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The Development Of The First Practical, Full Scale,

Test Method For Real Drag And Propulsive Efficiency

On Propeller Airplanes
By Jack Norris and Andy Bauer

D, "rag and propulsive efficiency are

the two most fundamental pieces of
tions . . . and the conclusions have not
been correct. Indeed, aeronautical en-
gineers tend to not recognize how basic
ter on the best new designs today.
Overall engine thermal efficiency,
combined with propulsive efficiency is
data in aeronautical engineering, and, and important, how downright bad a technological disaster, a gaping pit of
most amazingly, for the nine decades propeller/engine propulsion efficiency inefficiency crying for appropriate at-
since the Wrights mastered flight by can be, because they've never had a tention in order to provide us with an
successfully combining lift, control practical test or factual data. improvement in the next century, only
and power, these two fundamental In addition to propeller losses a nominal 18 to 24%.
facts have remained unreachable un- (nominally 80% efficiency), there can Once you have a way to get to the
knowns on propeller-driven airplanes! be a very negative interaction between real truths of the matter through prac-
There has simply never been a practi- the propeller and the airframe that can tical, accurate testing, the whole game
cal, accurate, accessible test for real be better or worse than another 80% changes for pilots and design engi-
airframe drag and real propulsive effi- factor . . . 64% combined . . . depend- neers alike. Once it's possible to put a
ciency on propeller-driven airplanes in ing on design and power applied, and real drag curve in front of the pilot
flight. cooling losses on top of that! Propul- and that 18% overall efficiency num-
Level flight speed/power tests give sion losses can be much bigger than ber, the pilot begins to realize that it's
apparent drag, but that hides the real recognized, particularly on the older worth paying attention, worth learn-
t r u t h , the real propulsion losses, and poorer aircraft designs. ing the thinking person's way of flying
lumping them in with basic airframe Drag and propulsive efficiency are an airplane efficiently and not fly on
drag and leaving them inseparable the prime unknowns because airplanes the too vertical part of the drag curve
and indistinguishable. It turns out are flying machines that convert en- where the payoff in speed vs. cost is
there is much to be learned and un- ergy, fuel energy, into flight. Pounds poor - because fuel use is already 4 or
derstood here. of drag times trip distance in feet 5 times the real energy requirement!
Simply stated, despite billions in re- equals "foot pounds" of mechanical Put an 18 to 24% efficiency number
search, no one ever figured out how to energy, BTU's of fuel energy required, before the airplane and engine engi-
devise an accurate, practical drag test considering the all important (in)effi- neers and they immediately
on a propeller airplane, other than pro- ciency of the propulsive system: understand they have their marching
pellerless glides, which are rarely done. propeller efficiency, propeller/air- orders for now and for flight in the
As a result, real drag and propulsive ef- frame interference and cooling drag. next century as fuel becomes more
ficiency have remained unavailable. (There are 778.26 foot pounds of me- scarce and costly . . . and real test data
Propulsive efficiency is the ratio of the chanical energy per BTU, nominally gives them the insight to get there,
power (drag x true airspeed) that the 19,000 BTU/lbs, in avgas.) starting now. We deserve better!
airframe actually requires to the power Once you have a real test and start Amazingly, our most competent
that the engine must actually provide. seeing the real truth of the matter, you field, aeronautical engineering, has
For 90 years the aeronautical engineer find airplane drag can be better (lower) given us personal flight, near million
has been forced to work around and as- than has been realized, but propulsive pound transports for business men
sume the missing data with a efficiency can be much lower than has and grandmothers alike, supersonic
patchwork of methods and assump- been realized. Happily, it is much bet- flight, fly by wire controls, satellite
Jack Norris' 1947 Luscombe 8E . . . used for the first
zcrn thrust experiments.

