provide a more durable pavement.
The construction and maintenance of pavements with polymer-modified HMA is
similar to that of conventional HMA pavements. A number of highway agencies
have constructed polymermodified HMA pavements since their introduction in the
late 1990s. Performance of these pavements has generally been good and has
improved over the years corresponding to the advances in technology.
Applications
Polymer-modified asphalt binders are most commonly used in HMA mixes that are
to be placed in high-stress applications. Typical locations include intersections with
stop-and-go traffic, highvolume freeways and interstates, and high truck volume
routes (DAngelo n.d.). In addition, they are often used in areas of extreme climate
(e.g., deserts or areas with very low temperatures).
Benefits
Although more expensive than neat asphalt binder, the use of polymer-modified
binder in HMA can provide markedly improved performance in terms of reduced
rutting, reduced fatigue cracking, and reduced thermal cracking, particularly in
high-stress and climate-sensitive conditions. Depending on the costs and
performance characteristics specific to a locale, the lifecycle costs of mixes that
incorporate polymer-modified binders can be significantly lower than those of
mixes using unmodified binders.

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8. WARM-MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE
Description
WMA refers to technologies, originally developed in Europe, that are aimed at
allowing the production and placement of HMA at lower temperatures. WMA is
produced and mixed at temperatures roughly between 212 and 284 F (100 and 140
C), about 68104 F (3858 C) lower than an conventional HMA. This is
achieved by using techniques that reduce the effective viscosity of the asphalt
binder, allowing full coating of aggregates and subsequent field compaction at
lower temperatures. The techniques to reduce the effective viscosity of the asphalt
binder include:
Organic additives, usually waxes or fatty amides.
Chemical additives.
Foaming techniques.
It should be noted that producing HMA at lower temperatures is the desired
product to achieve the benefits, not the particular technology that is used to
produce the WMA mix.
Applications
WMA is being used in all types of AC, including dense-graded, stone matrix
asphalt, porous asphalt, and mastic asphalt. It is also being used in a range of layer
thicknesses. WMA sections have also been constructed on roadways with a wide
variety of traffic levels, from low to high.
WMA technology could have a significant impact on transportation construction
projects in and around non-attainment areas such as large metropolitan areas that
have air quality restrictions.
The reduction in fuel usage to produce the mix would also have a significant
impact on the cost of transportation construction projects.

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The benefits of these technologies include worker safety, energy savings, air
quality improvements, improved constructability, and longer performance due to
reduced aging of the asphalt binder during the construction process. These
technologies continue to be investigated.
Benefits
European countries are using WMA technologies to reduce energy consumption
burning fuels to heat traditional HMA to temperatures in excess of 300 F (149 C)
at the production plant.
The lower production temperature of WMA results in the added benefit of reduced
emissions from burning fuels, a cooler working environment for workers, and less
fumes and odors generated at the plant and the paving site. Specific benefits related
to the paving process include:
Compactioncan be compacted at lower temperatures.
Cold-weather pavingcan extend paving season.
Longer haul distancesextended time for hauling and compaction.
Use of higher percentages of recycled asphalt pavement.
Earlier opening to traffic.

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9. BITUMINOUS BINDERS

Bituminous binders used in pavement (highway) construction works includes, both


bitumen and tar. Bitumen is an oil based substance. It is a semi-solid hydrocarbon
product produced by removing the lighter fractions (such as liquid petroleum gas,
petrol and diesel) from heavy crude oil during the refining process. As such, it is
correctly known as refined bitumen. In North America, bitumen is commonly
known as asphalt cement or asphalt. While elsewhere, asphalt is the term
used for a mixture of small stones, sand, filler and bitumen, which is used as a road
paving material. At ambient temperatures bitumen is a stable, semi-solid substance.
Petroleum bitumen is often confused with tar. Although bitumen and coal tar are
similarly black and sticky, they are distinctly different substances in origin,
chemical composition and in their properties. Coal tar is produced by heating coal
to extremely high temperatures and is a by-product of gas and coke production. It
was widely used as the binding agent in road asphalt in the early part of the last
century, but has since been replaced by refined bitumen. Bitumen is also
sometimes confused with petroleum pitch which, although also derived from crude
oil, is a substance produced by a different process from that used for refined
bitumen. Petroleum pitches are the residues from the extreme heat treatment or
cracking of petroleum fractions. Their properties and chemical composition are
therefore quite different from those of bitumen. Naturally-occurring bitumen,
sometimes also called natural asphalt, rock asphalt, lake asphalt or oil sand, has
been used as an adhesive, sealant and waterproofing agent for over 8,000 years.
But it occurs only in small quantities and its properties are quite different from
refined bitumen. The vast majority of refined bitumen is used in construction:
primarily as a constituent of products used in pavement wearing (surface) course

