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PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIA PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Thirty Third Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2009

DEPOSITIONAL PATTERNS AND SUBMARINE-FAN


DEVELOPMENT SEQUENCES OFMIDDLE-MIOCENE
CINAMBO-RAMBATAN TURBIDITE SYSTEMS, BOGOR TROUGH

Krishna Pratama Laya* Fussario Yennis*


Danny Nursasono* Agata Vanessa Kindangen*
Bobby Yusuf* Karyono Utomo**
Adam Budi Nugroho*

ABSTRACT Sand-prone lithofacies distribution is related to fan


development phases; Initiation phase marked by
The new tectonic framework of the Central and East sandy slumped (1) Thick bedded structureless
Java areas prior to the recognition of East Java sandstone with great lateral continuity. Growth
Microplate and re-evaluation of regional phase dominated by discontinuous (2) Sandstone
geophysical data has revealed the nature of several conglomerate and (3) Thin-bedded amalgamated
sub basins, connecting Bogor Trough to Muria sandstone, marking the development of multistory
Trough and Kendal-Kebumen sub-basins to the braided channels. Retreat phase showing
south. The Central Java area considered to be high unconfined layered sheets (4) Ripple cross-
risk for hydrocarbon exploration, despite numerous laminated sandstone and (5) Sandstone of
oil seeps and abundant surface/sub-surface partial/complete Bouma sequence with great lateral
geological data. The main risk lies in the continuity. Sandstones commonly composed of
complexities of reservoir rocks, which comprises mixed carbonates mud and fine-grained quartz
deep-water Middle Miocene-Pleistocene turbidite clasts, derived from reworked shallow-marine
complex of Halang and Rambatan Formations. sediments previously stored in adjacent Jatibarang
Reconstructing the evolution and development Low. Intraparticle dissolution due to burial,
stages of the turbidite fans in specific turbidite enhanced porosity values from 5-20%.
system is critical to generate depositional model to
reveal new exploration targets. INTRODUCTION