weather and navigation and has taken ter how lough and burdensome the nobody could give me a proper educa-
us to the moon and back, but has suf- technical or business problems had be- tion on flight mechanics, the logic of
fered the indignity of the lack of the come in the crunches, an hour in the flight. The best pilots didn't have a
most fundamental of tests to check Luscombe rendered the week's oppres- clue, the proficient engineers didn't
and refine the most basic calculations.sive problem a mere detail to be solved know what to explain or how to do it,
As a result, our insight has been ham- as a challenge. Perspective is a won- lacking the grasp of what a pilot
pered. That sick 18% number I'll derful thing, and there's nothing like needed to know. I was quickly into
explore further for you shortly is am- flight to get perspective on the world. Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators, a
ple evidence of that. Jets are great, As a kid of 15, I had to solve the great reference, putting together my
but at max range, a 900,000 pound graveyard spiral dive and crash prob- own logic of flight. There is a beauti-
plus 747 uses over 360,000 pounds of lem before I could succeed and win ful logic and it all comes out so
fuel. That's almost seven 8,000 gallon against the really high performance amazingly simple and interesting that
double tank truck loads, just about a free flight models that all the big kids everyone should know about it.
19.5 foot cube per night! were building. Flight and how it really I found I could not test my Lus-
works became a lifelong interest.
We've all had the great gift of being combe to get a real drag curve, real
born at the right time, in the right cen- By 1982 I had a lifetime of experi- propulsive efficiency. Propulsive effi-
ence that included jet servo flight
tury, in the greatest country ever. I've ciency and accurate drag calculations
been most fortunate to have the great control packages that really did fail- were an empty hope based on multiple
fun of working on some of our most safe . . . absolutely never failed, assumptions. The classic tome on
because there was no further backup.
interesting technology; in flight, jets, drag by Hoerner targeted an 80%
space and other diverse fields as engi-Over 100 of my own spacecraft rocket propulsive efficiency (based on an
neer, entrepreneur, business founder, control products are on the spacecraft 80% efficiency of a prop in a free
executive and high tech management in the central hall of the National Air stream), then went through a calcula-
consultant . . . but flight was always and Space Museum in Washington. tion drill to make the sum of all the
my fun, my avocation. Technology With more time, financial indepen- parts match that number. I wasn't
can be great fun, but there are also dence and fewer professional and sure I believed that, after learning time
days with huge problems and plenty of technical headaches, I looked at my and again that assumptions are not
pressure. I bought my now Classic classic R&R vehicle and decided to the way to a sound bottom line in en-
1947 Luscombe 8E at Christmas 1950 quit flying it like an unaware driver gineering. If you don't have a test, you
for $1,225, using my winnings in and, as a fun project, figure out the are at big risk!
model airplane competition. I was a real logic, how it really worked . . . to Real airplanes have small to gross
senior in engineering school at Ohio pick up professionally where I had left leaks at control surfaces and skin cor-
State at the time. The Luscombe has off as a modeler at age 21. rugations, major cooling drag, rivets,
always been my simple, reliable, no Boy, did I get a fast education and a antennae, angular joints, less than
demand R&R escape vehicle. No mat- rude awakening! I found essentially wonderful sheet metal work, pumping
54 MARCH 1995
losses roaring from holes at the t a i l . . . efficiency. Multiply that by a nominal
to leaking, low pressure cockpits, 60% propulsive efficiency and you get
doors and canopies. Small tractor pro- a terrible 18% overall (only 24% at
pellers on less than sleek planes try 80%). Energy calculations yield a pre-
pulling themselves forward by their cise 18.2% as an independent overall
bootstraps, blowing back on the air- check that our test data is correct.
f r a m e while a t t e m p t i n g to thrust Knowing that number, incidentally,
themselves forward. Pushers have allows me to figure out that it takes
garbage in, if not garbage out. After a just about one gallon of fuel to hoist a
lifetime in the engineering profession, 1,400 pound gross weight Luscombe to
I didn't need anyone to tell me calcula- 10,000 feet, an insight I'd never been
tions or scale wind tunnel tests were able to nail down before. The game
not going to yield the truth on all that then becomes recovering as much as
real world complexity. possible of it on a letdown when the
Refurbishing my Luscombe prop, I engine is throttled, thus even more in-
threw it on the granite inspection efficient ... and you can't recover more
plate, after hours, at one of my con- than the 18%! The 82% was lost heat-
sulting client's plants. A layout check ing the atmosphere. Gone.