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and roofing applications Bituminous materials are also used for stabilizing the
other layers of flexible pavements.
Properties of bituminous materials:
Cohesion
Adhesion
Strength
Durability
Workability
Low cost
Imperviousness
Minimal sensitivity to aging
As discussed earlier, basically bituminous materials are thermoplastic
hydrocarbons which possess high molecular weight. They become soft on heating
an hard on cooling.

10. BITUMINOUS MIX

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Bituminous mix consists of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, fillers and bitumen.
Fillers are the additives to improve the properties of the mix. Ex: Lime, Cement,
Rubber. The optimum percentage of bitumen is calculated based on the average
values that give maximum density, maximum stability and minimum air voids. The
air voids should not be zero since its absence lead to flushing, bleeding and
slippery conditions. Bitumen has been widely used in the construction of flexible
pavements for a long time. This is the most convenient and simple type of
construction. . In some applications, however, the performance of conventional
bitumen may not be considered satisfactory because of the following reasons: In
summer season, due to high temperature, the bitumen becomes soft resulting in
bleeding, rutting and segregation finally leading to failure of pavement. In winter
season, due to low temperature, the bitumen becomes brittle resulting in cracking,
raveling and unevenness which makes the pavement unsuitable for use In rainy
season, water enters the pavement resulting into pot holes and sometimes total
removal of bituminous layer. In hilly areas, due to subzero temperature, the freeze
thaw and heave cycle takes place. Due to freezing and melting of ice in bituminous
voids, volume expansion and contraction occur. This leads to pavements failure.
The cost of bitumen has been rising continuously. In near future, there will be
scarcity of bitumen and it will be impossible to procure bitumen at very high costs.
Recently, large number investigations have demonstrated that bitumen properties
(e.g. Visco elasticity and temperature susceptibility) can be improved using an
additive or a chemical reaction modification. To get some desirable properties of
the bitumen,it must added with some modifying agents,in this case it is said to be
modified bitumen.

11. POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN(PMB)

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The strength of bitumen is increases considerably when polymers mixed with
it.Due to this action,the service life of bitumen can be extended. Generally two
types of synthetic thermo plastic polymers are widely used for pavement
construction ,namely plastomers and elastomers. Plastomers induce plasticity or
viscosity or stiffness to bitumen.They consist of poly ethylene(PE),linear low
density poly ethylene(LLDPE),ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA),andethylene butyl
acrylate(EBA). Elastomers induce elasticity and stiffness.They consist of Styrene-
Isoprene-Styrene,StyreneButadiene-Styrene,Styrene-Butadiene,Poly butadiene and
ethylene/propylene.
Advantages:
The following properties are increased due to the addition of polymers.
Viscosity
Shearing resistance
Softening point
Marshal Stability Value
Indirect tensile strength
Durability of asphalt mixes
The following properties are decreased.
Oxidation process
Permanent deformation
Bitumen content (reduced by 10% approximately) Bleeding of bitumen PMB
improves cohesive and adhesive properties of the bitumen. In surfacing, use of
modified bitumen extends the service period by 50% as compared to unmodified
bitumen.
Rubber Modified Bitumen (RMB):
Rubber is also called as an elastomer since the strain capability is very high.A
certain quantity of rubber compounds is mixed with bitumen to impart elastic
property to bitumen.About 2 to 5 % of these compounds is suitably mixed with