Well exposed Mid-Miocene Cinambo and Slope and basin - floor channel sand bodies in the
Rambatan Formations outcrop belt along Baribis Middle Miocene Formation comprise a depositional
and Bumiayu fault system, have been described on profile, along which changes in the facies
detailed stratigraphic sections. Cinambo, Cilutung, architecture of four-fold channel-form hierarchy are
Rambatan River and adjacent sections are correlated compared. Channel complexes form sand bodies
based on biostratigraphy and traceable marker beds. with serrated margins consisting of staked channels
Composite geologic and paleogeographic maps are that increase in the offset basin ward. Channels and
constructed to provide site-specific interpretations complexes record cut ,fill, and spill phase of
by combining bed thickness, sand ratio, channel bypass and deposition , with channel and over bank
geometry and orientation, and rock packages deposition offset in time.
hierarchy.
Submarine channel are the principal sediment
The Cinambo - Rambatan turbidite system pathway linking the shelf to he basin. Their
developed in retrograding sequence, comprising 10 sediment fill and bounding surface provide insight
4th-order fan cycles, influenced by short distance into fan growth and gravity flow processes that
non-efficient basinal transport, small sediment produce channel form sediment bodies. Despite
input, multiple canyon-fed systems. their prominent role in submarine fan depositional
processes, the architecture of submarine channels is
poorly understood. Important issues include the (1)
* University of Padjadjaran controls on channel size and shape, (2) scalar
hierarchy of channel sand bodies, and
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sedimentological criteria that distinguish geophysical data has revealed the related nature of
depositional processes and predict position along a several sub basins, connecting Bogor Trough to
slope basin profile. Muria Trough and Kendal-Kebumen sub-basins to
the south. This structural trend corresponds to the
The cut fill and spill model relates facies form of southern margin of the Sundaland to the
pattern in submarine channel and overbank deposits Meratus Trend. The most prominent feature of this
to their position on a slope to basin profile. An trend is the broad and elongate nature of the
important premise is that submarine channels Karimunjawa Arc, a granitic body intruded by basic
generally backfill. Therefore, a fixed point on the volcanic complex accompanied with presence of
depositional profile will record a transition from sedimentary basins in its west and eastern flanks,
erosion and bypass, to confined aggradations, to such as; Billiton Basin, Pati Trough, and Muria
focused, unconfined deposition. These cut, fill, and Trough (Emery & Avraham, 1976). This arc system
spill stages of deposition occur at multiple temporal probably resulted of magmatic activity during the
and spatial scales. East-Java docking phase, forming volcanic arc
paleo high that controls the sedimentation pattern
since Early Cretaceous (Nayoan, 1975). Magmatic
The Tectonic Setting of Southern Margin of arc is weak point in whole system, sudden shift in
Sunda Shelf position of volcanic arc related to shortening of
entire arc system.
Recent studies recognize the Pre-Tertiary
framework of Sundaland to consist of a complex The lithospheric mechanism that promotes
mosaic of constantly moving fragments or subsidence in these basins are currently still in
microplates, initially accreted in the Late Triassic. debate. Several mechanisms such as volcanic arc
The zone of weakness between the rigid microplates loading, thrust-sheet loading, and differential
was the locus of extensional tectonics, high subduction rate had been proposed (Martodjodjo,
heatflow, and subsequent compression during the 2003; Satyana, 2006; Hall, 2002, 2005; Seubert,
Tertiary back arc basinal history which leads to 2008). The spatial and temporal significance of each
optimum conditions for the generation and trapping controlling tectonic style differs during each phase
of petroleum (Cameron et al, 1980). of the basin evolution, especially in an active
margin setting. The hydrocarbon potential of these
Within the Sunda Shelf are sedimentary basins of basins was subsequently influenced by changes in
the South China Sea and adjacent areas which deviatoric stress patterns, which resulted from the
record a link between East Asian tectonics and the interplay of tectonic contribution rather than simple
plates beyond the subduction zones bounding SE lithostatic stress. Accounting the influence of
Asia. The importance of pre-existing structures in derivatoric stresses and other factors to the shape of
controlling tectonic development is often neglected. the basin-floor morphology is important to
The standard model for the plate tectonic evolution reconstruct the depocenter axis that acts as primary
is being refined by integrating regional scale control on sediment pathways and depositional
observation with smaller scale observation. The pattern in the deepwater environment setting (in
Cenozoic arcs of Java built on continental margin prep.).
and Cretaceous accretion complex. Added to this
model and proposed that the southeastern part of The Java Island is located at the southern end of
Java is a separate continental fragment with Sundaland Carton. Several tectonic phases of
Gondwana affinity that docked on Sundaland in convergence and divergence been since the Late
Cretaceous to Early Tertiary time. The suture zone Cretaceous time resulted in the formation of
of the two continental plates was postulated to be complex polyphase basin, however in general the
located in East Java Sea, coinciding with the horst- Java Island can be divided into three sedimentary
and graben structure of the Tuban Camar Trough provinces : (1) The northern sedimentary shelfal
and the Central Deep (Sribudiyani et al., 2003). area, (2) The central depression area, and (3) The
This discovery has wide implication to the southern volcanic arc. The zone of deepwater
depression form in the west of this continental sedimentation at the central depression area is the
fragment. present manifestation of Bogor Serayu Kendeng
Anticlinorium physiographic zones of van
The new tectonic framework of the Central and East Bemmelen (1949) that extends more than 1000 km
Java areas prior to the recognition of East Java from the Rangkasbitung to the offshore areas of the
Microplate and re-evaluation of regional Madura Strait. The width of the zone extended
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south from the sedimentary shelf edge located in the be traced from Sunda Strait eastwards across Java
present Purwakarta area to part of the uplifted and through the Bali Basin into Flores Thrust. The
Southern Mountains physiographic zone. This zone thrust may continue eastwards as the Wetar Thrust
has been subjected to northward frontal subduction- to the North of Timor. The Baribis-Kendeng Thrust
related compression stress since Mid-Miocene that has been imaged in seismic reflection profiles in the
progressively reduces its dimension, reflected by northern part of West Java (Suprianto & Ibrahim,
tightly folded Baribis-Kendeng thrust-fold belt and 1993) and offshore north of Flores (Hamilton, 1979;