and a little trig produced the shocking Look closely and you will see the wire that Having fallen into being the rare ex-
fact that it was almost within .1 de- rubs on the back of the prop hub to trigger pert on the subject of intelligent flight,
gree of perfect helical pitch outboard the zero thrust light. on a chance visit I fell into being the
of the structural inboard segment. I Technical Director on the Voyager
was told McCauley shop tolerance is The drag curve of the classic high World Flight in 1986 and ended up
only .2 degrees. Impressive, but I aspect ratio Luscombe was surpris- writing the official book, log, analysis
would learn that you really don't want ingly low, but that calculated out to and explanation of the flight for the
pure helical pitch. You want to match ridiculously low horsepower require- National Archives, an interesting, sep-
the slowing layered airflow at the nose ments, which said the propulsive arate story. Copies are still available,
(or rear). efficiency was terrible, nominally 60% if you'd like to see the real inside facts
Occasionally getting my hands on a or a few percent above, worse if I on that great feat (see sidebar).
copy of Soaring magazine, I knew of would have added tight, closable cowl There are limiting thermodynamics
the technically elegant glide testing flaps, cut out the cooling drag and re- problems, but bet on the fact that in
work that the soaring fraternity had moved that propulsive penalty for the the next century the game will be bet-
been doing for years to evaluate drag airframe. Now hold that grasp for a ter than 18 to 24%.
and performance. The basic physics of moment before we proceed with the Back to Zero Thrust Glide Testing.
gliding flight is that the potential en- development of Zero Thrust Glide As an engineer, I knew I was onto the
ergy of height is converted to the Testing and I'll go back and tie in that right track for some real breakthrough
kinetic energy and the power require- 18% overall efficiency number I know progress on testing for drag, cooling
ment of the flight path, an elegant you're curious about. and propulsive efficiency, but I also
direct tap on the basic physics. They Separately, I was playing with cruise recognized I was a rank amateur in the
measure the conversion as shown be- control, the logic of flight, a thinking very sophisticated analytical capability
low. Richard Johnson, many times person's way to fly ... real, intriguing, that the great aeros have developed
national soaring champion, had raised easy smarts for the pilot. The high as- and specialize in. By great good for-
drag and performance testing to an art pect ratio Luscombe can be made to go tune, a chance meeting in a class at
form. His March 1983 evaluation of faster by burning extra fuel, but with Ohio State had developed into a life-
the ASW 22 shows incisive bumps on that long wing, by design, it's really a long friendship with Dr. Andy Bauer,
the drag curve as laminar flow con- 100 mph cruiser. Purposely flying at a also a modeler from those youthful
verts locally to turbulent! Real world calibrated 85 IAS, 100 TAS at 8,500 days of the 1940's. Andy was a fully
testing doesn't get better than that. feet, hot, 10,500 density altitude, 2,280 competent aero at Douglas Long
Flight path power = vertical sink rpm, leaned at low power (45 hp) for Beach, had a Master of Science degree
power max economy, I can fly non-stop from from Ohio State and a doctorate from
Dragff x TAS = GW# x sink rate LA to McCall, Idaho or Rick Springs, Stanford. Rare in this jet age, as a
sink rate (ft/sec) Wyoming on my Deluxe 8E's 30 gal- modeler he could calculate a propeller
Dragff = GW# x lons. That's only 3-3/4 gph vs. the 5 to with great insight and had just com-
TAS (ft/sec) 5-1/2 gph that the manual says. That's pleted a test program on flow around
The light bulb lit. I could calculate 26.66 mpg, but still at 100 mph TAS. bodies, both blunt and refined.
