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7 December because of overextended supply lines and battle
I NTERNATIONAL S ITUATION Japan strikes with- exhaustion.
out warning and almost simultaneously at various W ESTERN E UROPE Although Adolf Hitler has
U.S. and British possessions in the Pacific; declares by this time abandoned plans for invasion of Eng-
war against U.S. and Great Britain. land (Operation SEA LION) as result of defeat of
H AWAII Launched from carriers of a naval Luftwaffe in Battle of Britain (8 August31 October
task force (TF) standing 200 miles N of Oahu, 1940), German planes continue active over England.
Japanese planes attack Oahu between 0750 and 1000 RAF in turn has been making frequent attacks on
bombing the Pacific Fleet, which, except for the European continent.
carriers, is concentrated in Pearl Harbor, and AAF
planes parked in close formation on Hickam and 8 December
Wheeler airfields. 3 BB's are sunk, another is cap-
sized, and 4 more are damaged; 3 CL's, 3 DD's, and I N T E R N AT I O N A L S I T UAT I O N U.S. and Great
other vessels are seriously damaged. 92 Navy and Britain declare war on Japan. On W side of inter-
96 Army planes are lost. American casualties are national date line (7 December, Hawaiian time),
2,280 killed and 1,109 wounded. Japanese lose 29 Japanese bombard Wake and Guam, each garri-
planes and 5 midget submarines. soned by small detachments of U.S. marines;
M IDWAY At 2135, 2 Japanese DD's bombard British-mandated Nauru and Ocean Islands; the
Midway, garrisoned by a small U.S. Marine detach- Philippines; British Malaya and Singapore; Thai-
ment (6th Defense Bn), to neutralize it. land; Hong Kong.
L IBYA Maj Gen N. M. Ritchie's British (Br) P.I.Japanese naval planes from Formosa at-
Eighth Army, a component of Gen Sir Claude J. E. tack Clark and Iba Fields and catch many aircraft on
Auchinleck's Br Middle East Forces (MEF), con- the ground. FEAF is reduced to almost half
tinues offensive, begun in November, to clear Libya strength, and installations are severely damaged.
of German and Italian forces, which are nominally Tuguegarao and Baguio are each hit by Japanese
under Italian command, but actually under German Army planes before the main strike against Clark
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. Objective is two- Field. TF 5, Asiatic Fleet, under Rear Adm Wil-
fold: first, destruction of enemy concentrated in E liam A. Glassford, heads S toward safer waters.
Cyrenaica, which is in progress; second, conquest of Japanese begin advance landings to acquire air bases
Tripolitania. Armd elements of Br 30 Corps bat- from which to support main assault: invade Batan
tle enemy tanks around Bir el Gubi. After night- I., between Formosa and Luzon, without opposition.
fall, Br 13 Corps goes on the offensive, 10th Div T HAILAND Some Japanese from Indochina
driving along El Adem Ridge, key feature S of cross into Thailand and drive on Bangkok against
Tobruk. negligible resistance. Others land unopposed at
USSRGerman offensive (Operation BARBA- Singora and Patani on E coast and start SW across
ROSSA, begun on 22 July 1941 by Field Marshal Kra Isthmus to assist in conquest of Malaya.