associated with the emergence of Sunda orogeny. Prasetyo, 1988), whilst the Bouguer gravity
The latter tectonic styles overprinted old structural anomaly pattern in the northern part of East Java
trend in the surface and dissipates the division of indicates the location of the Kendeng Thrust. In the
Bogor zone and Kendeng zone depositional basin Central Java the thrust is cut and disrupted by the
areas. Citanduy and Bumiayu Faults which have wrench
components of movement (Dardji et al., 1994;
The Late Neogene Sunda orogeny affected the Soehaimi, 2008) (Figure 1).
segment of the Indonesian arc between West Java
and the islands of Nusa Tenggara as far as Flores. In
this segment of the arc convergence between Indian The Significance of Basinal Tectonic Setting on
Ocean and SE Asian Plates is normal to the Stratigraphy of Bogor Zone
subduction trace in the Java Trench with a rate of c.
1,7 cm/a. The subduction system comprises an The field-based studies is important in providing
accretion complex composed of off scraped Indian firm stratigraphic basis for the interpretation of
Ocean floor materials in the Java forearc ridge, a other evidence, such as seismic and marine
forearc basin developed on extended continental geophysical evidence, and inferred links to evaluate
crust and containing late Paleogene to Recent the connections to previous research results. A good
sediments. The volcanic arc which forms the stratigraphic base is fundamental to attempts to
backbone of Java and forms the islands to the east is interpret the tectonic evolution of the region.
constructed on continental crust in West Java, and Detailed measured sections, well dated by fossils,
on Mesozoic accretion complexes in Central and illustrates how a very clear palaeogeographic
East Java, and on oceanic crust in Sumbawa and picture can be deduced and linked to larger-scale
Flores. To the north of the arc in Java and in the tectonics. Their results provide a basis for regional
Java Sea Tertiary backarc basins have developed on and will be considerable interest to those exploring
continental crust in The Sunda Shelf and on oceanic for hydrocarbon in the frontier regions.
crust north of Bali and Flores. The basins on the
Sunda Shelf formed in the late Palaeogene as rift
basins in a terrestrial environment and subsided in The stratigraphic nomenclature used in West Java
the Neogene to be transgressed and covered by has varied considerably since the early Dutch work
marine sediments. on Java and Madura (Figure 6). Martodjodjo (1989,
2003) was the first to recognize the distinctive
In the Late Neogene this system was affected by genetic stratal assemblage of deepwater turbidite
compression associated with the Sunda orogeny. In sediment that dominates the basinal areas of Bogor
N. Java, Mio-Pliocene turbidites were deformed Zone. The deepwater basinal areas was considered
into tight, locally isoclinal folds, observable in the as backarc basin formed behind the remnant
field and on aerial photographs, while in S. Java Cretaceous accretion complex and in front of
Nusa Tenggara older volcanic sequences are folded, Sundaland continent landmass that subsided during
faulted and uplifted to form mountains more than the cease of Cretaceous subduction, the onset of
3500 m amsl. This phase of folding is associated in subsiding movement postulated since Lower
time with the intrusion of acid plutons, the uplift of Oligocene. The Bogor Zone received sediment
the volcanic arc, the development of a major thrust supply from adjacent northern sedimentary shelf
system in which the volcanic arc is overthrust area and from redeposited volcaniclastics of
toward the Java Sea to the north, and the subsidence Southern Mountains Zone. The presence of
of the backarc basins, with the deposition of fine productive shelf sub-basins to the north is important
silicilastic sediments, marls and carbonates of Plio- for the hydrocarbon potential of the Bogor Basin.
Pleistocene age. During lowstands, these sub-basins could provide
detritus for hydrocarbon reservoirs and sources
In N. Java the trace of a major backthrust, the deposited on the slope and basin floor areas as
Baribis-Kendeng Thrust (Simandjuntak, 1992) can submarine fan (Figure 2).
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Sediment dispersal links depositional environments Formation. During the N13- N15, the Ciputat and
into depositional systems, changes in one part of the Jatibarang Sub-Basin was in a non-marine fluvial
system are generally felt in other part of the system. environment during a lowstand stage based on the
Depositional system and their sedimentary products eustatic sea-level curve and oil exploration data.
reflect the sum total of autogenic and allogenic This sediment developed in transgressive
controls. The allocyclic (sea level) controls are sedimentary cycle which represented by overall
intimately related with submarine fan deposition, fining-up sequences due to channel filling and
prediction of the timing of fan deposition could be abandonment.
made by linking lowstand periods to basin-floor fan
deposition. However, fan deposition in Bogor Basin Log Sections and Lithofacies
assumed to occur at all stages of relative sea-level
cycle, a well developed canyon system probably This study is based upon description and
extends into mid-shelf areas are during the interpretation of 2000 m of measured section along
Oligocene regression. Several lowstand periods the Cinambo, Cilutung, and Rambatan rivers.
could be observed in the Ciputat and Jatibarang Detailed facies associations architecture panels with
Sub-basins stratal succession, that could be related sequence stratigraphic interpretations have been
sediment bypass and deposition of submarine-fan in constructed in east-west depositional dip directions.
adjacent areas. Redeposited rock sequences older
than Cinambo Formation (Middle Miocene) are The erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment
possible in the Bogor Basin, since lowstand sea- in deep-marine clastic settings are controlled largely
level occurred several times in the Paleogene by sediment gravity flow processes; flows in which
interval of the Northwest Java Basin (Satyana & sediment fluid mixtures move under the influence
Raharjo, 2004). of gravity (Middleton and Hampton, 1973, 1976).
Sediment gravity flows form a broad group of
genetically related processes, ranging from slumps
Lithostratigraphic Definition of Cinambo - and slides associated with the downslope translation
Rambatan Formation of cohesive material such as silt and mud, to fully
turbulent turbidity currents. Sedimentary facies
The Cinambo and Rambatan Formation are analysis was conducted for outcrop mainly along
dominated by interbedded sandstones and shales, the major rivers to establish the outline of the
locally intercalated with calcareous breccias of depositional systems and their three dimensional
limestone and claystone debris. Interpreted as distributions. Several facies association has been
deepwater turbidite deposits in the basin-floor identified based upon lithology, primary
environment based on lithofacies and biofacies sedimentary structures, colour, bedset sand-shale
analyses as observed in outcrop in the Cinambo ratios, and bioturbation type and intensity. Based on
