# ft

mmm.

%ff^p#?^

THE "KEVSTONE" SySTE/HS

Coats, Vests and T^ousehs

Practical /Ucthods of Cutting

bvj

Proportions

and

bvj

/Measures

REVISED, ENLARGED AND IMPROVED

Publishers:

The Tai^ohs' Review
New
yorl<

Co.

1903

THE LIBRARY OF
CONGRESS,

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CONTENTS.
PART ONE.

Preface to First Edition

Preface to Second Edition

Introduction

The Measures

of a

How How

to to

Find the Widths

Find the Lengths
Table

The Table

of Proportionate

How to Use the How to Use the
The
Table
of

Divisions on the Draftins^-Sqnare

Lengths

-----------------------------------------------------------------------..---.. ---------|P,V

I'ROPORTIONATK MEASURES.)

PAGE 8
8

Man by

Proportions
-

9 10
10
12

-

Measures

14 16
16

for Proportionate

Table for

Forms Disproportionate Forms

ig

to

Height

Single-Breasted Frock Coat Body (Regular Form) Single-Breasted Frock Coat Body (Concluded)

Three-Button Cutaway Frock Body (Stout Form)
Double-Breasted Frock Coat Body

Single-Breasted One- and Three-Button Cutaway Frock Body (Stout Form)

Double-Breasted Frock Coat Body

(vStout

Dress Coat Body (Regular Form)

Frock Coat Backs (Completed)

Whole Backs Whole Backs

Cutaway Skirt (Regular Form) Cutaway Skirt (Corpulent Form)

Frock Coat Skirt (Regular Form)

Frock Coat Skirt, with extra Drapery (Regular and Corpulent F'orms)
Dress Coat Skirt (Regular and Corpulent Forms)

Frock Coat Lapels

Dress Coat Peaked Lapels

Dress Coat Lapels, Shawl Roll
Collars

The

Sleeve

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----for

-----.-.-------------------------------

20
22 24

26

-

28
32

Form)

34

36

38 38

Frock Coats

for

Frock Coats (Concluded)

40
42

-

44 46 48 ^o
52

-

-

-

52

54

56 58

-

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
Single-Breasted Sack Coat (Regular

Form

)

Siugle-Breasted Sack Coat (Corpulent Form)

Tuxedo Sack Coat (Regular and Corpulent Forms)

....... ------

64
-

.-

-

-

-

66 68

Double-Breasted Sack Coat (Regular and Corpulent Forms)

-

.

-

-

70
72
75

Whole Backs
Overcoats

for

The The

Chesterfield, Single-Breasted (Regular Chesterfield, Single

------------------Sack Coats

Form)

76

Double-Breasted Box Overcoat

Siugle-Breasted Paletot Overcoat

The Inverness Overcoat The Inverness Cape Newmarket and Surtout Overcoats The Raglan Overcoat The Raglan Sleeve

-.-. ...-----...-.-----------------------..-.----.--and Double-Breasted (Corpulent Form)
.

-

-

-

80
82

86

90
g^

-

.

.

98
100
104

-

-

-

106
loS

Single-Breasted Vest, Creased Collar (Regular Form)

.

.

-

-

-

Single-Breasted Vest, Creased Collar (Stout Form) Single-Breasted Collarless Vest
Single-Breasted Notch Collar Vest
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

no
112 112

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Double-Breasted Vest

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

114
-

Double-Breasted Vest

-

Single-Breasted Dress Vest

Double-Breasted Dress Vest

Clergymen's

\'ests

-

----------....-------

-

-

-

-

-

115

116
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

116

nS

PART TWO.

The Purpose of Measures The Measures The Over-shoulder and Back-waist Measures
Single-Breasted Sack Coat
Military Blouse

Three-Button Frock Coat Body
Single-Breasted \"est

--.-.-...-----------------------...----.-------------...-...----(BY
-

ACTUAL MEASURES.)

120
122 127

-

-

-

128
132

136

138

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
Clerical

Frock Coat Body

Policeman's Overcoat

Fireman's Overcoat

Tliree-qnarter or Militar}-

Half-Circle Cape

Close Cape

Tronsers (Regiilar Form.

..------------154 ------. -

---------------------------------------------Cape

PAGE
142
144

14S
150 152

Tronsers (Regular Form.

Trousers (Corpulent Form)
Troiisers,

Peg-Tops (Regular Form)

Trousers, Clo.se-Fitting (Regular Form) Trousers, Broadfalls
-

Knee-Breeches
C^'cling-Breeches

Riding-Breeclies (The Forepart)

Riding-Breeches (The Backpart)

Riding-Breeches (The Continuations)
Riding-Breeches (Concluded)

-----------------------------.-.-.----------------------------------

The Forepart) The Backpart)

-

156

-

-

158

160
164

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

166
'168

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

170
174
17S

-

iSo
1S2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

184

Hood
Short Gaiters

186

Long

Gaiters

.--...-------

188 190

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

npHE

and explained in this work are, in many respects, simpler and any I have heretofore published. The principle on which the}' are based is similar to that given in my last pre\ions work, but simplified in many ways, and made more certain and convenient for obtains_v.stem.s illustrated

easier to learn than

ing correct

sizes,

without the uncertain aid of misleading measures.

svstems, resting as the}^ do on positive proportions, easily applicable to anv size or shape, cannot fail to create in the cutter who adopts them that confidence without which
success
is

The

impossible.

of practical experience, teaching and publishing methods of cutand through a wide acqxmintance with the needs of the trade, I became aware that the sinipler a svstem is, if it is scientific, the better will be the results obtained by its use, and the

Through many vears

ting,

more

acceptable

it

will be to all right-minded cutters.
a s\-stem for

It

has been, therefore,
efforts

ni}- eflfort

to

have been, I believe, so successful that all wht) study this work will be more than compensated for their trouble. More illustrations might have easily been given, but they would only increase the size of the book without adding to its thoroughness, for those that are given cover ever}- essential
produce just such
point,

each kind of garment, and

my

and leave nothing

to puzzle or

confuse the stiident.
in

Hoping
as I

that the satisfaction

I feel

believe this to be, will be equalled

completing a work as comprehensive and reliable by the appreciation of our discriminating and
of tailoring.

I

am, always a student and lover

The Author.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
'T'HE
publishers of this work desire to express their gratification for the

many

expressions

from the trade and students of garment cutting in regard to the first edition of "The Keystone Systems." They are also mindful that some criticisms, alwaj's honest and sometimes just, have been made concerning some features of the first edition although these have been comparatively but few in number. It would be passing strange if, after a period of thirteen years, nothing had been gained b}- the intervening j-ears of experience, or that some improvement in the application of a principle, and in the general presetitation of the work was not possible. The demand for an enlarged, improved and up-to-date work, following in general the principles contained in the Ke\'stone Systems, and coming from those whose success as cutters is largely- due to the help the svstems have afforded them in the past, has induced It is offered with confidence that it will the issue of this enlarged and improved edition. receive the heartv approval and appreciation of the trade, and students in garment cutting.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION.
'T^HAT
scientific

garment cutting

is still

largel}- unscientific

goes without saying.

It will

become

a science

when
of

true principles only are employed and are rightl}- used.

When

a

system
is

garment

cutting
it.

has

been

evolved cullers will

still

be

largely

unscientific in their application of

The most

successful cutter then will be the one whose

procedure

not only based on principles which are true, but
a natural law of growth and development of the
it is

who

also has the ability to

rightly use right principles.

There

is

human

form, and under the

not diihcult, for one who has made the matter a study, to determine the right relation of height and circumference, and what are the lengths and widths of The data thus gained forms the all the parts in proportion to height and circumference.
conditions as they are,
basis

from which garments can be constructed suitable

for the larger

number

of

forms

of

any

given breast circumference. The variations from the average development of the human body, caused by heredity, climate, food, occupation, etc., can be readily classified into longs, shorts, stouts, fats, overerects, stooping, round shoulders, shoulders high and shoulders low. It is one of the principles on which this system is built that average proportions in growth and development furnish a substantial basis, upon which the right lengths and widths of
all

the parts of a garment can be determined as required for the greater

number

of

forms of any given size. The eye and tape-measure are both utilized to determine definitely what the sizes are and what is the amount of variation, if there be any, from the average form. There are a few comparatively who can determine these variations aided by the eye only. If this was always possible measures would be siiperfluous.

The three essential factors, then, that will best aid in the evolution of a successful cutter having intelligence and aptitude for the business are, first, a knowledge of the proportionate lengths to heights, and of widths to breast and waist circumferences, in the whole
range of sizes. Second, a trained eye by which variations from the average development can be detected and the degree of variation approximately, if not definitely, fixed. Third, a knowledge of how to measure rightly and with practical accuracy. The cutter who can cut The one who has satisfactorily for men of average development only, has a large clientage. the true eye and whose judgment as to the amount of variation, if any, from the average

form

is

confirmed by an adequate measurement, can cut satisfactorily for a
is

much

larger

clientage.

In this work the student

instructed

how

to draft coats

and vests

first

by proportionate

measures and then by measures actually taken, so that with only the fundamental sizes, as breast, waist, seat and height, garments can be produced for any size or shape, or they may be drafted by measures actually taken as circumstances control, The methods for drafting
in each case are practically the same.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

The Keystone

Systems.

The Measures of a Man by

Proportions.

TVrO

table or

scheme

of proportions I liave yet seen in print,

and

I

have seen many, gives

definitely or establishes a

perfect formula for obtaining correct divisions

and sub-

divisions of either height or circumference measures,
relied

and none

of

them, therefore, can be

upon

to secure satisfactory results.

The

eight-head standard of height has formed the basis of innumerable systems of
;

proportion

but the

human form

so frequently

and widely varies from this standard of per-

fection, that

they are practically useless, and there are few indeed

who

place

any

reliance on

them.

Some years ago
of the

the fact was deeply impressed on

my mind

that a system of proportions

human

form, applicable to every shape, normal, stooping, or erect, was not only greatly
of

needed by the trade, but was possible also

achievement.

This impression induced me

to

seek some principle that should be sound in theory, on which to construct a system that

should completely
equal exactness.

fill

the requirements of proportionate and disproportionate forms with

On
size

the tables

accompanying

this

work everv length

for

any height, and width

for an}'

can be found by corresponding heights and circumferences.
I

To
:

illustrate

how

the pro-

portions of the body are obtained,

submit the following problem

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

HOW TO
T^RAW
with

FIND

THE WIDTHS.
i.

Figure

a straight line i8 inches long, or one-half the size of breast,
it

and

at a right

angle

another half as long

— that

is,

9 inches.

Connect the extreme points
niise of the triangle, as

of these lines

by

a straight line,

which

will be the

hypothe-

A

E.

Using E as a which gives F.
pivot,

pivot,

sweep from D,

Having secnred
and sweep from

point F, nse
F,

A

as a
B.

which gives
is

The

result obtained

that all the

points are proportionate to one another, no

matter what the size

may

be.

The

sizes are close-measures, but

they

agree with what has been established by
practical experience.

The beauty
will be

of this

and the security insured by
testing

obtaining the widths by the formula of this problem

shown more

distinctly. 'on

them on

smaller and larger forms.

The

result produces a vast diiTerence between those

divisions generally given on scales, for while they give a

regular increase and decrease, they are in one case too great and in the other too small.

The

parts or proportions of the triangle are

relative to

one another in all cases, whether they be larger or smaller. This principle can be applied with absolute correctness.
application to any size
points of

On

we

find that

it

determines the different

the body, or such

subdivisions as are needed in har-

monious proportions. For instance, if we wish to know the proportionate size of blade and width of back for a form of 36 breast measure, we draw line A D one-half this size, 18 inches, and place one-half of this, 9 inches, from D to E. Connect A and E. Pivot at E and sweep from D which fixes Pivot at A and sweep from F to B. F. The distance from A to B is the blade size from the front of armhole
center of back,
1 1

to

inches.

From B

to

D

is

equal to the half width of back,
is

6%

inches, and the difference between the two

the diameter of the arm-

hole, 4^5 inches.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

HOW TO

FIND THE LENGTHS.
Figure
2.

I_JA\"ING

this length as

the total height of a figure measuring 5 feet 8 inches, we draw a straight line of from E to O, 2.nd one at right angles with it at the top, which shall be
first line,

one-half of the length of the

as from

E to

P.

Connect P and O.

P

to

C

is

the same as

P

to E.

and sweep from C to establish I. It will be observed that we have now the length from the top of the head to hollow of waist, and the length from tlie waist to the floor, or what ma}- be called the outside length for
Pivot at
trousers.

O

Let this subdivision continue and obtain other points. E to is one-half of the length from E to L

X

and X. same as X to E. Pivot at I and sweep from J to establish F, just opposite the socket at neck. Measure from F to I and yon have the length to the natural waist. The lengths thus obtained will be fonud to be in harmony with any breast circumference. Suppose you have a form whose height is 5 feet 4 inches. The result in this case will
Connect
I

X to J

is

the

give a waist length of 15 inches.
inches.

If

the height

is 5 feet

6,

the waist length

will,

be i^j4

height being 5 feet 8 inches, the length then is 16 inches. waist length will be 16^,' and for 6 feet, it will be 17 inches.

The

For

5 feet 10, the

Having the lengths

for an}- height,

we can understandingly and

safely deviate one or two

sizes for stooping or erect forms, as the case

mav

require.

N H

Continue the subdivisions by first squaring from F to obtain N. N to L is the same as Pivot at I and sweep from L to obtain H, which is at the center of the back-sc^-e. to S is one-half of the width of the armhole as explained for Figure i, i ^^ inch for a 32 breast, 2 '., inches for a 36, and 2 fs inches for a 40. B}- measuring from F to S we have 8}^, inches for a 36 breast. As, however, the form in most cases curves above the arm, we increase this length in ever}' case '2 inch, which gives the length from socket-bone to bottom of armhole and to the natural waist as found in the tables. The application of the lengths and widths to the draft for regular and for disproportionate forms will be explained further on, when the method of drafting is taken up. But in order to save all calculation and to have a guide for ready reference, I append a
to F.

table of proportionate lengths

and widths

for use,

which can be referred

to at

any time when

needed.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

'3

FIGURE

2.

14

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE TABLE OF PROPORTIONATE MEASURES.
'X'HE
proportions of lengths to height, and of widths to breast sizes, var_v in different localThose which are right for one section or locality may not be for another. Those

ities.

given in the accompanying table will be found well adapted to general purposes. They are given as a basis for the production of proportionate patterns and as a guide to correct

measurements.
sizes.

The student should become familiar with the several lengths and widths for the different The knowledge thus gained will serve as a guard against wrong measurements. The measures for a man of any breast size, and whose height is proportionate to his

from those given on the table unless he differs in developfrom the average form. For one who is over-erect, the back depth, blade and back waist ment will be less and the front depth jiioir than as on the table. For one who is stooping shouldered For one the blade and back depth will be jiiorc and the front depth less than on the table. who has high shoulders the front and back depths will both be less^ and for one with low shoulders more than on the table. No matter what the variation may be from a normal form, either in height, attitude or development, the table is the basis from which the changes which
breast, will not differ materially

ma}- be necessarv are made, as

is

more

fully explained hereafter.

In the

first

column
is

from

64.

to 74.

the table are the heights in inches, ranging In the next column, are the breast sizes appropriate for the heights opposite,
of figures at the left of

when the

breast size

in proportion to height.

Then

follows the waist, seat,

underarm and

sleeve lengths, back depth, length to natural waist, etc.

sometimes required to cut from a few fundamental measures, as height, These may be taken by him or they may be sent to him from some other Without the proper knowledge of good, safe proportions, he would not be able to locality. meet such requirements. Extensive businesses are confined exclusivel}' to the making of custom clothing from measures furnished by the buyers or selling agents, with very Experience has demonstrated that a busilittle and often no experience in taking measures. ness of this character can be conducted with a smaller per cent, of misfits and at less cost for The tables alterations than under the conditions which too often govern in custom cutting. They furnish furnish the data by the aid of which the cutter can meet such requirements. a safe basis from which he can produce suitable patterns for either proportionate or disproportionate forms also block-patterns, which he will find to be of great service and almost a
cutter
is

The

breast, waist, seat.

;

daily necessity in a business of

much

mafjnitude.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

TABLE OF PROPORTIONATE MEASURES.

H X
iij

X

6

1

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

HOW TO

USE THE TABLES FOR PROPORTIONATE FORMS.

Taking Hkioht, Breast, Waist and Skat MKAsrRF:s Oxlv.

"DY A PROPORTIONATE
breast, waist

form it must be understood that it is meant one whose height, and seat are very nearh' the same as given on the table for an}- of the Tlie attitude, size of blade and slope of shoulder is the same as for an various breast sizes.
average form.

We
and

wish to know what measures to use when drafting a coat for a
70 inches.
referring to the table

man

say 38 breast

of proportionate height,

Bv

we

find the

measures as follows
I

:

38 breast. 34 waist.

|

39

seat.

i9i'2 sleeve.
I

|

9 back depth. 1 7 natural waist.

I

1

|

2

3^.

front depth.

Height " will furnish the length to the seat-line (mo.st prominent part) if drafting a sack coat, and the lengths to any part of the bodv bv which we can regulate the length for any stjde of coat according to style.
table of "

The

Lengths

to

HOW TO

USE THE TABLES FOR DISPROPORTIONATE FORMS.

Taking Height, Breast, Waist and Seat Measures Only.

A DISPROPORTIONATE

form is one which in some respect differs materially from the measurements as given on the tables. It ma}- be in height, waist, seat or in attitude,

as for example, height 68 inches, breast 40, waist 39, seat 43. An observation of the shape may or ma}' not indicate that the shoiilders are more or less sloping, that the blades are more

or less full, or that the attitude

from an average or proportionate form. and sizes given above, with blade, slope of shoulder and attitude not noticeably different from the average form. In this case select from the table the sleeve length, natural waist, seat line and length of the coat from the row of figures in which 68 is found as the height. Then select the size of blade, back depth and front deptli from the row of figures in which 40 is given as the
is

different

Take

for

example a form

of the height

breast size.

The measures
seat,
133.,

to be used when drafting will then be as follows: 40 breast, 39 waist, 43 1834 sleeve, 9^4 back depth, i6'2 natural waist, 243^ seat line (style length), 12 blade, front depth.
hii^li, tlie

Wlieu the shoulders arc
degrees of
'^

liack

and front depths are each

s/iortriicd

one or two

inch eacli as ma}- seem to be required.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
When
two degrees
the shoulders are /(m\ then
of '4 ineli
tlie

17

back and front depths are each

/ci/o/hriu-ct

one or

seem to be rec|nircd. When the sht)ulders are h/o/i and iiioj-<- crctt tlian for the average form (as is often erroneousl}' called "erect and square"), then two changes arc required as follows: The back and front depths are each sliortoicd one or two degrees as the case may demand, then the changed front depth is IcngtJteticd one or two degrees for erectness, and the changed back depfh shortened the same amount. When the shoulders are erect and /tra\ the back and front depths are each first leiii^t/iened one or two degrees for increased slope of shoulders. The changed front depth is then incirased and the back depth deereased^ each one or two degrees for erectness. When the shoulders are fiig/i and stooping, the back and front depths are first shortened The changed back depth is then lengthened one or two degrees for less slope of shoulder. and the front depth shortened each one or two degrees for stooping shoulders. When the shoulders are more sloping and stooping than for the average form, the back and front depths are each lengthened one or two degrees for sloping shoulders. The changed back depth is then lengthened and the front depth shortened each one or two degrees
each as
nia}-

for stooping shoulders.

For a form of any height or breast, if flatter or smaller through the shoulder blades than a normal form, reduce the blade size as given on the table one, two, or three degrees of I4. inch each as the case seems to require. If on the other hand the blades are fuller than for a normal form, increase the blade size one, two or three degrees.
Let us now consider the changes that would be required for a man 70 inches in height, An observation of his shape shows that he is, say one degree 36 breast, 31 waist, 37 seat. erect, shonlders one degree high, and across the blade tn'o degrees flat.

To

find the

First write

figures below.

say a sack-coat for this man, proceed as follows: form of 36 breast as in the first row of Place under the proportionate height 68 inches, the customer's height 70

measures by which

to draft,

down the formula

for a proportionate

inches, under the waist 32, place his waist size 31.

Next consider the back depth.

This

must be

treated on the basis of the proportionate height of 68 inches without regard to the

height of the customer.

in height affects the lengths of the upper part of the and from under the arm to waist only, both of which will be longer than for a form of proportionate height and breast, providing of course that So that, as the shoulders are one degree the slope of shoulders is as for the average form. high, the front and back depths are each shortened '4 inch. This gives S'i' for the back, which place under 834, and ii/g for the front, which place under 12 'sHe is also one degree erect, so the changed back depth must be shortened another '4 inch. This gives 8^4, which place under 8^2 The changed front depth must now be This gives 12 '^ again which is placed lerfgthened '4 inch for one degree erect. under 1 1 "sNext find the length to the natural wai.st in the row of figures in which 70 inches is given on the table as height, which is 17, and place this under 16' 2. The full length and length of sleeve are also taken from the row of figures in which the

His increase

bodv from

collar

seam

to natural waist,

.

.

3

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
height 70 inches The sleeve length
is

found.

(Get the full length from the table of
is

LENGTHS To Height.)
This

is 19^^/^ is

which

placed under 1834.

As

is

hvo degrees

flaf,

deduct

^i

gives lo'^ which

placed under

11.

It will be observed that, in this case, shortening the front depth 12 's ior one degree high s/ionlders, and then lengthening it for one degree erect, leaves this length as it was The back depth has been shortened '.' inch ('4 inch for one degree high originally.

shoulders and

Vj^

inch for one degree erect).
32
31

68
70

36

37

i83^.
T.<^Vi

8^ 8%
S]4

i6i/^

II

125^

17

25

1

iQi^

11% 12^

The measures

as used

when

drafting will then be as follows

:

8I4 back depth, 17 natural waist, 25 'i .seat-line, 36 breast, 31 waist, 37 seat, 19 Vj sleeve, length, 10 J/^ blade, I2j< front depth. say 29 Take another example. Height 72 inches, breast 3S, waist 35, seat 40, two degrees
sloping shoulders, one degree stooping shoulders, and blades one degree full. First write down the measures for a proportionate form of 38 breast as given on the
tables

and as on the

first

row

of figures below.

This gives 91^2 for which place under 1234. Add "4 inch to the changed back depth for one degree stooping. This gives 93,4, which place under 95^, and deduct the same amount from the changed front depth for one degree This gives 13, which place under 13 '4. stooping shoulders. Add I4 inch to the blade for one degree fnil blades. This gives 11 34, which place
the back depth, which place under
9,

Place the waist size required under 34 and the seat 40 under 39. Add '2 inch to the back and front depths for /wo degrees sloping.

and

13%

for the front depth,

under

1

1

' 2

Place under 17 the proportionate waist length for 72 inches height, viz., i7'2 This is further increased '4 inch to 1734 for one degree stooping shoulders.

inches.