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bitumen at a given temperature and laid using usual construction machinery.
Generally two types of rubbers are used : Synthetic rubber and Natural rubber.Use
of natural rubber is preferred to synthetic rubber for pavement construction, as
increased quantity of rubber in bitumen provides proportional improvement of
elastic strain recovery or preparation of RMB,the following factors 1.Quantity of
rubber to be added to the bitumen, Method of blending rubber.
Advantages: The following factors are increased.
More elastic property to bitumen
Ductility under low temperature
High rate of loading
Safety
Fatigue property of bitumen
Permanent deformations reduced to a greater extent by using RMB.
And this bitumen more useful for effective sealing cracks on roads. Modified
bitumen shows greater strength, versatility and it is also economical. Due to these
features, they are accepted across the world. The bitumen reserves are degrading
fast everywhere, hence to preserve the bitumen the modified binders are greatly
helpful.
Bituminous mix design is a delicate balancing act among the proportions of
various aggregate sizes and bitumen content. For a given aggregate gradation, the
optimum bitumen content is estimated by satisfying a number of mix design
parameters. This article briefly discusses the current approaches in bituminous mix
design and singles out the issues involved. Introduction Construction of highway
involves huge outlay of investment. A precise engineering design may save
considerable investment; as well a reliable performance of the in-service highway
can be achieved. Two things are of major considerations in this regard pavement
design and the mix design. The present article emphasizes on the mix design
considerations. A good design of bituminous mix is expected to result in a mix