River, Majalengka and Rambatan River, Brebes. deepwater turbidite sedimentary facies classification
The age of the sediments ranges from Middle of Gardner and Borer (2000), 17 facies units could
Miocene to late-Middle Miocene or be recognized. The detailed descriptions of the
palaeontological zones N14 to N15. Based on age sedimentary structures and apparent biofacies are
equivalent sediments in separated areas are the basis of the interpretations of the mechanisms
correlated regardless of their facies and separated and depositional setting for each sedimentary facies
localities. Provenance study including physical (Figure 3).
properties of limestone, sandstone petrography, and
flutecast paleocurrent direction, indicate that the The vertical stacking pattern and lateral distribution
Cinambo Formation was derived from the Ciputat of facies associations is the basis for the sequence
Sub-basin. stratigraphic analysis in this study. Key sequence
stratigraphic surfaces with potential for meso-scale
The paleocurrent directions were structurally correlations were identified from changes in the
restored to original horizontal deposition, indicates stacking pattern of the facies associations and
the sediment were transported in westward to discontinuities. Biostratigraphic analysis was
eastward direction in Majalengka area and bend to constructed for consistency with the identified key
north-northwest to south-southeast direction in surfaces for distant correlation between Cinambo
Brebes area. The redeposited main Cibulakan of the section and Rambatan section. Earliest Pliocene
Ciputat Sub-basin and Jatibarang Sub-Basin, Marker species FAD Sphaerodinella dehiscens and
comprising the present Ciputat and Majalengka Globigerinoides ruber (N17) Blow Zone were
areas, is considered to be the source of Cinambo assigned as top Rambatan and top Halang surface.
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Other marker taxa such as; mid-Middle Miocene deposits or internal confinement deposits in margin
marker Globorotalia fohsi and Globorotalia lobata of debris flow.
(N12) Zone were assigned as the cycle 3.5 20 m
thick shale middle marker. Facies SCr (sandstone conglomerate or sandy
debris flow - > 20% clasts) consists of poorly sorted
Facies SB (structureless sandstone with nodular to very coarse- grained to conglomeratic sandstone,
burrow like fabric diagenetic sandstone) consists lateral termination might be abrupt and limited
of medium- to thin bedded very well sorted fine lateral correlation. Indicative of axial part of
grained sandstone. The internal fabric were channel-fill deposits or axial part of unconfined
subjected to homogenization due to intense debris flow.
bioturbation. The SB facies indicates periods of
lowered sedimentation rate. Facies SMs (thickly bedded structureless sandstone
high density gravity flow) consists of thickly
Facies SAm (thin-bedded amalgamated sandstone bedded massive sandstone, with sharp bed
with diagenetic cement band) consists of well- termination and sharp bottom. Indicative of body
sorted sandstone deposited in repeated sequence part of high-density flow .
with minor or no siltstone interbeds. Bedform
usually shingled and showing lateral termination. Facies SMd (thin- to medium- bedded interbedded
The SAm facies indicates unconfined low-density structureless fine- medium grained sandstone and
flow. siltstone) consists of thin- to medium- bedded
structureless sandstone interbedded with siltstone,
Facies SSd (soft-sediment-deformed sandstone) usually at the bottom of the sequence sand : shale
consists of thin- to medium bedded sandstone ratio could exceed 50 : 50 but tend to fining-
showing minor to high degree of convolution, upward. Indicative of dilute low- density flow.
irregular and detached bedform are considered
resulted from the most intense deformation. The Facies SBo (sandstone showing partial to complete
SSd facies usually developed as bed terminations in Bouma sequence interbedded with low-density
channel margin and lobe margin. sediment gravity flow) consists of thin- to medium-
Facies SHr (horizontal stratification and/ or isolated bedded sandstone with complete or partial Bouma
ripple cross-laminated sandstone) consists of sequence interbedded with siltstone, usually at the
medium-sorted fine medium grained sandstone. bottom of the sequence sand : shale ratio could
Interpreted as traction carpet in moderate to low exceed 50 : 50 but tend to fining- upward.
energy setting and indicates depositional limits of Indicative of dilute low- density flow.
beds, usually in depositional lobe margin.
Facies Hss (sandy interlaminated sandstone and
Facies SCC (climbing ripple cross-laminated siltstone hemipelagics) consists of very thin- to
sandstone) consists of poorly medium bedded fine thin- bedded structureless interbedded with
coarse grained sandstone. Climbing ripples and siltstone. The lithology of clays and sandstone
cross lamination developed in increasing energy in deposited as hemipelagic are reflected by the red
more dilute current. Usually indicating of active iron residue and / or suspension of red clays.
point of sediment deposition, whether in channel or
in margins of high-density flow during renewed Fasies Hsl (silty interlaminated sandstone and
deposition. siltstone hemipelagics) consists of very thin-
bedded sandstone as intercalated in dominant
Facies SPF (cross-stratified sandstone plow and siltstone. Siltstone deposited in suspension
fill) consists of medium- to thick- bedded poorly- mechanism that promotes very thin silt bedding
sorted sandstone showing erosional bottom and with great lateral extent.
distorted internal lamination. This facies indicate an
axial area of high-density flow. Usually forming Facies SLo (organic-rich siltstone condensed
thick beds in constructional lobeform. section) consists of thickly bedded organic-rich
siltstones, sedimentary structures are usually absent.
Facies SCn (clast-rich sandstone - < 20% clasts) Has a dark brown colour and sulphur stain.
consists of poorly sorted very coarse- grained Indicates period of non-deposition or reduced ocean
sandstone, lateral termination might be abrupt and oxygen content condition. These beds provided high
limited lateral correlation. Indicative of channel-fill confidence as correlation datum.
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Facies SLr (slurry facies) consists of organic rich Depositional Model of Cinambo Rambatan
silty sandstone with inverse coarse-tail grading of Submarine Fan
cm-scale clasts.
The Middle Miocene Cinambo and Rambatan fan in
Facies Crb (carbonate) consists of redeposited the Majalengka and Brebes area were developed in
carbonate material from shelfal area. Usually 5 cycles, each bounded by thick interval of siltstone
bringing large part of rip-up clasts in the bottom that separates each phase of active basin-floor
part, structureless, and bed thickness varies deposition. Paleocurrent are showing general trends
considerably. of N 900 E to N 1350 E from Majalengka to Brebes
area, the 900 change of the channel trend may be
Facies Grg (grunge facies) poorly sorted silty related to basinal depression morphology that
sandstone. reflects the arcuate shaped basin-floor topography
during the deposition.