an rpm for that accurate prop for a The fuel burn sounds way too low, Putting our two lifetimes of experience
near zero thrust, minus 4 degree angle doesn't it? People tend not to believe together, we had the potential for
of attack, for several true airspeeds such a low fuel burn at the Luscombe's some real progress.
and go glide test the Luscombe with 100 TAS. Here's the shocker. Using Andy quickly educated me to the
(almost) no prop there. Viola! In one that t h i n k i n g person's way to fly fact that though the air had to speed
weekend I had a moderately good ball brings the overall efficiency way up to up to get around my fuselage, the Lus-
park drag curve, a ton on insight . . . a miserable 18.2% That low compres- combe's relatively blunt cowl and the
and conclusions that never basically sion heat engine without spark proximate windshield had the prop
changed over 10 years of ever more re- advance, with a big cooling load and flying in a layered bed of air signifi-
fined work . . . that did not agree with dumping exhaust at nearly 2,000 de- cantly slower than flight speed
Hoerner's book at all! grees has a nominal 30% thermal (ultimately about 8.5% slower). We
quickly teamed up and soon Andy had sophisticated analysis and parallel strument panel as an output to visu-
me set up for a more sophisticated testing could produce. Andy is a jewel! ally indicate when zero thrust was
glide test that took into consideration We offered a paper for the January occurring.
that slowdown of the air. We would 1990 Reno AIAA Conference and were To accomplish accurate Zero Thrust
lower the calculated Zero Thrust rpm accepted. Even after 7 years of work, I Glide Testing, you simply need to "fly"
and increase the test drag somewhat panicked a bit, however. The original the prop accurately at zero thrust,
for a more refined answer with ever objective was a free standing, indepen- with no axial friction, no bias, using a
better insight and accuracy over the dent test, not dependent on analysis. vibration proof sensor. Nose down or
succeeding 7 years. We both saw we With dues fully paid, we now had won- nose up, the weight of the prop/crank
were working on the most fundamen- derful insight into every minute aspect will try to slide forward or back, but
tal testing and basic data gap in flight, of the problem, with Andy's excellent that one very accurately definable bias
and it became a multi-year part time work, but we were also off the original can be easily and accurately handled in
challenge effort, with ever more so- track . . . encumbered, inhibited from either of two separate ways.
phisticated analysis and test insight the creative spark that was needed for Method 1: Fixed Pitch Prop -
into the problem. a free-standing test after 90 years of With a simple level in the cockpit
Along the way, we learned of other, aviation history. (prop vertical), you can glide at the
often wild efforts to find a test solu- Recognizing that, I backed off, put speed where the crank is perfectly
tion for "real" drag. Bill Lear did glide the minutiae out of mind, let the real level and find the accurate ratio of
tests on his Lear Star with both recips problem . . . how to physically do a rpm/TAS for zero thrust. Yes, there is
off and feathered! That was nothing Zero Thrust Glide Test . . . gurgle an accurate ratio and it stays accurate.
compared to the early efforts at around in my brain, and my subcon- Of interest, that's 14.94 rpm/mph
Northrop on the then secret Black scious spit out the answer like the TAS on my Luscombe with a 71" x 51"
Widow. Max Stanley, now a good faucet was suddenly opened. I cruise prop, just under 1,500 rpm at
friend and fellow QB, at the request of laughed. It was a classically simple 100 mph; and precisely 747 at 50 mph,
head aero Dr. Bill Sears, had tried ver- answer, but one that only a pilot of a an easy to remember mnemonic. That
tical with both engines off and the simple plane would see, and only if he ratio can be used accurately (a digital
props feathered! Max, the final test had all the necessary objectives and TAG is handy, ideal) at any true air-
pilot of the original Northrop flying questions in his head. Understanding speed, any altitude, and there is no
wings, chuckled at the classic simplic- that there is a problem is necessary to slope angle correction with that
ity, the elegance of our sailplane-like invent a solution. It's indeed true: in- method. In high speed glides, at a
final solution: using a simple mod- vention is 90% prior perspiration, lower angle of attack, a precise analyt-
eler's zero thrust switch. then 10% inspiration. ical investigation will show less wing
August Raspet, Dick Johnson' pro- When you go to prop a small plane, flow circulation, a tad less slowing of
fessor and mentor at Mississippi State, you yank on the prop to be absolutely the airstream at the prop disc (high
and George Lambros came closest in sure the guy in the cockpit really has wing), a tad of prop drag amounting to
1954 with propellerless glide tests of a the brakes on. The prop goes "klunk" a 1% or less erroneously high drag.