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which is adequately (i) strong (ii) durable (iii) resistive to fatigue and permanent
deformation (iv) environment friendly (v) economical and so on. A mix designer
tries to achieve these requirements through a number of tests on the mix with
varied proportions and finalizes with the best one. This often involves a balance
between mutually conflicting parameters. The present article tries to identify some
of the issues involved in this art of bituminous mix design and the direction of
current research. Evolution of mix design concepts During 1900s, the bituminous
paving technique was first used on rural roads so as to handle rapid removal of
fine particles in the form of dust, from Water Bound Macadam, which was caused
due to rapid growth of automobiles [Roberts et al. 2002]. At initial stage, heavy
oils were used as dust palliative. An eye estimation process, called pat test, was
used to estimate the requisite quantity of the heavy oil in the mix. By this process,
the mixture was patted like a pancake shape, and pressed against a brown paper.
Depending on the extent of stain it made on the paper, the appropriateness of the
quantity was adjudged [Roberts et al. 2002]. The first formal mix design method
was Habbard field method, which was originally developed on sand-asphalt
mixture. Mixes with large aggregates could not be handled in Hubbard field
method. This was one of the limitations of this procedure. Fransis Hveem, a project
engineer of California Department of Highways, developed the Hveem
stabilometer (1927). Hveem did not have any prior experience on judging the just
right mix from its colour. Hveem used the surface area calculation concept (which
already existed at that time for cement concrete mix design), to estimate the
quantity of bitumen required [Hveem 1942]. Moisture susceptibility and sand
equivalent tests were added to the Hveem test in 1946 and 1954 respectively
[Roberts et al. 2002]. Bruce Marshall developed the Marshall testing machine just
before the World War-II. It was adopted in the US Army Corpes of Engineers in
1930s and subsequently modified in 1940s and 50s. Selection of mix constituents
24
Binder and aggregates are the two main constituents of bituminous mix. This
section discusses some of the issues involved in selection of binder and aggregates.
Binder Generally binders are selected based on some simple tests and other site-
specific requirements. These tests could be different depending of the type of
binder viz. penetration grade, cutback, emulsion, modified binder etc. For most of
these tests, the test conditions are pre-fixed in the specifications. Temperature is an
important parameter which affects the modulus as well as the aging of binder.
Superpave specifications [Superpave 1997, 2001] suggest that these acceptability
tests are to be carried out at the prevalent field temperatures, not in a laboratory
specified temperature. This is an important consideration because, binder from two
different sources may show same physical properties at a particular temperature,
but their performances may vary drastically at other temperatures. In Superpave
specifications, therefore, only the acceptable test values are recommended, and not
the test temperatures. The temperature values are found out from the most
prevalent maximum and minimum temperatures at the field at a given probability
level. Rolling Thin Film Oven Test (RTFO), Pressurized Aging Vessel (PAV),
Dynamic Shear Rheometer, Rotational Viscometer, Bending Beam Rheometer,
Direct Tension Tester are some of the tests recommended in Superpave binder
selection [Superpave 1997, 2001]. Aggregate Number of tests are recommended in
the specifications to judge the properties of the aggregates, e.g. strength, hardness,
toughness, durability, angularity, shape factors, clay content, adhesion to binder
etc. Angularity ensures adequate shear strength due to aggregate interlocking, and
limiting flakiness ensures that aggregates will not break during compaction and
handling. Theoretically, it is difficult [Senov 1987, Aberg 1996] to predict the
aggregate volumetric parameters, even the resultant void ratio, when the gradation
curve is known. The Fullers experimental study for minimum void distribution
[Fuller and Thompson 1907] still forms the basis of these exercises. Strategic
25
Highway Research Program (SHRP), USA formed a 14 member Expert Task
Group for evolution of appropriate aggregate gradation to be used for Superpave.
The group, after several rounds of discussions decided to use 0.45 power Fullers
gradation as the reference gradation, with certain restricted zones and control
points. The restricted zone and control points are incorporated in order to ensure
certain proportion of fines for (i) proper interlocking of aggregates (ii) to avoid the
fall in shear strength of mix due to excess of fines and (iii) to maintain requisite
Voids in Mineral Aggregates (VMA). These control points and restriction zones are
more as guidelines for selecting a gradation than a compulsion to be followed. A
large number of researches have been reported which have studied performances of
various alternative gradations. In India also some studies [Das et al. 2004] have
been carried out on various non-standard gradations to see whether the resultant
mixes show better performance than the standard mixes. Role of mix volumetric
parameters Bitumen holds the aggregates in position, and the load is taken by the
aggregate mass through the contact points. If all the voids are filled by bitumen,
then the load is rather transmitted by hydrostatic pressure through bitumen, and
strength of the mix therefore reduces. That is why stability of the mix starts
reducing when bitumen content is increased further beyond certain value. During
summer season, bitumen melts and occupies the void space between the aggregates
and if void is unavailable, bleeding is caused. Thus, some amount of void is
necessary to provide by design in a bituminous mix, even after the final stage of
compaction. However excess void will make the mix weak from its elastic
modulus and fatigue life considerations. The chances of oxidative hardening of
bitumen are more, where, the mix has more voids. Evaluation and selection of
aggregate gradation to achieve minimum VMA is the most difficult and time-
consuming step in the mix design process [Anderson and Bahia 1996]. VMA
specification has always been a big issue in mix design specifications. The
26
recommendation of minimum VMA is sometimes questioned by the researchers,
and is said not to be equitable across different gradations. It is seen that the
bitumen film thickness, rather than the VMA, may be related to durability of the
mix [Kandhal 1998]. Various mix design approaches There is no unified approach
towards bituminous mix design, rather there are a number of approaches, and each
has some merits are demerits. Table-1 summarizes [RILEM 17 1998] some of the
important bituminous mix design approaches: Table-1 Various mix design
approaches [RILEM 17 1998] Various countries have adopted various mix design
approaches, which have been evolved through individual experiences. Most of the
time these do not follow a particular approach as enlisted in Table-1, rather use a
combined approach. Some of these mix design approaches followed in various
specifications may be summarized in Table-2 [RILEM 17 1998]. Table-2 Mix
design approaches adopted in various specifications/ organizations [RILEM 17