Walther von Brauchitsch, CinC of the German MALAYAJapanese invade Malaya early in the
Army) to crush Soviet forces has ground to a halt on morning, landing on E coast near Kota Bharu after
broken line from Lake Ladoga on N to Sea of Azov naval bombardment of beaches, and are vigorously
on S. At the extremities of front, Soviet garrisons of engaged by Lt Gen A. E. Percival's Malaya Com-
Leningrad and Sevastopol are besieged; on central mand. Ind 3 Corps (under Lt Gen Sir Lewis
front Germans are at outskirts of Moscow. Red Heath), which is responsible for all Malaya N of
Army is conducting general counteroffensive (be- Johore and Malacca, employs Ind 9th Div against
gun on 6 December) to drive enemy westward. 3 enemy in Kota Bharu area and sends Ind 11th Div,
fresh Soviet armies are exerting pressure against already poised to move into Thailand, across border
enemy spearheads in vicinity of Moscow. Although to delay enemy on roads to Singora and Patani. Ind
assured the support of satellite nations (Finland, 9th Div, whose primary mission is to protect the 3
Rumania, Hungary), Germans are at a disadvantage airfields in Kelantan (Kota Bharu, Gong Kedah,
[4] [ 911 DECEMBER 1941 ]

and Machang), fights losing battle for Kota Bharu, at Gonzaga, over 20 miles to E; upon closing on
from which it starts withdrawing during night 89. Aparri, pushes 6 miles S and seizes Camalaniugan
One Ind 11th Div column, driving toward Singora, airstrip. The Vigan force lands small group at Pan-
engages tank-supported enemy force 10 miles N of dan, near Vigan, and the rest at point 4 miles S;
frontier; another, advancing toward Patani, is op- quickly secures Vigan and sends elements N along
posed only by Thai police forces. In conjunction with Route 3 toward Laoag. No opposition is offered by
ground attacks, Japanese planes strike repeatedly at 11th Div (PA), which is responsible for defense of N
airfields in N Malaya and greatly reduce strength coast. U.S. planes attack shipping of the invasion
of RAF Far East Command. RAF, after attacking force. Capt Colin Kelly becomes the first U.S. hero
enemy shipping and troops in Kota Bharu area, of World War II in this action by hitting what was
withdraws from the Kelantan airfields to Kuantan, supposed to be a Japanese BB; subsequent investiga-
far to S. Singapore, ultimate objective of Japanese tion has revealed that there were no BB's present.
25th Army in Malaya, is also attacked by air. Fighter aircraft from Batan I. provide cover for
CHINAJapanese seize International Settlement enemy. Japanese planes bomb and strafe Nichols and
at Shanghai, and many ships are sunk or captured in Nielson Fields, near Manila, and Del Carmen Field,
its harbor; move troops toward Kowloon, on main- near Clark, achieving particularly damaging results
land across from Hong Kong. at Nichols. Cavite naval base also suffers heavily
L IBYA Axis forces begin orderly withdrawal from enemy air attack. FEAF, by this time half
toward Gazala, followed closely by 13 and 30 Corps strength, decides to confine its future activities to rcn
of Br Eighth Army and harassed by RAF. Skillful flights.
rear-guard action delays pursuit. M ALAYA Japanese gain control of waters E of
USSRGerman Army Group North withdraws Malaya and air over N Malaya. The small British
from Tichwin, on Leningrad-Vologda RR, under Eastern Fleet is severely crippled by loss of Repulse
Soviet pressure. Army Group Center is slowly giving and Prince of Wales off Kuantan to enemy planes.
ground in Moscow area. Adm Sir Tom Phillips, CinC Eastern Fleet, is killed
in this action and is replaced by Vice Adm Sir
Geoffrey Layton. As enemy continues destructive
9 December attacks on airfields in NW Malaya, RAF abandons
C ENTRAL P ACIFIC Japanese continue prein- airfield at Sungei Patani and withdraws all service-
vasion bombing of Wake and Guam; invade Gilbert able aircraft from Butterworth. From Butterworth,
Is. RAF bomber sq, reduced to 2 aircraft, withdraws to
P.I.Continuing neutralization of airpower on Taiping and RAAF fighter sq (6 repairable air-
Luzon, enemy bombers strike Nichols Field, near craft) to Ipoh. Japanese begin series of heavy air
Manila. attacks against Penang I. Ind 9th Div withstands
T HAILAND Japanese occupy Bangkok without attacks while organizing delaying positions S of
opposition. Kota Bharu. Ind 11th Div columns operating along
M ALAYA Japanese force Ind 9th Div of Ind 3 Thailand frontier attempt to delay enemy. Far East
Corps from Kota Bharu airfield and continue air Council is formed at Singapore.
attacks on other fields, including Kuantan. RAF L IBYA Siege of Tobruk is lifted after 8 months
abandons Kuantan airfield for Singapore I. and Alor as Pol garrison breaks out of town early in morn-
Star airfield, on NW coast, for Butterworth. RAF ing and joins other Br Eighth Army forces in
bomber attack on Singora airfield (Thailand) proves Acroma area. Forward supply base is soon organized
very costly since fighter protection is lacking. Dutch at Tobruk.
planes arrive at Singapore to augment strength of
11 December
C HINA Declares war on Japan, Germany, and I NTERNATIONAL S ITUATION Germany and Italy
Italy. declare war on U.S., which then replies with
declarations against them.