Bellanca Cruisair towed to 12,000 feet because there is a small axial clearance Pros have to work smart to get to 1%
with the cooling ducts sealed and un- in the thrust bearings, about .010" to data but you can apply that small cor-
sealed. They got excellent insight, .020". The same small klunk happens rection if you decide to get that
despite being harried by dead stick in flight on loose engines when you precise.
landings at the end of every test. See- transition from either thrust or drag. Method 2: Constant Speed or
ing terrible propulsive efficiency An engineer knows that in most cases Fixed Pitch Prop - With Method 2,
(58%), as we did, comparing the sealed there are no bevel gears and no pres- temporarily ignoring the "downhill"
duct glides with level flight sure bias, and a rotating shaft is prop/crank weight error, you simply
speed/power tests, they were more essentially, absolutely friction free in go out and do glide tests holding the
shy than they should have been be- the axial direction . . . so that zero power or rpm at the point where you
cause they were actually onto the real thrust can be detected! (There just get a "false" zero thrust indica-
truth of the matter that is still not would be one final challenge to be en- tion. False by the inclination error
widely understood. countered and solved in our caused by the prop crank weight x the
Our m u t u a l testing, confirming EAA/CAFE program.) sine of the inclination angle. The bias
each other by independent arm's With a grasp of dynamics, you know error on the Luscombe is O pounds to
length work, gives the confirmation, you do not want a micro switch, which 6 pounds excess indicated drag with a
the corroboration that good science is a rat's nest of vibration problems, as 47 pound prop/crank. The inclination
demands. Raspet also tested the a sensor. You know intuitively that a angle can be measured with an incli-
Cessna 120 and reported a 60% simple, light, short, stiff piece of 1/16" nometer or calculated. The glide
propulsive efficiency; and Jack Cox, model airplane music wire set up as an angles are less than you think.
right on the ball, supplied us with a electrical switch to kiss or miss the The prop has always been a huge
copy of the testing of Steve Wittman's back of the propeller hub makes the problem . . . a big power absorbing
short wing Tailwind, reported in the perfect vibration proof sensor. Stiff windmill, a thruster, an unsolved road
October 1956 issue of the EAA's Ex- and light, it will have a very high nat- block preventing drag testing of the
perimenter. It showed the typical ural frequency of vibration, be real airframe, interference, warts,
drop off in propulsive efficiency as completely invulnerable to the low en- leaks, et al.
power was increased as our Luscombe gine frequencies. Mounting it on a Dr. Thomas M. Weeks, editor of the
testing did. phenolic block for insulation on the AIAA Journal of Aircraft, recog-
By 1989, with time off for the Voy- front of the crankcase allows you to nized the method as the basic,
ager effort, we had the best data that use a simple flashlight bulb on the in- significant piece of progress that it is
56 MARCH 1995
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Drag - Power 1250# GW
JRAG * Cd x(Wing Area, S) x (pV2/ 2) (Ram Dynamic Pressure =
Parasite, Cdo + alpha sensitive Profile + Induced, Cdi
[Cd = .0325 + .009444(CL - ,4)2 + CL2/(7tAre)

INDUCED = CL2/(7r Ar e) x Wing Area, S x "q"
140 " also ' = (Span Loading, W/b)2 / (n e q)




100 DRAG*

40 50 60 70 100 110
Parasite -*- Di Theo. Di Actual
Profile a -- Total Drag Reqd.HP
Engine HP -a- Efficiency
58 MARCH 1995
Picture - worth a thousand words! In our test of the classic Luscombe, power required curve, due to the falling
The intelligent way to fly an airplane is we found an airspeed system that lied, propulsive efficiency. Also notice that
at low drag, which is at low indicated which is not at all unusual, a 4.55 ft.2 the engine power curve did not prove
airspeed. Then go high to get free true flat plate area and an Oswald factor, e, of to be smooth like the drag curves.
