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Lovely Professional University 2008-10
Meaning of Simulation Emergence of Simulation Review of Simulation
How Companies are handling Simulation Training
Critical Appraisal Bibliography
Meaning of Simulation
Simulation is the imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behaviours of a selected physical or abstract system. Simulation is used in many contexts, including the modeling of natural systems or human systems in order to gain insight into their functioning. Other contexts include simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training and education. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action.
Emergence of Simulation
There is a new generation entering the workforce, one that craves continual interaction, visual information and multisensory stimulation in learning environments. Known as Generation Y, this group grew up with video games and came of age during the communications technology era. As a result, they are accustomed to absorbing new information through interactive multidimensional methods. That’s why the Fortune 500, military and government organizations have turned to visually rich simulations as a way to captivate and train this group of multitaskers.
Behind these realistic training scenarios is powerful technology. Much like an artist needs a paintbrush to create a masterpiece, scenario developers need technology tools to create highly realistic simulations. With the emergence of more sophisticated software, 2008 promises to be an eventful year on the simulation front, particularly as different organizations start using more sophisticated training scenarios. To kick off the new year, here are the top five trends — from advances in artificial intelligence to new types of training scenarios — that are shaping the simulated learning environments of tomorrow. 1. Highly realistic training scenarios aren’t just for soldiers anymore. Until recently, training simulations were too costly for organizations outside of the defense community to obtain. However, as the technology for developing training scenarios becomes more widely adopted and affordable, simulations are becoming a popular training tool in the domains of emergency management, homeland security and border patrol. For example, developers of training scenarios can now leverage weather data to simulate weather conditions that police and rescue workers will encounter when dealing with an emergency situation. Simulations can even be used to study the potential impact that disbanding a local gang would have on a community, or for determining evacuation procedures for a building that hasn’t even been erected yet. 2. Training games are becoming more realistic than games designed for entertainment. Serious games do more than entertain. They help employees, soldiers and emergency response workers develop the skills they need to further their professional development. For example, artificial intelligence tools, originally designed for the development of video games, also are used to create
immersive training simulations for the military. Using AI software, developers create more dynamic and lifelike training scenarios that enable trainees to interact with virtual people in real-world contexts. Traditionally, the entertainment industry was years ahead of the serious games market when it came to developing realistic scenarios and special effects. But the need for simulations to involve intelligent characters who move and act like real people — particularly within the military — is prompting developers to use highly sophisticated development tools. This heightened reality will see more developers of serious games turn to more sophisticated AI software, which will help create more complex and realistic scenarios. 3. New types of training scenarios are driving new simulation technology. A new type of training that combines reality with virtual environments is coming to the spotlight. Now used primarily for soldier training, these scenarios involve a blend of live-action role-playing, simulated environments and scenarios, and virtual effects. During a live flight training exercise, for example, trainers can use virtual radars to simulate enemy aircraft. This puts trainees, flying real aircraft, in the same type of high-stress environment they are likely to encounter in an actual combat situation. This is particularly beneficial because flight training with multiple aircraft can be quite expensive. By combining virtual information with live flight training, trainers can push a pilot’s skills to the limit. Because there will be a demand to create exercises crafted around particular missions and environments, live training will create a need for adaptable software that allows users to quickly and easily modify synthetic environments to meet their specific requirements.
4. Joint missions are driving the development of interoperable solutions. Geographical boundaries have been lifted with advances in computing and communications. Distributed mission operations, which enable military personnel from around the globe to train together in a virtual world for combat missions, are now being used to collaboratively train and develop procedures. But for these types of simulations to be successful, different computer systems have to communicate with each other. Interoperability standards, like HLA 1516, DIS and CIGI, are making it possible for all the components in a simulation system to work together. In the years to come, interoperability standards will become more refined and U.S. Department of Defense projects will increasingly require specially certified interoperability solutions. As a result, more developers of simulations will adopt open standards as the primary means of communications protocols between applications. As these standards become more widely integrated into technology and adopted by the industry, we expect to see data and applications being repurposed and combined in innovative and revolutionary ways. Tomorrow’s applications will be able to leverage all past development in new simulation contexts. Furthermore, simulations created within newer departments, such as the Department of Homeland Security, will be interoperable with legacy systems. 5. There is a greater focus on the end-user experience. In order to captivate today’s generation of young military recruits, organizations are raising the bar for realism and demanding scenarios that are rich in features and highly accurate. With improvements in visualization technologies and the increasing sophistication of artificial intelligence tools, the end
result is an enhanced training experience with extremely realistic scenarios. This means that trainees sitting in a stationary seat actually feel like they are flying a military aircraft or are bobbing up and down at sea in a large vessel. It’s common for trainee pilots to come out of training sessions drenched in sweat because they’ve forgotten they are not really dealing with an emergency landing or fending off enemy forces. Conclusion: Effective training and powerful technology go hand in hand A generational shift is happening across the workforce. The video game generation no longer consists of kids and young adults having fun at home, but now includes first responders, office employees and soldiers at work. Through simulations that leverage powerful technology, CLOs can effectively engage and captivate this group of young people, who have come to expect more than textbooks when it comes to training. With advances in technology, training scenarios will continue to advance in the years to come, creating even more effective opportunities and outcomes for interactive learning.