The measures
of figures.

as used

when drafting the
19'^

coat will then be as given on the bottom

row

V
72

l'^

34
35

39

40 40
is

20

9 91^
93/+

17
i7''2

11'^

'23^;

26'4
26 '2

30
3C>

113^
ii?4

13I4
13
13

38

35

20

934:

17^4 1734

The
waist.

fashionable waist

determined by

style,

2

inches below the natural

The full length is also determined by style. The various lengths to any part of the body can be found on the table of Lengths to Height. The sizes given on the table for neck are make-up sizes for coats which close at the neck. The sizes for thigh, knee and calf are anatomical. The sizes for sleeves at hand and elbow are make-up sizes, subject to changes in style.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
M
'|i|i|il

19

i

i

|

|

mpp

Wu mpp:

Ui|i

|i
|

i

|i|

i

|

mm

mm mp

THE
TN
all

DIVISIONS

ON THE DRAFTING-

SQUARE.
the following explanations, whenever the frac1/6,
14;,

tions

i^,

stated

otherwise,

i^, etc., are nsed, unless expressly they are according to the several

divisions of

the half-breast, half-waist or half-seat, as

found on the oi'dinary drafting-square. ample, the distance between two given
be
32,
'4

As

for

ex-

points

may

waist, the waist being
is

which
to

16,

Find half of 32 inches. on the divisions of fourths. From
is
is

this

the angle of the square

'4

waist or 4 inches

from one another is one ///// foiDtli of the waist, the waist being 32 inches, then is meant one full fourth
it

for this size of waist.

When

said tliat

point

to

or 8 inches.

Take a 36 breast, one full half breast is 18 inches. But I, breast is the quantity on the drafting-square between the angle and half of the breast 18, on the
divisions of halves,
viz.,

9 inches.

-dlL!i f

,

T f
,

i

rfj

i

f T r i,T
i

,

i

,

rJ

i

i

i

r

,

i

,

T f
,

,

f ,i, h i, t iii hi 7 ii, l^ Tj,? ,i, ?Hj ,ti T i^
, ,

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

TABLE OF LENGTHS TO HEIGHT.
this table are given the lengths from the collar seam to different parts of the body for forms ranging from 5 feet 4 to 6 feet 4 inches in height. In the first column of figui'es at the left of the table are the several heights in inches. In the next colnmn are the lengths to natural waist, then to seat line (most prominent part of seat) to center of body, fork, bottom of seat, center of thigh, top of knee, bottom of knee, center of calf, bottom of calf, ankle, sole of foot, etc. The style length, say for a sack coat, may be i inch below the bottom of seat. This the table gives for a man 70 inches in height as 2g% inches, and for one 66 inches in height 28 inches. In this manner the length can be readily and uniformly ascertained for any kind

(~\^
^^^

of coat.

The
The The

outside .seam for trousers
of foot.
is

is

ascertained by deducting the length to natural waist

from that to the sole
inside
sole of foot.

seam length

found by deducting the length

to

the fork from that to the

proper front lengths for vests are given in the last column.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

TABLE OF LENGTHS TO HEIGHT.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED FROCK-COAT BODY.
Diagram
i.

WE

shall begin to show the system of drafting by taking a size of 36 breast, 32 waist. The lengths we shall take from the tables for 36 breast, as the height of the form there are no to be fitted, viz., 5 feet 8 inches, is proportionate to the breast, and as The measures differing from the average or normal form. peculiarities of shape noticeable
to draft are,

by which

we

find, as follows 1854;

:

36 breast, 32 waist,
front depth.

sleeve,

SS/^

back depth, ]6'2 natural waist,

11

12^

To Draft.
Square the lines A E -and A 19. Place the end of the drafting-square
8.34;

j^

inch below

inches, the natural waist at

D 16%

inches,

A and mark the back depth at B and the fashionable waist at E according to

style, 2

B

to

inches for this draft below D. C is one-half of the back depth, 4^5 inches.

Square out from B, C, D and EE to F is i'2 inch. Square down from F. Shape the center-back-seam from A through F as represented. A to G is i/^ breast, 3 inches. Square up from G.

G
B

to
to

H
K

is ^'t breast, 3,^ is

inch.

1 1

inches.
to

vSquare
li inch.

down from K.
Square up from M. inches. Square up from
P.

K to L M to P
B
to

is I is

inch and

L

M is
%

^
1
1

inch less than

breast,

2%

Q is one-half of full breast, 18 inches. Square down from R. to R is 2 ^4 inches.
to 2 is
8

R

inch

when

the edges are to be stitched, and I4 inch less

when bound.

1 is

half-way from

B

to

M.

I to J is

N
Z

is

Square up from J. lyi inch. half-way from J to K. Square down from

N

to establish

i.

Connect H and P. Connect 19 and the bottom
to 5 is
I

of the center-back-seam opposite

E

to establish 20.

inch, or to style.
to style,

Establish 4, ^4 inch more or less according and shape the back scye as represented.

forward of the line from

J

to 19,

F

to

T

is

i'8

breast, 2i/( inches, or to style.

Shape the back from 5 through 20 and T as represented. For each inch that the waist is smaller than the breast, '4 inch is taken out between 7 inch in this case, which is distributed on each side of i as represented. and 8. This gives When Ihe blade is propflrtioiialr to tlir breast, S to \' is '4 inch more than '> waist, 8 '4
i

inches in this case.

lVhe)i

tlie

34.

is

disproportionate to the breast,

\

is

established as

explained for Diagrams

4, 5

and

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
Y
F
to

23

W

W
T,

is 2 I4

inches.
2.

to 3 is the to

V

to

same as R to 8 aud 7 to 6 is
'4

i, of full waist,

16 inches.
5 throiii;-h 6,

Shape the sidebody from
as represented.

inch forward of

taking out

'4

inch opposite 20

Shape the scye through K to the front of scye line above M as represented. Shape the underarm seam from N through 7 and 8 as represented. From 20 to 9 is ^4- i^^^h more than from 20 to the fashionable waist line below T.
Point 10
is

'4

inch above the fashionable waist line.

2

R

Q

P

M

3

W

V

24

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

SINGLE-BREASTED FROCK-COAT BODY.
(

Concluded.

)

Diagram
T

2.

13 is 3^ inch more than the front depth, less the width of the toj^ of the back from A H. Lay the drafting-square as represented the width from A to H is placed below L, inch more than the front and the drafting-square touches the line squared up from P at This establishes 13. depth, \%~/% inches. Connect 13 and C. From 13 to 4 is the same as H to 4 on the back. From 4 to 16 is }/^ inch. Shape the seam from 13 to 16 and the scye below 16 as rep-

TO
to

^

resented.

Square forward from

13.

From

13 to 14

is

%
J/g

breast, 3 inches.

Connect 14 and R.

From

14 to 15

is

breast, 3 inches.

as represented or

I

It may be shaped is shaped from 13 passing ^2 inch above 15. through or below 15 according to style. Shape the front edge through 2 and 3. Establish the end of the roll according to style, and draw the crease-line towards a point inch from the side of the neck. This establishes 22. Point 12 is 1 2 inch below the fashionable waist line. Connect 11 and 12 by a straight line and shape the waist seam from 11 by a graceful

In this case the gorge

1

reverse-curved line through 12 to 21 as represented.
is directly below M. Connect 25 and P and shape the

Point 25
resented.

fish,

making

it

S

inch wide on the waist line as rep-

The button

line

is

i

'

<

inch backward from the front edge.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

25

21

12

DIAGRAM

2.

26

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
THREE-BUTTON CUTAWAY FROCK-COAT BODY.
Diagram
3.

'T^HE accompanjang
and 42
breast. breast,
seat.

diagram

The

9 inches in height, 40 breast, 39 waist shoulders are one degree high and stooping.
is

for a

man

5 feet

First select the lengths

and widths from the tables for a proportionate form of 40 These are given on the first row of figures below, the first being the height, ivext then waist, seat, sleeve, back depth, natural waist, blade and front depth.
40 40
37

72

69

39

42 42
is

20
19

9I4
9

1713

12

13^
131^

1634

On
As
inch.

the second row of figures

placed the height, breast, waist and seat sizes of the form

to be fitted, as 69, 40, 39, 42.

the shoulders are our degree high, the back and front depths are each shortened '4
9, which place under 9'4, and 13/s, which place under 13^5the shoulders are also one degree stooping, the changed back depth is lengthened V^

This gives

As
inch,
9,

and the changed front depth is shortened and 1 2 7^8, which place under 135/^.

'4 inch.

This gives 9 '4^, which place iinder

except that
is

is the same as for a man 5 feet 9 inches in height, viz., 16^4, This gives 17, which increased '4 inch for one degree stooping shoulders. The sleeve length for a man 5 feet 9 inches in height is 19 inches, placed under 1634.

The

length to natural waist
it is

which place under

20.

The
40

measures, then, as used
I

when

drafting, are

:

breast.

39 waist.

42 seat. 19 sleeve.

I

9 14' back depth. 17 natural waist. 19 fashionable waist.

I

12 blade. 12 7^ front depth.

|

To Draft.
All the points excepting
6, 8, 12, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30,

U,

V

and
is

W,

are obtained in the

same manner as explained

for

Diagrams

i

and

2.

As
line

the waist
i

is

i

inch smaller than the breast,

'4

inch onl}-

taken out on the waist
S- to

from
\2 of

to 8.

When
than

is

proportionate to the breast, as in this case,

U

is

'.j^

inch more

a waist 4 inches smaller than the breast. '4 inch more than '2 of 36 waist, 9 '4 inches.

From S

to

U

is,

therefore, in this case,

In this case the waist (39)

is 3

than breast, which would be from U to \'.

36,

and one-third
the waist

inches larger than for a form with waist 4 inches smaller of this, or i inch, is placed forward of U as
is 3

V
when
breast.

to

W

is 2' 8
is 2

inches

when

inches smaller than
i ~'s

the

breast,
is i

2

inches

the wai.st

inches smaller than the breast,
13,4

inch

when
is

the waist

inch smaller

than the breast, as in this case, and

inch

when

the waist

as large or larger than the

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
F
to

27

T,
1

\' to 8
2 is
1

and

i

to

6

is

one-half of full waist, 19'. inches.
establish 25.

Point

I

2

inch below the fashionable waist.

Connect 1 and 12 by a straight line and square by this line towards Q to Shape the seam edge from 11 through 12 towards 21 as represented. The dart from 25 to 26 is tV inch wide for each inch of corpulency, which
as above explained, is 3 inches, so that from 25 to 26 is tV inch.

for this

form

From From

26 to 28

is

the same as from 26 to the top of the dart.

28 to 29 is the same as 25 to 26. Shape the waist seam from 26 through 29 to 30 as represented. The shape of the front below 2 is governed by taste or style.

When
1 1

cutting out the pattern for the forepart cut the waist seam
to 21.

first

on the line from
to 30.

through 25

Then

after the skirt has

been drafted, cut

off

from 26

14®

^f3.

DIAGRAM

3.

28

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

SINGLE-BREASTED ONE- AND THREE-BUTTON
Diagram
4.

CUTAWAY FROCK

BODY.

'npHE accompanying
and 45
first

diagram

is

for a

man

5 feet 9

seat.

The

inches in height, 42 breast, 44 waist full, each two degrees.

Select the lengths and widths from the tables for a form of 42 breast as arranged on the

row

of figures following

:

74

42 42

40
44

69

44 45

20-^4;

19

95^ 10

18

I2>^
13

14
13!/^

16^
of the

Under these
42,

are placed the height, breast, waist

and seat

form

to

be

fitted,

as 6g,

44 and 45. As the shoulders are two degrees stooping, the back depth is increased \i inch, which This is placed under gij. The front depth is shortened '2 inch. This gives gives 10.
13I2, which
is

placed under 14.
is

The

sleeve length for 69 inches height, 19,

placed under 20i^.

Place 13 under i2'2 for blades two degrees full. The natural waist for 69 inches height, i63^;, is placed under 18. This must, however, This gives 17 '4 which is placed be increased }4 inch for two degrees stooping shoulders.

under 16 3;^.
Particular and careful examination of the build
It

that
it is

must not be understood

to determine au}' increase always increased for forms with

stooping shoulders, because a person is frequently round and stooping shouldered, but no The round appearance being larger through the blades than an average or normal form. due to extreme inward curvature at the back waist, and head carried well forward.

When

full,

the chest must be extra
drafting, are as follows

flat.
:

The measures

then, as used

when

42 breast.

10 back depth.

44 waist.
45 seat.
19 sleeve.
13 1 2
front depth.

17^
1914^

natural waist.
fashionable waist.

To Draft.
For two degrees stooping shoulders the center-back-seam is advanced ^s inch forward of is taken out between the back and sidebody at 5, as represented. All the remaining points, excepting as herein explained, are obtained in the .same manner as explained for Diagrams i and 2.

A, and more

As

the waist
at
i.

is

larger than the breast there

is

nothing taken out between the forepart

and sidebodv

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

29

DIAGRAM

4.

30

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
Whenever
size,

for a

corresponding breast

the star
is

Whenever

is

than as for an average form as found on the table established the same amount /orzaa rd of S. >nore than as found on the table for a corresponding
is

breast size, then the star
star is therefore placed

established the
is

same amount hackivard

of S.

In this case the blade size used

%

inch more than as on the table for 42 breast.

The

^
is

inch backward of S.

The
line.

star

now

takes the place of
4 or

S when

establishing the remaining points on the waist
breast,

When

the waist

more inches smaller than the

is

larger or
J^^

smaller than as for an average form as found on the table, then from the star to

V
U

is

inch

more than Yz waist. See Diagrams 5 and 34. W^hen the waist is less than 4 inches smaller than the
is

breast, as in

this case,
is

and the
V^

larger or smaller than as found on the table, then from the star to
^i of

inch

more than

a waist, 4 inches smaller than the breast, irrespective of the size of the
fitted.

waist of the form to be

Yz

In this case, the breast being 42, a waist 4 inches smaller is 38, and of 38 (19 on the divisions of halves), is gj^ inches. From the star to Point Point

'4

inch more than
is

U

therefore 93^

inches.

V U

is

now

established as follows

:

The form
2

inches

is

V
F

to
to

W
T

man with 38 waist, or 4 inches less than breast. 44 waist, which is 6 inches more than 38. One-third of this, or now placed forward of U which gives V. is as explained for Diagram 3, i3/^ inch for this draft.
has been established as for a
be
fitted
is

to

and

V

to 6 is Y^ of the full waist, 22 inches.

The waist seam is drafted in the same manner as explained for Diagram 3. The amount of corpulenc}' being 6 inches, the dart is 6-16 or 3g inch wide. The front edge of the one-buttoner is shown in a heavy line through and passing

W

'^/^

inch forward of

2.

The

front edge for a three-button cutaway frock
roll to 3.

is

also

shown

in a light solid line

from

the end of the

This, however,

is

a style of front which should not be encouraged for

corpulent forms unless

made with stationary short roll. When made soft roll the edge should be shaped in good form from the point of the rever to 3, and the two upper buttons should be placed as much back of the usual position as the edge has been shaped
forward of
2.

The edge

of the one-buttoner is also

drawn

Y

inch forward of

2.

32

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DOUBLE-BREASTED FROCK-COAT BODY.
Diagram
I

5.

'HE accompanying diagram is for He is over-erect, has small 34.
The
lengths and widths are
is

a man 5 feet 10 inches in height, breast 38 and waist blades and low shoulders, each two degrees.

first

selected

from the tables

for a

man
first

of

38 breast,
of figures

which
below.

proportionate to the height, 5 feet 10 inches, as arranged on the

row

The back depth
reduced
'

is

shortened

'2

inch, the front depth

lengthened
'

'2

2

inch for over-erectness and small blades, as on the second row.
front depths are then lengthened each
2

The changed back and
as on the third row.

inch for low shoulders

(When

flat,

the chest must be correspondingly

full.)

70

3S

34

39

i9>^

17

1

1

'2

12^4;

II

13k

The measures

then, as used

when

drafting, are:

38 breast. 34 waist. 39 seat.

19I2 sleeve, 9 back depth. 17 natural waist.

19 fashionable waist. 1 1 blade. 13^4 front depth.

All

the points, excepting the star
i

To Draft. R and W,

are obtained

in

the

same manner

as

explained for Diagrams
less

and
'

2.

The star is established 2 inch forward of S, because the blade size used is that amount than as given on the tables for a man of 38 breast as explained for Diagram 4. As the waist is 4 inches smaller than the breast, i inch is taken out between 7 and 8.
From
the star to

V

is

%

inch more than j4 waist.

F

to to to

T,

Y
is is

to 8

and

7 to 6 is ^4 of the full waist.

Q V

R

2^4 inches.
2^2 inches.

W
Q

R and V to are each '4 inch more than as for the preceding diagrams, because of the lapel seam for which this allowance is made. For corpulent or stout forms see Diagram 6.
From
to

W

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

33

21

12

DIAGRAM

5.

34

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
DOUBLE-BREASTED FROCK-COAT BODY.
Diagram
6.

T HE
ders.

10 inches in height, 48 breast and 48 shoulders are one degree high and two degrees stooping. First find the lengths and widths on the tables for a proportionate form of 48 breastThese are as on the first row of figures below. The back and front depths are first each shortened i^ inch for one degree high shoul-

accompanying diagram

is

for a

man

5 feet

waist.

The

This gives

10,

which

is

The changed back

depth

is

placed under loj/^, and 155^, which is placed under 157^. then lengthened '2 inch and the front depth shortened the

same amount for two degrees stooping shoulders. This gives ioi/<, which is placed under 10, and i5/'8, which is placed xinder 15%. The sleeve and natural waist lengths are found on the row of figures on which 70 is given as height. This gives 19^ for the sleeve and 17 for natural waist. The latter is,
however, increased
'i

inch for two degrees stooping shoulders.

48

46 48

22 14
ig'j

10%
10

191^
ij}4

14

15 Js

ioi<

15H 15^
:

The measures
48 brea,st. 48 waist.
195^2

as used

when

drafting will then be as follows

sleeve.

io}4 back depth. 171^ natural waist. 9 1-2 fashionable waist. 1

To Draft.
All the points excepting
6,
2.

R, U,

V

and

W

are obtained in the

same manner

as

explained for Diagrams

i

and

As the waist is as large as the breast there is nothing taken out on S to U and U to V are each the same as explained for Diagram 3.

the waist line at

i.

waist is 3 inches smaller than the breast, 2 ^^ inches when inches smaller than the breast, 2V8 inches when the waist is i inch smaller than the breast, and 2 inches when the waist is as large or larger than the breast, 2 inches

Q to R is 2^4- inches. VtoW is 2^ inches when the
is 2

the waist

for this draft.

F

to

T

and
is

V

Point 12

to 6 is one-half of full waist, 24 inches. i}4 inch below the fashionable waist.

Shape the waist seam and the dart

in the

same manner as explained

for

Diagram

3.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

35

-4)-"'
12

DIAGRAM

6.

:

36

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DRESS-COAT BODY.
Diagram
7.

npHE

accompanying diagram

is

for a regnlar

form

5 feet

9 inches in height, 37 breast and

33 waist.

The measures used when
are as follows

drafting are the

same

as found on the table for 37 breast,

which

37 breast. 33 waist.

I

I

19 sleeve. 8 ?s back depth.

I

1634!
1834^

|

natural waist. fashionable waist.

[

|

iii:j; blade. 12 ^s front depth.

To Draft.
All the points excepting

R

and VV are obtained

in the

same manner

as explained for

Diagrams

i

and
is I

2.

Q V

to

to

W

R

is 2}'^

inches.

inch.

lapel and gorge to style. (See Diagrams 20 and 21.) This coat is not intended to button, the front edges of the lapels meeting at the waist. For a form with a small waist the lapel seam ma}- be shaped % or ^4 inch flatter at R, and for corpulent forms somewhat forward of R, in each case according to the st3-le effect desired for the roll, whether narrow or wide. For corpulent forms the distribution of the waist size will be obtained in the same manner

Shape the

Diagram 3, excepting the quantity between each case less than as explained for Diagram 6.
as explained for

V

and W, which

is

1^2 inch in

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

37

DIAGRAM

7

)

)

38

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

FROCK-COAT BACKS COMPLETED.
Diagram
8.

'npHE

regular back

is

drafted as represented, except

when

the material

is of

a decided stripe

or plaid.

To complete the back From the fashionable

proceed as follows
waist

:

F

to

E

is

i%

inch.

Draw

a straight line from

A

through E-

A

to

G

is

H

inch more than the length.

Sqiiare across from G.

K is the same as F to H. Curve slightly from H to K and add i inch on each side at F and H, extending from I4 inch above F and H as represented. For forms with flat seats and less erect than the average, extend the line A E (Diagram i Shape the edge of the back skirt below E parallel to the bottom, add j4 inch back of E. with the line A E. (Diagram i.)
J to

Diagram
For stripes and plaids
the
of

9.
is first

pronounced patterns, the back
8.

drafted in all respects

same

as explained for

Diagram

Continue the line

AF

to establish L.

L

the same as J to K. Reshape the back skirt from F and
to
is

M

H

to

L and M.
'2

The

top of the side plait should be raised about up, the center-back-seam

inch above H, and the bottom
at the

^/^

inch above M.

When making
the side

must be well shrunk

natural waist, and

seam stretched

directly opposite until

the edge of the back skirt below

F

ranges

with the line

F

J.

WHOLE
/^N
this

BACKS.
10.

Diagram
diagram
is
is

represented one style of whole represented on Diagram
9,

back.

It

is

drafted

in

the

same

manner
back skirt

as the one

except that the lap on the center-ofshaded, extends from the right side

omitted.
is
i

An
of back.

extra piece, represented by the part which
is

inch or more beyond the center, and

fastened at the button and by a tack at the center
of

One

side edge is left free.

When marking
edge
54

on the material the center
well

back

is

laid to overlap the fold or crease

inch from the top to the bottom.
material

The
line as

must be

sides directly opposite, until the edge of the

shrunk on the fold at the natural waist, and stretched on the back skirt when on the double, ranges with the
9.
(

from

F

to J

on Diagram

Contnntcd on page

./o.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

39

K

J

M K

L

J

DIAGRAM 8.

DIAGRAM 9,

DIAGRAM

10.

40

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

WHOLE
(

BACKS.
)

Concluded.

Diagram
fold or crease-edge as

ii.

This diagram represents the material opened out face up.

Diagram
below

9,

defined

by
i

F,

H, L,

M

and

all

above.

The back is The
down

first

cut on a
is

right side

then cut

oi?

from

\^ inch

H

to within

inch of the center and
12.
is

to the bottom.

Diagram

with
I

part represents another piece which

cut

b}'

the pattern of the back skirt

The

top

is

cut

'4.

inch above

F

and H.

Diagram

13.

ri). It

diagram the piece (Diagram 12) is shown attached to the back skirt (Diagram seamed to the back from the button to the tack, passing under the left back skirt ma}' however, be stoated to the back, in which case the top should be cut off on the line
this
It is

On

FH.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

41

DIAGRA.IVI

II.

DIAGRAM

12.

DIAGRAM

13.

42

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CUTAWAY
Diagram

SKIRT.

Regular Form.
14.

COUARE
Lav
line

the lines

2 to 3

and

2 to 8.

the lower point of the back
as represented.

seam

of the

sidebody at

2

and the side seam on the

from

2 to 3

Mark along
2 to 3.

the bottom of the sidebod}'.

Lay

the forepart with the bottom of the side

seam touching 4 and the fashionable waist
the bottom from 4 to
5.

line directly over the line

from

Mark along

Half-way from

2 to 5 establish 6.

From
From From Draw From From

5 to 7 is Yz inch. of the skirt

Shape the top
2 to

8

is is

9 inches.

from 2 to 7 as represented. Square back from 8.
2

8 to 9

lU

inch.

a straight line

from

through

9.

