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Linear Circuit Analysis (EE-110)

Lecture# 1: Introduction to circuit analysis

Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher


Assistant Professor, EED
KFUEIT, Pakistan

https://twitter.com/EEDKFUEIT Learning Management System 10.1.0.6


Slide credits
Photos on slide 6 and 11 are taken from internet
Slide 20 has circuits from Network Analysis by
Van Valkenburg 3rd edition.

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Contents
Course description
Recommended books
Electrical engineering : An overview
Circuit theory
SI units
Standardized prefixes
What is linear ?
Circuit Analysis
Difference between a network and a circuit
Electric Charge
Voltage and current
Ideal basic circuit element
Sign convention
Power and energy
Assignment #1
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Course description
This course deals with
Solving the electric circuits
Identify the unknown parameters
Apply circuit laws and theorems
Reinforcement using computer aided techniques
General course plan
Weekly 3 hours class plus one three hours lab work.
Weekly homework
Weekly quiz
Solution of problems using PSPICE.
Detailed course plan is provided on my website.
10.1.0.6
www.pveducator.com
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Recommended books
Electric circuits 9th edition by James W Nilsson &
Susan Ridley
Engineering circuit analysis 8th edition by Hayt,
Kemmerly and Durbin
Introduction to electric circuits 9th edition by
Svoboda and Dorf
Basic Engineering circuit analysis 10th edition by
Irwin and Nelms
Note that lecture slides does not guarantee
passing the exam.

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Electrical Engineering : An overview
Profession dealing with
Generation
Transmission
Measurement
Utilization
Of electrical signals
It has five major branches
Communication systems
Power
Power Electronics
Control systems
Computer systems
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Circuit theory
All the field of EE have one thing in common which
is called as Electric Circuits.
It is a foundation of learning.
This course is a special case of electromagnetic
theory.
EMT is an advance course which require tedious
mathematical calculations and solid background in
physics.
We make simplifying assumptions to make use of
circuit theory without knowing the EMT.

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Circuit theory
What are the assumptions ?
1. System is physically small enough that charges
propagate instantaneously.
This is called as lumped parameter system
2. Net charge on every component is zero i.e no
component can collect a net excess of charge.
Note that some components can store charge
3. There is no magnetic coupling between the components
Magnetic coupling can occur within a component

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Circuit theory
What are the benefits ?
1. Simple solutions at sufficient accuracy.
2. Terminal behavior of each component can predict the
behavior of interconnection.
3. We solve many linked differential equations that helps
in developing interest in other engineering applications.
4. Throughout this course we will use lumped parameters
that greatly simplify the approach towards circuit
solution.
A circuit is solved when all the unknown
parameters are known.
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SI units
International system of units (SI) will be opted in this
course.
SI units are based on six defined quantities
Length Basic unit is meter and symbolized as m
Mass Basic unit is kilogram and symbolized as kg
Time Basic unit is second and symbolized as s
Electric current Basic unit is ampere and symbolized as A
Thermodynamic temperature Basic unit is kelvin and
symbolized as K
Luminous intensity Basic unit is candela and symbolized as
cd
Several other units are derived from these basic units.
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Standardized prefixes

These values are


widely used in this
course

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What is linear ?
A linear element satisfies the properties of
Superposition
Suppose if the excitation is i1 and response is v1. If the element
is given i2 the response is v2. Moreover, i1+i2=v1+v2. This is
called principle of superposition.

Homogeneity
Multiplying the input results in multiplying the output by the
same constant. Doubling the size of the input doubles the size
of the output.

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What is linear ? | Example 2.2-1 (Dorf)
An element is represented by relationship between
current and voltage as v=Ri. Determine if the device
is linear.

Superposition

Homogeneity

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What is a linear ? | Example 2.2-2 (Dorf)
Determine if the device is linear. The relationship
between current and voltage is v=i2.

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Circuit Analysis :
It is mathematical solution to find the behavior of
circuit model and ideal circuit elements.
Circuit model is mathematical model of real electrical
systems.
Elements of electrical components are easy to analyze if
considered ideal provided the degree of accuracy is
acceptable.
The ideal circuit elements can be connected together
i.e an interconnection can be defined in terms of a
mathematical equation.
The mathematical equations are in measureable
quantities i.e voltage and current.
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Difference between a network and circuit
Interconnection of two or more circuit elements is
called network.
If the network has at least one closed path it is an
electric circuit.
Every circuit is a network.
Not every network is a circuit.

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Electric charge
Electric charge is the bottom-line to explain all the
electrical phenomenon.
What is an electric charge ???
It is bipolar i.e. positive and negative. The separation of
positive and negative charge means expansion of energy.
They are in discrete quantities and integral multiples of
charge on electron.
The separation of charge (voltage) as well as motion of
charge (current) have impact on electrical effects.

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Voltage and Current
Energy per unit charge created by separation is
called voltage.

Rate of charge flow is known as current.

We can model a circuit element based on the voltage


and current at its terminals.
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Ideal basic circuit element
It has three properties
It is a two terminal device
It can be described mathematically by voltage and
current.
It cannot be subdivided further.
Note that IDEAL element do not exist.

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Topologically equivalent circuit

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Planer vs non planer circuits
Planer circuits have no crossing branches.

non-planer

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Sign convention
There are two sign conventions for relating the
voltage drop and current in a circuit element
Passive sign convention : If the direction of current is in
the direction of voltage drop then use a + sign.
Negative sign convention : If the direction of current is in
the direction of voltage rise then use a sign.

+
-

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Power and Energy
Electrical devices have limited capability to handle
power.
Power is expanding or absorbing energy w.r.t. time.

Power comes from the direct product of voltage and


current.

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Power and Energy
We can tell from the terminal information of a
component that if the power is delivered to it or
extracted from it.

+ +
- -

- -
+ +
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Power and Energy | Assessment problem 1.5
Assume that a 20 V voltage drop occurs across an element from
terminal 2 to terminal 1 and that a current of 4 A enters terminal 2.
Specify the values of v and i for the polarity references shown in previous slide.
State whether the circuit inside the box is absorbing or delivering power.
How much power is the circuit absorbing?

1 V=-20 1 V=-20
+ i=-4 + i=4
P=80 W P=80 W
- 2 Absorbing - 2 Absorbing

1
- 1 V=20
i=-4
- V=20
i=4

+ 2
P=80 W
Absorbing
+ 2
P=80 W
Absorbing

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Information Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
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Power and Energy | Assessment problem 1.7
A high-voltage direct-current (dc) transmission line between
Celilo, Oregon and Sylmar, California is operating at 800 kV and
carrying 1800 A, as shown. Calculate the power (in megawatts)
at the Oregon end of the line and state the direction of power
flow.
1.8kA
1 1
Celilo, + Sylmar,
Oregon 800kV California
2 - 2

On the Oregon side the current is leaving the positive terminal so


the formulae for power is p=-vi = -(1.8k)(800k)=1440 MW
Since the power is negative so the power flow is from oregon to
california.

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Power and Energy | Example 1.5-1 (Dorf)
If V=8V and i=25mA. Find the power received by
the element and energy received by element in
10ms.
+ v -
i

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Assignment # 1
Students are advised to solve following problems to
understand the concepts..
Problem : 1.11 , 1.14 , 1.15, 1.16 , 1.19 , 1.26 , 1.27,
1.29, 1.30
This is not an assignment/homework.

Cite as: Hadeed Sher, course materials for EE-110 Linear Circuit Analysis, Spring 2017. (http://pveducator.com), Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and
Information Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
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