Review of Simulation
Simulation has been used for many years to train aviation and military personnel for work in hazardous environments. Effective and safe performance in these settings requires both highly skilled individuals and a high degree of team coordination. In addition to individual competence, communication between team members and decision making become particularly important during the management of crisis scenarios. The following are some of the reviews of simulation training by some authors.
Simulation is yet another training methodology that can be utilized. Simulation is basically just walking an employee through the motions of a skill in a controlled environment until they master the skill. The benefits of this training methodology are that they train employees to perform specific skills needed for their job, and simulations help train employees to respond appropriately to unexpected events in a controlled environment. The drawbacks to simulation are again based on money. In certain cases where simulating machines are needed, the cost can be extraordinarily high. Therefore simulation exercises that utilize these kinds of devises are often times limited to larger businesses or to companies that are located close to companies that lend out simulators. By: Alvaro Fernandez
Aviation simulators can be extremely valuable to aviation students, potential students, and established pilots. In addition, flight simulators can simply be a lot of fun for anyone, even those who have no interest in ever becoming a pilot. Simulation programs range in complexity and features from the basic, PC versions to full room, 360 degree, virtual reality simulators. The most popular and full-featured PC flight simulator is the Microsoft Flight Simulator program. The program is generally marketed and purchased as a video game, but is a complete simulator that is used by pilot instructors, students and experienced pilots to learn and refresh skills. Fullfledged simulators, known as Full Flight Simulators (FFS) duplicate most aspects of
being in an airborne plane. They feature a full replica cockpit with full-size instruments and functional yoke. They are mounted on six-cylinder motion platforms that can simulate all six degrees of freedom – three linear movements and three rotations – that a plane in flight can experience. Those training in an FSS get in, buckle up, and carry out procedures just as they would in a real plane. Higher level Flight Training Devices (FTDs) are just like mini simulators, some even featuring visual systems. However, they don’t have a moving platform like the FFS does have. By: Chris Narfundle
Physicians, nurses and emergency responders work quickly in emergency situations to determine what is wrong with a patient and what needs to be done to help them. Many times this requires the administration of a medication. Months of research later, PharmProps, LLC was formed, offering extremely realistic simulated medication products that provide all of the necessary elements required for safe, effective medication administration training. As the picture shows, the simulated medications are quite realistic, but easily identifiable as training simulations due to the brightly colored labels and the inclusion of the "Training Use Only" and "Not For Human Use - Contains No Medication" tags. All of PharmProps products contain only water, for safety purposes. Finally there is a product that will allow educators and trainers to address the
medication administration training needs of medical professionals in a safe, legal and effective manner. By: Barb Wilt
Someone interested in online currency trading can learn all about the advantages of trading in currencies. After a brief introduction, the professionals will explain to the prospective day trader what the foreign currency exchange is and how it began. Having a solid background of foreign currency trading origins will
give them a starting point to build their strategies on throughout the course.While learning online currency trading from professionals, students in the course will learn all about the main currency markets and learn how to use the foreign currency markets to their best advantage. Some people trade only in the currency of their own country and never see the financial benefits that others do that invest their monies in multiple foreign currency exchanges.When they have learned how to read currency charts and the terminology used in phone trading, then they will be able to trade currencies throughout the foreign currency trading course and learn how to make a profit. These simulated training courses are very beneficial to helping people become successful traders on the foreign currency exchange market. By: Jim Brown
How companies are handling simulation training
INCORPORATION OF SIMULATION-BASED training provides numerous benefits to corporations.This article explores how companies are using simulation-based training today to achieve these benefits. From the avation industry to medical field simulation-based training is increasing employee performance,skill level, and saftey.
• Simulation in Aviation Industry
Technical companies that are required to train employees on dangerous or expensive equipment are most likely to benefit from simulation-based training. Simulations allow the user to observe the impact of their choices without the outcomes having any impact on the real operation. Trainees can learn how to respond to emergencies, how individual actions and decisions effect entire processes, and how to operate complex pieces of equipment.