9 to 10 is 18 inches. Shape the back edge from
2 to II is
14^

2

passing Yz inch back of 9 through
according to style.
2 to
1 1

10.

inch more than the length of the back skirt
7 to
1 1

(H

to

K, Diagram

8).

Shape the front from

I

inch for the plait from

as represented.

distance from 8 to

9, viz.,

I'j inch, is as established for a regular

form having

Should the a seat 5 inches larger than waist, the attitude of the form also being normal. seat, however, be more than 5 inches larger than the waist, and the attitude normal, as 32
waist, 38 seat, the distance

from 8

to 9

that the difference between the waist

must be increased '4 inch, or and seat is more than 5 inches.

V^

inch for each inch

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

43

DIAGRAM

14.

44

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CUTAWAY
Diagram

SKIRT.

Corpulent Form.
15.

COUARE the
Diagram
14.
is

lines 2 to 3

and
7,

2 to 8.

All the pomts except

21

and B are obtained
3.

in the

same manner as explained

for

Point 21

the

same
i

as on

Diagram

From From From
the waist.

21 to 7 is 'i inch.
S to 9 is
li

inch as before.

9 to
for

B

is

as

many

fonrths of an inch as the seat

is

less

than

5

inches larger than
difference

Take

example a form
is

of
i

the waist and seat

4 inches, or

42 breast, 40 waist and 44 seat. inch less than 5 inches, which

The
is

between

the diflference between

these two sizes as established for a normal form, and upon which also the distance from 8 to
9 has been established for the normal or regular form. From 9 to B is therefore in this The back instance '4 inch, and a line is drawn from 2 through B instead of. through 9.

edge

is

shaped from

2

passing

'3

inch back of

B

as represented.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

45

DIAGRAM

J5.

46

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

FROCK-COAT SKIRT.
Regular Form.
Diagram
i6.

COUARE
Lay Lay
from
2 to 3.

the lines

2 to 3

and

2 to 8.

the sidebody as represented and

the forepart as represented.

mark along the bottom from The fashionable waist line is

2 to 4.

directly over the line

Mark along the bottom from 4 to 5. Lay the lapel as represented and mark from
Sqnare down from 6 by the fashionable waist

5 to 6.
line.

From From Draw From

2 to

8

is

9 inches.

8 to 9 is i'^ inch. a straight line from
2 to

2

through through

9.

10

is

18 inches.
2

Shape the back edge from
the plait as represented.

10,

passing

'i

inch back of 9 and add

i

inch for

From From

2 to II is y^

inch more than the length of the back skirt inch less than
skirt.
2 to 11.

(H

to

K, Diagram

8).

6 to 12

is

%

This gives a close

For one with extra drapery see Diagram

17.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

47

DIAGRAM

16.

:

-iS

THE "KEYSTONE- 5VSTE>1S

FROCK COAT

SKIRT.

EXTR.-. ZP.-^ZRY.

rtaAGRAM

17.

*^

. .--

:

rtpin 1-

1 .ip-t.

ire laid in the

ceding diagTaijLs ^ud bv marldng^

aLcHig^

the bottem edge

same manner as explained few the <x. each from 2 thiongh 4 to 6.

pre-

From 2 to S is 9 inches. From 8 Id 9 is i '« inch as b^oie. To obtain extra drapery proceed as
Point 7
is half-waj-

follows

between 2 and 6. From 7 to C is '4., '» inch or more according to the anxmnt of draperv required. In this case frx»m 7 to C is '»' inch. Shape the waist seam from 2 through C to 6 as represented. Square down fiom 6 towards D. From 6 to D is the same as 6 to C. Ffom 9 to B and from D to E are each tie ;.i~r as 7 to C. Draw a straight line from 6 through E. Draw a straight line from 2 through B. From 2 to 10 is 18 inches. Shape the beck-edge from 2 through ii- z^^::-^- '» inch back of B. and add i inch for
the plait.

From 2 From 6

to II is

'4^

inch more than the back skfrt

H ::

K. Dis^-rsjs

S*.

to 12 is '3 inch less than 2 to 11.

For a corpulent form the waist seam di the forepart should be shaped as explained fcr Diagram 3. The waist seam erf the skirt should be shaoed the same as the forepart as on the 'ine from 2 through 4. 7 and 5 to 6.

From S to 9 is I *2 inch as beftne. The back-edge is then shaped as explained for Diagram

1 5.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

49

DIAGRAM

17.

.

50

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DRESS-COAT SKIRT.
Regular Form.
DiA.GRAM
iS.

CQUARE
From From
from 21

the lines

Obtain points
21 to 6

4, 5
is
1

6 to 7

is

and 2 to S. and 21 as previously explained. i inch. Shape the waist seam as represented. Sliape the bottom of the strap from 14 inch.
2 to 3

7

parallel with the line

to 5. 7 to 12 is one-third of

From From From From Draw From

the width from 21 to

2.

12 to 13 is

I

inch.

2 to 8 is 9 inches. 8 to 9 is I ^4 inch. a straight line from 2 through

9.

2 to

10

is

18 inches.
2

Shape the back edge from
the plait, as represented.

through

10,

passing

'2

inch back of

9,

to

i

inch for

From

2 to
2

Pivot at

From From

II

1 1 is inch more than the length of the back skirt (H and sweep forward from 1 1 to 14 is one-third of the width from 2 to 21.
'14.

K, Diagram

8).

14 to 15

is

I

inch.

Connect 13 and

15

by

a slightlj- curved line
2 to 11

and
is

finish as represented.

For corpulent forms the back edge
for

(

)

obtained in the same

manner

as explained

Diagram

15.

to create the fullness required.

In case of small waist and large hips one or two darts are taken out on the waist seam Additional roundness is given to the back edge, which is
line,
•>

pressed forward to a straight

thus throwing the fullness over the largest part of the hip.

The

forepart should be laid

e.Ktra fullness is

when drafting the skirt. Thus '. inch gained on the seam edge which must be shrunk in at 4 or taken out in
inch forward of 4

the dart.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

5'

15

14

DIAGRAM

18.

52

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

FROCK-COAT LAPELS.
Diagram
79.

"PROM
The

2 to 3 is 1 3/^

inch,

and

21 to 3 is the

same as

21 to

2.

Shape the seam edge
lapel
is 2

for a

long

roll

by

a slight cnrve as represented.

%

Should the coat be intended
21 straight.

inches wide at the top and bottom, and 3 inches opposite R. for buttoning up short roll, make the seam edge from 3 to

For coats which close to the throat, as coachmen's or police coats, the seam edge is drawn by a reversed curve from that shown on the diagram, about '2 inch back of a straight line drawn from 3 to 21. This shortens the outer edge, requires less drawing in, and takes more
closely- the button-line

on the forepart.

The widths

here given are average.
is to

The shape

is

governed by taste or
2

st^de.

A

good plan

cut out the lapel all except on the outer edge and across the top (which
it

mark by

a tracer), and lay

in a closed position with the forepart at

as represented
i

by the

Then draw

the crease-line from the end of the roll towards a point

inch from

the side of the neck.

To determine

the shape of the roll and to

know how much
2

front to obtain the desired form, square back from

placing the amount from the crease-line to

2 and to 7 and it can readily be determined if the width is satisfactory. Should it be too wide, reduce the front at 7 or at 2. If too narrow, increase. If the height at 6 or at 8 is too low, increase, and if too high, reduce or lower. ever this is done, the same must efTect points 2 and 7.

to add to or take off from the and 7 by the crease-line 4 to 22. By back of the crease-line we obtain points

6 and

8,

When-

PEAKED LAPEL FOR DRESS-COAT.
Diagram
'C'ROAI
2 to 3 is 2 to 2 I4

20.

inches.

Shape the seam edge by a

slight curve as represented.

The lapel is i3/^ inch wide at the top, iij inch at the bottom and 2i^ inches opposite R. From 21 to 9 is li inch less than the strap of the skirt (6 to 7, Diagram 18). Cut out the lapel except at the top, which mark by a tracer, and lay it in closed position
2 as represented by the shaded part. Square back by the crease-line from 2 and 7, and establish points 6 and 8. If not satisfactory, points 6 and 8 can be raised or lowered, or placed nearer to or further from the creaseline as desired. Any changes so made must effect the position of points 2 and 7.

with the forepart at

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

53

DIAGRAM

19.

DIAGRAM

20.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DRESS-COAT LAPEL. SHAWL ROLL.
Diagra:\i
2
1.

[T

is

drafted in the
is

same manner

as the

peaked

lapel,

except that at the top

it is

narrower

and

cut off even with the gorge.

The width

2 to 7 is

governed by taste or

style.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

55

DIAGRAM

21.

56

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
COLLARS.

T7OR

Diagram 22. Single-Breasted Coats with Short or Medium Length of Roll.

— Draw

tlie

from the end of the roll, as at X, towards a point i inch from the side of the This establishes 22. neck, as at Y. Draw the collar crease-line straight from 22, passing ^^ ingh back of Z. The length for all collars, 4 to 2, is the same as the width of the top of the back and length of gorge. From I to 2 is 1 14 inch, and i to 3 is I'i' inch. For coat ivitli long roll, draft as explained
crease-line

for Diagram 24.

Diagram 23. For DoublE-Breasted Sack or Frock, Medium Roll.
as explained for

—These are drafted
establish
2
is i '^

the

same

Diagram

22.

Diagram 24. For all CoaTvS with Long Rolls. Draw the crease-line and Draw the collar crease-line from 22 straight through Z. From i to

22 as before.
inch.

From

1

to 3 is

1

1.^

inch, or to taste or style.

Get the length 4
Diagra:\i 25.

to

2,

and

finish as represented.

The
2

PrUvSSian Collar.

—From Z
— This

to 2 is

i

inch.

Shape the seam edge from
i ^4^

i

through
is

by a strong curve and get the length
Finish as represented.

to 3.

From

3 to 4 is

inch.

From

4 to 5

to

taste or style.

Diagram
Half-Prussian Collar.
as desired.

26.
to'

collar is designed to roll short, or

close at the throat

Draw

the crease-line from the end of the roll as before and establish 22.

Curve

the collar crease-line from 22, passing I4 inch back of Z. The seam edge is also curved to correspond with the crease edge. Get the length to 2, make the stand i y^^ inch from i to 2,

and the

leaf

i

to 3 to taste or style.

Finish as represented.

Diagram
SH.A.WL Collar.

27.

before.

the end of the roll and establish 22 as from 22, passing '4' inch back of Z, and the seam edge to correspond with the crease edge. Get the length 4 to 2. For a moderately wide collar, make the stand 1^4 inch from i to 2, but for a wide collar I'z or i^ inch wide. Round the seam edge a trifle above the end of the gorge, as to 4, and finish as represented.

— Draw the crease-line from

Curve the

collar crease-line strongly

Diagram
Standing or Military Collar.
gorge towards 3, passing 3 to 4 varies from i to i
i
2
'

28.

— Draw the seam edge straight from the middle
i

of the

inch below Z, and get the length from
inch.

to

3.

The width from

width than as above.

For men with short thick necks, make the stands for all collars ^4 to yi inch less in The seam edges also should be shaped slightly concave, as on Diagram 26. This gives more length to the outer edge of the leaf.

Whenever

a coat

is to

roll, /.r., to roll

either long or short, the collar should

be cut as for short

roll.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

57

DIAGRAMS [22,123,

24, 25, .26, llls-ni 28.

58

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE SLEEVE.
Diagram
29.

"PIRST
in

of all,

we must take
care which

a careful and close measure of the scye of the pattern as
is to

be taken consists in this, that no slip or slack may occur using the tape-measure when going around the armhole. The size of the armhole can most conveniently be taken before the pattern of the coat has been cut out.
drafted.

The

When
follows
:

the measure

is

obtained, which

we

will

suppose

to

be,

say iS inches, proceed as

Square the lines

OE

and

O

M.

O O
B

to
to
is

A
C

is is

one-fourth of the full scye, 4'^ inches.
one-third of the full scye, 6 inches.

half-way from

A

to C.

C C

to

to is I inch less than half-way from C to E. Square across from A, B, C, D and E as represented.

E D

is

the length.

O

to

M
F

is

Square down from M.

one-half of the full scye, 9 inches. This establishes and P.

H

H

to J is one-fourth of the full scye, 4'^ inches. is one-half of the full scye, 9 inches. J to is half-way from to J. Square down from K.

K K

F

to

L

is

one-eighth of the full scye,

2 '4 inches.

J

Square up from L by the line O M to establish N. Pivot at L and sweep from N to J and N to F. This will in ever^- size reach both points, and F. Commencing at B, curve through F, and inside of the sweep-line about l^ inch as

represented.

E G
P

to

G

is for
I

a

medium

size sleeve, 6 inches.

to 3 is

'2

inch.
of

as represented.

Shape the back-arm seam from J to 3, passing ^/^ inch back of H and ^i inch back Of course the width of the sleeve at P and 3 may vary. D to R is 3^ inch for an average size. Shape the forearm seam from B through R

to

E

as represented.

This measured before the pattern is cut out, and from F around the sleevehead to J must be, and is, on all small or medium sizes, exactl}- one-half of the full scye and 2 inches more for seams and fullness. On the under sleeve it is exactl\- one-half of the full scve from F around past 2 to S without any increase. Continued on page 60.
large sizes, saj- above 20, the upper round of the sleeve-head will be too large.

On

must

in every case be

(

)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

59

DIAGRAM

29.

6o

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE
(

SLEEVE.
)

Co)iti)nicd.

Whenever on
J,

larger sizes
is

there

size required as

from

J

it is found that by measuring from F over the round of the more than one-half of the full scye and 2 inches extra, reduce to the to 4, and reshape as represented by the dotted lines from N to 4 and

4 to the elbow.

Connect

F

and E.
is

The line F E is the center-front line. The forearm seam of the upper sleeve

usually drawn below B.

This increases the
to 5.

width of the upper sleeve the amount between

F and

A.

We
5

must, therefore, reduce the

width of the under sleeve the same amount as from the center line

FE

Commencing then
the line

at F,

shape the under-sleeve through
It will

to within

a seam's width of

C

H

at 2,

and up

to S.

be observed that this line runs about

midway between

K

and L.
J

to

S

is

one-eighth of the full scye, 2J4 inches.
of

Shape the back-arm seam from a strong seam's width back the forearm seam from 5 to E as represented.

S through P

to 3,

and

THE

SLEEVE.

{^Contiiiiicd.)

Diagram

30.

"WTHENEVER

is desirable to move the forearm seam more under the arm, the amount width of the upper must be taken from the under-slee\e, always from the center line, F E. For example we wish to transfer the seam i inch farther under the arm so that it will not show, or because a wide upper-sleeve and a narrow under will cut from the
it

to the

:

B

to

U,

E

to

Y,

5 to

T

and

E

to

Z

will

Shape the forearm seam

of the upper-sleeve

then be each i inch (more or less as from U to Y and the under-sleeve from

desired).

T

to Z,

each parallel with the dotted center-front line

FE

as represented.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

6i

DIAGRAM

30.

62

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE

SLEEVE.

[Concluded.)

Diagram

31.
coat,

TV7HEN

the sleeve has been cut out,

la}- it

on the body pattern of the
across.

which must

lie

as cut

—that
C

is,

the breast line
of the sleeve

O

P even

Next place the sleeve on top
hole and the line

so that point

F

(Diagram 30)

will be close against the
P.

arm-

H

(Diagram

29) on the line

O

The sleeve, resting close against the armhole, nuist have the same curve in front and It may be that the armhole may not be under the arm to the sidebody as the coat pattern. In such case modify it, but let both have the same exactly as good a shape as it should be.
curve.

The distance from O to J is placed up from the breast line to wherever it reaches on the back scye and the notch fixed there, as at Y. inch above the bottom of the armhole, as at U, notch both sleeve and About I to 1
1/4^

forepart.

Draw

a line

from

J

to

Y.
is laid in

When

the under-sleeve

closed position with the upper-sleeve,

it

must

fit

the arm-

hole to V, and point

S should never be more than one-twelfth

of the full sc3'e

from Y.

Square up from '4. inch forward of U to establish \V. This line will serve as a guide to The distance if the round of the sleeve-head corresponds to that of the armhole. from 4 to 3 should be the same as 4 to 2. If more, add at 3, and if less, take off.
determine

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

63

DIAGRAM

31.

:

64

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

SINGLE-BREASTED SACK COAT.
Regular Form.
Diagram
32.

npHE

measures used for the accompanying diagram are for a proportionate form of 34 breast as found on the table of proportionate measures, as follows 34 breast, 30 waist, 35 seat, 18 sleeve, 8j4 back depth, 16 natural waist, 2324; seat line,

11^

front depth.

To Draft.
Square the lines A 19 and A O. Place the end of the tape-measure yl inch below A and mark the back depth at B, natural waist at D, seat-line at E, and j^ inch more than the length at O. B to C is half of the back depth. Square the cross-lines from B, C, D, E and O. D to F is ^4^ inch. O to i is y^ inch. Curve the center-back-seam from A through F
to
I

as represented.

manner

All the points on and above the breast-line, excepting 5 and N, are obtained in the same as explained for Diagrams i and 2. Connect C and to establish 5.

M

M to N is ^
When
than
inch

inch less than half-way from

Square down from I. This establishes T, Y. Shape the side back-seam from 5 through T as represented.
is

M to X and

J.

proportionate to the breast, as in this case,

S

to

V

is

"4

inch more

^2 waist,

7^

inches.
of
full

T and V to 6 is % inch more than one-half taken out in the underarm-seam below N.) Square down from V to establish 8.
F
to
is

waist, 15 '2

inches.

(This

^i

of

to X and 8 to 9 is one-half of the full seat, 1 7 2 inches. Shape the seam from 5, taking out ^4 inch at J and passing i inch to i^i inch back 6 (according to degree of shapeliness desired at the waist), and ^2 inch back of 9 as

E

'

represented.

V

to

W

W

is

2^

inches.

to 3 is the

same

as

R

to

2.

Square down from 3 to establish 10. Shape the bottom from the side seam towards a point '2 inch below 10. The front is shaped according to style. One style is represented by a heavy line, and another below 3 by the heavy broken line. to II is 14^ breast. Square down from 11 for the end of the pocket opening. The fish under the arm is sometimes omitted. In such cases shape the side seam from a point J/2 inch forward of 5 to 7, as shown on Diagram 34. The width of the back opposite T, X and Y, and of the shoulder seam H to 4, can, of course, be varied as style ma}' demand.

M

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

65

DIAGRAM

32.

66

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED SACK-COAT.
Corpulent Form. Diagram 33.

npHE

proportionate taeasures used for the accorapaiiying diagram are for a

man

6 feet in

height, 48 breast, 50 waist

and 51

seat.

The
|

shoulders are one degree high and two
:

degrees stooping.

As used when
51 seat. 20 sleeve.

drafting, the

measures are as follows

48 breast. 50 waist.

18 natural waist.

2634 seat-line.
|

loyi back depth.

31 length.

To Draft.
All the points on and above the breast-line excepting 5, 11 and N are obtained in the same manner as explained for Diagrams i and 2. Connect C and M to establish 5. I\I to N D to F is % inch. Shape the center-back-seam is 2 inch less than half-way from M to J. Square down from I to establish T and Y. Y to i is '2 inch. as represented. Shape the side-back-seara from 5 through T to i as represented. When the blade is proportionate to the breast as in this case, S to U is i/^ inch more
1

than ^4 waist, as for a form having a waist 4 inches smaller than breast. In this instance, the breast being 48, a waist 4 inches sinaller would be 44 and I4 inch more than . of 44 is The distance, then, from S to U for this draft is 11 14^ inches. II I4.

same as explained for Diagram 3, i^ inch for this draft. F to T and V to 6 is one-half of the full waist, 25 to 3 is the same as R to 2. Square down from U to establish 8. inches. E to X and 8 to 9 is one-half of the full seat, 25 '2 iuclies. Shape the side seam from 5, taking out }^ inch at J, and passing 'i inch back of 9 as Square down from 3 to establish 10. represented. Shape the front for the one-button cutaway sack as represented by the heavy line, or
to
is

W

U V

to

V

is

the same as explained for Diagram
the

W

3,

2

inches for this draft.

it is shaped '4 inch forward of 2. one to button at the waist, the front edge is shown in a light solid line, passing through 2 and '4 inch back of 3 to the bottom. Shape the bottom from 12 towards a point }4 inch below 10. to 11 is '4 breast. From Square down from 1 1 to fix the front of the pocket opening. Connect N and 18 by a straight line. The pattern of the forepart having been cut out, then cut from N to 18 and across to 17. Lay it on the material or over another piece of paper if preferred, and mark from opposite 17 up and around the shoulder and scye to N, and from N to iS and 17, Spread the pocket opening at 18 according to the degree of corpulency, about 14 inch for each 2 inches that the waist is less than 4 inches smaller than the breast. Press a flat fold on the pattern forward of 17, and mark from N to the pocket opening, N to 5, 5 to 12 and 12 to the fold opposite 17, as shown bv the part which is shaded. The wedge-shaped piece at the pocket opening is cut from the material. An inla}- may be left from N to 18 if desired.

to taste or style.

On

the breast line

For a straight

front, or

M

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

67

DIAGRAM

33.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE TUXEDO.
Diagram
"
I

34.

HE

measures used

for the

accompauying diagram are

for a

man

5

feet

10 inches in

height, 36 breast, erect, sloping shoulders and small blades.
First select the measures from the tables for a proportionate form, of 36 breast. The back depth is then shortened inch the front depth lengthened the same amount, and the blade reduced }^ inch for erectness. The changed back and front depths are then lengthened each y2 inch for sloping shoulders.

%

;

The measures
36
breast.

as used

when

drafting are as follows
19^2 sleeve.

:

32 waist.

37 seat.

9 back depth. 17 natural waist.

25^^ seat-line. 29 length.

10%
1

2 Js

front depth.

To Draft.
All the points not herein referred to are obtained in the same

manner

as explained for

Diagrams

i,

2
is

and
1

32.

D

to

F

3

inch.

B to C. Square forward from i to establish 5. under the arm being omitted, the side seam of the forepart is shaped from a point '^ inch forward of 5 and i/^ inch from the side of the back opposite J. As the blade size used is I4 inch less than as given on the tables for a man of 36 breast,
Point
I is

half-way from

The

fish

the star

is

established the

From

the star to

V

is

same amount forward I4. inch more than '2

of

S

as explained for

Diagram

4.

waist.

F

to

T

and
7,

V

to 6 is yi of the full waist.

Points

8 and 9 are obtained in the
roll

same manner
is

as explained for

Diagram
pas.sing

32.
i<

For an extremely long

the collar crease-line

drawn from 22

inch for-

ward

of 13.

Point 22 is obtained by drawing the lapel crease-line from the end of the roll, as at 3, towards a point i inch forward of 13. A convenient way to obtain the style effect for the lapel is to fold the paper which is for-

ward

taste or style as represented

underneath the pattern and shape the edge of the lapel according to by the light lines from 3 to 2 1 and 20. Then with a tracer mark through the paper from 21 to 3 and from 21 to 20. On opening out the fold the front will be defined above 3 to 23. Then shape the gorge from 13 to 23.

of the crease-line

For corpulent forms
for

all

the points on the waist and seat lines are obtained as explained

Diagram

33.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

69

DIAGRAM

34.