airspeed, get your engine wide open .74, a simple fudge factor to get Prandtl's With miles per gallon dependent on in-
and lean for maximum thermal effi- classic theoretical formula for the in- dicated air speed, low drag and high
ciency, all of which maximizes miles duced drag coefficient up to its real propulsive efficiency, do you see why I
per gallon. Look at the graph: at 85 value. (Cdi = CL2/K Ar e, where Ar is fly at only 85 mph indicated airspeed,
mph IAS, at high altitude and the en- the aspect ratio, span/average chord) at low drag, at the favorable knee in
gine at maximum efficiency, I have Pounds of drag multiplied by true the efficiency curve, but up high at
only 82% of the drag I would have at airspeed in feet per second gives foot 100 + true airspeed with my engine
100 mph. This is at a favorable "knee" pounds per second, the units of power wide open and leaned for maximum ef-
in the propulsive efficiency line, which (550 foot pounds per second per horse- ficiency to fly 800 miles from LA to
is terrible at 100 mph. This is how I go power), so a power required curve can Idaho on only 30 gallons of fuel? For a
800 miles nonstop in my Luscombe 8E be calculated directly once you have a given gross weight, drag (thus miles
on cheap auto gas, beating the socks drag curve. If you run a standard speed- per gallon) is constant at constant in-
off the guys trying to go fast down low power test and curve for the plane, you dicated airspeed at any altitude, but
and stopping in the summer heat to can plot both the power required and power increases as true airspeed in-
buy $2.00 per gallon 100 LL. Work the actual power input curves, and, di- creases, so I fly up high at about 45
yourself through the "short course" in viding, get the propulsive efficiency for horsepower... flying faster, not hurt-
aero engineering contained in this the plane at various speeds. The great ing the miles per gallon and actually
graph and fly smarter! insight you will gain is that the Lus- gaining engine efficiency by running
The standard leaning "lazy J" total combe, like most of the planes of its wide open.
drag curve results from an essentially day, has a poor and degrading Our best new homebuilts, a new
constant parasite drag coefficient, pro- propulsive efficiency. August Raspet leading edge of flight, will prove far
ducing a (V2) parasite drag curve that found that out in the '50s, but no one superior. Next month we'll show
swoops up as speed increases (twice as seems to have caught on. The Lus- you the great insight that comes
fast, 4 times the drag), and a highly combe and its contemporaries are speed from directly comparing an RV-6
variable induced drag coefficient, de- limited as much by poor propulsive effi- and a Luscombe . . . lower drag,
pendent on CL2, that produces exactly ciency as by drag! better propulsive efficiency, better
the opposite effect, a (1/V2) curve that Notice how the engine horsepower miles per gallon, faster . . . win,
swoops down as speed increases (twice curve increases noticeably faster than the win, win, win!
as fast, 1/4 the induced drag). Notice
the combined total drag curve goes
vertical very rapidly. It's just not
smart to fly way up on the vertical
part of the drag curve!