Figure 1. Simulated Airplane cockpit. The airplane cockpit simulation takes on a new approach to simulation training. The user has the opportunity to observe how all the components of the cockpit work together. This approach allows the user to gain a persepctive of the interactions and correlations between the numerous components contained in an airplane cockpit. This type of system development can support a great variety of training needs. The simulation gears the user to focus on the integration, interaction, and correlation of all the components in the cockpit and provides them with a learning environemnt that is equalivent to the actual system itself. Medical Respirator Pump The medical respirator pump provides medical personnel with the benefit of interactive training on a simulation. Through the use of simulations, valuable operating equipment is not tied up and the risk of injurying patients is decreased.. Users can train off-line and at another location out of the hospital facility any time. Hopitals can test and certify personnel for competency in through the taskbased courses. In addition, records on each user can electronicaly be maintained through an LMS. Anesthesia Machine The Anesthesia Machine simulation offers the following benefits of interactivity:
Show Me: users are shown how to perform functions on the machine Try Me: users try performing the functions on their own Freeplay: users can interact create their own senarios while operating the machine.
PGM Tester The PGM Tester simulation is designed with cause and effect senarios. Mechanics can trigger vehicle faults and instantly observe the result in the simulation. After completing an on-line course, users need to practice what they just learned on a simulated PGM Tester. First users are provided with senario based exercises. On screen text provides the user with stepby-step instructions and feedback to complete the execise correctly. Next, the user has the opportunity to try the exercise on their own. In this situation users receive feedback for incorrect steps, but must perform the procedure without guideance. The user can practice performing procedures as if they were operating the real device.
• Simulation in US Army PEO Stri
Every Soldier who deploys uses some type of simulation to train critical Warfighting skills. Simulations help our Soldiers hone their skills, rehearse their missions and return to their families safely when
their missions are complete. PEO STRI responds quickly to critical, emerging requirements with innovative acquisition and technology solutions and puts the power of simulation into the hands of America's Warfighters!
• Simulation Training and Resident Performance of Singleton Vaginal Breech Delivery
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether simulation training improves resident competency in the management of a simulated vaginal breech delivery. METHODS: Without advance notice or training, residents from 2 obstetrics and gynecology residency programs participated in a standardized simulation scenario of management of an imminent term vaginal breech delivery. The scenario used an obstetric birth simulator and human actors, with the encounters digitally recorded. Residents then received a training session with the simulator on the proper techniques for vaginal breech delivery. Two weeks later they were retested using a similar simulation scenario. A physician, blinded to training status, graded the residents' performance using a standardized evaluation sheet. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed
2 rank test, McNemar , regression analysis, and paired t test as appropriate with a P value of less than . 05 considered significant.
RESULTS: Twenty residents from 2 institutions completed all parts of the study protocol. Trained residents had significantly higher scores in 8 of 12
critical delivery components (P < .05). Overall performance of the delivery and safety in performing the delivery also improved significantly (P = .001 for both). CONCLUSION: Simulation training improved resident performance in the management of a simulated vaginal breech delivery. Performance of a term breech vaginal delivery is well suited for simulation training, because it is uncommon and inevitable, and improper technique may result in significant injury.
Training Provided by RANA International Inc.
An innovative three-day program incorporating an interactive change management simulation designed to introduce management concepts and skills critical to leading organizational transformation. 1. Uses a combination of workshop training and multimedia computer technology to sensitize and orient the senior members of the organization to managing change. 2. Helps the senior team and the other affected work units to model the change and establish the sequence of events that needs to take place from the beginning to the end of the change. 3. Structures the Change Projects and mentors and coaches its leaders and members as they roll out the desired change to the rest of the organization. Then monitors the movement forward of the culture change and helps the organization work with areas of concern. Benefits of this Workshop: - Introduce, adjust and sustain change
- Create a readiness to change - Support change agents - Understand several established models of change. - Distinguish between those traditional skills necessary to manage and those needed to manage change - Identify why change efforts often fail and the means to avoid these obstacles - Execute an actual change management simulation in a risk-free environment
ARS project & communication
ARS Projects & Communication is a pioneer of Project Management Simulation trainings in Europe. It was created in 1985 in Sophia Antipolis to service European Companies.Our training programs objective is to enhance or develop further capabilities of Project Management professionals to handle their jobs be those technical or personal development modules. Through its EPM Public Trainings Workshops, ARS is truly creating a China and European Contact Point of Project Management Professionals with different levels, bringing them together in a unique interactive learning environment. You'll find there leading edge thinking on project management issues, benchmark information, and on top added value, but also invaluable networking opportunities. More than 1500 participants have joined our EPM Project Management activities from 100 different companies. We offer differet trainings include all factors of project management. ARS project & communication is based in Beijing.