JO

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DOUBLE-BREASTED SACK-COAT.
Diagram
35.

npHE

measures used for the accompauying diagram are for a man 5 feet 8 inches in height and 38 breast, as found on the tables for a form of 38 breast, proportionate except in The measures are as follows height.
:

28 breast. 34 waist.

39

seat.

i6'2 natural waist.
24.54;

1254; fi'ont depth.

18-34;

sleeve.

seat-line.

9 back depth.

29^2 length.

To Draft.
All the points on and above the breast line, excepting
in the
2,

20, 21, 22

and

23, are obtained

same manner
to

as explained for

Diagrams

i

and

2.

D R

F

is 34^

inch.

O

to

i

is

I4 inch.
3,

All the remaining points on the waist and seat lines, except

are obtained in the

same

manner

as explained for

Diagram

to 3 are each 2^4^ inches, or the style. to 2 and and 3 to establish 10 and 12. Square down from Establish the end of the roll, also points 20 and 21, according to taste or style. Fold the paper on the crease-line, trace from 20 to 21 and 2 1 to the end of the roll as Then explained for Diagram 34. This will give the shape of the revers and establish 23. shape the gorge from 13 to 23. This establishes 22.

W

32.

W

Space for the buttonholes. Pivot at 15 and sweep backwards from the eye and backwards from a point ^4 inch below 10.

of

each buttonhole, also sweep forwards

From

10 to 16 is the same as 10 to 12. Shape the bottom back of 16 as represented.

From

the center-of-front line

R

W

to the button-line

is

3^

inch less than from the

center-of -front line to the front edge of the forepart.

the

For corpulent forms, all the points on the waist and same manner as explained for Diagram 33.

seat lines, except

3,

are obtained in

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

71

DIAGRAM

35.

72

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

WHOLE BACKS FOR SACK COATS.
Diagram
36.
all

T^RAW
^-^^

the construction line
32.

AC

and obtain

the points except

i

as explained for

Diagram

Y

to

I

is 5^

inch.
i.

Shape the side seam from 5 through T to Cut off a seam's width, '4 inch forward
material lay the center-of-back as represented
material.

of the line

A

O, and

when marking on

the

b3-

the heavy line, and even with the fold of the

Diagram

37.

back which has been drafted with a shaped center-back-seam may be changed to a whole back by laying the pattern as first drafted over another piece of paper touching a straight line at the top and at the waist as from A to D. The back below the waist line
is

A

shown

in dotted lines.
all

Mark

around above the waist

line.

midway between D and T and swing the part below until the center-of-back touches the straight line as from D to 3, then mark below T
Pivot the pattern as at the circled disk

and across the bottom. This gives 3 and 4.

T will
The

then be

at 2

and

D

at

i.

material must be stretched on the side seam on the waist line and shrunk at the back
the lines of the original pattern as

center opposite, to run with
dotted lines.

shown below the waist
'4

in

inch

The may

center-back-seam
be taken
36.
ofT

may

be laid to overlap the fold of the material
laid

inch, or

'4

from the pattern and then

even with the fold as explained for

Diagram

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

73

DIAGRAM

36.

DIAGRAM

37.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

75

OVERCOATS.

npHE
*

measures for an overcoat

may

he taken oxer

tlie vest, tlie

same

as

for an

undercoat,

Init

preferably over the undercoat.

W'lien they are taken o\er the vest allowances for extra size

as follows

:

For
" "
to the breast 2 inches.
"

Lie, it
I

\\"i'.ii;ii'i'

M.\'i'i-;ri.\i,.

waist
seat

2

" "
'2

"
"

3

back depth, front depth and blade each

inch.

For

Mi'.DirM Hi'.a\\' Wkigiit MA'n':Ri.\i,.
2 '2

" u

to the breast "

and waist each

inches.

seat 3'3 inches.

u

back depth, front depth and blade each

J^.

inch.

For Extra Hhaxv Wkight Matkrial.

"
"

to the breast

and waist each

3

inches.

"
"

seat 4 inches.
i

back depth, front depth and blade each inch. which trace the i'orm of the back, as the Chesterfield, are drafted in the same manner as sack coats. The extra length changes in no nuinner the construction. For looser overcoats extra allowances must be made to the widths, as is

Except

as regards size, all overcoats

explained for Diagram 40. The lap over the center-of -front line
light weight material

R

and

2'

2

inches for heavv.

\V for a single-breasted overcoat is 2 inches for For a double-breasted overcoat the lap is
'^4

usually 3 to 3V2 inches. The eyes of the buttonholes are usually
are placed as

inch back of the front edge, and the buttons

much back
line.

of the center-of-front

line

R

VV as the eves of the buttonholes are

forward of the same

The shape

of the lapel at the top

is,

of course, a

matter of individual taste or stvle.

)

.

76

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE CHESTERFIELD OR FLY-FRONT OVERCOAT.
Regular Form.
Diagram
38.

T HE

measitres as selected from
vest,

tlie
:

tables are for a proportionate

form

of

36 breast, taken

over the

and are as follows
37 seat.
83^;

36 breast. 32 waist.

2434^ seat-line.

12V8 front depth.

back depth.

39^2 length.

i6?3 natural waist.

the

The sleeve will be I2 inch longer than as for an nndercoat. By adding the allowances for light weight material, as given measures, as used when drafting, are as follows
:

in

the preceding article,

38
34.

brea.st.

40

seat.

waist.

19I4 sleeve. ()'^Sr back depth.

7 natural waist. 25 '4 seat-line. 39 1 3 length.
I

1 1

'2

125/8 front deptli.

To Draft.
Square the lines A O and A 19. Place the end of the tape-measure y^ inch below A and mark the back depth natural waist at D, seat-line at E and 54 inch more than the length at O. B to C is half of the back depth. Square forward from B, C, D, E and O.
at

C,

D A
B

to to
to

F

is

y2 inch.

Shape the center-back-seam

as represented.

G

is
is

^

breast.

K

G K

to to

H
L
I

is yV
is
i

breast.

inch.
i

L

to

M

is

'a

inch.

from B to M. Square up and down from J to P is V2 inch less than
I is half-wa}'

to J is

'4 inch.
1 9, T, X and i Square up from

to establish
Ve breast.

M
B

M

and

P.

to

Q

is

'2 of full breast.

Q

to

R

is

2^2 inches.

R

to 2 is 2 inches.

Connect

H

and

P.

Connect C and M.

vShape the back-scye and complete the back as represented.
to 13 is 3_^ inch more than the front depth, less the width of the back from A to H. Square forward from 13. From 13 to 14 is 'a breast. Connect 13 and C. From 13 to 4 is the same as H to 4 on the back. Shape the shoulder from 13 to 16, which is 3^_ inch below 4, and finish the scve below as represented \>y the heav}- and broken lines. Square down from K to establish S. When the blade is proportionate to the breast, as in this case, S to \' is '4 inch more

L

16,

than

'2

waist.

\' to

W

is 2 '4

inches.

W
2

to 3 is the

same

as

R

to

2.

Connect

14,

R

and
is

W, and
breast.

square down from

W and

3.

From

14 to 15

%

Shape the front through

and

3 to the

bottom as represented.
oil

The shape above

2 is

a matter of taste or stvle.
(

CoiifiiiHed

page

/S'.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

77

l7(»;^-t^'8

DIAGRAM

38.

78

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE CHESTERFIELD.
(

Coiichidcd. )
crease-line

Establish the end of the
as explained for

roll,

draw the

and obtain points

20, 21, 2 2

and

23,

Diagram

34.

F

to

T
X

and

V

to 6 is •, of fnll waist.

vSquare

down from
and 8

V

to establish 8.

E
2^/2

to

to 9 is '2 of fnll seat.

from 5 through i. From J to i 7 is 36 inches. From 17 to 18 is and 18 to establish Y. 7 Shape the side seam from a point '2 inch forward of 5, 5 inch forward of the side-back opposite J, through 7, which is i inch forward of T, and passing '2 inch back of 9 to Y as

Draw

a straight line

inches.

Connect

,s

represented.
7 to Y is the same as T to i. Shape the bottom from Y as represented, passing M to 1 1 is yi inch more than I4 breast.

From

'2

inch below 10.

the

to the button-line is 34 inch less than from R to 2. From the center-of-front line R to The front for a double-breasted overcoat is shown in light lines. From R and The end of the collar for both coats is at 23. For the doublefront edge is 3 inches.

W

W

breasted overcoat the button line

A
form

small

V may

is 5^4 inches from the front edge. be taken out at the gorge, as shown on Diagram

39.

It

helps to give

to the top of the roll.

:

8o

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE CHESTERFIELD OR FLY-FRONT OVERCOAT.
CoRPULEXT Form.

Diagram

39.

T

HE proportionate
and 45
seat,

measures used are for a man 68 inches

taken over the luidercoat.

The

in height, 42 breast, 41 waist shoulders are one degree high.

As used

42 41 waist.

\vheu drafting the measures are as follows 6 '2 natural waist. 1 45 seat. breast.
i83/j;

sleeve.

24^

1

2

seat-line.

'2

<^V\

back depth.

42 '4 length.

i^iV^ front depth.

To Draft.
All the points excepting 19, as explained for Diagram 38.
I to J for
J,

N,

6,

U,

\",

W and S
i

are obtained in the

same manner

the average form

is 1 14

inch for an overcoat.
to J is
'j

The width

of the back, howe\'er,

varies according to style,

and in this case I Square up and downi from J as before.

inch.

is proportionate to the breast (see table), S to U is I4 inch more than form having a waist 4 or more inches smaller than breast. For 42 breast a waist 4 inches smaller is 38 inches, and ^4 inch more than '2 of 38 (or 19 on the divisions So in this case S to U is 93^ inches. of halves) is 9^4^ inches. The difference between the waist, 38, as above explained, and that for the form to be This shows that the form is 3 inches corpulent, and one-third of this, fitted, 41, is 3 inches. or I inch, is placed forward of U as to V. is 2' '8 inches when the waist is 3 inches smaller than the breast, 2 inches when V to the waist is 2 inches smaller than the breast, i s inch when the waist is i inch smaller than the breast, and i -^4 inch when the waist is as large or larger than the breast. F to T and V to 6 is Yz of the full waist. Scpiare down from U to establish 8. E to X and 8 to 9 is 3^ of the full seat. T to 7 is i inch. Draw a straight line from 5 through i. J to 17 is 36 inches. From 17 to 18 is 2^ Connect 7 and 18 to establish Y. inches. Shape the side seam from 5, passing 's inch forward of the side-back seam opposite J, through 7, and '2 inch backward of 9 to Y as represented. to N is 2 inch less than half-way from M to J. M to II is '2 inch more than '4 breast. The skirt pockets are placed two-thirds of the distance between U and S below U. Connect X and the back of the pocket mouth. The pattern is cut from N to, and across to the front end of, the pocket mouth, and

When

i^ waist, as for a

W

''

M

1

when marking on the material the

cut

is

opened out as explained for Diagram
of

},},.

A

^-inch

\' is

taken out near the end

the gorge.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DIAGRAM

39.

82

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
DOUBLE-BREASTED BOX OVERCOAT.
Diagram
40.
5

npHE

proportionate measures used are for a
tJie

man

feet 8 inches in

waist and 40 seat, taken over

undercoat.

The

height, 38 breast, 34 shoulders are one degree stooping

and two degrees sloping. The measures are as follows
38 breast. 34 waist.

:

40

seat.

17V4 natural waist.
25 '4 seat-line. 43 length.

1

1

'>

19 '^ sleeve.

13 front depth.

93^ back depth.

To Draft.
Square the lines A E and A 19. Place the end of the tape-measure '4 inch below A and mark the lengths for the back depth, natural waist, seat-line and length at B, D, E and O respectively, adding '4 inch to
the length.

Square forward from B, D,

E

and O.

D

to

E
30

is

1

2

inch.

Connect A,

F and

E.
i

E
of the

to

is

]'2

inch, or

inch, as desired.

A through 30, and square forward again from bottom of the back. It should be noted that the drafting points B, F and E are on the broken B to K is '4 inch more than the blade.
Draw
a straight line from
to

O

for the

run

line.

K
B
B

L

is

I

inch.

L
B

to

M

is

Yz inch.

I is

half-way from
I

to AI.

I to J is

^i inch.

to

N

is y^

breast.
i.

Square down from
to

N to establish X and Q is '2 inch more than 3/ of full breast. Q to R is 25^ inches. R to 2 is 35^ inches, or to style.
6, 24, 25, 26, 27,

All the remaining points on and above the breast-line, excepting
29, are

28 and

obtained in the same
is

manner
is

as explained for

Diagram

38.

When

sponding breast size, V, as explained for Diagram 4.) and 3 are For forms having a waist 4 or more inches smaller than breast, points For corpulent forms having a obtained in the same manner as explained for Diagram 38. blade proportionate to the breast, obtain points U, V, W, 8 and 9 as explained for Diagram 39, excepting that V is advanced 'i inch further forward. [Con tinned on page 8-f.)

S to Y is ]i inch more than '2 waist. than the size given on the table for a correthen establish the star and obtain point \' from the star instead of from
proportionate to the breast,

more or

less

W

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

S3

* O

DIAGRAM

40.

)

84

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
DOUBLE-BREASTED BOX OVERCOAT.
(

Concluded.
It

From

9 to

7 is

3^2 inches for this draft.

may

be 4 or more inches, according to the

fullness desired around the seat.

Shape the side seam from N through 7 and make the length X to Y the same as X to i. For very full backs, the side seam is sometimes oval-shaped from X to Y as shown bv the light line which is drawn i inch back of 7. \\'hen so shaped, the back should be put on full
to the forepart.

is

desired, proceed as follows

:

Draw

a line across the front

shoulder as from 25 to 26.

This

line

is at

the top of the

front shoulder.

From
from 25
y^ to
''2

26 to 27 is ^4, '2 inch or more, according to the amount of building desired. Pivot the pattern at 2^ and swing 26 up to 27. Then mark along the edge of the pattern
to 13

and from 13

to 16,

which gives

28.

Reshape the

sc\-e

below

28, flattening

from

inch opposite 26, to give greater width to the front shoulder. Pivot the pattern of the back at and raise point 4 as much as 27 along the edge from to 4, which gives 6.

H

is

from

26.

Mark

H

A

'4-inch \'

is

taken out near the end of the gorge, and points 23 and 29 are advanced

the same amount

when

the

V

is

stoated as

shown

b}-

the heavy lines.

When
\".

the \'

is

seamed, points 23 and 29 should be advanced ^i inch more than the width of the Finish as represented.

86

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
Diagram
41.

'T'HE
ine.

proportionate measures used for the accompanying diagram are for a

man

6 feet in

The shoulders are one degree high and stoopheight, 40 breast, 36 waist and 42 seat. The measures as taken over the undercoat, and as used when drafting, are as follows
:

40 breast. 36 waist.
42 seat. 20 sleeve.

gj/l

back depth.
natural waist.

50 length.

173/j^

20 fashionable waist. 26 '^2 seat-line.

127 k front depth.

To Draft.

A and mark the back depth at B, natuand l^ inch more than the length at U. B Square across from B, C, F, D, E and U. to C is half of the back depth. D to X is ^^ inch. Draw a straight line from A to X. A to I is tV breast. Draw a straight line from i through X. This establishes O. B to K is the blade. Square down from K to establish S. K to L is I inch, L to M is ^2 inch, to P is 'j inch less than ^6 breast. Square wp and P. from
^4^

Square the lines A U and A 19. Place the end of the tape-measure

inch below

ral waist at F, fashion waist at

D, seat-line at

E

M

M

B

to to

Q

Q R

is is

'2

of full brea.st.

2^2 inches.
inches.

R to
I is

2 is 3

half-way from

B

to

M.

I to J is

I'i inch.

Square up from

J.

All the remaining points on and above the breast line, excepting N, 11, 5, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26, are obtained in the same manner as explained for Diagram 38.

Connect

C

and P

to establish

5.

F

to

T

is

'2

inch less than

'4 breast.

Square forward from O. to Xi is ^s inch more than Shape the back skirt from Ui

O
1

F
to

to T.

Connect T and Xi. This establishes Ui. Xi, rounding out -s inch from the straight line, and

14

inch for the
'2

plait.
is
(

When
more than
ing breast
plained for
\' to

proportionate to the breast as found on the table,

S

to

V

is

14^

inch

waist.

When

is

more or

less
\'

size, establish

the star and obtain point

than as on the table for a correspondfrom the star instead of from S as ex-

W
F

W

Diagram
is

4.)

2^
I

inches, except for corpulent forms.

to 3 is the
to 33 is

same

as

R

to

2.

inch more than

'2 breast.

From

F

to T,

33 to 34 and 33 to 35 are each 5/^ inch. to 34 and 35 to 6 is ^4 of the full waist.

V

{Coiiti)nicd

oil

page

SS.)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

87

DIAGRAM

41.

.

.

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
(

Co)n/iidcd.]

Draw

a straight line

from

5 to

Xi.

J to 17 is

36 inches. From 17 to 18 is 2^2 inches. Point 7 is half-way between T and 6. Shape the side back from 5 throngh I and T to U i

Take

and 3. Square down from \", the width of the back opposite E, place this

W

at S

and measure backward

.

of the

full seat to 9.

7

From 9 to 28 is ]i inch. Shape the side seam from a point '2 inch forward of 5 through and 28 as represented. Pivot at I and sweep forward from Ui to establish 27. Draw a straight line from 27 through 18. Shape the seam below 28 through iS and
I

I4

inch for the plait as represented.
27 to 30
is

From From Draw
P
to

the same as

3 to 12 is 12 inches.

Ui to Xi. From 12 to

31

is

'2

inch.
to 32

a straight line

from

3

through 31 and shape the bottom from 30

passing

%

inch below 10.
1 1

is I

inch.
to establish 36.

Square down from 11

From 36 to The pocket
inches.

37 is 71^ inches. welt is I'i' inch wide.

The

breast pocket

is

5^2 inches wide and the flap 2

B to N is % inch more than '2 breast. Draw a straight line from N through 33 and shape

the underarm cut as represented.

Points 20, 21, 22 and 23 are obtained in the same manner as explained for Diagram 34. A 5/4-inch is taken out at or near the end of the gorge as from 23 to 24, and point 25

V

is

to 26,

when
is

the

Y

is to

be stoated.
inch more than the width of the
^^'^

When
From

the

V

is to

be seamed point 26

'i

X

the center-of-front line,

R W,

to the button-line is

inch less than from the same
buttonhole,
pivot-

line to the front edge.

Establish the buttonholes and sweep backward from the eye of each

ing at 15 to

fix

the position of the buttons on the button-line.
inch.

X
and

to

Y

is i^ is

The back

cut across from

Y

YO
Ui.

are laid on a fold and a

When marking on the material the to Ui. seam must be added to each back portion on the
a false

lines
line

A Y
from

Y

to

The opening which

is

at the right side is

back

skirt.

go

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE SINGLE-BREASTED PALETOT OVERCOAT.
Diagram
42.

T

HE

proportionate measures used are as taken over the undercoat for a form the
:

same

as

described for the precedinsr diagram, as follows

40 breast.
36 waist. 42 seat. 20 sleeve.

9':^

back depth.

50 length.
12 blade. 12 J4 front depth.

17^4 natviral waist. 20 fashionable waist. 26 ''2 seat-line.

To Draft.
Square the lines A O and A 19. Obtain points B, C, D, E, F, X, and the length to O in the same manner as explained for Diagram 41. Square forward from B, C, F, D, E and O. All the points on and above the breast line, excepting 27, 5 and 2 are obtained in the
i

same manner

as explained for

Diagram
'.,

41.

R

to 2 is 2 inches. to

X

Y

is

j-'s

inch more than

breast.

from 19 to a point midwav between X and Y to establish 27. Point 5 is half-way from 4 to J. O to Z is }i inch more than X to Y. Draw a straight line from Y to Z. vShape the side-back from 5 through 27 to Y; the back skirt rounding ^s inch forward of the straight line as represented, and add 1 1^^ inch for the plait below Y.

Draw

a straight line

F

to 7 is I4

inch less than
is

'2

breast.
i

As

the waist

4 inches smaller than the breast,

inch

is

taken out

at

the underarm

cut as from

7 to 12.

Draw a straight line from N midway between S to V is 14 "ich more than % waist. V to

W

7

and
is

12.

2^4 inches.

W

to 3 is 2 inches.

F

to

T,

V

to 12

and

7 to

6

is j4 of full

waist.
of 5,

Shape the sidebod}- from a point ^4 inch forward and through 6 as represented. From 27 to 17 is I4 inch more than 27 to Y.
Point 18
is

passing

'4

inch forward of 27

I4

inch above the fashion waist line.
to 18,
3';.

Shape the lower edge of the sidebody from 17 through 7 and 12 to 30 as represented. Point 30 is Square down from V to establish 8.

and the underarm cut from

N

inches below 18.

From From Draw From From From

8 to 9 is '2 of full seat, less the width of the back opposite E. 9 to 28 is y^ inch. a guide line from 5 through 9.

18 to 24 24 to 25 25 to 29

is }i
is

inch.

From

17 to 25

is i/^

inch.

the top of the skirt.

is

18 inches.
(

Co)iliHned on page g2.\

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

91

DIAGRAM

42.

:

92

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED PALETOT OVERCOAT.
(

Coinlitdcd.)
2(S

Shape the back edge
I

of

the skirt from 25 through

and 29 as represented and add

'4

inch for the

plait.

From 25 to U is the same as Y to Z. Shape the bottom from U to 31 passing

'2

inch below 10.
first

The back

is

cut without a center-back seam, being

cut across from yi inch below

Each part is then laid on a fold of the goods from A to X and from X to O, and a seam must be added to each part on the cross cut from Y. The opening, which is on the right side, is made over a false back skirt.
to

X

Y.

Finish as represented.

A

loose cufl

is

The
as

sleeve having

paper and draw a

superimposed on the diagram. It is drafted in the following manner first been drafted and cut the length required, take another piece straight line as from to 2 and one parallel with and 1^2 inch below
i

of
it

from 3 to 4. Cut the paper on the line from 3 to 4 and fold the part below and 2 on the top, thus forming a crease-edge from i to 2. The edge from 3 to 4 will then lie as from 5 to 6. Take the upper and under sleeves separatelv, and lav them with the bottom touching the line from i to 2. Mark along the front and back edges of the sleeve pattern above i and 2, which is shown in broken lines, and mark points 5 and 6. Remove the pattern of the sleeve and shorten the sleeve on the line from 5 to 6. From I to 7 and 2 to 8 is the width desired. Points 7 and 8 are each '4 inch outside of the broken lines. Shape the cuff from i to 7 and 2 to S. Cut the cuff pattern when folded on the crease-line from to 7 and from 2 to 8. Then cut on the narrow part on the lines from i to 5 and 2 to 6. When the fold is opened out we have the lines from i to 3 and 2 to 4. The broken line 5 to 6 is now the lower edge of the sleeve pattern. The cufl' from 3 to 4 is joined to the sleeve from 5 to 6 and is turned up at the original length i to 2,
\ i

94

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE INVERNESS OVERCOAT.
Regular Form.
Diagram
*
I

43.

'HE
as

proportionate measures used, as taken over the undercoat, are for a form of 37 breast, found on the tables of proportionate measures, as follows
:

37 breast. 33 waist.

S Js back depth. i63/j^ natural waist.

48 length.

11%

39

seat.

24 ^4 seat-line.

12^8 front depth.