10 December W AKE Wake garrison (about 450 marines of
C ENTRAL P ACIFIC Japanese invade Guam and 1st Defense Bn) repels invasion attempt. Japanese
overwhelm small U.S. garrison; continue prein- naval force arrives off Wake early in morning and
vasion bombing of Wake. at dawn opens fire. Shore batteries force the vessels
P.I.Two Japanese TF's, each consisting of to withdraw with landing force still embarked.
some 2,000 men, arrive off N Luzon from Formosa. 4 aircraft of VMF211, all that remain serviceable
Landings begin simultaneously at Aparri and near of the original fighter sq on Wake, pursue and at-
Vigan, but rough sea forces alteration in plans. The tack enemy force as it retires toward the Marshalls.
Aparri force gets 2 cos ashore at Aparri and the rest 2 planes that survive this action intercept shore-based
[ 1213 DECEMBER 1941 ] [5]

Japanese aircraft that try to attack Wake later in the crosses into lower Tenasserim unopposed. Gen Sir
morning. Wake is subsequently subjected to almost Archibald P. Wavell, CinC India, is given responsi-
daily air strikes as enemy continues softening the bility for Burma, previously within Air Chief Mar-
defense in preparation for landing. shal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham's Far Eastern Com-
P.I.Japanese Aparri force on Luzon continues mand, and is promised reinforcements to strengthen
rapidly S along Route 5 toward Tuguegarao. the small garrison, fighting strength of which does
Laoag and its airfield fall to Vigan force. Japanese not exceed 30 bns during the campaign. Lt Gen
begin mining San Bernardino and Surigao Straits. D. K. MacLeod's Burma Army, charged with pro-
Commercial vessels withdraw from Manila Bay. tecting Burma Road and Tenasserim airfields, is a
M ALAYA Ind 9th Div, Ind 3 Corps, abandons heterogeneous group of Burmese, Ind, and Br forces,
the 2 remaining airfields in Kelantan (Gong Kedah some poorly trained, formed into Burma 1st Div
and Machang) in order to protect communications. (Burma 1st and 2d Brigs and Ind 13th Brig) and
Japanese exert strong pressure against one Ind 11th Ind 16th Brig. The 16 obsolete RAF fighters on
Div column on Kroh-Patani road and force the hand are augmented by sq of American Volunteer
other, on road to Singora, back toward partially Group (AVG) fighters, which is f lown in to Ming-
prepared positions at Jitra. RAF, now greatly de- aladon from AVG base in China. Air strength is
pleted in strength, adopts policy of conducting eventually increased but not enough to alter ground
bomber operations only at night until adequate operations materially.
fighter support is available and of using fighters MIDDLE EASTGen Auchinleck receives the first
primarily for defense of Singapore Naval Base and of a number of notices that forces intended for
for protection of convoys bringing reinforcements. Middle East must be diverted to Far East to help
Ind 3 Corps troops are thus denied much close air stem Japanese advance. First call is for Br 18th and
support. Ind 17th Divs, 4 light bomber sqs, and AA and AT
B URMA Japanese begin offensive against lower guns.
Burma with air attack on Tavoy airdrome. L I BYA Eighth Army's 30 Cor ps moves to
Libyan-Egyptian frontier to destroy isolated enemy
garrisons and open communication lines. 13 Corps
12 December begins probing enemy's new line, which extends
P ACIFIC U.S. troops aboard Allied convoy pro- from Gazala southward.
ceeding from Hawaii toward Far East under escort
of CA Pensacola are organized as TF South Pacific 13 December
and placed under command of Brig Gen Julian F.