Submarine Fan Evolution and Paleogeography The Cinambo Rambatan 3rd-order transgressive
systems tract (LST) consists of higher-frequency
BCFS Model stratigraphic (4th-order) cycles that can extend
across the portion of the slope-and-basin profile
The build-cut-fill-spill model for submarine channel exposed in outcrop. The hierarchy of these lowstand
development has important implications for sand stratigraphic cycles, at all scales, is defined by
bypass and facies prediction. Each depositional siltstone intervals that record periods of sediment
phase records different sedimentologic processes starvation. These fine-grained hemipelagic deposits
and energy trends that directly control the type, form extensive drapes that record a prolonged
distribution, and correlation length of architectural disruption in shelf-derived gravity flow deposition.
elements and facies (Gardner and Borer, 2000). Three of the five 4th-order cycles contain slope-and-
basin deposits that inferred infilling of basin-floor
The build-cut-fill-spill model incorporates the geomorphology and are referred as fan cycles. The
important phase of deposition that may precede remaining 4th-order cycles form basinward-thinning
channelization. In the upper slope, the build phase siltstone wedges that bound retreat phase deposits
is recorded as an erosion surface of sediment of the thick, slope-centered upper Cinambo
bypass. Erosion and sediment bypass transition to Rambatan Formation. These fan cycles, consists of
pure bypass and ultimately deposition basinward, even higher-frequency 5th-order cycles bounded by
the physical and temporal separation between the siltstone intervals of shorter correlation length. The
channel fill and the underlying strata decreases. stacking pattern of these 5th-order cycles determines
These build, cut, fill, spill stages of deposition sandstone thickness distribution across slope-and-
occur at multiple temporal and spatial scales. basin profile (Figure 4).
The preservation of build-cut-fill-spill phases of Cycle 1 Facies Architecture of Early Fan Growth
deposition varies according to position on the
depositional profile and position in a depositional The early deposition of Cinambo Rambatan Fan
cycle that records migration of the profile. The were developed on previously established broad
percentage of build and spill phase deposits increase depression. Inferred low sediment influx indicated
down profile to increase the sandstone percentage progressive infilling of topographic low dominated
within basin-floor successions. Slope and upper- by low-density gravity flow types and forming thin-
basin floor settings have steep gradients that bedded layered sheet sandstone interbedded with
promote sediment bypass. This produces cut-fill- several thick-bedded debris flow with uniform
spill motifs with little or no build-phase deposits. paleoflow, characterize the early Fill phase deposits
Sandstone percentage is low overall, but locally is (Figure 5).
high in intraslope depressions confining composite
channel form sand bodies. Spill-phase deposits are Retrofit channel fill architecture dominated by
poorly developed because the topographic monotonous thin-bedded sandstones interrupted by
depressions are large and difficult to completely episodic thick bedded debris flow and cross-
backfill. The temporal phases of channel deposition stratified sandstone with dewatering structures (e.g.
change basinward along the basin-floor profile from Facies SCn and SPF). Compensation patterns are
complex build-cut-fill-spill, to build-fill-spill, to less apparent, and sandy successions deposited from
simple build-spill patterns. predominantly high-density flows are commonly
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dewatered and sandstone sheets pinch out into The exposed Cycle 3 deposits are thickest in the
siltstone to fill local topography. Cilutung area. Three compensating stacked channel
complexes comprise this sediment thick. The
Cycle 2 Facies Architecture Of Conduit Areas average net sandstone thickness for fan cycle 3 is
In Cinambo 1,5 meters, with the thickness changing from
average 1 m to 2,5 m from Cinambo to Cilutung
Cycle 2 records higher sediment influx inferring the area. The channel fill characteristic is the most
Build phase. First significant Cinambo Rambatan heterolithic and the interval is the most coarse-
channelization in basinward-stepping cycle are grained of all cycles, dominant facies constitutes the
recognized in Cinambo area from thickening sandy conglomerate, thick- bedded structureless
upward cycles of interbedded thin- to medium- sandstone, and cross-stratified sandstone (SMs, SPf,
sandstone associated with thickly-bedded and SCr).
structureless massive sandstone. The thickly-bedded
sandbodies of cycle 2 are interpreted to have tabular Cycle 4 and 5 Facies Architecture of Fan
geometry, representing broad and shallow channel Abandonment
form elements. This succession indicates aggrading
nature of fan lobes, active channel development Sandstones of cycle 4 & 5 are exposed as remnant
forming ribbon sand body geometries with no cap rock on the Mount Kiaralawang ridgeline. The
reworked or homogenized channel sediments channel fill characteristic is the most heterolithic
between bends (Peakall, J. 2000) . and the interval is the most fine-grained of all
cycles. The loss of sandstone and energy in this
The channel form architecture is dominated by interval indicates a shelf ward-stepping cycle. Low
medium-bedded sandstone with partial/complete sediment influx are indicated by average thinning-
Bouma sequence forming channel overbank deposit upward cycle. Average net sandstone thickness is
(Facies SHr or SBo), whilst the axial channel fill 30 cm and the average siltstone bed number
are constructed by thickly-bedded structureless increases.
sandstone (Facies Sms). This deposit is related
genetically to relatively unconfined high-density Retrofit channel- fill architecture dominated by
flow that laterally collapse during the loss of thin- to medium- interbedded structureless
turbulent support, which reflected by isolated ripple sandstone and siltstone, associated by minor coarse-
horizontally-stratified sandstones. grained sandy conglomerate (e.g. Facies SMd and
SCr). Dominant retrofit channel architecture
Cycle 3 Facies Architecture of Prograding Fan reflects under-filling of channels.
Bypass
Sandbody Geometry and Bedding Diagram
Cycle 3 deposits provide the first evidence of active
basin-floor fan progradation to the east, The depositional geometry of most deep-water
compensation for lobeform deposit of cycle 2 sediment bodies can be characterized as either
deposits by shifting the axis of deposition away sheet-like or channel form. Submarine channels
from the Cinambo area, and are considered have received considerable attention and their close
representing the Cut phase of the Cinambo affinity to terrestrial fluvial systems makes them
Rambatan depositional sequence. This fan cycle is seemingly more familiar. By contrast, sandstone
composed of five 5thorder cycles arranged in a sheet sediment bodies are poorly understood. They
basinward- to shelfward-stepping stacking pattern. solely reside in deep-water environments and lack
terrestrial counterparts. Sandstone sheets are
Cycle 3 contains at least 5 large channel complexes generally tabular sandbodies of high aspect ratio
(inferred 450 m wide and 10 m thick) that cut the (width : thickness) and long correlation length. This
pervious channel, thus forming stacked retrofitted geometry makes them difficult features to image
channel complex. High sediment influx are inferred with subsurface data and the length makes them
from high frequency cycle stacking patterns to difficult to quantify in all but the largest outcrop.
equilibrate sediment volume across the new channel The stratigraphic context for sheet sandstones is
profile. These complexes are restricted to restricted to their inclusion as the main element of
basinward- stepping cycles and contain basin-floor fans of the lowstand systems tract.
aggradational channel fills that show the highest Despite this limited understanding, sandstone sheets
degree of soft-sediment deformation. The shelf form significant hydrocarbon reservoirs (Gardner
ward-stepping cycles generally are poorly exposed. and Borer, 2000).
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The hierarchy of lobe forms and associated Cycle 3 shows major increase in sandstone
interlobes as the building blocks of sandstone sheets deposition, producing thicker layered sandstone
are threefold. First, lobeform bodies are the sheets (70%) and channelized sheets (20%). The
fundamental sedimentation unit that scales to the highest proportion of channel- flanking wedge and
depositing gravity flow. Second, lobeform bodies channel form elements are recorded in this cycle.
are the fundamental scale at which bed Characterized by thick bedded sandstone, bow ties;
compensation operates to produce sheet geometries. main heterogeneity, minor elements, contains the
Third, lobeform bodies promote external highest sand percentage, associated with Cut Fill
confinement in unconfined basin floor settings by phase deposit, paleoflow divergence intermediate.
constructing topography consisting of lobeform (Figure 7)
highs and interlobe lows.