To Draft.
Square the lines A U and A 19. Place the end of the tape-measure '4 inch below A and mark the back depth inch more than the length at U. ural waist at D, seat-line at E, and Square across from B, D, E and U. D to F is ^ inch. Connect A and F.
}<^.

at B, nat-

A
B

to
to

G

is
is is

i/^

breast.

G

to

H

is

.,V

breast.

K
L
P

I4
I
^'6

breast.

K
L
B

to to to to

inch.

is

Q

is '2
is

inch more than

^4 of full breast.

Q
B

R

2^2 inches.

R to

2 is 2 inches.

to I is I4 inch
1

more than

half-wa\-

from B

to L.

1 to J is

14 inch.

Square up from J and P. and Square down from

M

K
A

to establish

T

and

S.

D
L
H.

to

Y

is I

inch.

Draw

a straight line

from

through Y, and square forward from
front depth, less the width

O

for the

bottom of

the back to establish N.
to 13 is i^ inch

more than the

of the top of the

back

A

to

B to 12 is 2 inches. P to 17 is I4 breast. From 17 to 18 is %

inch.

Connect 12 and 13. Connect H and 18. Shape the side back from ^4 inch forward of 4 through J and T to N, F to C is i^ of the distance from F to B. Square forward from C.

as represented.

From

13 to 16 is

'fe

breast.
{Coiiti)iiied oil pi^gc g6.)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

95

DIAGRAM

43.

96

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE INVERNESS OVERCOAT.
(

CoHciiidrd.

)

Shape from

i6,

passing

^2

inch forward of L, toward
'2

5,

as represented.

S

to

V

is

i^

inch more than

waist.

is 4 or more inches smaller than the breast same as R to 2. and 3. Square down from V, E to T and 8 to 9 is Yi of the full seat.

W

When

the waist

V

to

W

is 2 '4

inches.

to 3 is the

W

From 9 to X is 4^ inches. Draw a straight line from J through X. as J to N. J to Z is the same
Square forward from
13.

This establishes

5.

From Draw
front line.

13 to 14

is ^^

breast.
line

a slightly

outward curved
1

from

1

4

through

R

to

W.

This

is

the center-of-

From

14 to 15

is

5

breast.

Square forward from 15. From 15 to 20 is 2^4 inches. Shape the gorge from 13 to 15; the front from 20 through 2 and 3 towards 21, and the bottom from Z to 21, passing yi inch below 10 as represented. Square down from P. From 22 to 23 is '3' of the distance between V and 8. From 23 to 24 is S)^ inches. The end of the collar is at 15. The collar is drafted in the same manner as explained
for

Diagram 25. The leaf of the collar is 2^4 inches wide. When marking on the material the center-of-back, A O,

is

laid

even with the

fold.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE INVERNESS
Diagram
T
44.

CAPE.

AY

the pattern of

tlie

forepart over another piece of paper and

mark along
22.

the shoulder,

gorge and front edge. Mark points P, 15 and

16,

and extend the shonlder seam toward

Square down from

P.

From 13 to 22 is the same as A to H on the back. Lay the pattern of the back with the outer shoulder
at 22

point touching 22.

Pivot the back

and swing

it

until the center-of-back below

A

is

about square with the front below 20.

Then mark along the side of the back below 22. From 22 to 23 is the same as 4 to 5 (Diagram
Connect

43).

A

and. 15.

O A

is

half-way from

A

to 15.

to

H

and 13

to 24 is the length.

Square forward from 24 to establish 25. Pivot at O and sweep backward from 24, rounding

to 23 as represented.

THE

"

KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

99

DIAGRAM

44.

L ofC.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

NEWMARKET AND SURTOUT OVERCOATS.
Diagram
45.

nPHE

ineasures as taken over the undercoat are for a

man

6 feet in height, 40 breast, 37

His shoulders are one degree stooping. are found on the tables for corresponding height and breast. As used when drafting the measures are as follows
:

waist and 42 seat.

The remaining measures

40 breast.
37 waist. 42 seat.

()% back depth. i"]^'^ natural waist. 20 fashionable waist.

46 length for Surtout. 52 length for Newmarket.

S

fi'ont

depth.

To Draft the Newmarket.
Square the lines A O and A 19. Obtain the lengths to B, C, D, E and O, as explained for the preceding diagrams, and square the cross-lines forward. D to F is ^ inch and E to X is the same.

X to
Draw

17

is I

^

inch.

a straight line

from

A

through

17,

and the center-back

parallel with

it

below X.

Square forward from O.

F
25,

to

T

is

]4 breast.

Obtain all the remaining points on and above the breast line, excepting 2, 20, 23, 24, J, and R, in the same manner as explained for Diagrams i and 2. Connect 19 and to establish 20. Q to R is 2 3^^ inches. The depth of the gorge at 23 is governed bv stvle. In this instance from 15 to 23 is

X

Yi inch.
I to J is 1
14^

to

I ^-^

inch, or according to fashionable width of

back required.

When
than ]4

is

proportionate to the breast, as in this case,

S

to

U

is

%

inch more

As

inches smaller than breast, which in this instance would be 9J4 inches. the difference between the breast and waist is 3 inches, or i inch less than the differof a waist 4

ence for a normal form, one-third of this i inch is placed forward of U, as to V, say % inch. is 2J2 inches. When the waist When the waist is 4 inches smaller than the breast, to

V

W

is 3

inches smaller than the breast, as in this instance,
is 2

waist

inches smaller than the breast,

\''

to

smaller than the breast,
the breast,

V

to

W

V

to

W

W

V

to

W

is

2^-,

inches.

When
is
i

the

is 2 '4

inches.

When
is

the waist

inch

is

2's inches.

When

the waist

as large or larger than

is 2

inches.

Shape the lapel-seam-edge from 23 through R and as represented. For each inch that the waist is smaller than the breast, % inch is taken out in the underarm seam at the natural waist, so that in this instance ^^ inch is taken out, as from inch backward and 'i inch forward of 7 to 8 F to T, \' to 8 and 7 to 6 is >^ of the full waist. Shape the sidebody from a point '2 inch forward of 5, passing '4 inch forward of 20 and through 6 as represented.
i<4^
(

W

i ).

(

C oil tinned

ON poi^r /oj.)

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DIAGRAM

45.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

NEWMARKET AND SURTOUT OVERCOATS.
{Concluded.^

From

20 to 9
is y^

is

is i'/^ inch below the same line. Shape from N through 7 and 8, from 9 to 10 and 11 to 21 as represented. For small waists a small fish is taken out ou tlie waist line, as shown on Diagram 5. For larger waists this is changed to a \' and placed furtlier forward, as shown on this diagram and as explained for Diagram 6.

Point 10

'4 inch more than 20 to Y. inch above the fashion waist line, and 21

The
From 23 to 24 From 24 to 25 From opposite
Shape
is 2

Lapel.
through

inches.

Draw

a straight line from 24

W.

is 3

inches.

R

to 2 is

33^ inches, and at the bottom 2'^ inches.

as represented.

The
The
skirt
is

Skirt.

drafted in

all

respects the sa'me as explained for

Diagrams 16 and

17,

except that from 8 to 9 is i V^ inch. Any reasonable amount from ]/^ to

i

inch

may

be taken out between 26 and 27, but the

same amoiint must be added from D to E and from g to B. Square down from Q to establish the front of the pocket long and 3^^ inches wide. The pocket opening is iinder the
For
If to

flap. flap.

The

flap

is

w'^i

inches

a roll to

button 4 buttons, then

button 3 buttons, the collar should be drafted the same as on Diagram 24. it should be drafted the same as ou Diagram 23.

The Surtout.
This overcoat is drafted in the same manner as the Newmarket, except that it and the pockets and flaps on the sides of the skirt are omitted. The length by points 13, 14, 15 and 16.
is

shorter,

is

defined

I04

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE RAGLAN OVERCOAT.
Diagram
46.
40.

npHE
R

measures used are the same
All the points, excepting
i,

as for

Diagram

2, 3, 5, 6,

10, 12, 17, iS, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,

O,

Y

and

Z,

are obtained in the
to 2

same manner
to 3 are

as explained for
2

Diagram

and
is

W
T O

40.

each

inches.
i,

Point 6

half-way from
is
j-2

H

to

and 10 half-way from 6

to

i.

From From

10 to
13 to

inch. inch.

is I

Square up from M. Measure the scye for the square shoulder overcoat, which for this draft is iS'/ inches. to Z and J to Y are each ^^ of the full scye, ^Vs inches. through T and Y, and the front from O through Z as Shape the back shoulder from

M
O

H

represented.
to

U

is

the same as

H

to

T.

The

line

from 17

to 18 represents the

Notch both parts opening for

at

T

and U.

a straight pocket,

and

is

the

same

as

on Diagram 40.

to

P to 12 is % inch. Square down from 12. From 2 to 24 is y^ of the natural waist. From 24 to 25 is 2 ,'4 inches. From 25 to 26 is 7^ inches. The welt is y^ inch wide, and covers an opening tlirough which the hand the trousers pocket when the Raglan is worn over an evening dress suit.
1 i

can reach

For
28.

a

Raglans intended for general wear usually have cross-pockets, either straight or curved. curved pocket, go up i ^ inch from 17 to 27, and down the same amount from iS to The flaps are from 3 to t,}4 inches wide. The front closes with a fly, and as from R to 2 is 2 inches, from R to the button-line is

1

1/ inch.

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

-105

DIAGRAM

46.

io6

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE RAGLAN
Diagram

SLEEVE.
47.
i,

A LL

the lettered and

obtained in the same

numbered points, excepting Hi, T, U, Y, manner as explained for Diagram 29.

2, 4, 6,

7

and

13, are

When the upper and under sleeves have been drafted, all excepting the round of the upper sleeve, from F to J, then lay the pattern of the forepart with the front of the scye touching at F, and the breast line directly over the line C H. The position of the shoulder of the forepart is shown in broken lines. Mark point 13 and along the scye, as is also shown in Ijroken lines to the side seam at 2. Lay the pattern of the backpart with the breast line directly over the line C H and the side seam touching 2. The position of the backpart is also shown in broken lines.

Y

is

the

same

as on

Diagram

31.

Mark Draw From

Hi and Y and remove the pattern. straiglit lines from F through 13 and from Y through Hi. 13 to I is i J4 inch and from Hi to 4 -•^ inch.
points

Pivot at

F

and sweep backward from
_|.

i.

From J to 6 is the same as Y to Connect J and 6. Lay the pattern of the back with Hi at 6 and the line from Y to Hi directU' over the straight line from J to 6. The position of the back is shown in dotted lines. Mark along the square back-shoulder seam and run a tracer from 6 along the raglan backshoulder seam to the line O M. Remove the pattern and shape to J as represented. This
shown by the heavy broken line from 6 to J. Reshape the seam from J '4 inch tjutside heavy broken line at T and 6, as shown bv the heavy solid line. Lay the pattern of the forepart with the shoulder point 13 at 6, and the scjuare shoulder seam touching the line which was drawn along the square back shoulder. The position of the forepart is shown in dotted lines. Mark from 13 to O (Diagram 46) (which correspond with 6 and 7) and run a tracer fnun 7 along the raglan front shoulder seam to Z (Diagram 46). Remove the pattern and complete the raglan shoulder seam as shown b}- the heavy broken line to F. Reshape by adding V^ inch outside of the broken line, as shown bA- the heavy solid line from 7 to F. The notches are at T and V, which correspond with the same points on Diagram 46. The end of the tongue 13 to (_), Diagram 46) can be made narrower if desired. It should not, however, be less than '_> inch. Whatever this may be, from 6 to 7 will, of course, be
is

of the

(

tlie

same, increased the width of two seams. The forearm seam below B and 5 can be placed more under the arm

if

desired, as

exjjlained for

Diagram

30.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

107

DIAGRAM

47.

.

io8

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED VEST.
Creased Collar.

Dl\gram

48.

T

accompanying diagram is for a regular form of 36 breast, 32 waist and 5 feet 8 inches height. The opening is 11, and the front length 25^4 inches. When drafting by the proportionate measures the remaining lengths and widths are selected from the tables of proportionate measures. The measures required and the method of drafting Mdien all the measures are taken on the form, is fully explained for Diagram 61. The measures, then, as used for this diagram are
:

ME

36 breast.
32 waist.
I

83^ back depth.
i6'j natural waist.

1

1

11

opening.

12 's front depth.

25'+ front lengtlL

To Draft.
vSc[uare the lines

A E

and

A

ig.

Place the end of the drafting-scjuare
natural waist at D.

\ inch below Square forward from B and D.
tliis

A

and mark the back-depth
is

at

B and

D A
L
B
I

to

F

is

I

inch in

instance, or

'^

inch for each inch that the waist

smaller than
inch.

the breast.
to to

Curve the center-back-seam from
is is is
1

A

through
to

F

as represented.

G

6 breast.

G

to

H
P
is

is th

breast.

B
{%

K

is

K

to

L

is

i

M
Q

%
I'a

inch.

M
B
to

to

Ye breast.
to

inch more than for a coat).

to
is

of full breast.

O

R

is

2H

inches.

M. I to J is i inch. N is half-way from B to R. Square up from J, I\I and P and down from K. L to 13 is 34 inch more than the front depth, less the width of the back from B to C is Y of the back depth. Connect C and 13. Connect H and P. This establishes 4. Shape the scye from 4, rounding about ^2 inch back of the line from J to 19 to inch below N.
half-way from

A

to

H.

a point yi

From

13 to 16

is

the

same
13.

as

H

to 4.
'4

Finish the scye below 16 rounding out

inch forward of the line above

M as represented.
is

Square forward from

From

13 to 14 is

\

breast.

When
Draw From

the waist

ate to the breast,

S

is 4 or more inches sn:aller than the breast to \' is '4 inch more than '2 waist and to

proportion-

Y

W

is 2 ^4

inches.

a slighth-

outward curved line from 14 through
breast.
is

R

and

W

as represented.

14 to 15

is

A

to

H

and 13

% to X

3

inches more than the opening and on to

Y

is

i

inch more than

the front length.

W
D

to 6 and F to T are each inch more than '^ waist. Shape the side seam through T and 6 as represented. From 6 to Z is 3 inches. X to 7 is h^ inch more than N
i

to Z.

to

E

is

y. inch less

than

T

to

7.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

109

Draw the collar crease-line from X thnnii^ii 13 and the opening from 13 to a i)oint inch inside of the crease-line about 3 inches below 13 and on to a point aboiil inch above as represented.
i

i^.

X

From From

13 to 8

is

the same as

A

to

H.

From 9 to 10 is 3^ inch. 8 to 9 is 34 inch. Shape the crease edge from 9 t<i the straight line at hollow of gorge.
i

The end of the leaf above 9 is inch. Shape the collar seam-edge from 10 and the leaf-edge
The
vest ma\- be

as represented.

flat

collar as explained for

Diagram

51

if

so desired.

DIAGRAM

48.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED VEST.
Creased Collar.

Dlvgram

49.

nr'HE

measures used

for

the accouipauving diagram are for a
3,

stout form, the

same

as

described for

Diagram
91/4
|

as

foHows

:

40 breast. 39 waist.

I
I

7

back depth. natural waist.

j

12 bkide.
13'-,

I

|

front depth.

|

Ji^i opening. 26 front length.

All the points, excepting F, U, explained for Diagram 48.

\'

and

To Draft. W, are obtained

in precisely the

same manner

as

As
for a

the waist

is

i

inch smaller than the breast,
is

D
S

to to

F

is is

y^ inch.
V^

When

proportionate to the breast,

U

inch more than

'

2

waist as

form having a waist 4 inches smaller than breast. In this instance such a waist is 36 inches and '^ inch more than '2 of a 36 waist is 9^4 inches, which is the distance from

S

to U.

In this case the waist of the form to be
smaller than the breast, and one-third of
\" to
it is 2

fitted
i

is

3
is

this, or
3

inch,

inches larger than one 4 placed forward of as to

inches
\'.

W

U

is

ays inches
i

inches smaller,
\" is

^s

inch

when the waist is when i inch

inches smaller than the breast,
this case,

2

inches

when
it

smaller, as in

and 134 inch when

is

as large or larger than the breast.

A
is

taken out

at the

lower edge of the welt at the lower pocket as represented.
is

It

%

inch wide at the side seam for each inch that the waist

smaller than the breast.
of the

The

side length

is

increased below

Z

'2

than 4 inches inch more than the width
less

V

for the

seams occasioned bv the V.

Finish as represented.

When
is

drafting by the proportionate measures except blade, which for an over-erect form

one, two or three degrees /ess than the proportionate blade for a corresponding breast size,

establish the star the

proportionate

same amount forward of S as the size of the blade is reduced from the shown on Diagram 50. When drafting by the proportionate measures except blade, which for a round, stoopingsize, as

shouldered form ma}' be one or two degrees //20/t than the proportionate blade for a corresponding breast size, establish the star the same amount backward of S as the size of the blade is increased from the proportionate size, as shown on Diagram 51.

Whenever
from S
to U.

as

is

disproportionate to the breast, then from the star
to

(

which

must be established

above explained)

U

is

'4

inch more than

'2

When

drafting
is

b}'

the measures as taken on
for the star,

the form (which includes the back waist

measure), there

no use

and

all

the points on the waist line are obtained as

explained for Diagram 61.

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DIAGRAM

49.

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED COLLARLESS VEST.
Diagram
50.

A LL
article.

the points excepting

as explained for

In this

\" and the star are obtained in the same manner 9, 10, 11, 12, Diagram 48 when the waist is 4 or more inches smaller than the breast. instance the blade size used when drafting is '4 inch /rss than the proportionate

The

star is therefore established '4 inch fora'urd oi

vS,

as explained in the preceding

From

the star to

V

is

J4 incli

more than
to

'j

waist.

Extend the

line fi^om

P upward through

13.

From From From From

13 to 9 is the

same as

A

H

on the back.

9 to 10

is

1

inch.

13 to II is 3^ iuch.

13 to 12

is

'4 inch.

Finish as represented.

For stout-waisted forms obtain

all

the points on the waist line in the

same manner

as

explained for Diagram 49 when the blade is proportionate to the breast. When the blade is disproportionate to the breast establish the star, as explained in the

preceding

article.

Then

establish

U

(Diagram 49) from the

star,

all

other respects the same as explained for Diagram 49.

SINGLE-BREASTED

NOTCH COLLAR
51.

VEST.

Diagram

A LL

the points except the star are obtained in the

50,

when

In this

same manner as explained for Diagram more inches smaller than the brea.st. instance the blade size used when drafting is '4 inch more than the proportionate
the waist
is

4 or

The star is therefore established I4 iuch From the star to V is 34 inch more than %
all

/xukziuird oi
waist.

vS,

as previously explained.

For stout-waisted forms obtain
explained for Diagram 49. The pattern being cut out, lay

the points on the waist line in the same

manner

as

it

over another piece of paper and

mark along

the edge

from 9

X, 9 to 10 and 10 to 12. Remove the pattern and shape the collar from 12 to
to

X

to taste or style.
in-

Cut the projection above
cluded in the collar.

12 off

from the pattern of the forepart, the same being now

La}' the front and back shoulder seams together, even at the outer shoulder points and

notch both as represented.

The

vest

may

collar, as

explained for Diagram 48,

if

so desired.

THE -KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DIAGRAM

50.

DIAGRAM

51.

1

14

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DOUBLE-BREASTED VEST.
Diagram
52.

TDOINTS

13,14, P,0,\'

:iiul

Y are obtained
waist
is

in the

same manner

as explained for Dia_t(ram 48.

O

to

R

is
is

2 inches.
i3_^

\' to

W

inch

when the

4 or

more inches smaller than

breast.

Draw From
on
to

a slightly

13 to

X

is

as represented. cnrved line from 14 throngh R and 2 inches more than the opening, less the width of the back

W

A

to

H, and

Y

I

inch more than the front length.
is

\Y to 6

i^

inch more than
inch.

'2

waist.

R

to 3 is 5

inches.
i

From
Point

3 to 4 is
I

is

half-way from 14 to R.

Draw Draw From From Make

a straight line from a straight line
I
I

O
i

throngh
passing
to

i.

from
as

'^

inch forward of

W.

to 2 is

2

^

inches.

to 5 is the

same

i

Y.
rise, 3 to 7,

the lapel I'i inch wide at the bottom and the

the

same

as the bottom

of the forepart

back

of Y.
2

Shape the onter edge from

through 4

to 7 as represented.

Draw From From

the crease-line throngh 13 and X.
13 to 8 is the .same as

A

to

H

on the back.
is
-^4

S to 9

is I

inch.

From

8 to 10

inch.
13 to a point

Shape the seam edge of the forepart from the roll, and finish the neck portion below 9. All the shaded portion represents the under
of color in stitched,
it

abont

i

inch aboye the end of
of silk or thin material

collar,

which

is

harmony with

that of the vest.

It is

cut from

2 to i.

When

the edges are to be

becomes necessary to cut off from the facing the part which is shaded in crossed lines from 10 to i. These two parts of the facing are seamed together, making due allowance for the seam and a close finish at the end of the collar.

The lower buttonhole is From the line R Y to

-^4.

inch above

7.

W

the button-line

is

-^4

inch less than from the line

R

3 to the

from 4 to 7. Space for the buttonholes as required, and pivoting at of each buttonhole (3^ inch from the edge of the lapel) buttons on the button-line.
line

i,

sweep backward from the eye
the position of the

to esta'nlish

THE 'KEYSTONF:" SYSTEMS
DiAi'.RAM
33.

"5

This vest
extends
to
i,

is

drafted

in

all

respects the

same

as precediiij^-

diai^ram.

The gorge

and the collar and lapels are cut in the same manner as for a frock coat. When the waist is less than 4 inches smaller than the breast, establish points I' and V in the same manner as shown on and explained for Diagram 49. ', inch less than as explained for Diagram 49, or i-^^ inch will then be V to inch when 2 inches smaller, when the waist is 3 inches smaller than the breast, inch smaller, and i '4 inch when the waist is as large or larger than ih inch when

W

i

'

..

i

the breast.

DIAGRAM

52.

DIAGRAM

53.

ii6

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED DRESS VEST.
Diagram
54.

OINTS
for

K, P, O, R, S, \\
48.
is

W,

Y, 6 and 13 are obtained in the same
less the

manner

as explained

Diagram
13 to

From From From From

X
is

3^ inch

more than the opening,

width of the back,

A

to

H.

6 to

Z

2^2 inches.
i-:l

13 to II is
13 to 12
is

inch.

^^ inch.

Connect

R

and

S.
is
i

Point 14 is half-way from R to S. From 14 to 15 Shape the opening through 1 1 and 15 to X.

i^

inch.

From From From

5 to 7 is

I

is inch.

Shape the leaf-edge
12 to 10
is
I

of the collar

the same as
inch.

A

to

through 12, 7 and 14 H on the back.

to

X

as represented.

9 to 10

is

Finish as represented.

DOUBLE-BREASTED DRESS VEST.
Diagram
55.

pOIXTS
Q V
to to

K,

P,

O,

\',

S and
(

13 are obtained in the

same manner as explained

for

Diagram

W
to

R

is is

i3^ inch
1^4 inch

'4

when

inch less than as for Diagram 52 which has a cut off lapel). the waist is 4 or more inches smaller than the breast.

Draw From
H, and on

a slightly curved line from
13 to

R

through

W.

X
is i

is

3_^

inch more than the opening, less the width of the back from
y^ waist.