Barnes. P.I.Enemy aircraf t again att ack Luzon,
P.I.Japanese make another preliminary land- virtually completing destruction of U.S. Army and
ing, at Legaspi, S Luzon. TF of 2,500 men from Navy planes in the Philippines. Del Carmen, Clark,
Palau goes ashore unopposed and secures Legaspi and Nichols Fields are hit, as well as Baguio, Tarlac,
and the airfield. Maj Gen George M. Parker, Jr., Cabanatuan, and Batangas.
whose South Luzon Force consists of 41st and 51st M ALAYA Krohcol force concentrates in posi-
Divs (PA), sends elements of 51st forward to delay tions 23 miles W of Kroh. Ind 11th Div begins
enemy, but contact is not made for several days. withdrawing from Kedah R toward Gurun, a more
Tuguegarao airfield falls to Aparri force early in favorable defense position in S Kedah some 30 miles
morning. Japanese planes attack Luzon in force. S of Jitra. Fighter support is increased as sq from
Iba and Clark Fields are targets, with main force Singapore joins the few fighters based at Ipoh. Re-
against Iba. Batangas is an alternate target. ports of Japanese convoy moving SSW from Saigon
M ALAYA Gen Percival decides to withdraw result in period of sharply increased Br air rcn from
Ind 3 Corps from Kelantan since airfields there are Malaya.
already in possession of Japanese; movement of sur- B ORNEO Small Miri detachment (Ind co and
plus supplies to rear is begun. Troops fight delaying engineers), having destroyed oil fields and installa-
actions while awaiting rolling stock in which to tions in E Sarawak and W Brunei to deny them to
withdraw. Japanese penetrate Jitra position and force enemy, sails for Kuching, capital of Sarawak, where
Ind 11th Div TF back to Kedah R. Ind 11th Div rest of the Ind bn, with local and administrative
force, called Krohcol force, on KrohPatani road, attachments, is disposed to defend airdrome. Dutch
also falls back under pressure and at midnight 1213 planes based on Singkawang assist RAF units on
passes to direct command of corps. Ind 12th Brig Malaya in searching for Japanese shipping heading
Gp is released from reserve for action on W coast. southward from Indochina.
B URMA Japanese begin small-scale operations, C HINA British withdraw from Kowloon under
using infiltration tactics. From Thailand, small force pressure as Japanese continue drive on Hong Kong.
[6] [ 1417 DECEMBER 1941 ]

B URMA Victoria Pt, at S tip of Tenasserim, is ing the road encounters main body of Japanese
evacuated by British. Patani force thrusting toward Kuala Kangsar in
L IBYA13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, opens attack effort to isolate Ind 11th Div on W coast. On E
on Rommel's Gazala line and meets firm resistance. coast, Kelantan troops begin withdrawal by rail
Both sides suffer heavy losses. as movement of supplies and equipment is com-
pleted. Penang I. fortress is evacuated as planned
14 December during night 1617.
BORNEO Japanese invade British Borneo, land-
P.I.Japanese Vigan and Aparri detachments ing on N coast at Miri (Sarawak) and at Seria
are placed under the same command and ordered, (Brunei).
after the Aparri force joins the Vigan at Vigan, to C HINA U.S. War Department gives Brig Gen
march S to Lingayen Gulf. Adm Thomas C. Hart John Magruder, head of American Military Mission
withdraws the few remaining patrol bombers of to China (AMMISCA), permission to divert Chi-
Patrol Wing 10 and 3 tenders from the Philippines, nese lend-lease to the British, provided Chinese
leaving very little of the Asiatic Fleet to support agree.
operations. Maj Gen Lewis H. Brereton has already L IBYA Axis forces begin withdrawal from Ga-
withdrawn the heavy bombers of FEAF from Luzon zala line toward next delaying position, Agedabia.
to Del Monte airfield, Mindanao. Ind 4th Div of 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, which
M ALAYA On W coast, Ind 11th Div completes has been particularly hard pressed by enemy, pauses
withdrawal to Gurun; Japanese, in close pursuit, briefly to reorganize before joining other elements
penetrate the new positions, night 1415. Krohcol of corps in pursuit.