• Simulation-Based Training Facility Opens, Focusing on Power Generation Industry As utility company executives make plans to meet the growing electricity needs of the Southeast, they’re also watching their most experienced personnel approach retirement age. Finding enough skilled personnel to operate complex power-generation facilities poses one of the most critical challenges facing the industry today. Collaboration between Baltimore-based GSE Systems and the Georgia Institute of Technology offers one solution: a new way of learning that combines traditional classroom training with hands-on experience using advanced computer simulations of complex industrial facilities. Simulations have long been used to train pilots, but are relatively new to other types of Industrial training. To provide that innovative learning environment, GSE has built a multi-million-dollar simulation and education center at Georgia Tech’s Global Learning Center in Technology Square. The company officially opened the facility – the first of its kind in the United States – with a ceremony September 13
The center includes more than a dozen LCD panels driven by a powerful computer to simulate the many key systems operated from the GSE Systems and Georgia control room of an electric generating plant. Tech have created a new simulation and education Student operators can center in Technology adjust controls and Square on the Georgia immediately see the Tech campus. effects of their actions not only on the system they are controlling, but also on the rest of the plant. Realistic warnings indicate potentially dangerous conditions to which the students must respond. Three-dimensional models show the systems and exact components being controlled. “The simulation allows plant systems to be integrated so the student operators really see the issue and understand the problems,” added Johnson. “We can show them how to operate everything from the simplest system to the whole interrelationship of the systems.” GSE sees a major market for its “education through simulation” training, and plans to add simulations for nuclear power generating stations, petroleum refineries, desalinization plants, oil and gas platforms, distribution facilities – and perhaps more. GSE operates a similar simulation training facility at Strathclyde University in Scotland. It serves companies
all around the world, including the Middle East, where it is building another center in the United Arab Emirates.
Thales Training & Simulation
Thales Training & Simulation lets pilots fly high while their feet are firmly on the ground. The company, a subsidiary of French aviation company Thales, makes and sells simulation equipment and provides training services for operators of civil and military airplanes and helicopters; it also provides services for heavy trucks and military vehicles and power plant operation centers. Thales estimates that more than 40 airlines and most of the world's major militaries have been customers; sales are about equally split between civil and military markets. Europe accounts for about 70% of sales. Products Thales have build numerous types of aircraft (fixed wing and helicopter) simulators, including:
Fixed Based - No motion platform, normally housed in a dome, commonly military application. Full flight simulators can also be fixed based, these are generally basic training devices that have no visual and are control trainers only. Full flight Simulators - A fully immersed simulation that has a motion platform, can be either hydraulic or electric (newer simulators) Military simulators - These can simulator parts of aircraft (fuselage), water based vehicles or ground
systems, they are designed to simulate the look and/or feel of the environment.
They also manufacture driver simulators for trucks (heavy goods vehicles) and military vehicles including tanks. The range of simulators includes nuclear power plant simulators (for operator training) and small arms simulators for training army, police, etc
Looking ahead we can criticize Simulation on the following grounds: Model building requires special training: It is an art that is learned over time and through experience. Furthermore, if two models of the same system are constructed by two competent individuals, they may have similarities, but it is highly unlikely that they will be the same Simulation results may be difficult to interpret: Since most simulation outputs are essentially random variables, it may be hard to determine whether an observation is a result of sysyem interrelationships or randomness. Simulation modeling and analysis can be time consuming and expensive: Skimping on resources for modeling and analysis may result in a simulation model and analysis that is not sufficient to the task. Simulation may be used inappropriately: Simulation is used in some cases when an analytical solution is possible, or even preferable. This is particularly true in the simulation of some
waiting lines where closed-form queueing models are available, at least for long-run evaluation. . Although numerous simulators are available for training technical skills in surgery and endoscopy, we need to integrate these into the training curriculum in a structured manner. we need to integrate mannequin based simulations into the nursing and medical curriculums and understand how and when it may make its most effective contribution. By a process of task analysis we need to understand much more about what makes a simulation realistic and effective. Costly and complicated mannequins and simulators may not always be necessary for effective training We need to develop reliable and valid measures of individual and team performance to underpin both training and evaluation of training. Finally, we need better evidence of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of simulation if it is to advance beyond its current niche to occupy a central place in medical and nursing training.
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