The sheet geometry is a depositional consequence Cycle 4 shows reduced sediment influx and shelf
of the compensational stacking of multiple lobeform ward- stepping cycle that generates retrofitted
and associated interlobe sediment bodies. Sandstone channel architecture. The dominant sheet sandstone
sheets are generally assumed to be deposited from architecture is thin- bedded layered sheets (85%)
unconfined high-density gravity flows that collapse with minor channelized sheets (5%) Characterized
in response to the loss of channel confinements. by discontinuous silt, poorly sorted, diverse
Consequently, these deposits are assumed paleoflow commonly related to small channel
preferentially occur in medial to distal positions of a forms, associated with Spill phase cycle. (Figure 8)
basin floor fan less affected by channelization. Bed
compensation is assumed to be a dominant
mechanism controlling their mode of emplacement, CONCLUSION
stacking pattern and architecture. The topography of
preceding sheet sandstone controls the position and Recent exploration activity and advanced tectonic
geometry of subsequent sheet. Construction of a research in industrial and academic field has
basin floor fan through deposition of multiple contributed considerably to our understanding on
unconfined flows produces thick sheet sandstone tectonic setting and plate interaction on southern
succession. margin of Sundaland. They changed our basic
concept of the nature of sedimentation as well as on
These varying sheet architectures are distinguished basin forming mechanism that operates in this
by geometric and facies criteria classified after complex frontier area.
Gardner & Borer, 2000. The proportion of basic
architectural sheet elements characterize the The Bogor Basin that formed as back-arc basin,
evolution of Cinambo Rambatan Turbidite Fan rapidly subsided during early Early Miocene times.
(Figure xxx). Subsequent deposition took place in deep marine
environment setting. Primary sediment supply
Cycle 1 that mark the initial infilling of topographic charged from the marginal marine shelf in to the
depression is dominated by layered sheets of thin- north and volcanoclastic sediments from the
bedded sandstone with siltstone (85%). volcanic arc to the south. Basin-floor morphology
Characterized by uniform paleoflow, lateral exerts primary control on the deposition pattern in
shingling termination, thin bedded to thick bedded, Deepwater setting. Accounting the derivatoric
dominant element, associated with Fill - Build stresses that control the shape would be required to
Phase locate the depocenter that presumably would be the
site of accumulation of reworked sediment from
Cycle 2 indicates early fan progradation records prolific northern shelfal areas.
initial increase in sandstone percentage as indicated
by increased percentage of layered / amalgamated Field observation conducted on the Cinambo,
sheets (10%) that forming unconfined depositional Cilutung, and Rambatan areas resulted in a new
lobes. Characterized by random thin to thick bedded perspective on depositional model as well as the
sandstone, lateral shingling termination, contains development of Cinambo Rambatan turbidite fan.
most diverse facies and elements, associated with The turbidite fan derived from Ciputat Sub-basin
fan Build - Spill cycle. Thin- bedded layered sheets influenced by efficient point- sourced system,
are still dominating the lower part of this cycle developed in 4 4th-order cycles that represents initial
(80%) (Figure 6) infill of topographic depression, early basinward-
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stepping cycle, prograding fan bypass, and fan Martodjojo, S., 2003, Evolusi Cekungan Bogor :
abandonment. Doctoral dissertation, ITB, not published, 239 p.