force is dissolved and its components, which are USSRContinuing firm pressure against
put under command of Ind 12th Brig, move to enemy in Moscow area, Soviet forces seize Kalinin,
Baling area, about 9 miles W of Kroh. Ind 3 Corps NW of Klin.
sends small detachments to guard Grik road, which
is now uncovered. On E coast, Kelantan force con-
tinues fighting withdrawal. Since airdromes on
17 December
Singapore are becoming congested, preparations are U.S.In command shake up, Adm Husband
being made to base air units in NEI. E. Kimmel is replaced by Adm Chester W. Nimitz
as CinC, Pacific Fleet; Lt Gen Walter C. Short, CG
Hawaiian Department, is replaced by Lt Gen Delos
15 December C. Emmons; Maj Gen Frederick L. Martin, CG
P.I.Gen Brereton receives permission to with- Air Force, Hawaiian Department, is replaced by
draw the few remaining B17's to Darwin (Aus- Brig Gen Clarence L. Tinker.
tralia). Air defense of the Philippines is left to a M IDWAY Marine Scout Bombing Sq 231 com-
few fighters. pletes record flight from Hawaii to Midway, bol-
M ALAYA Ind 3 Corps remains under strong stering U.S. positions there.
pressure on W coast. During night 1516, Ind 11th P.I.Japanese Legaspi force, advancing NW on
Div begins withdrawal from Gurun positions to Luzon along Route 1 toward Naga, makes its first
Muda R. Garrison of Penang I. fortress, opposite contact with Filipino forces near Ragay. B17's be-
Butterworth, prepares to withdraw as RAF abandons gin withdrawal from Mindanao to Australia.
Butterworth airdrome. M ALAYA Hard fighting continues on Grik
USSROn central front N of Moscow, Red road. Weak defense detachment is reinf but falls
Army takes Klin, on rail line to Leningrad. back under pressure of superior enemy forces. Ind
12th Brig Gp is ordered to Kuala Kangsar. Gen
16 December Percival gives Ind 3 Corps permission to withdraw
to Perak R line if necessary. Perak Flotilla is formed
H AWAII All elements of U.S. TF 14, bearing to prevent enemy from landing on W coast between
supplies, reinforcements, and aircraft for relief of Krian and Bernam Rivers.
Wake, rendezvous SW of Oahu and sail for Wake. A USTRALIA Plan is drawn up for using Aus-
M ALAYA Ind 11th Div completes withdrawal tralia as an Allied supply base under command of
behind Muda R in Wellesley Province and defeats Maj Gen George H. Brett.
enemy efforts to secure foothold on S bank. Ind 3 B ORNEO Dutch planes begin 3-day series of
Corps decides to withdraw Ind 11th Div behind strikes against Japanese shipping off British North
Krian R. however, since it is greatly weakened by Borneo.
sustained fighting without benefit of tank and ade- USSRGerman Army Group South opens offen-
quate air support. Fighting develops on Grik road sive against Sevastopol defenses, in the Crimea, and
N of Grik, night 1617, as small detachment guard- is stubbornly opposed.
[ 1822 DECEMBER 1941 ] [7]

18 December Davao and its airfield. On Luzon, Japanese detach-

P.I.Japanese Legaspi detachment reaches ment starts S from Vigan toward Lingayen Gulf.
Naga (Luzon). M A L AYA Indecisive fighting continues on
M ALAYA Ind 11th Div completes withdrawal Krian R front and along Grik road.
behind Krian R and is held in reserve in Taiping C HINA Col Claire L. Chennault's AVG, based
area. Forces defending Grik road are further reinf. at Kunming to protect SW China and patrol Burma
After visiting forward areas, Gen Percival draws up Road, enters combat, successfully intercepting enemy
plans for withdrawal behind Perak R; decides to planes over Kunming. AVG is under control of
amalgamate certain units, among them Ind 6th and Chinese Air Force.
