Towards Study of the Social Organization and Settlement Patterns of the Neolithic Communities in Central Sudan

Azharl Mustafa SADIG

\b tract: TIll. paper I "1 111.\ '('/I -ral outlute of ,II ocia! or. {1I11~'mll and ettl til lit patters () tile lealtthu societi .\ III 'cntra! udau [mm 'he 1111 10 'he late I'llll 111111 nnium B . I, II e~ the avoilablc mfunnanon II ettlem Ill. and meteri s from thi. ,. Ki(1If (1. 14 ('/1 a lilt, Dongola region /(1 pn: ent the trt« turc ot tt« t 0111111111111/ .~ atul theu .1 III 111('/111. I, 0/ u di cusse . in bri 1111 imilariti nu! ,"UeT, 'lit" '\ b« (1I'('t'" 'hi' ccmetc rtc and ettl In '/II ill/It {II o r ,if", . Tire' papa coni lud that,

//I Ipll o] I1IUII} (' H'CII'ot ci lilt'S, evidcn 'f! for dl ',W ial organizatian of til /' 'lip Ie of til olitnir /II

'f/mll/lld m.o« I' 1/ (1.1 Doneola r. '1011;\ /1II1;Ic:d If) burial lnfonnuuon, ftllol/gll ,II hypothettca! ocial tfC1\\t!.\ nll ({c'd III th rern'I1H'rf not obscrv (/ ill the II/ JIICTIII. available vulcnc em:

In indl« at t!WI th burial tround» at (II KUc/CU/ll, Kadero-l, Kadruko and I Multaga 11I1I. trat W( 1/ ,II procc of th IIICf(,CHill,l: (' III rcntration of WI(Ic/ and pOll' r bv a ocial .. elit «towards (/rc' 1U1 o] IIr I 'eolithi« .

Intr ductl n

lnhi the end

·C:J'-'" Irer II

am c rnpui n, th , 1lI.1 Sud n, inc' then. ied

mpha i!. h I ng be D laid on the need ~ r 11 • n wer u h f

evrd nc

n mrun eul m m~

burial in e lithi'lt m


una] have I

nIL! d


Burial b Ii

o t r-d tb


n t nd nccc sari] in id Ih


do nlll rd . the

L~ fune f) srru rure d n I alv y

reflect th rg nl' ti n in lhal .,OCI I ' .

.. anati n bod n ntau n differ from iet. to an ther

.g. Marcu

e n rm

pe ople were n I bu 'ing rh .ir d au. Ill) In':L th lal 1 7) h.t\

• .. iLl n • from the . • ml,;h:rl tantial imcteric h ve ) et be 11 thcr areas


hi e uvari ns at the

ro-I. I( 'U' d • 'nlJ<111

To",.rd I d.~ (lrlbl- i.aI) ilOil t1 I nd fll nlC1ll P It

.hildren of different a re

Cla: ... II. I mposcd of ~ buriat 7._,).

Th )- contain U "1Il~1c pottery \ e .. -c I in each

gru e with <kcleu I remains of ttl ',e

hildren f dille nl.Jgc ....

I thi d. (_) I ndl r unhty ware •

. rn hun ... lind other 'mall

per nt I ad rnm nl, mcludmg small lump' f m J. 'htl rnaz nne. Th also c main ,k letal children.

Cia, IV Eighl g. I1\iC, of'this la. (I - ) are dcm n. trobl ' the ri he lin tlu: c emctcry. Their fumi hing I' ompo 'd ( f lin potter) vess 1 . a, well a beakers, personal a I rnrnem , and weapon The grave xmuun v leI II remain

f ne hild. '1\ mal ldull, and I\\() ernale dull' lbid; _70).

KrJ:)'I.UnJ,t~ ar 'U d burial made up f th g. ve 01 t of the getl\ " of 'Iu" III reprc nt tbc f the mdi IduaJ'

r 01 the grave-

.• while 01 I 1 I were found cl i to lhl"

r... that g vern th di tribuu n of the are n t 'el leur. but in th 'CI erery dero-I it i quite po .. ibl lhal, I I tarus

I , o, I Jttl~

played a mUJ r rut . F r e • mple. mac heads, fin' pc Iter) \ • ,-I .personal dornmcnts mad If 1\' ry and , 011 pre i u.. ton were n I in gen ral u ',bul seem I h. ve be n c nnned to the rich I tomb ....

lIIll'l).. h as used thi finding I

pr ·head In

iety or urut retl - '1IIlg

ial tfurrnlv ethnic")

u 1991: 57-73: Rein ld 1 7:

17 7.

