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Port Policy: Competitiveness, Export and Employment
The main objective of the ports must be encourage exports and foreign trade, supporting the Portuguese companies to create more jobs. That is, the purpose that should guide all work and organization of the ports is about to make companies more competitive and regions, serving as centers of development to create more value and employment. Thus, the key words of the ports should Competitiveness, Export and Employment. Should be based on these keywords that all ports policy should take place. I argue that to achieve these objectives we have a mix of liberal interventionism and, in so far as a close and another will serve to maximize the goals of competitiveness, exports and employment. Having as basic principles liberalization and competition in port, which are arguably more appropriate instruments for the regulation of economic activities, they must be applied as necessary, ie where the intervention more back injury that liberalization and competition, and should be regulated seeking compatible, for example, with the need to achieve critical mass and with the minimum need to have an adequate quality of service. That is, the principles of liberalization and competition should take priority, and minimum measured except when some intervention is necessary to obtain greater value for competitiveness, exports and employment. We must not forget that the ports should not be treated as cash cows for government revenue, where the rate takes precedence over everything and profitable financial investment is paramount, but as centers of economic development very important for the creation of wealth and employment, particularly in export, where the economic profitability may imply lower rates and support the Port Authority, and key public investment in ports and organize their governance and operation of public and semi-public in order to maximize the economic impact in the business of the regions. Based on these objectives, purposes and principles that one must consider each component of the ports, labor-intensive port concessions, port services, logistics connection, access, terminals, equipment, mounds,
valences, competitive factors and must know the detail to the niche markets by product, customer and hinterland and foreland, before thinking of interventionism and specializations that do not make practical sense. For this, it seems very important role of public enterprise of Port Authorities, which is already highly developed in the countries of northern Europe. In the ports of northern Europe, the Port Authority (PA) has an important role as unifying the interests of the port, which is a unit due to its geographical proximity, as a body, and it works in the articulation of its various terminals with channels of access and accessibility by land, connecting to the outside. The AP has in these countries with ports concession, a key entrepreneurial role in developing the port into several strands in which the private is not involved: a) In planning the creation of new terminals and piers, the extent and depth of maritime access channels in communication with the entities responsible for public funding and accessibility by land and intermodality; b) The disclosure of the port as a whole, coalescing the interests of the various operators as a unit and has implications for the general interest of the port; c) support to terminals in visits and business proposals to customers and operational shippers and shipowners; d) The assembly services and connectivity in intermodal rail, road and informational terminals and inland logistics platforms for distribution and collection; e) The facilitation and installation of private investment and encouraging the choice of port by land and maritime logistics chains; f) the guarantee of quality, reliability and competitiveness of port services, regulating, liberalizing and promoting competition; g) in reducing costs and giving the example to make the port more competitive and interacting with the forces of the region where it occurs and with major customers and industries, to adapt the port to customer needs and gain the institutional entities and population to their cause;
h) In advance of research studies in terms of innovative technologies and solutions in logistics and promotion of internal competition and other ports; i) Promoting large forum of stakeholders in the development of the port, on specific topics or niche markets and related intermodal and interinstitutional. These aspects of theoretical and apparently minor, almost dispensable, are proving essential in the differentiation of the northern ports of Europe and their terminals, representing a strong asset to the terminals under management or concession of private companies. The AP usually enjoying a minimum staff of highly skilled technicians handle security, engineering general, the management of concession contracts, but the main role entrepreneurship public. Moreover, the study of the European Parliament, 2009, "The Evolving U.S. seaports ROLE OF LOGISTICS IN GLOBAL MARITIME," has this theme as a theme of development of European ports and the AP, concluding on the importance of the development of networks of ports and logistics terminals, increasing the scope of the port and leaving the jurisdiction for the hinterland and the foreland.
Source: Buck Consultants International (2008)
estudo do Parlamento Europeu de 2009, “THE EVOLVING ROLE OF EU SEAPORTS IN GLOBAL MARITIME LOGISTICS” em: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/committees/studies/download.do? language=en&file=28491#search=%20maritime