15th Brigs (to be designated Ind 6/15 Brig) and
to incorporate Ind 12th Brig Gp in Ind 11th Div. 21 December
C HINA Japanese invade Hong Kong I., cross- W AKE Japanese carrier planes begin prein-
ing straits from mainland. vasion bombardment of defenses, supplementing
attacks by shore-based aircraft. The relief force
19 December (TF 14) is within 627 miles of the island.
P.I.On Luzon, Japanese Legaspi detachment P.I.3 convoys from Formosa and the Pes-
reaches Sipoco and is reported to be pushing toward cadores, bearing main body of Japanese 14th Army
Daet. On Mindanao, 2 enemy TF's from Palau, assault force, arrive in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon,
totaling about 5,000 men, arrive off Davao during night 2122. Filipino 11th Div makes contact with
night 19-20. Enemy planes discover and attack Del Japanese Vigan force at Bacnotan.
Monte airfield. M ALAYA Ind 11th Div takes command of all
M ALAYA Enemy is active against right flank of troops W of Perak R, including those on Grik road,
Krian R line; on Grik road, frustrates efforts of who are still heavily engaged, and begins with-
Ind 3 Corps to recover lost ground. RAF fighters drawal behind Perak R.
based at lpoh are forced to withdraw to Kuala
Lumpur. Ind 9th Div continues withdrawal south- 22 December
ward in E Malaya and abandons Kuala Krai rail-
head. W AKE Japanese carrier-based and land-based
B URMA Japanese overrun Bokpyin, village planes continue strong softening attacks. Of the 2
some 100 miles N of Victoria Pt. Controversy, serviceable planes remaining on the island, 1 is lost
known as the Tulsa Incident, arises as a U.S. officer in combat and the other is rendered useless when it
asks Government of Burma to impound lend-lease crash-lands. Personnel of VMF211 offer their serv-
material at Rangoon (a valuable part of which is ices as infantry. TF 14, the Wake relief force, is
loaded on the SS Tulsa in the harbor), pending a delayed for refueling.
decision on its use. At the suggestion of the senior P.I.Japanese begin main landings along coast
Chinese representative in Burma, a committee is of Lingayen Gulf on Luzon before dawn. One as-
subsequently formed to determine the division of sault force goes ashore near Bauang, another at Arin-
stocks. gay, and a third near Agoo. Forces move forward at
L IBYA13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, continues to once without serious opposition from 11th and 21st
follow withdrawing enemy, Ind 4th Div advancing Divs (PA). 71st Inf of first Div (PA) and 26th Cav
along coast to Derna and 7th Armd Div across (PS) move out to help halt enemy. The Bauang as-
desert. sault force seizes that town, effects junction with
G ERMANY Hitler takes personal command of Vigan force at San Fernando, La Union, and pushes
German Army, dismissing Field Marshal von inland toward Baguio, while the other forces over-
Brauchitsch. run Rosario and face S toward Manila. U.S. sub-
marines and a few aircraft attack enemy armada in
Lingayen Gulf. 9 B17's from Batchelor Field near
20 December Darwin attack enemy shipping off Davao, Min-
U.S.Adm Ernest J. King is appointed CinC, danao, and then land on Del Monte Field; during
U.S. Fleet. night 2223, 4 of the planes continue to Lingayen
W AKE Patrol bomber bringing news of relief Gulf and attack transports. This is the first action
force en route to Wake arrives in Wake Lagoon. in the Philippines by Australian-based planes.
P.I.In another preliminary landing, Japanese M ALAYA As Ind 11th Div continues with-
invade Mindanao early in morning. Landing force drawal across Perak R, RAF begins regular rcn of
goes ashore at and near Davao; after overcoming W coast to prevent enemy landings. Ind 9th Div
light opposition of about 2,000 Filipino troops, seizes completes planned withdrawal in E Malaya to posi-
[8] [ 2324 DECEMBER 1941 ]

tions from which to defend Kuantan airdrome and conference, called ARCADIA, opens in Washington to
protect Ind 11th Div from attack from E. consider war strategy. Prime Minister Winston S.