To 11 Iude Ihi part f ,11 ru ,i n th re

j., a po ibilit thai the am ng

rh K d ro-l cern tcry W ta '. r...

u '~ I d b) f7. zaniak, nfirmed. Ihl'

would ugge I thou the em rgcnce j a foodprodu III " n m} led I an' .... type of tal orgaruzati n.

• dad

lightl differ I1l ap h h s be n tak n

at th em teri .. of aJ h ba and al Karl da

Rein Id. 19 7 17-67; 1 91) 1 re empha; i ha been given 10 th -., l' I it pe ~ 10 the an I i. f Ihe two remer rie Preliminary rud ot the grave: , a .. und naken wuh the objc ti c 01 elu idaling th cultural r 'PC't .

ubs .qu 'ntl • -ene: of attributes were

analyzed nd u., d to re n tru I m I f bunal U I III \ hich reflect: J d .grcc f' ial c mplc: il . Th an ly i wus bill cd muml

n the organizau n of the planning 1 the grave \\ ithm the '01 'It.:ry. r up. \\ uh either

tratigrnphi r I I grophl rd. lion hip: WCI'


rem in un 'lear. alth

that Ih hav religi u igmf 'an .



lth ugh. l{!nJli

intcrc t in lh n the th th

en In the a e of I

rpnillhlm Dd' lkm I PIlJttrm f I

lC m ~ r ~ lure t II , urrenc ot tew grave whi h rmghr rene t" me III! rruve '00<1 and th ir

iul indi OUI n were n t nfined I n

'lTl\!I'I')' Th e lnhr zrave at Kad r -I.

f r ample. -howcd C n idcrablc varian ns in III If gr 'I,; go ld .; whrl • at ill K dud: the ammal

a rill cs, human igurin and rh r,' m )-

mdr ate ntual ntil r sc iial a pe I' l lum n . i .onnrn d. rna. J)"{ mdicat the J

In mmmary, lh four iI ~ lIowing at:

The qualll) I I the grave goods indicate), th

I I t IU f the d . 'a ... 'd. In other w rds, the

reft t th

retle is vanabrlity

Through Lim • pang and m re urred. a

grulrc ,

Th I d ,th might have pl: ycd a m j r

r It: in m rtuary trcatm nt animal sa rifi es at the 'It' 1:11 Gh: ba)

TIl' puti of grave \ ithin

cerneten f nn an rrn r1 nt dim n .. i n

I th m rtUd) pracu . (f r e ample th . di In uti n I 'rave' at K dero-I crnctcry)

rc earchcrs ruth r than the fa k f d ia.

good pn r II fI and h had onditi n f'the Ix I : rh children's c miuht have been de tru ed b nditi n ,

larg num r of zhrldren were uned clscv here and n t in the sam ccmet fY ~. the dull s.

e: tent r th e avations. Man' zruvc in the four itc were ted. and rh • mi 'hI c nuun m re

nd th

vi U IU ie

were arried

h U ·It. I JuI} 1 II

hcndi R h

Th culern m d bris In luded larg

I. I,~.().I Jul 2

quantitic t h II" om '''ti ' and wild animal bon' • Iithi . and ton' and grunuc grinder fragm nu .... poue "h rth tig _ .:l! W 11 ~. a

mall number I b< ne lind J\ lry 1 I. and v me hum. n figurin

c • vati ns.



mu .h emu 'd, ami v ire


and d ')rJI I w IIIl I" Ie r It' hmqu

hi h might h I\~ be .n Illlcnng .. wuh th huriJI" \\ 1:1\: .11... it! 'mlfi U In the f rm i I h)" r IIld "!'If' -r ~I in I,ll 111:' ~ lunu Ju"t be ide m~ IX)I. whil trugmcnt ul o: trich g~,. shell .und one bead may mdicat the type. f

ffcrin . pia ed In. id the P I

Ih or finds II p< ienual irnpc nan were 1\\(

fmgrn nt 01 hum n ugunn I he Ii t n I

• hum', h ad with I 1 PI' immcnt lc turcs bUI appearing \CI, imilar I c ample found al ul KadJ.d.l «hid. _ • The half I th hgunn