The main architectural element that formed turbidite Martodjojo, S., Djuhaeni, 1989, Stratigrafi Daerah
fan is depositional lobes, which comprises mainly Majalengka dan Hubungannya dengan Tatanama
by sheet sandstone. The main sand body distribution Satuan Litostratigrafi di Cekungan Bogor : Geologi
in the Cinambo Rambatan turbidite fan according Indonesia, Jurnal, V. 12, No. 1, p. 227 251.
to the sheet sandstone architecture is during the
deposition of 2nd fan cycle and 3rd fan cycle that
promotes the deposition of the amalgamated sheet Posamentier, H. W., Meizarwin, P. S. Wisman, T.
sandstone and channelized sheet sandstone bodies. Plawman, 2000, Deep Water Depositional Systems
Ultra-deep Makassar Strait, Indonesia. GCSSPM
REFERENCES Foundation 20th Annual Research Conference,
Deep-water Reservoirs of the World, p. 806- 816.
Ben-Avraham, Z., 1973, Structural Framework of Reading, H. G., M. Richards, 1994, Turbidite
The Sunda Shelf and Vicinity, Doctoral dissertation, Systems in Deep-Water Basin Margins Classified
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods by Grain Size and Feeder System : American
Hole Oceanographic Institution, not published, Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, V.
269 p. 78. No. 5, p. 792 822.