C HINA At meeting of Allied leaders in Chung- Churchill, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and
king, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek offers Ch 5th British and U.S. Chiefs of Staff attend.
and 6th Armies for defense of Burma. Gen Wavell U.S.American engineers and military mem-
accepts Ch 6th Army's 93d Div, elements of which bers of Iranian, USSR, and North African missions
are approaching border of Burma from China; regt sail for the Middle East from New York on Army
of 49th Div is to be held in reserve on N Burma transport Siboney.
frontier. M IDWAY Garrison is reinf with 2 batteries of
A USTRALIA Pensacola convoy reaches Brisbane, 4th Defense Bn, which arrive from Hawaii.
where Gen Barnes' TF South Pacific becomes U.S. P.I.On Luzon, Adm Har t releases 4th
Forces in Australia (USFIA). This is the first U.S. Marines, stationed at Olongapo, to defend beaches
troop detachment to arrive in Australia. of Corregidor. Japanese Lamon Bay invasion force,
which constitutes southern prong of pincers ap-
23 December plied against Manila, goes ashore early in morning
at 3 pointsMauban, near Atimonan, and Slain.
W AKE Japanese naval force arrives off Wake Main assault force, in center, secures Atimonan,
about 0200 and puts ashore about 1,500 personnel of forcing defenders back toward Pagbilao. Mauban
Special Naval Landing Force. Garrison holds out for force takes that town and pushes 5 miles W. From
about ii hours before being overwhelmed. TF 14, Slain enemy advances in 2 columns, one SW to-
the relief force, after reaching point a little more than ward Tayabas Bay and the other SE along Route 1
400 miles from Wake, is recalled shortly before sur- toward the Legaspi detachment. Japanese on N
render of the island and retires toward Midway, the Luzon consolidate beachhead and debouch on cen-
last American base remaining between Hawaii and tral plain to thrust sharply toward Agno R line. San
the Philippines. Fabian and Binalonan fall, 26th Cav (PS) retiring
P.I.On Luzon, General Douglas MacArthur from Binalonan across the Agno to Tayug. Planned
decides to evacuate Manila and withdraw to Bataan withdrawal toward Bataan is begun in evening.
to make a delaying stand. During night 2324, en- USAFFE hq, except for rear echelon, and President
emy invasion force of 7,000 men arrives in Lamon and High Commissioner of the Philippines sail to
Bay from the Ryukyus. Enemy invasion force sails Corregidor from Manila. Fort Stotsenburg is evacu-
from Mindanao for Jolo I., Sulu Archipelago. ated. Maj Gen Jonathan M. Wainwright's North
MALAYAInd 3 Corps completes withdrawal of Luzon Force, disposed generally along line Tayug
all W coast forces behind Perak R, night 2324. UrdanetaSan CarlosAquilar, from E to W, be-
Japanese planes, which so far have concentrated on gins withdrawing toward Agno R line. South Lu-
airfields, begin intensive action against forward zon Force, command of which passes from Gen
areas. Parker to Brig Gen Albert M. Jones, is to withdraw
BORNEO Japanese convoy is detected heading northward into Bataan. Gen Parker moves to
toward Kuching, Sarawak. Bataan to head Bataan Defense Force, organized
C HINA Japanese begin drive on Changsha, to prepare defensive positions.
Hunan Province. S ULU A RCHIPELAGO Japanese invade Jolo I. in
BURMA Japanese open series of strong air at- evening against light resistance from the constabu-
t acks on Rangoon, beginning battle for air lary.
supremacy that is to last until late February 1942. B ORNEO Japanese convoy, despite attacks by
Exodus of civilian laborers hampers port operations Br and Dutch planes and Dutch submarines, suc-
in Rangoon. ceeds in landing troops in Kuching area, Sarawak,
L IBYABecause of supply difficulties, which in- early in morning. Garrison, having already destroyed
crease as pursuit progresses westward, elements of Kuching airdrome, requests permission to withdraw
13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, are forced to remain in to Dutch Borneo and is told to delay enemy as long
place. However, Ind 4th Div seizes Barce, on coast, as possible before retiring. Dutch aircraft withdraw
and forward elements Of 7th Armd Div force enemy from Singkawang, Borneo, to Palembang, Sumatra.
