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math

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Approximate integration of a function.

Example

3

Evaluate x 4 dx

2

3

5 5

3 5

x 3 2

x dx 42.2

4

2 5 2 5 5

In general, when the graph of y = f(x) is approximately

b

linear for a x b, the value of the integral f x dx can

a

be approximated by the area of a trapezium. This can be

y f x Area of trapezium

=

1

b a f a f b

2

For the previous problem

Area of trapezium 3 2 f 3 f 2

1

2

81 16 48.5

1

a b 2

Which is close but not close enough

By increasing the number of trapeziums between a and b

we obtain a more accurate approximation. The increased

number of trapeziums gives rise to the following formula

b

f x dx d y0 yn1 2 y1 y2 y3 ...

1

a 2

Or in other words

b

f x dx d

1 (sum of end + twice sum of

2 points the rest)

a

Example

3

approximate value of

1 , giving your

dx

1 1 x2

answer to three decimal places.

1

x0 = 1 y0 = 0.707... Put x = 1 into

1 x2

x1 = 1.5 y1 = 0.554...

x2 = 2 y2 = 0.447...

x3 = 2.5 y3 = 0.371...

x4 = 3 y4 = 0.316...

3

0.50.707 0.316 20.554 0.447 0.371

1 1

dx

Difference between each x 1 1 x2 2

coordinate worked out by going from

x = 1 to x = 3 in five ordinates. 0.942

Example

approximate area to be that of four trapeziums, estimate

1

the value of cos x dx , giving your answer to 4 d.p.

0

For problems involving trig functions,

calculators must be in radian mode

x0 = 0 y0 = 1

x1 = 0.25 y1 = 0.877...

x2 = 0.5 y2 = 0.760...

x3 = 0.75 y3 = 0.647...

x4 = 1 y4 = 0.540... 1

0.251 0.540 20.877 0.760 0.647

1

cos x dx

0 2

0.7640

Example

0.8

x2 , giving your answer to four decimal places

e dx

0

x2

x0 = 0 y0 = 1 Put x = 0 into e

x1 = 0.2 y1 = 1.0408...

x2 = 0.4 y2 = 1.1735...

x3 = 0.6 y3 = 1.4333...

x4 = 0.8 y4 = 1.8964...

0.8

0.21 1.8964 21.0408 1.1735 1.433

x2 1

e dx

0 2

1.0192

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