J de r.lI·d with a han! nppl d de all n 11' 7). The other I W1 10 complete human

hgunn mpn 109 the t r'I a f rru 1

I) :xl .. \ Ithlllll d .oraiion. of rtunat 'Iy. th up rlnO,1 I d I 1\\ rmo I p , f 1I ' f urine \\ rc 1 t. \hh sugh then P .j °

.1 Jllh

un ri

n. th ) , in

m t di: tin ltv feature ... ur In reriul are the high inde mil > I I i> of the ucry, pccrh t pes hthl artefa t. and pot-burials, :c. w II . S

melian ad. und hum 10

'lw en ~ and 5 rm in 'quare w 'I\: radi arbon Ult ed In th •


Radiocarb n Duun • Luborat l') 0 niv "it f \ 'ai .110. 'W Zealand. yielding Ih t llowing ual~"':

&II C lrbrnted nd 41 IBC·

.wa )

o al • II ruled:

BP: { xcal .alibrnt d:

rh date pia e ih uc in the rniddl

Ncolithi f cerural udan and perht p .. II htJ 'arller than the Ide I dale from ul Kadada (GIF·5770: 17Cl±111l BP (Gem. 19 I


'u t ms (map 3 . Th number re I n ugge ... t throughout th

upau n . 135).

C m tc c. currenuy nppcar as isohned rnound .• in a land-cape \\ hich i. ... toda fl t. vente 'n cern 'leric have been I ted: t we. fi nly te t d. thr .xcuvat d entirely. and . 11 ther thn e in the p f avanon .• mee th Y

\ r th VItIl to the rV11l rmllenmum in dill'. the inf nn u about the ev luti n th funeral cu I m and th modifi 'all ns of the, 'j I rtl.1ti n III th. hN c rnmuniuc

gn ulturc : nd caul bre dmg.

f th m I lin

B in. Thi: c nil cemeierie • in ludmg wealthy grav that h vc been temauvely mterprctcd as those f loc I chiefu in (O' mn r 1 3: 13

The m . I impre. I ve . mple c rncs from

I.. ...1

• -rn tery K I \\ h 're, .1" rding t It

di ... )\ 'rer. grave 131. I :11 d at til I P of the bun. I m undo dl pia ed th weahhi I gray Iurnuure e r lund 10 Nubia and Central

udan m a eolithi C( III I HI', 3 and

Th III r PH" have be in arranged at und It,

pending ut to f rm n ntri circles us mg

the liN bun I a focu .. Rem Id did n I U

thi: di. very I infer a related terri! ry that w uld have been c ntroll d b th ' \\ ncr f the grave. Ul he on rlud rd that u h a finding witnessed e pandrng soci lic.·- in other w rd ..

J wer are

n lher cem tery, RI:!. may give a Olllhl ubi n


T ..... I1k'lad, " Ih i 101''; nnalll'" III1d . t1mlot1U Pallt'ffl\ r II,

ubra • 11\ atori • nd ~ai

determim ri m , ;\' ) en wuh the exca anon re .. ealing different grav • layers, III • pile 01 tr ng ero ion \ .. luch e pe 'wll> uffc t d the n nh m and .. uihern penpherie . Thi long u. e w .. re pon .. ible for

rave Ircqucnrl cuuing into eu 'h ther and f r uher JI turban .ev, pan I rom the ri .. J, of the mi in~ ,I material, varctul traugraphr rnr I ilten .onfirmcd d chron I gl I order am ng tll' diflercm mhurnauon .