A

to

W
R
On

Y

inch more than the front length.

to 6 is I4 inch

more than

From
to
I

6 to

Z

is

2}4 inches.

vShape the bottom bv a straight line fi'om
is 5

Y

to Z.

inches.

the sweep-line from
is

Y

to 4 is i', inch.

Connect

i

and

4.

Connect

R

and S

Point 14

half-way from
is 2

R

to S.

From From
From From

14 to 15
I

inches.
inch.

^

to

1 1

is 3^^

From

13 to 12

is

'4 inch.

Shape the opening

as represented.

5 to 7 is i3_^ inch.

Shape the leaf-edge
as

of the collar as represented.
is
i

12 to 10 is the

same

A

to

H

on the back, and 9 to 10

inch.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
R
to S is

117

3^_

inch less than

R

to

i.

Draw

a straight line for the l)utt(in-liiie from S to a
at

jjoiiit

3^^

inch backward from Y.
of each buttonhole to

Establish the buttonholes and, pivoting;

R, sweep from

llie e_ve

establish the position of the buttons on the button-line.

Finish as represented.

For stout and corpulent forms obtain point

U

as represented on
is 3

and explained
inch

for

Diagram
I

49.

U

to \' is
2

then

i

-'s

inch

when

the waist
i

inches smaller than the breast,
i

'4

inch
is

when

it is

inches smaller, I's inch when

inch smaller and

when

the

waist

as large or larger than the breast.

^Ct^'O

DIAGRAM

54.

DIAGRAM

55.

.

nS

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CLERGYMEN'S VESTS.
Diagram
56.

T HE

ordinary \est worn by clergymen
1

is

the points excepting

are obtained in the
i,

made single breasted, bnttoning to the neck. same manner as explained for Diagram
is 3^^

All
48.

The The

center-of -front is below point
collar
is

which

inch backward of
28.

15.

the same as explained for

Diagram

Diagra:\i 57.
Points K, P, Q,
13, S,

V,

Y

and Z are obtained

in the

same manner

as explained for Dia-

gram

48.

From From From Draw From
\" to

13 to 14

is

1-5

breast.

14 to 2

is 3.4
is

inch.

Q

to

R
15

li^ inch.

a slightly curved line from 2 to R.
2 to
is
I

is

',,

breast.

W

'

2

inch

when the waist

is

as explained for Diagram 55. and Draw a straight line through R and W. represents the slight curve usually given to the front The broken line from R through The straightening of the front increases the width at the bottom, as of an ordinary vest. from the broken line to Y, and a corresponding amount is taken out by a V as represented. The bottom edge should also be drawn in on each side of Y, so that it will lie close to the body. The left shoulder is cut off from 13 to 4, and the left forepart from 9 to 12. From 16 to 4, S to 9, 6 to 1 1 and Z to 12 are each i inch.

forms obtain points

V

W

4 or

more inches smaller than the

breast.

For stouter

W

is

another piece as defined by the shaded portion 13, 15, 7, 5 and 16 back to 13. This to be sewed to the left back at the shoulder seam and the collar is put on to it. Make another piece to replace the i inch which has been cut off from the side seam of the
It

Mark From Make

the buttonholes on the 4 to 5
is 2

left

forepart as represented.
i

inches.

From

15 to 7 is

inch.

left forepart.

to underlie the

i

'2

iuch wider than the part cut
not
to

wear.

buttonholes sufficiently

off, as shown by the show the white under-

This piece

is

sewed
it

to the left

part then overlaps

to the line

back on the line from S from 9 to 12.
for

to Z.

The edge

of the left fore-

The

collar is the

same

as explained
1

Diagram

28.

The end

of the collar is

3_,^

inch

from the center-of -front, as from The front edge from 3 to Y

5 to

i

is

laid on a fold of the material.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

119

DIAGRAM

56.

DIAGRAM

57.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE PURPOSE OF MEASURES.
A
•^^

S the human form

varies in development

and

attitude, certain

measures besides the fun-

daniental ones of height, breast, waist and seat, may be advantageously employed to determine the lengths and widths of the parts of the form.

When

and right measures,

the cutter, after long experience, has become skilful in measuring, taking adequate it is possible for liim to draft successfully for forms of any shape or size

without regard to the proportionate lengths or widths. One For the novice or student to attempt to do this would insure failure upon failure. who has not been properly drilled in measuring the parts of the body will secure better gen-

by taking only the fundamentals, and making the changes, if any are required, which are suggested by a close observation of the shape of the form as instructed in the foregoing articles. It will be recognized that the eye must need no small amount of training so that it can readily and accurately determine the degree of variation between a form to be fitted and an average form. Proportionate measures are therefore the foundation upon which the novice, in cutting, must begin to build his structure. By the aid of these and the knowledge of how to draft the various garments in vogue he can successfully meet the necessities of a large percentage Then, as the eye becomes trained to detect variations in of forms with whom he has to deal.
eral results

build and attitude, he will be able to deal satisfactorily with a still larger percentage of forms. Among the many necessities to make one successful in custom-garment cutting, we

emphasize these three. a knowledge of the proportionate lengths and widths of the body and its parts First through the entire range of sizes. Second a cultivated eye, so that any deviations from the build or attitude of an average or proportionate form can be readily and rightly detected and determined. Third a knowledge of how to measure a form adequatel}- and rightly. These three qualifications, when in agreement, will enable the cutter to be free from doubt as to the result of that part of the work for which he is altogether responsible.

— — —

When
size as

ment with the measures taken, which are larger
found on the tables, then he
is

the eye, by observation of the size of the blade or slope of the shoulder is in agreeor smaller than for a form of the same breast
justified in

ignoring the lengths or widths on the

talale.

Here the eye and the measures

are in agreement and they control.

justify

the eye is in agreement with the sizes as given for an average form and cannot any variation such as a measure would indicate, then the measure may safely be regarded as a false one, and the eye, being in agreement with established proportions, must
control.

When

As

a rule there will be

no variations

of

any importance between the measures taken and

those for an average form except

sin/i as the

when one has become,

by experience,

skilful in measuring.

The purpose then of measures, is to aid the eye to determine, with practical accuracy, the degree of variation between the form to be fitted and an average or proportionate form of corresponding height and bulk.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
For exani])lc
as for a

:

fitted,

a

man

of

36

Ijreast

is

i

i

inelies.

An
flat

observation of the form to be

wliich

is

also 36 breast, indicates that the blades are

man who
^

is

extra fnll across the breast.
ijifanirc fix the

The measure taken
ju.stify

is,

say, io'/2
y2

inches.

Here

tlie

iv diid

///<•

amount and

a variation

of

inch from the
the

blade size for a proportionate form.

Supposing,
If not,

also, that the

measure taken
flat,

is

ii'^
'^

inches.

If is

are perceptibly full and across the breast

the \ariation of
a

inch full
if

confirmed.
is

the cutter

may

safely consider the

measure
is

false one,

and

the disagreement

discovered in time, he should remeasure the part until the variation either disappears or

is

confirmed by shape that it

tiie ej'e.
is in

If

the variation

not discovered in time, his recollection of the
for

agreement with the proportions

an average form should control.

becoming familiar with tlie proportionate lengths and widths for at lea.st the sizes most in demand, so that any deviation between these and the measures mav be at once harmonized or confirmed bv the eye.
cutter will recognize the importance of

The

122

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THE MEASURES.
npHE
measures
for

an undercoat are taken over the

vest.
If

First notice
is,

if

there

is

any undue

fullness either at the back or front of the vest.

there

unfasten the back strap, pull the vest from the front close in at pin in front.

then unbutton the vest and the back and fasten with a

Take customer's

height.
It

Place the belt around the smallest part of the waist.
the floor at the sides and back.
to as

must be placed on

a level with
it

This can be readih- done by stooping down and bringing

near a level as the eye will determine.

The Breast Measure.
This measure
is

taken fa ///]'

close

with the tape-measure well up over the blades.

See
it it

that the customer breathes naturally and does not

expand the

chest.

On

fleshy

should be taken somewhat closer than for a man of should be taken less closely, or an easy measure.

medium

size,

and on slender

men men

The Waist Measure.
This measure is taken fairly closr, over the smallest part and easy for men of slender build.
for regular

and stout forms,

The Seat Measure.
This measure
first
is

taken over the fullest part and

closr as for trousers.

The pockets should
lie

be relieved of their contents, and customer should stand with the feet close together.

The

cutter

now has

the fundamental measures and,

if

familiar, as
size,

should

be,

with

the proportionate lengths and widths for a

man

of

corresponding

prove any variations which are indicated bv the measures as he proceeds.
Place the measuring-square in front of the right shoulder at junction of

arm and body,

and make a chalk-mark shown on Figure 3.

iip

and down opposite the back edge

of the

square at front of scye as

tends downward, and the outer edge

arm as shown on Figure 4. The long arm exeven with the mark made at front of scye as on Figure Make a chalk-mark crosswise at the angle of the .square as at A. Now, keeping the angle 3. of the square at A, bring the long arm as nearly perpendiciilar as possible, and make a chalk-mark at the natural waist on the outer edge of the square, as at B. Place the end of the tape-measure at the left side of the neck and extend it past D over the right shoulder down and under the arm and across the back le7Tl with the bottom of the scye. Make a horizontal mark opposite the upper edge of the tape at C, as shown on Figure 5.
Place the measuring-square under the
is

Under Arm to Waist axd Sleeve Lengths.
Place the drafting square under the right arm as shown on Figure
to
4,

and take the length

natural waist, as from

A

to B,

and the length required

for the sleeve.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

123

FIGURE

3.

FIGURE

4.

The Back Depth.
Place the end of the tape-measure at the collar-seam D, as on Figure
5,

and measure

to C.

The Natural Waist, Seat-Line axd Length.
Still

holding the end

of the

natural waist, then to

F

at the

most prominent part
full

tape-measure at D, measure to E for the length to the for the length to the seat-line, if measurlength required.

ing for a sack-coat, and on to the
If 2

measuring

for a frock-coat, take the fashionable waist length,

which

is

inches below the natural waist.

Place the end of the tape-measure at the center-of-back (point C, Figure 5), extend the tape to the front, under the right arm, and measure to the perpendicular mark at front of
scye, as to

A

on Figure

6.

124

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
The Front-Depth.
Place the end of the tape-measure at the

mark

for the collar-seam

D, at the center-ofat front

back, extend
of scye, as to

it

down over
on Figure
7.

the front shoulder to the horizontal

mark

and bottom

A

The Over-Shoulder.
Place the cud of the tape-measure at the centcr-of-back, point C, Figure 5, extend and over the shoulder, midway between the side of the neck ond the outer shoulder and down to point A, Figure 7.
it

up

point,

The Back-Waist.
Place the end of the tape-measure at the center-of-back, point E, Figure 5, extend it along the waist line under the arm, and measure to the up and down mark at B, as shown

on Figure

8.

The Hale-Back Width.
side of the

This measure is taken from the ccnter-of-back, about back at the fashionable width.

3

inches above C, Figure

5, to

the

FIGURE

5.

FIGURE

6

.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

^25

FIGURE

7.

FIGURE

8.

taking the blade, front-depth and over-shoulder measures is by the tape-measure attached at its use of the small measuring-square. The square, which has a under and at the front of the, right arm, and the tape extended under inner angle, is placed Figure 9. Then with the the arm and across the blade to the center-of-back C, as shown on position extend the tape smoothly up over the shoulder to measuring-square in the same This gives the front-depth. Then bring the tape center-of-back D, as shown on Figure 10. in a straight midway between the side of the neck and the outer shoulder point and extend it

Another method

for

C at the center-of-back. This gives the over-shoulder. measure close For clerical or militarv coats place the end of the tape-measure at D and center-of-neck in front, at the depth desired for front around on the line of the gorge to the Then still holding the end of the tape-measure at D, bring the tape to the centerof gorge. Hold the tape at the waist, release the end from D and extend of-front on the waist line. Note the number of inches on the tape where center-of-neck in front. it up directly to the
line to
it

passes the gorge line at the depth desired. All the measures except breast, waist and seat are taken just waist and seat are taken fairly close as previously explained.

fair,

not

close.

The

breast,

having a dark line through its center, and the measuring-square this work. for use can be procured at tlie office of the publishers of with tape attached ready

An

elastic waist belt

126

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

figure: 9.

FIGURE

10.

Caution.
It is

evident that
if

if

the belt

is

properly placed around the waist, level luith the floor,

point C, Figures 5 and 9, has been located as it should be, level luith tJie bottovi of the scve, then the difference between the back depth and lengtli to the natural waist will

and that

just equal the length

from under the ann
If

the measures are taken.

remedy
the

applied.

Either

C

This should be noted when to the natural waist. they do not agree, the cause must be ascertained and the proper is not level with the bottom of the scye, the belt not level with

floor,

or the measures have been wrongly taken.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

127

THE OVER-SHOULDER AND BACK- WAIST MEASURES.
T^OR
of the all the preceding diagrams the over-shoulder quantity, and disposition waist and hip quantities, have been obtained by proportions which are suitable for a

large average of forms.

Any method, however, which fixes these quantities absolutely by proportions is not adequate when the form varies materially from the average form in bulk and attitude. For this reason it becomes necessary to adopt some method by which these quantities can be
rightly ascertained which
is

accomplish this the over-shoulder and the following coat and vest diagrams.

To

applicable to all forms, proportionate and disproportionate alike. back-waist measures are applied on all

The The

over-shoulder measure fixes definitely the quantity required, as at O. back-waist measure gives the right distribution of the waist size backward and

forward of S, as forms vary in bulk and attitude. The star, the use of which is explained elsewhere, is not required when the backtherefore, appear on any of the subsequent It does not, waist measure is applied. diagrams, a sufficient number of which are introduced to show clearly how the two

measures above referred to are applied to the draft. They are drafted from measures taken from our order book, and are, therefore, neither ideal nor suppostitious. When drafting any kind of coat or vest by the fundamental and short measures as taken on the form, the same general method is employed as when drafting by the proportionate measures, as explained on the preceding pages of this work, except as above stated and as is fully explained for the subsequent diagrams. When it is desired to draft any coat or vest given in this work, using the overshoulder and back-waist measures, all other points when drafting by the proportionate measures.
are obtained in the

same manner

as

)

128

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED SACK COAT.
Diagram
58.

T HE
a

man who

measures actually taken by which the accompanying diagram was produced are is oyer-erect, with snuill blades and high shoulders.
back-depth. 151^ natural waist.
"I'i/j^

for

36 breast.
37 waist. 32 seat. ji^ under

12 I4 front-depth.
i63^.

oyer-shoukler.

arm

to waist.

18 sleeye.

22 'i .seat line. 28 length. [0^2 blade.

7J2 back-waist.
j

7 14 half-back width.

|

To Draft.
Scpiare the lines

A G

and

A

i.

Place the end of the tape-measure or drafting square

]^

inch below

A
i.

and mark the
i.

back depth

at B, natural waist at

D, seat-line at

E

and

'^/'^

inch more than the length at
B, C, D,

B

to

C

is

one-half of the back-depth.

Square forward from
sV breast.

E

and

D A
B

to to to
to

F

is
is is is

G

y^ inch. i^ breast.

Shape the center-back-seam

as represented.

G

to to

H
L
J/^

is

K
P

i/^

K

is i

inch.

L

to

M

is

'2

inch.

M
B

inch less than
of full breast.

breast.

I is

half-way between

B and M.

Square up from

M

and P and down from

I.

to

Q

is

1-2

O
is

to

R

is

2^2 inches.

R

to

2

is

I's

inch

when the edges

are to be stitched, and '4 inch less

when bound.
obtained by squaring up from
^^

The
of
I.

natural half-back width

When
Connect
inch.

drafting by the measured half-back width

forward J, which is \y% inch inch more than the width is

applied from

vSquare up and down from Z. and P. Connect C and M. From the line from J through Z to 4 is ^2 inch, or
to Z.

C

H

to style,

and from the same

line to 5

is 5^

Shape the scye from 4 through 5 to K as represented. F to T and S to 25 is the back- waist. F to T and 25 to V is^^ of full waist when the waist
the breast.

is

4 or

more inches smaller than

When
for

the waist
59.
is

is less

than 4 inches smaller than the breast establish

V

as /explained

Diagram

V
When

to

W
59.

2 '4
is

inches
less

when

the waist

is

4 or

more inches smaller than the

breast.

the waist

than 4 inches smaller than the breast
as

V

to

W

is

as

explained for

Diagram

W
E

to 3 is the to

same

R

to

2.

Square down from
Coil tinned on

V

and

3.

X

and 8

to 9 is '2 of the full seat.
(

page ijo.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

129

DIAGRAM

58.

I30

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED SACK-COAT.
(

Concluded.

)

the back-waist measure of

through the back-waist more than to be taken out between T and 7 and in the underarm cut depends on style. In this instance T to 7 is i ^4 inch, and the fish at S is j^ inch wide, thus leaving i^ inch of fullness through the back waist. Shape the side-back from 5 through T and X to Y. Shape the side-seam of the forepart from 5, taking out 54^ inch on the breast line, and through 7, passing ^i inch back of 9 and the fish below N as represented. to J. to N is 3^ inch less than Shape the bottom from Y toward a point J^ inch below 10. M to 1 1 is % breast. Square down from 1 1 for the front of the pocket opening. L to 26 is 34 inch more than the front-depth and on to 27 is 34 inch more than the over-

The

quantity between

T

and 25 represents

a surplus

2-^4

inches for this draft.

The amount

M

M

shoulder.

and sweep forward from 26. and sweep backward from 27. Cut out the pattern of the back and lay it in the position shown on the upper part of the is on the line which is squared up from P diagram. A touches the sweep-line from 26, and B touches the sweep-line from 27 as at 28. This establishes 13. Connect 28 and U. This establishes O. Connect 13 and C. Shape the shoulder from 13 through O, rounding of? 3^. iuch below the outer back-shoulPivot at
Pivot at

L

U

H

der point and

make

13 to 16 the
1

same

as

H

to 4.

Finish the scye from

6 to

K

as represented.

Square forward from

13.

From Draw From
passes
I,

13 to 14 is

^
V(^

breast.

a slightly curved line from 14 through
14 to 15
is

breast.
It

inch above
front

15.

R and W. Shape the gorge from 13 as represented, which in this case may be shaped above, below or through 15 as style may deter2

mine.

Shape the

through

The

collar is drafted in the

and 3 and below 3 to style. same manner as explained

for

Diagram

22.

:

)

132

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
MILITARY BLOUSE.
Diagram
59.

npHE
1

measures by which the accompanying diagram was drafted are
834 back-depth. 17 natural waist. 25 .seat-line. 27^2 length.
1 1

for

an erect form as

follows

38 breast. 35 ^^'aist.

13 front-depth. 17^4 over-shoulder. 8 back-waist,

40

seat.

S ^^ under arm to waist. 1 8 3^ sleeve.

'1

y'i half-back width. 8}4 half-size of gorge. 7 14 depth of gorge.

To Draft.
Square the lines

AG

and

A

I;

obtain the lengths to B, C, D,
58.
is

E

and

I,

and square the
through the
inch forward
in

cross lines as explained for

Diagram

As
of D.

the back waist

is ver}'

small and the coat

to

be

at

close-fitting

waist, the center-back-seam is

shaped with a greater hollow

F,

which

is

i

All the points on and above the breast line, excepting
the same

2,

5,

17

and N, are obtained

manner

as explained for

Diagram

58.

F to T is '4 breast. Square down from T. Point 5 is half-way between J and 4. Shape the back as represented. Below T the side seam is shaped throiigh X, which
'4!

is

inch forward of the broken line.

F
fitting

to

T

and S

to 25 is the back-waist.

The
follows
:

quantity between

T

and 25 must

all

be eliminated

when

the coat
is

is to

be tight-

through the back-waist.
to 7 is '2 inch.

The amount
20
is i

{2^<,

inches for this draft)

disposed of as

S

From
is

7 to

inch.

The

remainder, i-S iuch,
breast,

is

taken out from
to \' is '2

Tto6.

When
When
F
and 25
to

the waist the waist

4 or

more inches smaller than the

F

to

T

and

2-^

of the full waist.

T

and 25

than breast.

than 4 inches smaller than the breast proceed as follows form having a waist 4 inches smaller As the breast in this case is 38, a waist 4 inches smaller is 34, so that F to T
is

less

:

to 12 is ^2 of the full waist as for a

to 12 is '2 of 34

which
(

is

17.

As

the waist in this case
Place
'3 of it

is

but
i

3

inches smaller than the breast, the form

is

i

inch

stout waisted.

When the waist is 4 or more inches smaller than the breast \' to W is 2 '4 inches. When the waist is 3 inches smaller than the breast, as in this case, \' to W is 2 S inches. When the waist is 2 inches smaller than the breast \' to W is 2 inches. When the waist is inch smaller than the breast V to W is When the waist is as large or larger "s inch. than the breast V to W is 1^ inch.
I i
(

'3 of

nich) forward of 12. This gives \\

Cu}iliiiiicd

on page /j/.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

133

DIAGRAM

5<).

134

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
MILITARY BLOUSE,
(

Coiic/iif/('(i.)

Square down from 12. E to X and 8 to 9 is -< of the full seat. N is half-way between J and M. Draw a straight line from N through S and shape the underarm seam as represented. Shape the side-seam of the forepart from 5, taking out '^^ inch from the side of the back on the breast line, thence through 6, and passing yi inch back of 9 as represented. Square down from and shape the bottom from Y passing ^ inch below 10 as repre-

W

sented.

The line from 15 through R and Take the width of the back from
to
of

W
A

is

the center-of -front.

to

H, place

W,

then hold the tape at

W and extend

this at 13

the end up toward 14.

gorge is, in this case, 7 14 inches. Pivot the tape at 15 at I4 inch more than the measure for depth of gorge,

W

and extend the tape-measure The measure for depth and make a short sweep at or near
inches.

7^

Now
to

apply the meas13 following

iire for half-size of

neck with

^

making 9

in all

from

A

H, and

the gorge line until the size required, 9 inches, intersects the short sweep-line just depth of gorge. This establishes the end of the gorge which in this case is at 15.

-^4

at

From
more

15 to 17,

R

to 2

and

W

to 3

are each %! inch.

On

inch

for button-stand.

The

collar ma}' be as

on Diagram 25 or -28.

:

'36

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THREE BUTTON CUTAWAY FROCK-COAT BODY.
Diagram
6o.
for

T'HE
1
3

measures bv wliich
'/2

this diiiorani

was drafted are

an erect form with small blades
7 back-waist.

as follows

35
I

breast.

63^ natiiral waist.
1814 fashionable waist.

waist.
seat.

y%

half-back width.

36
8^>,

36 length.
to waist.

under arm

10'
I

2

20 sleeve.
8^5 back-depth.

2

front-depth.

16V2 over-shoulder.

To

Draft.
;

Square the lines A G and A E. Place the end of the drafting square l^, inch below A obtain the lengths and square the lines forward from B, C, D and E. For small waists with hollow back-waist D to F is -^4 inch. Shape the center-back-seam
as represented.

All the points on and above the bi-east line, excepting
in the
I

5,

20,

J,

Ji

and

N

are obtained

same manner

as explained for

Diagram

58.

ever,

to J I is I ',8 inch. This would give the natural half-back width. The measure, howwas taken to giv-e a wide back and is increased ^2 inch for seams as from C to Z. Square up and down from Z. This gives 19 and J. N is half-wa}' from J to K. Square down from N. Connect 19 and the center-back-seam at the fashionable waist to establish 20.