Introducing the . . . KIS Cruiser
A significant part of the parasite 4 - Place Sport Aircraft
drag is the profile drag of the wetted
wing surfaces. A small part of that is
angle of attack, which we've been able
to separate out here, due to the sensi-
tivity of the method and extremely
good test conditions found out over the
ocean at dawn. As shown here, it acts
like induced drag, a function of CL2,
and is usually lumped in with induced
drag rather than being shown sepa-
These parts of the drag coefficient Cruiser TR-4 4-Place
are combined, then multiplied by the Cruise Speed 185 mph
wing area and the ram dynamic pres- Stall Speed 55 mph
sure, "q," measured by your pitot tube. Useful Load 1100 pds
That produces the J-shaped total drag Powerplants 160-200 hp
curve . . . in pounds vs. indicated air- Build Time 1200 1500 hrs
speed, or its components which are KIS TR-1 2Place
shown here so you can see and grasp Cruise Speed 170 mph
the whole subject. Fly low indicated Stall Speed 55 mph
airspeed . . . high! Useful Load 610 pds
Since the constant parasite drag co- Powerplants 80-125 hp
efficient is multiplied by the wing area, Build Time 800-1000 hrs
which varies from plane to plane, it is KIS two and four place all composite kitbuilt aircraft are designed to
not proper to compare drag coefficients Keep It Simple. Pre-molded high temperature composite and
of two planes. However, Cdo times the
wing area gives a quasi equivalent flat prewelded metal parts make KIS assembly easy. Both KIS aircraft
plate area that is a legitimate compari- will perform well with many different engine options. .'BHfiifc-
son between planes that is easy to INFO PACK $10 VIDEO $15 OVERSEAS ADD 50%
grasp. Flat plate area does not include TRI-R Technologies, Inc., 1114 E. 5th St., Oxnard, CA 93030 USA
induced drag. Phone (805) 3S5-36SO FAX (805) 483-8366 VISA/M.C. Accepted
That's where the story picks up
next month, and we'll even tell you
some of the problems and challenges, VOYAGER
some of the very interesting insights The Voyager, The Last Great days, when do you hear of a world
that are beginning to emerge. The First, was a stellar product of the or Olympic record being doubled?
CAFE group is a remarkable fortu- homebuilt movement, the first Voyager flew 26,358.6 miles. It
itous gathering of the right people, homebuilt major milestone since the had a nominal transcontinental re-
each just about perfect for his part of Wright Flyer. Voyager was just like serve, indeed much more if flown
the task. The EAA chipped in some a home-grown Moon program, only precisely in August when the weather
serious money to equip the test pro- done with a very small, tight group is friendly. When it's not, as in De-
gram, but without the unique team of of very competent people . . . with cember when the flight was actually
volunteers, you couldn't do what's no bucks, rather than the aerospace made, the crew was in for an adven-
happening in Santa Rosa without industry standard of thousands with ture thriller to end them all!
aerospace megabucks. billions. The work was every bit as If you'd like a copy of Voyager,
What will come out is scientific good as the Moon program. I know The World Flight, with all the real
proof that homebuilt airplanes are because I was right in the middle of facts and insights, you can get a
the new leading edge of flight. No both of them! The Voyager's ac- copy identical to that in the Na-
more of this 60% propulsive effi- complishment could not have been tional Archives for $12.95,
ciency nonsense. What we will see is easier than Apollo because it came Personally autographed by Dick and
remarkably lower drag, far better effi- 17 years later. It couldn't happen Jeana, it's $20.00. That's not a
ciency than the previous generation until people were smart enough, so- sales pitch. Profits go to Dick and
of aircraft. . . just artistically, aero- phisticated enough to do it. Burt Jeana, who worked so long and so
dynamically superior aircraft. The Rutan used the best new structural hard, six years, to actually do "mis-
21st. Century is upon us and as in materials to the max, was smarter sion impossible." It's a great
1903, homebuilt aircraft are at the and more gutsy than the industry. historical record to have. Copies are
leading edge. It was homebuilders, The 938 pound structural weight available from: Jack Norris, Techni-
former modelers who did the Voyager was less than 10% of the airplane's cal Director, Voyager Mission
World Flight, the most recent "mis- gross! The distance record was ac- Control, 11613 Seminole Circle,
sion impossible" m a j o r milestone tually doubled! In these high tech Northridge, CA 91326.
aviation feat. What a great time to
live, fly and appreciate!

60 MARCH 1995