11H'. al me 0" that. UII!' nunatcly, man}

skelet n~ were found in ornplere. _ro. I n cau d tensive damauc to both the skeletal windrwat r II f th m undo

treatment From rh ,

lnvcsuguuons In the '1 Mull ga are, i ated near K ru • no d Da bu. brough: l tight c lulu burial' differing I rom other kn \\11 I I amI \: niemp rary burial . it .. Th kelctoru la under mounds In nun ted po III n m: Ide pit. JU I large en ugh t .omain them Grave goods were n t regule and ath r poor The e a .. ators fC'1 Ihal such pru lice .. probably rei, te 11 It 'al n rnudic group~

Perc smou .ct ul. ~ .54). Th )' OIls argu d

thai the la k of grave c m erurau I" nd th'

.arclt grave goodsc wh: h are am ng thc

m l.,l stoking differen ex fr In other cernet rie .

em to mdicarc n adaptau n based on n m h m. \\ hi h I pr bably conne ted with th c pi n.uion f th grear w dl thai j in ih . Ih r hand, burial'> t .JUUII .lnd hildren. whatever their age at d nth do n 1 I.h. play an} .Ignih ant ditleren 'C. Ih

I '" II. I uh 201

div rsit ' of their orientation and po iu n IllS in with what i, kn wn from rh oth r '11

the arne uhurul ht rizon. UI the contra ted p }~Ilion of the lower limb .• wh: h mv he the u c of traps. I: great r here than anyw h re cls 111 writer did n t mention If Ihi \\ as great r in

number of oc iurrcn • or III the e lent ul th

contra Ii n.

The cemeteries al Kadruka, Kcm13 and el Multaga p v id u with t remar able record displaying m n ,anlll<trllie~ II th ile, of

entral ud n • nd 1 suf mg to a comm n link bel Ween the .ultures. There ar . h wever, variation: thai m ) he uu rpreted ,I differ 'nl mode .. of voluu n or dill rent regronul

adaptau n. meteri di pia man

POlOt, In c mm n, e peciall in material culture. The . rrrulanuc and differen e seem 10 translate to h mogenou: populnu n • nd mdt ale a f . t volutl n f the, ial rder f th human group'.

III m ot P tterns

The term "settlement panern' i pplied

\\ h n a group of people IX. UPIC particulr r

gc graphi 31 region I e pi II 11 re. urce Th vtudy of -enlemeru JX ncrn- mean ihe . tud. I the relau n hip betw in the people. particular! pre hi t nc one v, th ir envrr nmenr. and the way III \. hrch th dt pted lh m elves culturall . and ec n rmcall t the envi nm em

a hrev IIlg the. e 0 ~ II e ..

of seulcmeru panern j<, very im

Generally, settlement pattern" arc defined a, re ulung f III th relata III hip between people w h , decided. ~ r p a lIt:JI, poliucal, c nomic, and udal consrderuiion . 10 plu c th ir house .. seulernent .und rehglous structurcx wh ere th )

did ( rr, 19 .). II rher detmition, wlu h was PUI torward b Bru c Trigger. uggest: that 1\\ 0 approachc have dominated ih rudy 01 ". ulcmcnt puuern't t'Trigger. 196 . $4),

The fIN appn ach "pnrmmly ecological und oft n ppe Ir, ttl be bll~ cd n the all umpu n that the "seulcmcnt pJIICm" i a produ I ul In simple imera Ii 'II of two variables nvir nmem and te hnol )~}, Thls I pc of tudv tend. to be

on erned wilh the IIC and the dismbun n of ihe totality t ... ite in an area The sc .ond approach uxe th data b: I for making inferences ubout the social, pol uical and reli rious rguruznu n 01 pr hi tOTI' cultures, Thi con entrate: (Ill th pancrning \\ ithm the indiv iduul -enlemeru.

culcment vite 10 th ... e d nnru n. arc tho-e around which a group of people centered their d II)' acuvuic: That mean .. n "seulemem'' r 'Iel'\ tad me-tic a ti\ ity. cn 'rall} .th 'th tnbution 01 lie, I' the In ,I imponant information for any .1I'I:h,· lugi ul interpretation be ause it ghe, U' the cluev f r un wering man) qu 1I n regarding aduprauon M rc n cr. the I) pe of

eulem nt "te., gives us IO~ rmanon, \\ hi h i \Cl) clo d) rei ted 10 the nvironmcm. tcchn logy. and social rganizution.