Z

to 5 is

I

inch, or to style.

F

to

Shape the back and the scye from 4 to F to T and S to 25 is the back-waist.

T is K

^/g

breast, or to style.

as represented.

As the

waist
8.

is

4 inches smaller than breast,

i

inch

is

taken out

at the

underarm-seam
inches

as from 7 to

T

to 6 is the .same as

T

to 25, less the

amount

from

7 to S, 2 '4

for this draft.

Shape the sidebody from a point -s inch forward of 5, passing '4 inch forward of 20 and through 6 as represented. Shape the underarm-seam from N through 7 and 8 as represented. From 20 to 9 is 54 inch more than 20 to the fashionable waist line on the side of the back. Point 10 is % inch above the fashionable waist line. Shape from 9 to 10 as represented. Square down from R. In all cases whether the waist is slim, regular or stout, F to T and 25 to \' is '2 of the
full

waist.

\"
is

to

W

W
'2

is

as explained for

Diagram

59.

to 3

the same as
I

R
b_v

to

2.

Point 12

is

inch below the fashionable waist line.
12

Connect

ii

and

and

this line square

up

to

P.

Finish as represented.

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

137

DIAGRAM

60.

138

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED NO-COLLAR VEST.
Diagram
61.

T HIS

vest goes with tlie coat
:

shown on the preceding diagram.
10 opening.
2 2-;4

The measures

are as

follows
i/{

breast. 35 31 waist.

I

side-length.

8H
83/s

under arm
back-depth.

to waist.

25^2 front-length. 7 back-waist.

16^

natural waist.

To Draft.
Square the lines A 19 and A E. Place the end of the drafting square
natural waist at D.
'4

inch below A,

m ark

the back-depth at B, and

B

to to

D
draft.

C is one-half F is 14 inch

of the back-depth.

Square forward from B, C and D.
i

for each inch that the waist is smaller than breast,

!s

inch for this

Shape the center-back-seam as represented.
to
to

A
B
B

G

is is is

^

breast.

K
P

G to H is A breast. K to L is inch. L to M
i

is 'i

inch.

M to
to
to

3^ breast. ('2 inch

more than

for the coat.)

Q

Q is 3^ of full breast. R is 25^ inches.

I to J is i inch. I is half-way between B and M. and P. Square up from J, Square down from K. N is half-way from B to R. Connect H and P. This establishes 4. Shape the armhole from 4 about i^ inch back of the line above J to a point l-i inch below N as represented. L to 26 is 54 inch more than the front-depth and on to 27 is 34 inch more than the over-

M

shoulder.
Pivot at

L

Draw

a straight line from

Pivot at

U
I
1

FtoT
S
to

is
is

and sweep forward from 26. L through 26. and sweep backward from 27. inch more than ^ waist.
2

This establishes U.

V

of full waist, less the back-waist.

(

4

of full waist is 15I2 inches,

and the

back-waist

is 7

inches.

S

to

Y

is,

therefore, in this case S'j inches.

V

is

established in the

same manner

for stout

forms as above explained.) {Continued on page 140.)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

1.39

DIAGRAM

61.

I40

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
SINGLE-BREASTED NO-COLLAR VEST.
{Conchided}\

When
2
14;

the waist

inches.
is 2

When

the waist

is is 4 or more inches smaller than the breast, as in this case, \' to When to is a^-s inches. the waist is 3 inches smaller than breast, When the waist is i inch is 2 inches. inches smaller than breast, V to

to smaller than breast, is iS^ inch. breast, \' to

R and W, and the side seam from N through 6 springing out towards Z from N through T springing out slightly towards 7, and the bottom as represented. Cut out the back, leaving a margin of paper at the bottom, and place it in the position shown on the upper part of the diagram. A touches the sweep-line from 26, H is on the line This which is squared up from P, and B touches the sweep-line from 27 as at 2cS.
;

W

W

V

W

W

V

W

W

is i Js

inch.

When

the waist

is

as large or larger than the

to 6 is I inch more than ] i waist. vShape the front by a slightly curved line through

establishes 13.

Connect 28 and

U

to establish

O.
'i

Mark along

the back shoulder from 13, and finish the armhole from 16 to

inch below

N, passing y^ inch forward of the line which is drawn upward from M. In this instance point O falls on a straight line from 13 to C. It will be on, or above, or below this line according to the over-shoulder measure. Square forward from 13.

From

13 to 14 is

^

breast.

From

14 to

i

is 3^

inch.

is the center-of-front. drawn from i and passing ^ inch backward of R and From .26 to 13 and on to X is 3 inches more than the opening. From 26 to 13 and on to Z is i inch more than the side length. From 26 to 13 and on to Y is i inch more than the front length. Shape the opening from 26 passing 34 inch forward of 13 to the sweep-line at X. From 26 to 10 is i inch. Shape below 10 to a point I4. inch backward of 13. Make the length, N to 7, % inch more than from N to Z.

A

line

W

D to E is
F*or vests

3:j;

inch less than

T to

7.

with

flat

or creased collars and double-breasted vests, proceed in the

same manner

as explained ehsewhere in this work.

142

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CLERICAL FROCK-COAT BODY.
Diagram
62.
is

T HE
19

measures taken and by which the accompanying diagram
:

drafted, are for

an erect

form, as follows

35 breast. 31 waist. 36 seat.
8-v^

814 back-depth. 17 natural waist. 19I4' fashionable waist.
to waist.

under arm

.sleeve.

front-depth. over-shoulder. 7 back-waist. 7 half-back width. 8 half size of neck. 6 34 depth of gorge.
12

%

16^

To Draft.
All the points excepting
2, 3, 12,

15, 21

and 22 are obtained

in the

same manner as ex-

plained for Diagram 60.

Point 15

is

The line from 14 through R and to 3 From 15 to 22, R to 2 and

obtained as explained for Diagram 59. is the center-of-front.

W

W

are each
is
2

3_^

inch.
to the right side of the forepart as repre-

button-stand of 5^ inch additional sented by the broken line forward of 22,
Point 12
is I

A

inch below the fashionable waist

line.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

143

21

12

DIAGRAM

62.

)

144

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
POLICEMAN'S OVERCOAT.
Diagram
63.

THB

coat, or as is

measures by which the accompanying diagram is drafted are taken over the underusually worn, over a heavy cardigan jacket, and are as follows
:

41 breast. 38 waist.

8^

back-depth.

13^
1

front-depth.

43 seat. 83^ under arm to waist. 20 sleeve.

175^ natural waist. 20 fashion waist. 44 length.

83,^ over-.shoulder.

12%

9 back-waist. 8 half-back width. 9^2 half size of neck. 8 depth of gorge.

To Draft.
Proceed in all respects not herein referred to in the same manner as explained "for the Surtout Overcoat, Diagram 45. As the form is small through the back waist, D to F is 3^ inch. C to Z is '2 inch more than the half-back width. Square up and down from Z to establish 19 and J.

F
seam

to

T

and S

to 25 is the back-waist.
is 3

As
as

the waist

from

T
F

to to to

V

inches smaller than the breast, 3^; inch is taken out at the underarm which is distributed on each side of i as represented. 6 is the same as T to 25, less the amount already taken out from 7 to 8. T and 25 to Y, alike for slim, regular and stout forms, is '2 of full waist. is I4 inch less than as explained for Diagram 45, as there is no lapel seam
7 to 8.

W

on the waist line. Finish the back and sidebody as represented. L to 26 is i'^ inch more than the front-depth and on to 27
shoulder.

is

y^ inch

more than the over-

L through 26 to establish U. and sweep forward from 26. Pivot at U and sweep backward from 27. Cut out the back and place it in the position shown on the upper part of the diagram. Point H rests on the line which is squared up from P. A is on the sweep-line from 26 and R touches the sweep-line from 27 as at 28. Place a weight on the back and mark lightly along the back shoulder. This establishes 1 3. Connect U and 28. This establishes O. Pivot at 13 and sweep down from the outer shoulder point of the back. From this point to 16 is 34 inch. Shape the shoulder from 13 through O to 16 as represented. The neck point 15 can be obtained as heretofore explained, or it may be raised or lowered according to the wearer's requirements by the application of the neck measures, as- follows Coniitmed 07t page 146. (
Draw
a straight line from

Pivot at

L

:

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

145

DIAGRAM

63.

146

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
POLICEMAN'S OVERCOAT.
[Concluded.)

A to H, place this at 13 and extend the tape in a direct extend it toward 14 and make a mark at or near 15 at '^^ inch more than the measure for depth of gorge. Then apply the measure for half-size of neck and 13 to 15, increasing ^i inch. from A to Pivot at R and sweep forward from 15.
Take
the width of the back from
line to

W. Hold

the tape at

W,

H

From From From

15 to 17 17 to 18
18 to 23
is I

is

13^ inch.
b}-

Square forward from 17
is
is I

the line from 13 to P.

4'^ inches.
inch.
line.

Point 12

inch below the fashionable waist

Pivot at a point half-way between 15 and 17 and sweep forward from 12.
is

The sweep

shown

b}-

a broken line.

From 21 to 22 is 2^ inches. From the center-of-front line
same
line to the front

Point 22
15 to
lapel.

is

also I4 inch below the sweep-line.
3^_

W

to the button-line is

inch less than from the

edge of the
inch.

The The

skirt is drafted in all respects the
is

same

as explained for

Diagrams 16 and

1

7,

except

that from 8 to 9

i^

collar is drafted the

A

pointed side-edge

same as for Diagram 25. The leaf is 2^2 inches wide. made about -/^ the length of the back-skirt completes the garment.

THE REGULATIONS OF THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT.
Length of coat 2 inches below the knee; 9 buttons double-breasted frock to button to the neck with a turndown collar. on each side of breast, placed equal distances apart, lower button to be in waist seam. The distance between each row 7 inches at the top and 3', inches at the bottom, measured from the center of each button, and in such a manner as to form when Edge of coat double-stitched y% of an inch, stitching Vi of an inch to form the coat is buttoned a direct line from top to bottom. cuff. Lower row of stitching 3V inches from bottom of sleeve, two buttons on each sleeve. Two buttons at the waist seam in back and a pointed side-edge of not less than i \ inch with one button at each point, making four buttons at the back of the coat-

A

Loops

for shield

on

left

breast.

Buttons on
'2

left

side, coat sleeves

tins at the

back.

Width
pieces.

of collar 2
.

inches, to

be cut

in

and back plugged, that is sunk and securely fastened with one piece and without a seam in the back. Skirts to be cut without

piecing,

no wheel

3 2

:

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

FIREMAN'S OVERCOAT.
Diagram
64.
is

T HE

measures b}- which the accompanying diagram heavy cardigan jacket, are as follows
:

drafted, taken over

an undercoat or

38 breast. 35 waist.

1

7

natural waist.

1854^ over-shoulder.

40 seat. 8 under arm

to waist.

19^

sleeve.

1952 fashion waist. 42 length. blade. 1 J/4 I4 front-depth. 1

834 back-waist.
8 half-back width. 9 half size of neck.
7'/^

depth of gorge.

9 back-depth.

To

Dr.'VFT.
for the policeman's overcoat.

This garment is drafted in the same manner as explained Reference only is made to some details, as follows

Establish the end of the gorge, point 15, as explained for Diagrams 59 or 63. There being a lapel seam, V to is the same as explained for Diagram 45.

W

Point 12

is

I

inch below the fashion waist
is 1 1^
is

line.

the skirt is io}4 inches long and 4 inches deep, shaped as represented. Side-edges are inserted on the back-skirt, shaped as represented. The length of the side-edges is two-thirds the length of the back-skirt. They are ornamented with 3 buttons
each.

From 15 to From 17 to From 18 to From 21 to The flap on

17
18

inch.

334 inches.
inch.

23 22

is i
is

3I4 inches.

REGULATIONS FOR THE NEW YORK CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT.
For
chief of department, D. B. F"rock Coat, with rolling collar, lap seams, of
;

weighing: 28 ounces to the yard

in. length

to reach to the

knee

;

to button close to the

grouped
at wrists

in pairs

;

three on each skirt behind and three of small size on each sleeve at
;

dark blue pilot cloth, pure indigo dye, neck with eight large regulation buttons the cuff the skirt to be open behind, no
;
;

outside pocket, but one inside on each breast

the skirts and back to be lined witli red cloth or flannel
for chief of

the sleeves to

fit

snugly
buttons

and to be lined with linen. For all other officers and members same as
breast, placed equi-distant.

department except that there

shall

be

five regulation

on each

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

149

DIAGRAM

64.

ISO

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

THREE-QUARTER OR MILITARY CAPE.
Diagram
65.

CELECT

a coat pattern of the size required over

which the cape

is to

be worn.
at

Draw a straight line as A B. Lay the pattern of the backpart Mark from

to

touch the line at

A

and

]4 inch forward of

it

the

waist line as represented by the broken lines.

A

to C.

La}' the pattern of the forepart with the shoulder

seam
tlie

'2

inch from that of the back-

part as represented

by the broken

lines.

Mark from D
Connect

to the center-of-front E,

and down

center-of-front towards F.

and E. G is half-way from A Square out from G.

A

to E.

G
A

to

H
B

is 2

inches.

to

is

the length.

Pivot at

H and sweep from yi inch above B towards F. Reshape the bottom as represented, ]/i inch below the sweep-line
be

to

off)

From the center-of-frout line, E F, such changes may as may be required by the current style.

(b}-

B and F. adding on or taking

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

151

DIAGRAM

65.

152

THE 'KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

HALF-CIRCLE CAPE.
DlAGRAJI
66.

npAKE

a pattern of a three-quarter cape of the size required, which has been drafted as explained for the preceding diagram, and which is represented by points A, B, D, E

and F. Fold point B over to F to find a point half-way from B Connect C and the front-shoulder point D.

to

F

as at C.

D

to

G

is

li breast.

D to G and run a tracing-wheel from G to C. Fold the paper on the line G C with the hollow of the crease underneath. Now lay the pattern out flat, place a finger at the end of the cut at G, raise the crease at C and bring it back, overlapping the back of the cape until the line E F is square with This spreads the cut at the shoulder from D to K. the line A B. Mark the gorge and center-of-front line as represented by K, J and H. C overlaps
Cut the pattern from
to L.

GM

is

the nnderfold.

line

Reshape the edge of the cape at the overlap, free-handed, or if preferred, extend the A B up towards N, and square back from J b}' the line A B to establish N.

N

to

P

is

I

inch.
to

Pivot at

P and sweep from B

H.
represent the cut which
is

The

liglit solid lines

D G

and

KG

in the three-quarter

cape pattern from
lines,

D

to

G.
b}-

When marking

%

inch at

on the material shape the shoulder seam as represented D and K.

the heavy

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
§)F

153

DIAGRAM

66.

154

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CLOSE CAPE.
Diagram
67.

'T^AKE

a pattern of an overcoat of the size required

and lay the forepart and backpart
b}'

over another piece of paper in the same position as when drafted. Mark the breast line, along the back center, scye, shoulder and gorge as represented
the broken lines.

Mark

the lapel crease-line and underneath

mark the

button-line.

Draw

a straight line from
is Yz

A

to the back-center at the

bottom and remove the pattern.

A D

to to

C

inch more than the length.
inch.

E
I

is i^

E and sweep forward from y^ inch above C towards H. Shape the seam from E through F and the middle of the scj'e at G as represented. Square down from F by the breast line to establish J.
Pivot

inch forward of

N
P

to
is

O
Q

is

i^
I

inch.

is

inch more than half-way from

O

to the breast line.

N

to

34 inch.

Shape the
J to

V

from P to

O

and P
G.

to

Q.
L,

K

is

the same as

J to

of the line falling

Shape the seam from M to O and from O through K towards from J as H is forward of it. M to O and Q to L is ^i inch more than E to H. Pivot I inch forward of M and sweep forward from L.

which

is

as

much back

The
Lay

front edge

is

shaped below

M

to clear the lapel crease-line,

and thence just back

of

the button-line to the bottom.
the pattern over another piece of paper, and with a tracing-wheel, trace the backit

part and cut

out, all except across the bottom.

Lav
bottoms
to front.

the backpart in closed position with the forepart,

H

touching L, and reshape the

of

both parts from

C

to

R

as

may

be necessary to give a graceful curve from back

This establishes S and T.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

155

I

C

DIAGRAM

67.

156

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
TROUSERS.
Regular Form.

'X'HE

measures required

for trousers are the outside leugth

from just over the hip bone

to

the heel, inside length from close up in the crotch to heel, width at bottom to size required, or to style, width at knee to size required, or to style, seat taken fairly close over the
fullest part,

customer standing with

feet close together

and pockets relieved

of contents,
fit

and
the

waist taken close around, just over the hip bone, except in a case waist is not desired, then it can be taken as required.

when

a close

at

The Forepart.
Diagram
The measures used
are as follows
:

68.

40 outside length. 30 inside length.

I

|

17 bottom. 18^2 knee.

I

36 seat.
32 waist.

|

To Draft.
Draw
a straight line near the edge of the paper nearest to

you and make a mark near

the top as at O.

O

to

C

is

the outside length.

C

to

A
B

is

the inside length.

A A

to
to

is 2 is

inches less than half-way from
of the distance

A

to C.

between A and O. Square forward from each of the aboven amed points.

T

i'3

A

to

E

is

%

seat.

A

to

F

is '2

seat.

Square up from E and F to establish D and G. Square down from E to establish H. F to V and F to X are each ^2 inch. Connect V and G. Connect X and G. This establishes S and Z. G to U is 14 waist for all forms having a waist not less than 4 inches smaller than the
seat.

E

to

P

is Yi seat.

to J is is J to

H

^
75'2

seat.

K

inches for

all

small sized bottoms, and 8 inches for large bottoms.

A to J and from P to K. In this instance across the knee between the two straight lines is just one-half the size required at the knee as from L to N. When one-half of the size required at the knee is larger or smaller than the size between the two straight lines, then points L and N are
Draw
light straight lines from

established either outside, as explained for
70, so that

Diagram

71, or inside as

explained for Diagram

from
is 3-^

L

to

N

is

one-half of the size required.
points as represented and cut out the forepart,

P

to

R

inch.
all tlie

Shape between A, L and N.

making notches

at

{Continued

oil

page

1^8.)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

157

158

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
TROUSERS.
Regular Form.
{Concluded.)

The Backpart.
Diagram
T
69.
it

AY

the pattern of the forepart over another piece of paper and confine
lines across at knee and bottom. and sweep from A, T and U.

by

a couple

of weights.

Extend the
Pivot at

N

D

to

I is

tV seat.

Draw From

a straight line from
I

X
is

through

i.

to 2 is \i seat
3/^

and

2 is

%

inch back of the straight line.

R
L

to 3 is

inch.

Point 3

% inch below the
i

line

which

is

squared across from A.
fl3'-line of

Shape the back-seam from
forepart to 3 as represented.
to 8 is

2

through

and

^^ inch

forward of the inside

the

%

inch and

N

to 9 is the

same.

J to

10

is yi

inch more than one-half bottom and

K

to

1 1

is

the same.

From

5 to'Y is Y^ seat.

Y

to 6 is lYi inch.
2 to

From

4

is 2

inches more than

'2

waist.

This allows

for a

V

'2

inch wide at the
at

waist seam.

Shape between
7,

all

the points as represented and cut out the pattern,

making notches

8 and

9.

The Waistband.
Draw From
a straight line as from
I
i

to 2.

to 2 is
I

^

waist.
is i

Opposite

the band

^

inch wide, and opposite

2 it is 2 inches.

Add an outlet i inch wide back of i and a turn-in forward of 2 2 inches wide. The straight edge is the seam edge. Shape as represented and notch at i and

2.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

159

DIAGRAM

69.

i6o

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
TROUSERS.
Corpulent Form.

Diagram

70.

T HE

measures used are as follows

:

42 outside leugtli.

I

30 inside length.

|

iS bottom. 20 knee.

I

|

48 seat. 48 waist.

The Forepart.
Draw
a straight line near the edge of the paper nearest to you and

make

a

mark near

the top as at O.

O
C

to to to to

C

is is

the outside length.

A
B

the inside length.

between A and O. 14, Square forward from each of the above named points.

A A

is 2 is

inches less^than half-way from
of the distance

A

to C.

T

and F to establish D and G. Square down from E to establish H. F to V and F to X are each ^2 inch. Connect V and G. Connect X and G. This establishes S and Z.

A to E is % seat. A to F is ^4 seat. Square up from E

E

to

P

is y^ seat.

to J is i^ seat. to is 75^ inches for small sized bottoms and 8 inches for large bottoms. J Draw light straight lines from to J and from P to K. Across the knee between the straight lines for this draft is one-half of 23 inches, while

H

K

A

the size required

is

one-half of 20 inches.

One-third of the extra size

is

taken

off

from the

straight line at the inseam which gives L,

and two-thirds from the straight
size required at the knee.

line at the side

which gives N, thus making

L

to

N one-half of the

P
waist

to

R

is

34 inch.

is 4 inches or more smaller than the seat. In this case the 4 inches larger than a regular form and '4 of this or i inch is placed forward of G. This gives W. is

For a regular form the waist

W
Q

to to

Q is 5^ of the U is 5^ waist.
all

quantity between

G

and

W.
making notches

at A,

Shape between L and N.

the points as represented and cut out the pattern,

(

Continued on page

1

62.)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

i6i

DIAGRAM

70.

i62

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
TROUSERS.
Corpulent Form.
{Coiic/iidrd.)

The Backpart.
T

AY

the pattern of the forepart over another piece of paper and confine it by weights. Extend the lines across the knee and bottom. Pivot at N and sweep from A, T and U. D to I is tV seat and i to M is the same as G to W. Draw a straight line from X throngh M. M to 2 is % seat. Point 2 is % inch back of the straight line. R to 3 is 3/^ inch. Point 3 is abont % inch below the line which is squared across
2

from A. Shape the back-seam from
forepart to 3 as represented.

through

M

and

'4^

inch forward of the inside

fl^'-line of

the

L

to 8 is

3-^

inch and

J to

10

is yi

to 9 is the same. inch more than one-half bottom and
is ^4

N

K

to

1

1

is

the same.

From

5 to

Y

seat.

to 6 is I inch. [Vs inch less than on Diagram 69.) For this class of forms a V is not required at the waist line. From 2 to 4 is therefore i inch more than ]4i waist. Shape between all the points as represented and cut out the pattern, making notches at 7, 8 and 9.

Y

The
The waistband
the seam-edge
is

Wai.stband.

The

top edge

is

is drafted in the same manner as explained for Diagram 69, except that hollowed from a straight line below i and rounded above 2 as represented. shaped to conform with the run of the seam-edge.

1

64

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

PEG-TOP TROUSERS.
Diagram
71.

T HE

measures used are as follows

:

40 outside length.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

165

DIAGRAM

71.

i66

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CLOSE-FITTING TROUSERS.
Diagram
72.

THE

measures

vised are as follows

:

40 outside length. 30 inside length.
Obtain
all

I

1

|

7 bottom. 16 knee.

I

36 seat.
32 waist.

|

the points not herein referred to in the
69.

same manner

as explained

for

Diagrams 68 and
is

The size across at the knee between the straight lines drawn from to J and from P to This is i}4 inch more than one-half of the in this instance one-half of 19, or 9I2 inches.
which is S inches. One-third of this, or ^ inch, is taken off from the straight below P, which gives L, and the remainder is taken off from the straight line from A which gives N. L to N is therefore one-half of the knee.