1998] Specification/ organization Country Category NARC96-I-III Australia
Recipe/ Volumetric/ Performance related ASTO/ PANK95 Finland Recipe/
Volumetric/ Performance related AFNOR France Recipe/ Volumetric/ Performance
related DIN Germany Recipe/ Empirical CROW The Netherlands Volumetric/
Performance related BS 594 / 598 UK Recipe/ Empirical Asphalt Institute USA
Empirical/ Volumetric SHRP Superpave USA Volumetric/ Performance related /
Performance based Mix design method Description Recipe method Recipe based
on experience of traditional mixes of known composition. This is experience based
approach, which has shown good performance over long period of time, and under
given site, traffic and weather conditions. Empirical mix design method In
empirical mix design method, optimization of several variables are done by
mechanical empirical test, taking into account some specifications as limits which
evolved through prior experience. Variables considered in this approach may not be
used as direct measures of performance. Analytical method The analytical method
27
does not consider preparation of any physical specimen. Composition is
determined exclusively through analytical computations. Volumetric method In
volumetric method, proportional volume of air voids, binder and aggregates are
analyzed in a mixture, which is compacted in the laboratory by some procedure
close to field compaction process. Performance related approach In performance
related mix design, the specimens that meet volumetric criteria are compacted and
tested with simulation and/or fundamental tests to estimate their properties that are
related to pavement performance. Performance based approach Performance based
approach is something which is based on the performance of the complete system.
Laboratory instrumentation tends to simplify the situation, yet it is indeed difficult
to simulate field conditions. Superpave mix design recommends use of Supepave
shear tester, indirect tensile tester for evaluation of laboratory of the bituminous
mix. These tests are basically accelerated performance tests of bituminous mixes.
Recent trends As obvious from the above discussion, the recent emphasis on
bituminous mix design is on performance related and performance based
approaches. The requirement of a good mix design has changed from time to time.
Table-3 gives some idea of how the mix design requirements have changed from
past to present. Table-3 Requirements of bituminous mix design Past Present
Stability Durability Economy Stiffness Permanent deformation Fatigue
Temperature susceptibility Low temperature cracking Moisture susceptibility
Freeze-thaw Permeability Economical Environment friendly Workability Economy
Some of the above requirements are sometimes mutually conflicting. For, example,
the higher is the bitumen content, the better is the fatigue life, provided all the
other parameters are kept unchanged. But with the increase of bitumen content, the
resistance to rutting may decrease. Increase in bitumen content not accompanied
by adequate amount of air voids will result in the fall of stability of the mix, the
chances of bleeding will increase. The only way to increase bitumen content
28
keeping sufficient air voids (VA) is by maximizing VMA and suitably gradation
can be designed. Heavy duty bituminous pavements are composed of bituminous
binder course and wearing course, for example, Dense Bituminous Macadam
(DBM) and BC [MORT&H 2001], as per Indian specification. Same grades of
bitumen are generally used for construction of these layers. Generally same grades
of bitumen are used for construction of these layers. Stiffer grade of bitumen has
higher value of stiffness, and it causes lesser stains to the pavement layers and also
it is expected to show lesser rutting. On the other hand, higher fatigue life as
observed for bituminous mixes with softer grade of bitumen [Das 1998], indicates
greater longevity of the pavement against fracture. It can be shown
computationally [Das and Pandey 2000, Das 2004] that if a pavement is
constructed with softer grade of bitumen at the lower layer, and harder grade at the
top layer, the pavement is expected to last longer, than a pavement constructed
with same grades for both the layers this technique is known as rich-bottom
pavement construction [Harvey et. al. 1997, Monismith 2001] in other countries.
Discussions The present article has discussed some of the considerations involved
in bituminous mix design. The complex behaviour of bituminous mixes and its
relationship with volumetric parameters are not fully understood; as of now, the
bituminous mix design largely depends on the laboratory experiments and its
performance on the in-service roads is difficult to predict. The Marshall test is a
popular mix design approach, possibly due to its simplicity and low cost. The
Superpave recommendations have rationalized the concepts of bituminous mix
design to a great extent, however, it involves evaluation of mix properties through
a number of costly equipment. But, some of the concepts, for example,
development of statistical specifications of binder and aggregate, considerations of
mix performances with reference to fatigue, rutting and other parameters could be
verified before finalizing the mix proportions. It is possibly the need of the day to
29
develop a sequential mix design protocol at various levels of significances. With
the development various of special purpose mixes, mixes with modified bitumen,
perpetual pavement, rich bottom pavement etc it is expected that in future days,
the mix design and structural pavement design together will develop to be an
integrated approach.
Modified bituminous materials can bring real benefits to highway
maintenance/construction, in terms of better and longer lasting roads, and savings
in total road life costings.
But the choice of what materials to choose and how they perform has to be said is a
bit of a minefield at present with little truly independent advice available, and this
guide may help in making the necessary decisions.
This guide is an attempt to provide some fairly practical information on modified
bituminous materials, particularly materials where the bitumens have been
modified by the addition of a polymer.
I will outline what may be achievable by the addition of various modifiers, and the
broad action of how it is achieved.
I will also outline some of the problems that can be encountered in the storage of
modified binders, the production of bituminous material, and the storage of mixed
material prior to laying.
It has to be said at the outset almost all modified bituminous materials are
proprietary materials, this causes problems in determining the benefits of different
materials on offer, and the ability to directly compare one material with another.
It is unrealistic, and is not what a highway engineer is paid for, to just believe the
claims of sales representatives.
The term "polymer" does not automatically mean a synthetic material.
It basically means a combination of a large number of similar small molecules or
"monomers" into large molecules or "polymers".
30
The polymer will have different properties to the monomer.
There are a large number of naturally occurring polymers, these can be organic or
mineral substances.
Such natural examples of polymers include hair, rubber, diamonds and sulphur.
Even bitumen could be regarded as a polymer because of the long-chain nature of
some of the organic molecules that are the constituent parts of bitumen.

SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
These are polymers that have been manufactured in a chemical process to combine
particular molecules in a way that would not occur naturally.
And although various synthetic polymers have been capable of being produced
since the early part of this century it is the more recently developed polymers that
are now being used to modify bitumens and produce the "new" bituminous
binders.
The new polymers being the result of research and development by the large petro-
chemical industries.
But when I say "new" most of the synthetic polymers used in the modification of
bitumen have been around for 30 years or more.
What may be "newer" is the way that they are "mixed" / "blended" with the base
bitumen.

NATURAL RUBBER
Rubberised asphalt, mainly surface course (wearing course) but also binder course
(basecourse), has been used with a fair degree of success for over 40 years.
Rubber is a natural polymer and its action in a bituminous mix is similar to that of
the synthetic thermoplastic rubbers (TR's).

31
Quite a lot of the original trial work including rubber in bituminous mixes was
conducted in Leicestershire in conjunction with the TRRL and the rubber
companies.
These trials are very well documented in TRRL reports and are an excellent source
of information for anybody proposing to use natural rubber as a bitumen modifier.

BASIC PROPERTIES OF BITUMEN


Bitumen is so useful in the road making and road maintenance industries because
of its basic thermoplastic nature, i.e. it is stiff/solid when cold and liquid when hot,
(well with penetration grade bitumens anyway).
(The modifying polymers used in bitumen are also thermoplastic in nature.)

THE WAYS THE ADDITION OF POLYMERS MAY MODIFY BITUMEN


The polymer additives do not chemically combine or change the chemical nature
of the bitumen being modified, apart from being present in and throughout the
bitumen.
What polymers will do is change the physical nature of bitumens, and they are able
to modify such physical properties as the softening point and the brittleness of the
bitumen.
Elastic recovery/ductility can also be improved.
This in turn will alter the properties of the aggregate / bitumen mixture in which
the modified bitumen is used.
These criteria are important in a mix with regard to problems such as wheel track
rutting at high temperatures and fatigue cracking at low temperatures due to the
brittleness of the mix.
The basic laying workability of the asphalt or macadam you are using will still be
governed by the viscosity of the grade of bitumen you have specified.
32
It is usually the stiffer 50pen, or possibly 70pen bitumen that is modified.
The way the additive/polymer usually influences the bitumen characteristics is by
dissolving into certain component fractions of the bitumen itself, spreading out its
long chain polymer molecules to create an inter-connecting matrix of the polymer
through the bitumen.
It is this matrix of the long chain molecules of the added polymer that modifies the
physical properties of the bitumen.
Because of the thermoplastic nature of the polymers, some polymers will actually
break up into their constituent molecular blocks at the high temperatures, during
mixing and laying, and recombine into their polymer chains at lower temperatures,
i.e. ambient temperatures.
What has to be ascertained in practice is the degree of modification that takes
place, and whether the degree of improvement achieved in the overall qualities of
the bituminous mix is worth having, and is it cost effective.