The sen I rnem lie an al be culled

"habuan n sue," and It .... the m . I omm nl) e 'iI.\ atcd I ~ 01 site be aUM! these are the place where the prelu I Til. people lived, and most f the information about the pte I culture. I" retrieved Irorn uch su v, It L often the c sc thai culernem ,ite co ·omp;.!'" a group 01

mailer PC" h t ,it·, such a~ quarrie ... ues for pottery producuon.u I .

~( ... t of the cc lithic 'tte ... in crural udan

are ge nc rail) large and rh up lJ n 1<1 cr lend

10 be of con. iderable Ihi.:l.n . 'U~~C ling long

periods of OI:t.UPUlIOII. Ccmctcne associared with me ofthe .. lie (Kad ro-I, al Kadud and

I I 10. u 1\0. I J ul~ 2Clc


al haba) further support an imcrprctau n of long. or ut lea. I regular, easonal oc upan n

Tabl I h w, Ih t m ... , e "Ihi' ,it lit Ihl region, espe lally in rh Khnn lim area, arc

ituated n ih allu ium. and Ih re 31l I ated

on natural m unds .Iightl elevated above th allu 131 plain The are al 0 heavily deflat d

wing ttl TO., I n and to human actlvmes uch as h usc building and tru h pa . ing across th m Funherm re , most are du turbed later burial. mainly Meroiu graves and I

requeruly, hn Ii 0 and Moslem grove

In Central udan th re arc 16 itcs that ha c 'n ,(uuu:d III me detail: three on the \ e 1 bunk 01 the ilc I ihuhernab. ofalub. and lvlang), even on the east bank (G iIi. Kadero-I, kudero-H, z. krab, 10 Direiwa I and m Direiv a In. and ih lie I Ilaj u If n the cast bank of the Blue ile). Thre arc located long the Whtt CLint plain (Rubak, J belli mat und Jcbcl Mo a. funher two sue ... arc located in the hendi area Cal ad dn nd 0.11 Ghabu) and one I .. in the western Butana plain

haqudud . Recently, Fernandez and hi t am

reported the cvi: renee \( me tuhic sue

al ng the Blue it • nd W:l(.h ba (FcmandcL..

_00. X -(0)

Til follow ing gencraliz tion about the

-ulemeni pal tc rns of the entrol. udnn

• colnhi site: may be made:

M I known itt arc quue large und the

-cupati n layers are of Lon iderubl depth. Ith ugh rraiified depo il.! ... cern 10 be lucking In some sues, em renes are .. omeiirnes u. rated with ih m.

2. The itc .. on the we I bank In th Khartoum are .. between th· \ hitc and Blue lie.' and

th In th' hendi area arc today generall

cl sc to the water; the} were even cl ... er r I the lim of oecut all n.

lilt . mmvnlf _ con I I OODII

these pattern. hal. eo 3' nal III vemcnt. ur r

avcmg • a


and lithic rn \ ith them,

\zb rI Mu tit'" ' d

n thc aio

the: • rtc: stu lated thai

n lhl.: we t bank upati n bu k from th river , t ban .. ( Iohamm d- Ii


_ Vall' '- lam Adapt. Ii n u istcn bai d

T"wurcb . I) ~ of th

I Oil! IlU U n ODd ' lllcmtnl "'U~rll of til • ,'lClth . '.", u nul'IU III tolrul lid

ana mal hu -bandry mainly f pa; I ral ham ter c rnbmed WIth

the In! n ive lie ling perhap already

\ ith clements of _ pc iulizau n 01 ed

01 , ild UOPII,;.tJ r Ill. ther

fruit'> mollusks, and

remain ue 10

C rural iudan reprc cnt edcnt ry r

. irni- dentary rni cd •. n m)' puluu n. whi h in ., nne asc m ludcd cultiv aiicn of dome ti atcd plants. nd herding 01 d me. II ated animals. H. aland ha: rgucd thlll th P

such a Kcdaro I. m Direiwn and Zaki b h \ S th t th inhabu nI w r probably 'ulu\ aung \ ild .. rghurn I . verti illillorumj.

teriah does not 1114IJ r 13 tor in r high quality

t nc f r tool making arc cry limit d in m I f th 1itldlc 'il rel!' n. The ma] rity r lithi t I were rru de on j ilc pebble • quurtz pebble. JIlt! sarul Inc, wtu h ar - man nl available 10. I . He huve : hown no tra • of

iMll e, I Jill _

ex ti r imported muteri I.