A

K

size required,

line
to
J,

Y

to 6 is

1

14 inch.

Shape

as represented by the

heavy

lines.

Spring Bottoms.
These are
the foot.
also

close throughout, but are

sprung out more or

less

sharply over

For this example the size of the bottom is 21 inches. inch more than one-half bottom and K to 13 is the same. J to 12 is H Shape to 12 and 13 as represented. The forepart will follow the heavy line from J below H to K, and the backpart the light line from 13 through H to 12.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

167

DIAGRAM

72.

1

68

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

Diagram
yz-

npHE
Q

forepart

is first
it

drafted in the
raised
i

same manner

as explained for

Diagrams 68 or

70,

except that
represented.

is

inch above what wonld usually be the waist seam,

O

U, as

and

U

are the

same

as

shown on Diagram

70.

The shaded part represents the bearers and includes the width of a waistband. To produce the bearers, lay the pattern of the forepart over another piece of paper and mark by it as from U towards 3. Mark Q and below Q along the edge of the outside fly-line and remove the pattern. Add i^ inch above Q and U and ^ inch forward of O. This gives points i and 2. The opening at the side is usually 7 to 8 inches deep, and at the front about 4.^2 inches
below Q. Pockets are usuallv inserted
side
if

in

the bearers as represented, but

may

be placed at the

desired.
of the bearers are

The fronts

held in place by buttons ai:d buttonholes.

Buttonholes are
points between

also placed in the top of the fall, one near

U

and one or two

at intermediate

U

and Q.

The The

Buttons are sewed on to the bearers at corresponding points. fall is usually Hned with the same material used for the trou.sers.
dress
is

cut the

same

as for a fly-front.

Diagram
The backpart
is

74.

drafted in
is

all

respects the

same

as for other trousers, except

that the

width of a waistband

cut on whole with the backpart as represented.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

169

DIAGRAMS

73

AND

74,

.

lyo

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
KNEE-BREECHES.
Diagram
75.

npHE

measures used are as follows
I

:

24 length to knee. 27 length to garter.

|

17'^ inseam to garter. 32 waist.

I

\

36 seat. 143.^ knee, 13

'2

garter.

The
Square the lines

Forki'Art.

OC

and

O

G.

O O
C

to to to to

B

is

the length to knee. the length to garter.
the inseam from crotch to garter.

C

is

A

'3 the distance from A to O. Square across from T, A, B and C.

A is T is
E

A

to

is

1+ seat.

A

to

F

'.i

seat.

Square up and down from B to establish Square up from F to establish G. F to V and F to X are each }4 inch. Connect V and G. This establishes S. Connect X and G. This establishes Z.
''3

D

and H.

at

P to R is 3^ inch. seat. E to P is When the waist is 4 or more inches smaller than the seat, the center-of-front will remain G. When the waist is less than 4 inches smaller than the seat, the center-of-front is
70.

G

to to

U
L

is

1

2

waist.

H
K
to

and

H

to

N

are each I4 knee.

Draw

a straight line

from P through

L

to establish

K.

Shape the

R, the inside and the bottom

seam from U through A, N and J, the outside fly-line from G through Z from G through S to P, the inseam from P and R through L and K, '2 inch below J and K, all as represented. Cut out the pattern of the forepart, making notches at A, L and N.
side
fl3--line

to J is '2 of the size at garter.

The Backpart.
Lay the pattern of the forepart over another piece of paper. Extend the knee-line L and N. Pivot at N and sweep from A, T and U. D to is Ti seat. Draw a straight line from X through From to 2, which latter point is ^4 inch backward of the straight line, is % seat.
I
i
I

past

R

to 3 is

-•^

inch.

Between S and P it is '4 inch forShape the back-seam from 2 to 3 as represented. ward of the inside fly-line, and point 3 is a trifle below the line which is squared forward
from A.
[Coitliiiitcd

on page IJ2.

)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

171

K
DIAGRAM
75.

jll

172

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
KNEE-BREECHES.
(

L oin hided.

)

From
and

2 to

4

is 2

inches more than
to be
seat.

'2

waist for

all

small waists.

This allows

for

seams

a \' '2 inch

wide
is

taken out on the waist seam as represented.

From

5 to

Y

1-2

Y
L

to 6 is
to 8

\%

inch.

and N to 9 are each 'i inch. and J to 1 1 are each V-, inch. Shape the outside seam from 4 through 6 and 9 to 11, the inside seam from 3 through 8 to 10, and the bottom from 10 to 11 as represented. Add a button-stand 1 14 inch wide from i inch above B to the bottom as represented. The extra length of '2 inch, which is given to the forepart below J and K, is put full on the backpart from just below the knee to the bottom, and the fullness pressed in to form a

K

to 10

pocket for the knee.

Cut out the pattern and make notches at 7, 8 and 9. Make the garter Y^ inch wide, the finished size. The tops are finished with a regular waist-band and top pockets. The fronts may close with a fly, or with a narrow fall-down as shown on Diagram

79.

)

174

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

CYCLING BREECHES.
Diagram
76.

T HE

measures used are as follows

:

24 length to sniall-of-knee. 14^2 inseam to sniall-of-kuee.

|

|

34 waist. 37 seat.

|

13 sniall-of-kiiee.

j

14'j calf.

Thk Forepart.
Square the lines

OC

and

()

G.

O
B B

to to
to

B

is is
is is

the length to sniall-of-knee.

A
C

the inseam.
23^ inches for the fall. 5^ of the distance from
I4 seat.

A
A

to

T
E

A

to

O.

Square across from T, A, B and C.
to
is

A

to

F

is '2

seat.

Square up and down from E to establish Square up from F to establish G. F to V and F to X are each '3 inch. Connect G and V to establish S. Connect G and X to establish Z.

D

and H.

W
E

is

obtained in the

manner explained
to

for

Diagram

70.

to

P

is

^3 seat.

P

R

is

i

inch.

H

to J

and
is

H

to

K

are each '4 of small-of-knee.
' ,

W
J

Draw
to

straight lines from a point

inch outside of

A

to J

and from P
to J to

to

K.

U

j4 waist.
;

\V through S
to

Shape the outside seam from U, passing l4 inch outside of A to P and through Z to R the inseam from P and R
;

K

the fly seams from and the bottom from

K

as represented.

The

outside

seam can be shaped with
i

an}' desired fullness as

from

i

to

N

and

2 to

L

is

as

to

N.

134 inch above
button-slit
is 2

U

and

G

for the waistband.
is 2

J and Cut out the pattern and make notches

inches from

inches long.

at

A,

N

and L.

(

C(»ili)iiicd

on paof /y6.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

175

DIAGRAMS

76, 77

AND 78.

\

176

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
CYCLING BREECHES.
(

Coiuhidcd.

The Back tart.
Diagram
T
77.

AY
D

the patteru of the forepart over another piece of paper, extend the knee and bottom

and sweep out from A, T and U, pivoting at J. '_> inch more than '5 seat. Draw a straight line from X to a point '2 inch forward of 2. R to 3 is I inch. Shape the back-seam as represented from 2 to 3. Point 3 is a trifle below the line, which is sqnared across from A. From 2 to 4 is 2 inches more than 'j waist, when a \' is desired at the waist seam. For large waists a \' is not required, and 2 to 4 is i inch more than '^ waist.
lines
to 2 is

From

5 to

Y

is yi seat.

Y

to 6 is 2 inches.

K

to 10

'2 inch. J to 11 are each the width of a waistband above 4
;

and

and

2.

Finish as represented

cut out the pattern and

make

notches at

7,

8 and

9.

The Contintations.
Diagram
Draw
a straight line as
7S.

A

D.

A A

to

D O
C

is

4 inches.
inch.

Square across from
to
is -^4

A and D. A to B is

the same as from the

slit

to

K
E

on the forepart.

Sqnare

down from

B.
is is
I
'

O
B

to
to

J

inch more than the small-of-knee.
inch.

E
F

'2

E D

to
to to

is '2
is

inch
inch.

Shape the npper edge from Square down from F.
calf.

A

through

and C as represented.

G

'2
I

same as A to G. Shape from E and from F to J
to J is the

G E

H

is

inch more than the

;

from

G

through

J

i

inch outside of

C

and

H

for the button-stand.

178

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
RIDING BREECHES.
Diagram
79.

'npHE

breeches are usiiallv
the coat
is

when

made from whipcord. \\'hite l^uckskin or stockinette is used from scarlet cloth. The continuations may be of the same material
for the

as the breeches or of box-cloth as preferred.

The measures used

accompanA-ing diagrams are as follows
16^2 crotch to small-of-knee. 33 waist.

:

23^

waist to knee-cap. 26^4 to small-of-knee.

13 small-of-knee. 14'.' calf (largest part).

11 '4 bottom. 38 seat. 30 to calf. 15 bent knee. 35 to bottom. The last four measures are taken snug and over the stocking. A tape should be

fastened around the small-of-knee and the second and

fifth

measures taken

to

it.

The Forepart.
Square the lines

OA

and
-"-s

OH. O
F

to

A

is

the difference between the second and
is ^2

fifth

A to B measures, 10 inches for this draft. Square forward from A. inch. B to D is S seat, 2^^ inches. B to C is Tis seat, about
B
to

seat,

g''

i

inches.

E

is

%

seat, 3^^ inches.

is

half-way from

Square up from B and
3 7s inches.

F

to establish

H

and G.

A to D. G to K is

I4

inch less than

'4 waist,

K

and C to 2 are each '(, seat, 3^^ inches. Connect C Shape the top from J to I, which is 'i inch beloAv H the front through I and i to D, and through 2 to E as represented. I to K is 3,4 inch. K to L is 2 inches. Draw the line from K towards L parallel with the line I to J. Connect F and L. L to M is two-thirds of the distance from L to F. Square down from F. G to N is I inch more than the length from waist to knee-cap, 24^4^ inches. G to P is I inch more than to small-of-knee, 27^2 inches. G to Q is 1 inch more than to calf, 31 inches. Square forward and backward from N, P and O. Nto R is '4 bent-knee, 3-^4. inches.
;

to J is '2 waist, and H. B to i

8^4 inches.

P

to 3 is

J.4

small-of-knee, 3^4 inches.

O

to

S

is

'4 calf, 3f>, inches.

Shape the inseani from D and E to 3 as represented. P to Z is i inch. From 3 to X and 3 to Y are each ^4 inch. Pivot at Z and sweep up and down from 3. Connect Z and X. Connect Z and Y. Finish the inseam from Y to S and the dail as
represented.

Connect
knee,
7

Q to T is tV seat, about if's iuch. A and T. This establishes U. R to inches. A to W is tV seat, about i^i inch.
J
1

\'

is

'.'

inch

less

than

"2

of

bent-

Shape the outside seam from

A
from

to 4.
5.

T
i

The
Notch

notch at
at

notch at
others

W.
There

through \\", \' and V to T as represented. long and i inch wide is added at the bottom as The notch at 6 is 4 inches above the 5 is '2 inch above U. Mark for five buttonholes, the middle one opposite U and the
34 inch
is

inch apart.

also a buttonhole in the tab.
(

Coiititiucd on

pagr

iSo.

)

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

179

I

w

DIAGRAM 79.

)

i8o

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
RIDING BREECHES.
[Coii/nnird.)

Thk

Backi'ART.
So.

Diagram
T

^

AY

the pattern of the forepart over another piece of paper and extend the lines past
vS.
i

R

and

Draw lines inch al)0\e \' towards 21, parallel with the line \' R, i inch above V towards 20, parallel with the line U 3 and i inch above T towards 19, parallel with the line T S. Pivot at 3 and sweep ont from E.
Pivot at

W and sweep ont from
more than
I

J.

E

to 8 is '2 inch

tV seat,

2S

inches.

Shape the inseani from 8 towards

3 as represented.

From

3 to 14 is

S

inch.

Establish
Pivot at

O

opposite and i', inch from

U

as represented.

and sweep down from 14. From 14 to 16 is i inch. Shape the dart from () to 14 and to 16 as represented. Extend the line below 16 parallel with the inseam above 14-

O

From

16 to 17

is

I

inch.

Finish the inseam from 17 to 18 parallel with the forepart. S to T and 18 to 19 is i inch more than the fnll calf, 15 '2 inches.

From

R

and 3 to 20 is i inch more than the small-of-knee, 14 inches. 3 to to \' and 15 to 21 is i inch more than the bent-knee, 16 inches.

U

\V to 13 is the same as A to Shape the ontside seam from
stand as represented.
I to

W on the forepart.
13

through

21

and 20

to 19

i

'

..

inch for a bntton-

Shape the bottom from

18 to 19.

9

is

]'^

seat, 2^8 inches.

Draw

a straight line

from

D

throngh
2.

9.

From

Point 11 is directlv opposite 9 to 10 is Y^ seat, 434 inches. Shape the back seam from '4 inch backward of 10 throngh
represented.

9

and

11

to

8

as

From From

10 to 12

is 3^^

inch more than
is

"2

waist, 9 inches.
as

19 to the notch at 22

the

same

from

T

to the
7.

notch on the forepart at

5.

The

notches at 23 and 24 are opposite the notches at 6 and Measure the forepart between the notches at 6 and

same.

Also measure from Add 1 3_^ inch above
reinforcements,

W to
12

W and
the

make from
waistband

23 to

13

the

J

and make from
i

1

3 to

1

2

the same.

and
of

'4

inch above

10

for

and

finish

as

represented.

The
above
S.

bnckskin, extend np two-thirds the length of the leg
C 'oiiliiiitrd oil />((;'' I 'S3.

(

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

i8i

Q

T

DIAGRAM

)

iS2

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

RIDING BREECHES.
(

Continued.

)

Thk Continuations.
Diagram
Si.

COUARE

lines

Points T,

Q

S and T i. and S are the same
tlie

T

as the corresponding points

on Diagram
tlie

79.

Square down from S. T to I and S to 2 are each
bottom, 5 inches.

same

as the difference between

lengtli to calf

and

to

From

I

to 3

is 5/8

inch.

Shape from

T

to 3

and

'2

inch above the line

T
82.

S

as represented.

Diagram
Sqnare lines
2 to 3
is
'4.

and
inch.

2 to 6.

From From
Diagram

2 to

19

19 to iS

is

the

same

as

between the corresponding points on

the backpart,

So.
I

Q on Diagram 80. Sqnare downward from i and 3. From 2 to 6, I to 5 and 3 to 4 are each the same as from T to i on Diagram 81. The size required around the bottom is 1 1 "4. inches. To this must be added I'j inch for inches. By measuring from 2 to 3 on Diagram Si and from 4 to 6 6 seams. This gives 12 on Diagram 82, we find that we have 17'/^ inches, which is 4-^s inches too much. This is disposed of by taking out of it, or l/% inch from 2 to 4 on Diagram 81 and the same amount from 4 to 10, 5 to 9, 5 to 8 and 6 to 7 on Diagram 82. The top is shaped ^i inch above the line from 2 to 3. x'\dd 1^2 inch for the buttonstand and finish as represented.
18 to
I

From From

S to 3

is

^4^

inch.

is

the same as 18 to

-''4

h,

(

Coil /ill lied

on

pa^'^r /iVy.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

183

2

4

1

3

4

10

958
DIAGRAMS
81

7

6

AND

82.

1

84

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS
RIDING BREECHES.
(

Concluded.

)

Diagram

S3.

/^N
^"^

this diagram is represented the upper part of Diagrain 79, with tlie fall down. To form the bearer, which is represented by the shaded part, proceed as follows

turned

:

From

the front of the

fall to

A

is 3_^

inch.

A

to
is

B

is

2)^ inches.

as on Diagram 79. Shape the bearer from A to B and B to M as represented. The band is cut 2^4 inches wide and extends from the side seam

M

the

same

to

the front of the

bearer.

The band may
the bearer
if

be cut whole with the forepart from the side seam to the inside seam of
In such case that part of the baud which
is

desired.

forward of the line above

M

is

cut whole with the bearer, the

seam above

M

extending, of course, to the top of the

band.

Diagram 84
Shows
is
c^f the fall when in place, finished with a welt i '4 inch wide, which inseam of the fall, stitched all around and tacked at and across its pointed The falls and bearers are held in place by buttons and buttonholes as represented.

the position

sewed

to the

end.

Diagram
The
breeches

85.
if

mav

be cut without the darts at small-of-knee
S, T,

preferred, as

shown on

this diagram.

Points N, P, O, R,

3,

U,

\'

manner

as explained for
at 8 is '2

Diagram
3.

79.

and the notches at 5 and 6 are obtained in the same The inseam is shaped to 3 and the dart is omitted.
notch at 7
lines
i

The
I

notch

inch above

The

is
i

4 inches above

S.

To

draft the backpart, first

draw straight

inch above and parallel with line

\'

R,

inch above and parallel with line
vShape the inseam towards
3.

V

3,

inch above and parallel with line
17.

T

S.

This establishes

Extend the

line

below 17
19
is
i

to 18, parallel

with line
calf.

3 to S.

S to T and 18 to From 3 to U and

inch more than the
is i

17 to 20
i

inch more than the small-of-kuee.
at 24 is

R to V
than from

and 15

to 21 is

inch more than the bent-knee.
opposite
7.

The notch at 9 is U inch above 17 and From 19 to the notch at 22 is the same
5 to 6.
i

as

from

T

to 5

and from 22

to 23 is

i

inch less

The
is

fullness or extra length of
full to

inch on the forepart between the notches

5, 6, 7

and 8

put on

the backpart between the notches 22, 23, 9 and 24.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

i«5

S

Q

T

DIAGRAMS

83, 84

AND

85.

i86

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

HOOD.
DiACxRAM
86.

the hood is to be worn over the overcoat, lay the pattern of the backpart to Mark touch a straight line as at B and ^2 inch from the line at the waist as at D. frcnn B to G and along the shoulder seam. Lay the pattern of the forepart with the shoulder seam touching the backpart as represented by the broken lines and mark along the neck-gorge to the center-of-front at H.

yVTHEN

B B
from
J,

to to

E L

is

the length.
y^

E O

to

D
'j.

is

Ve,

breast.

is

i"c^ more than
breast.
to

breast.

Square across from B and D. inch. Square up from L. H to J is
i

Sweep

pivoting at G, to establish K.
to

D

O

is ]4

P

is 2

inches, or to style.
to P.
]\I

Draw
i

a straight line

from

K

to P.

M
H

is

I

inch less than half-way from

K
E

to

N

is

inch.

vShape the front edge from

through

K
is

and

N

to P.

Connect

and

P.

B

to

E

cut on the fold of the material.

A hem

is

J to P, in

which

a drawing-string is inserted.

The hood does not always extend to the center-front at H. It may be reduced i inch or more as from H to J. The shape of the neck seam (B to J or H) is as required when the hood is worn with a coat that buttons to the neck. When the coat has revers it should be shaped from B through G to K. When the hood is to be worn over a cape, the cape should first be drafted as explained Then lay paper underneath the cape pattern, get the lines for Diagrams 65, 66 or 67. B E and B H by the cape and proceed as above explained.

To

draft a

hood independent of the coat pattern proceed as follows

:

Draw

a straight line as

A

E.
y^ breast.

A
B

to

B

is

1 2

inch more than

E is the length. E to D is y^ breast. Square across from A, B and D. D to O is % breast. O to P is 2 inches, or to style. B to F is % breast. B to L is '4 inch more than ', breast. Square up from F and L. F to G is A breast. H is at the center-of-front. H to J is inch more or less as desired. Q is half-way from G to J. O to R is inch. vShape the neck seam from B through G and R to J or H as required.
to
i i

and sweep from J to establish K. which closes at the throat, the neck of the hood is shaped as above explained, but when there are revers it is shaped from B to K. Shape the front edge from H, J or K through N to P and connect E and P.
Pi\'ot at

G

For

a coat or cape

THE ''KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

187

DIAGRAM

86.

i8S

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

SHORT GAITERS.
Diagram
S;.
floor in tlie

"DLACE

other

one arm of the drafting square on the arm extended upwards witli the

same

direction as the foot, the

angle opposite the

heel

as

represented.

Call off the measures as

To hollow above
Length, 5'2

heel, 33^.
3_^.

Size at hollow above heel, ii^4Instep, 14 ''2.

Indentation at hollow above heel,
Size at top, 10.

Bottom, 195^.

To Draft.
Square the lines

and AH. A to B is 14^ inch more than to hollow above heel, A to C is ^4 inch more than the length, 6 inches. Square across from B and C.

AC

3-^4

inches.

B

to

C

to to

D E
F

is
is

the indentation at hollow above heel, the same as
1

3_,.

inch.

B

to D.

E

is

2

D to G is y2 A to G is J4 inch A to H is one-half

inch more than one-half of size at top, 5I2 inches. inch more than one-half of the size at the hollow above heel, 6

%

inches.

more than one-half

of

instep, yy^

inches.

Square down from F.

of the size of bottom, gi/^ "levies.

Square up from H.

H K

to J is

I

inch.
inch.
all

to

L

is

1 2

Shape between

the drafting points as represented.

This should be straightened 2 inches wide as from F to M. inch at the top and at the bottom to tighten the closing edge at the side of the foot as represented by the button catch on the diagram for long gaiters.

The top is raised ^2 The button catch is

inch above F.

%

The measures used

are right for a

number

6 shoe.

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

DIAGRAM

87.

.

[go

THE "KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

LONG GAITERS.
Diagram
<SS.

'TpHE

measures are taken

in the

same manner
is

as explained for the short gaiters, excepting
calf.

that the back edge of the square

pkaced opposite the Largest part of the
:

The

measures by which the gaiters were drafted are as follows

To To To

hollow above heel,

3'-;

small-of-ankle, 5I2. largest part of calf, 13. Full length, 17^.

Indentation at bottom, l4. Indentation at hollow above heel, Indentation at top, '2.

1^4;.

Size at top, 133^. Size at calf, 14I2. Size at small-of-ankle, 10. Size at hollow above heel, 11%. Instep, 14%. Bottom, 19^2

To Draft.
Scjuare the lines

AE

A A A A A
B C

to to
to to to to
to

B

is is is
is is

'4

inch

C

}^

inch inch
inch

D E
F

% ^

and A Q. more than to hollow above heel, 334; inches. more than to small-of-ankle, 55^ inches. more than to largest part of calf, 1354. inches. more than full length, 18 inches. Square across from B, C,
'2

D

and E-

the indentation at bottom,

inch.
i

G

is is

the indentation at hollow above heel,

^4.

inch.

H

the same as

B

to

G.
i'2

E

to I is the indentation at top,

inch.

I4 inches. I to J is l4 inch more than one-half of size at top, 7 D to K is J4 inch more than one-half of size at calf, 7^ inches. H to L is 1/2 inch more than one-half of the size at small-of-ankle, 5I2 inches. G to is ^ inch more than one-half of the size at hollow above heel, 6% inches. Square down from L. is ]4 inch more than one-half of instep, 73^ inches. F to

M M

F

to Q is one-half of bottom, 93^ inches. Q to R is inch. N to P is ^ inch. Shape between the drafting
I

points as represented.

S, parallel with the line J to R. button catch as first drafted is represented by the broken lines on the diagram at the left. It should be straightened on each edge 14. inch at the top and bottom as represented by the solid lines. This will tighten the closing edge at the side of the foot.

S is 2 '2 inches. Shape the button catch below
J to

The

THE -KEYSTONE" SYSTEMS

191

1993 NPR 29