12. HIGH MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS


High modified asphalt binders are asphalt cements that are blended with synthetic
additives or chemical modifiers to enhance their physical properties for use in
asphalt-aggregate mixes. The most common type of high modified asphalt binders
are polymer-modified binders. Polymers are materials with long-chained molecular
structures that, when mixed with asphalt cement (typically, at a rate between 3 and
6 percent by weight of the asphalt) and a chemical catalyst, dissolve and cross
link with the asphalt to form a homogeneous binder material. Polymers include
natural and synthetic rubbers (thermoplastic elastomers, such as styrene butadiene
33
styrene [SBS] tri-block copolymer and styrene butadiene rubber [SBR] latex) and
plastics (thermoplastic plastomers, such as ethyl vinyl acetate [EVA], ethylene
glycidyl acrylate [EGA], and polyethylene). Polymer-modified binders are seeing
increasingly widespread use in HMA. The modified binder is more elastic and has
improved low- and high-temperature stiffness (viscosity) properties that are better
capable of meeting the performance requirements of the Super pave performance
graded (PG) asphalt binder specification (AASHTO M 320, AASHTO M 323),
which are tied to the environmental and traffic conditions of the project site.
Polymer-modified asphalt binders are typically specified and used in situations
where the PG grade span (i.e., the low-temperature grade plus the high-temperature
grade) is greater than 90 (e.g., PG 7022). They exhibit the following binder-
enhancement characteristics (WAPA 2002):
Lower stiffness at the high temperatures associated with construction, thereby
facilitating the pumping of the liquid asphalt binder as well as the mixing and
compaction of the HMA in which the polymer-modified binder is used.
Higher stiffness at high-service temperatures, resulting in reduced levels of
rutting and shoving in the polymer-modified mix.
Lower stiffness and faster relaxation properties at low service temperatures,
resulting in reduced thermal cracking in the polymer-modified HMA.
Increased adhesion between the asphalt binder and the aggregate in the presence
of moisture, resulting in a reduced likelihood of stripping in the polymer-modified
mix.
Improved aging characteristics, which help delay the deleterious impacts of
oxidation and provide a more durable pavement.
The construction and maintenance of pavements with polymer-modified HMA is
similar to that of conventional HMA pavements. A number of highway agencies
have constructed polymermodified HMA pavements since their introduction in the
34
late 1990s. Performance of these pavements has generally been good and has
improved over the years corresponding to the advances in technology.
Applications
Polymer-modified asphalt binders are most commonly used in HMA mixes that are
to be placed in high-stress applications. Typical locations include intersections with
stop-and-go traffic, high volume freeways and interstates, and high truck volume
routes (DAngelo n.d.). In addition, they are often used in areas of extreme climate
(e.g., deserts or areas with very low temperatures).
Benefits
Although more expensive than neat asphalt binder, the use of polymer-modified
binder in HMA can provide markedly improved performance in terms of reduced
rutting, reduced fatigue cracking, and reduced thermal cracking, particularly in
high-stress and climate-sensitive conditions. Depending on the costs and
performance characteristics specific to a locale, the lifecycle costs of mixes that
incorporate polymer-modified binders can be significantly lower than those of
mixes using unmodified binders.

Costs
Bahia et al. (2001) estimated that the cost per ton of a modified binder is between
50 and 100 percent greater than that of neat asphalt cement, translating to an
increase of 10 to 20 percent in the in-place cost of HMA. DAngelo (n.d.)
estimated that polymer-modification can increase the cost of virgin binder
anywhere from 30 to 100 percent, which consequently increases the price of HMA
by 10 to 40 percent.
Current Status
Polymer-modified asphalt binders have increasingly become the norm in designing
optimally performing pavements, particularly in the United States, Canada,
35
Europe, and Australia. Bahia et al. (2001) estimated that the use of modified
asphalt binders in HMA was as much as 15 percent of the total annual tonnage of
asphalt binder used in the United States. A later report by Tandon and Avelar
(2002) indicated that 16 of 47 State agencies used modified binders. A 2005 survey
by the Transportation Research Board (TRB).

13.CONCLUSION

The needs for seeking advanced highway construction materials include: Reduced
costs get more lane-miles constructed or rehabilitated for a given constrained
budget; Conservation of resources supports national efforts to create sustainable
solutions to minimize impact of construction on the environment, Reduced
ecological footprint, Extended service life, Optimized use of locally available
materials, Achieving environmental benefits reduced carbon footprint, reduced

36
congestion related emissions. Reduced work zone related traffic delays and safety
concerns use materials that reduce the potential for early failures.
Bitumen is an oil based substance. It is a semisolid hydrocarbon product produced
by removing the lighter fractions (such as liquid petroleum gas, petrol and diesel)
from heavy crude oil during the refining process. As such, it is correctly known as
refined bitumen. In North America, bitumen is commonly known as asphalt
cement or asphalt. While elsewhere, asphalt is the term used for a mixture of
small stones, sand, filler and bitumen, which is used as a road paving material. At
ambient temperatures bitumen is a stable, semisolid substance. The vast majority
of refined bitumen is used in construction: primarily as a constituent of products
used in pavement wearing (surface) course and roofing applications bituminous
materials are also used for stabilizing the other layers of flexible pavements.

37