10 the Khan urn rcui n, mall <Ill nuu ., o rhy lue from rh ixth atara are f undo UJ1d m re ran:1) tic arnazonue, from an unkn wn _ lh ught by rkell I 5.:..J.) I me



tim III PiX> It' hartoum

rainy ca. on (Ha: I nd 19 7b; 216 .

with th

rnuterial, uery and

me a e. , with the grave all red to IIU -urr unding the -ite',

permanent trucrurc an of Ih e lath 1

trace •

lt I v a I. on idcrabl

d u 'nation. whi h \ III • 'ph 'meral ~ ature , urrung thal permanent

ulcrnem )r w hal 'an be call d "p

v ilia go:' 1'1 d during thi: pen rem 1Il!> t r

from c r

If w l •• pi that pall I rail m wus be iorning .111 in CC' ingl imp n m feature f c lithi

\ a. 01 life, lh role uch permanent nt r remain .. un I ar, Til' quannn lithic and I J d brix rc vcrcd

I u • I Jul~ 11

H al U, I 7a). 11

mainl n the pre ence UI1I ne

n the he Thi int rprctauon remains t be tested

ered ne h


rna ark. n f


I Illig III I t.:11 about I).

n ar Ih riv 'r dunng the d o bv. 19 7: 110. r rherc i iden e t pro lhi h pothe: 1 •

ng I R ach:

h i unui n III Lh

h 1 very veral wcc


" the CD tern em tery erma 1\ rhzau n.

It \ burred und 'r _ veral d zen eruim t r f


before being

• P Iltnl lb.

( . ur v ·r mu h the : urve rca nd CO\ or a

rom mu h greater pe nt. ge I th

than the of th ° other period I:

• )9 .

ppcar to

.1 JuJ 1

grave were fOUII

mall urta e

lith." d

n ral Remark :

h imrodu ti n f d me tic animal rnio


lluirl "It,tar .. 'i.-eli

the em ra I udan during Ih\! j (( lnhi period mu I have affected u PC·l!. of the life f the inlu bit 01.. urrent .nowledge 01 hronology and th relati ll' between udane and

aharan are. ug C l' that dom li stock

\\ re IIl1rUdULcd lrurn the ahan .. as It be arne dner Calli . 'h p. and ' at appea ret! b) the Vlth millennium BP. Local a scmblage I luhi und ernrmc h w oontinuu • mdic ling that an} movement of aharan HIIO the region \\. 'mall- ale. and culture 'onla·t \

important than mi 'muon to -oci on rm


-nrry of harunv rna. have been cased by

pri r v )clal lin <, with the udan, indi ated b trade und comm n "rami styles . rnparcd to the origrnal aha an h rdinu environment • the udunes ile offered m re depend ble, produ 'IIV' n: urces. Thi rea lop sed n purucular problem ~ r cattle. a~ It hes \\ ithin their wild runge Lik e. ria r I .al hunt r- atherer , past rail t u ed large. semipermanent amp ncar the ile. a at hahcinub and 'Iii. me: u amrnals arc the dominant large mammal al m n 'lie. such al ad ru-I ( . BP). but were added I a WIde range of \ ild ammal used by earlier hunter-

gather r nhkc aharan pa t ralis ,herder

m tlu better-watered land . pe ar th ught tel have u d plant' m re intern ively than their hunter-gatherer predece: rs.

ite uructure nd in reased u of grind ... tone. <It K dcro-I, m Direrw • and Zakrab ind. te that, a! earl, ·000 BP. pastor I group. wen:

CUltivating rghum that W m rphologi all


'tal differentiation ppcarcd am ng

udanese berder- b} th Vlth millennium SP. IU'ICT' of C pccially ri h 'l"'J\'C of men. w men. and hrldren at K dero-l argu f r drff ren e in wealth. but ther is no cvidcn e

22 two. I Jul ~

for strmifi auc n, Pastoral inten .. inc u n and (I decrea in wild arurnal use r .1<;0 e Idem t me vitc to the ltddl J ile iftcr 5~O() BP. De pitc these d \"1 pment . the

pread r herding wa: patchy Shaqudud.

east th 'ile. ubsl ten e Iocu don wild

resource- tl!> lute a ·lOUO 8P.