Bouma, A.H., 2000, Fine-grained, Mud-rich Ricci Lucci, F., 1985, Influence of Transport
Turbidite Systems : Model and Comparison with Processes and Basin Geometry on Sand
Coarse-grained, Sand-rich Systems, in Bouma A.H. Composition, in Zuffa, G.G., eds., Provenance of
and Stone C.G., eds., Fine-grained turbidite Arenites, NATO ASI Series, V. 148 p. 19 45.
systems, AAPG Memoir 72 / SEPM Special
Publication No. 68, p. 9 20. Van Bemmelen, R. W., 1949, The Geology of
Indonesia, Government Printing Office, The Hague,
Bouma, A.H., R. L. Brenner, H. J. Knebel, 1981, 2 vols. + maps.
Continental Shelf and Epicontinental Seaways, in
Scholle, P. A. And Spearing, D., eds., Sandstone Saller, A. H., R. Lin, J. Dunham, 2006, Leaves in
Depositional Environments, AAPG Memoir 31, p. Turbidite Sands : The Main Source of Oil and Gas
281 327. in the Deep-water Kutei Basin, Indonesia : An
Analog for Deep-water Reservoir Systems :
Galloway, W. E., 1998, Siliciclastic Slope and American Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Base-of-Slope Depositional Systems : Component Bulletin, V. 90. No. 10, p. 1585 1608.
Facies, Stratigraphic Architecture, and
Classification : American Association of Petroleum Van de Weed, A. A., R. A. Armin, 1992, Origin and
Geologists, Bulletin, V. 82. No. 4, p. 569 595. Evolution of the Tertiary Hydrocarbon-Bearing
Basins in Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia :
Hamilton, W., 1979, Tectonics of the Indonesian American Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Region, USGS Proff. Paper 1078, 345 p. Bulletin, V. 76. No. 11, p. 1778 1803.
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Figure 1 - Regional Tectonics Setting of NWJ Basin and Geological Setting of Research Area

Figure 2 - Schematic Stratigraphy of Bogor Basin (Modified from Martodjodjo, 2003)


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Figure 3 - Facies Classification Diagram of Submarine Fan Deposit (after Gardner &Borer, 2000)
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Figure 4 - Composite Stratigraphic Section Correlations between Cinambo and Rambatan Formation
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Figure 5 - Slope to Basin Profile Illustrating Bogor Basin-floor Topography and Restored Position of
Cinambo and Rambatan Formation

Figure 6 - Thickly bedded layered sheet sandstone of the 2rd fan cycle
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Figure 7 - Amalgamated/ Layered sheet sandstone of the 3nd fan cycle

Figure 8 - Thin- bedded layered sandstone of the 4th fan cycle