However, whatever thi-, social org: mzauon might have be .n, II h uld have lelt "om' rnatcn I m. nife .. t tion W 11'\1 lure The In reasing importance of dome. II ated rumals. fi r e mple. would be av 'iuled \ ilh th em rgencc of m re indi idualized nght ... and r sponsibilities in e on mu munagcrnent and Ihl W uld have I d 10 In rea 'd diffcrentiati n mmunlue, .

The imponuntquc uonhere i th rgamzauon of such hicldoms, mpararive ethnographic material mdi ute .. thai the chiefdom I. based typi ally n IlU lear famihe r small e tended familie of limited pan and th I it i., thu

a .iated with pnvate propert .

1n additi n, chicfd ms are b d n the con ept of hereditary In quality: dirf ·rcnli.ll .,t till i s a cribed at birth (Wenke 19 0: 34_- 343). hief frequently ha e a dh IIlI.: -uuu ; their amities have pnvileged .cess to rnatcnal re ourc s, food. foreign good and so on

II sc m that, m spue or many e C \ led 'IIC, , iden e f r th social organiz ti n I the pe pi of th 'colithic In entral udan , III be limited to , hut i d nv 'd from burial In~ rmati n Although ih h pothctical : I I

las e n 'fleetcrl in th grave were n t ob ned in the ulcmcnts. urreruly available cviden e

em .. to indi ate that the una] grounds at al Kudada and K. d ro-l illustratc ' .... ell th proce, s in 'on cntration of good and

po .. cr by a I I "cln ,"- towurd the end f rhe

, eolithi

It· lear that the

nal tru IUn: in the

t 1'$. Iud CII,h

1"'11' ollh

m I ud n during II

e litlu period

Ilh ugh the degree I vurie

tr m one ire l n ther, rea hmg It zenith at

K der I nd J • d a, nil th ugh \ e 1111 have

luhrc. enainl. much can be learned about the an us subsi ten puu .rn r din rent "nrchacologi .al group ." but II i n t e Jilhi period, to g be ond thi and alta h lingui ti or cthni labels lo at h rological cultures, in' u i dou 1 ul ih t rnu h n be learned bout thnic id ntity in th

b en 'e f \ nu n inf rm lion.

t1IJl.1G1.l..J1JI.W.>lUI.I.JII...;;I~~: Department of Archaeology University of Khartoum Sudan, P.O. Box. 321. Khartoum


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r M h rnmed- and Dr. Laurena- mllh f, r the ediun 0 the t I nd nWun use uJ


'. (ho) 1'197 • rom HUIII'r j heft I Hcrdcr Hunt r-Fi rn:r-(j lknn~

Preln Ion" J unes ( P pi I 91\-111)

11 A J. 19~ ni\(!ntl} Pr ~ .

---IWI· hllln

199b .•

In I lh ~I .~O

-194 Khartoum

An Overview ,'ub from

_____ 11) 7b Probl 11~ 111 th 11: hlhl nnd

C hllw uilul III Illf) In lbc! cntrul ile \J.lI·

h~ 0.1 Jul 1

tbr lithic" mmllllit

mt IMBln pupe unrl'rtl

H RCS£cr M 1997 Kern}

0\.,4 ,pp 11·11

rl ) nu J.. 1_ 197 CI.,.. Light n

PnxloctlOn to the Central uc.I. n, Journal (If n ~1CI'1 19. PP I 9 172


ter Prehl t nc

\.11llCU • J ilnd K

ode Univ

~1. \. F 1'I9l.kcl-lI0n\Wpb.:l\ e nlhe erural lie \alle> .ullltb· • 'tern. udan In I ter ~11I t In W \ D \iIC (ed ~JOpl nd r I. '1111. from Prrbhl

10 l..tHm. I , nooll 30-.9

\-tarlo .E M hammed Ah. • 11)91 rb "It! Ilhl


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v, Ill, Ian, B .hn,R~ldd

• RhaJ in

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"dung ietnch (ed), 1~7 odan: 0 01

Khl'doms oftbe il .rran by P ter ocr t nu Il.lI1 and thleen uillaume