to retire from Antelat to Agedabia. M ALAYA Ind 11th Div, controlling all Ind 3
Corps troops N of Slim and Bernam Rivers, is or-
ganizing defense in depth astride main road with
24 December MLR in Kampar area and rear positions near Slim
S T P IERRE AND MIQUELON Is.These islands, off R. Commander AIF Malaya, Ma) Gen Gordon Ben-
Newfoundland, are seized by Free French. nett (CG Aus 8th Div), assigns responsibility for N
I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCE Anglo-American Johore to Aus 27th Brig Gp, Aus 8th Div.
[ 2529 DECEMBER 1941 ] [9]

A USTRALIA Brig Gen Henry B. Claggett takes gruder during which it is agreed to send an
temporary command of USFIA, pending arrival of AMMISCA officer to Rangoon.
Gen Brett from Chungking. M IDDLE E AST Gen Auchinleck is notified that
L I BYA Detachment Of 7th Armd Div, 13 4 fighter sqs are to be transferred from Middle East
Corps, Br Eighth Army, enters Benghazi and finds to Far East; accedes to request for tanks.
that enemy has withdrawn. N ORWAY Br Commandos (Cdos) raid Ger-
man bases on islands off Norway.
25 December
I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCE General George 27 December
C. Marshall, U.S. Chief of Staff, proposes at the F AR E ASTLt Gen Sir Henry Pownall relieves
ARCADIA Conference in Washington that Far Eastern Air Chief Marshal Brooke-Popham as Br CinC Far
forces be placed under a unified command. East.
M IDWAY Garrison is strengthened as Marine P.I.Luzon front is quiet as Japanese con-
Fighter Sq 221 flies in from USS Saratoga. solidate along the Agno. North Luzon Force with-
P.I.USAFFE hq opens on Corregidor. Rear draws toward next delaying line, TarlacCabana-
Adm F. W. Rockwell is put in charge of all naval tuan, where it is to make maximum delaying effort.
activities in the Philippines. North Luzon Force On S Luzon, Japanese continue to pursue U.S. col-
reaches Agno R and prepares to hold there until umns along Routes 23 and 1; on latter, Japanese
night 2627. 71st Div (PA) withdraws from E flank break through main positions of 53d Inf and seize
of line to reorganize. Japanese troops from Urdaneta Candelaria.
succeed in crossing the Agno near Tayug, night M ALAYA Ind 11th Div rear guards (12th and
2526. South Luzon Force begins northward with- 28th Brigs) begin withdrawal to defense positions
drawal toward Bataan. Japanese, in close pursuit, near Kampar. In E Malaya, Japanese threat to Kuan-
seize Sampoloc and Pagbilao. tan is increasing. Enemy forces near Trengganu-
S ULU A RCHIPELAGO Japanese complete con- Pahang border are placed under arty fire.
quest of Jolo I, increasing threat to NEI. B URMA Lt Gen T. J. Hutton replaces Gen
B ORNEO After brisk fighting in vicinity of MacLeod as commander of Burma Army.
Kuching airdrome, Sarawak, small Ind garrison L IBYA 7th Armd Div of 13 Corps, Br Eighth
breaks contact with enemy and starts on foot toward Army, attacks Rommels Agedabia position, which
Dutch Borneo. is well-suited by nature for defense, but makes no
C HINA Br garrison of Hong Kong surrenders headway.
to Japanese. Many Allied ships are captured or sunk N ORWAY Br Commandos again raid enemy
off the island. At a Joint Military Council meeting bases on islands off Norway.
to consider lend-lease transfers, Chinese representa-
tive announces that the Generalissimo has decided, 28 December
because of the seizure of the Tulsa's cargo, that he U.S.First contingent of construction battal-
will not co-operate with the British and will recall ions ("Seabees") is authorized in Navy.
Ch troops. P.I.Japanese begin drive from the Agno to-
ward Cabanatuan. In S Luzon, Japanese force 52d
26 December Inf (PA) back to Tiaong. Gen Jones receives orders
to withdraw speedily to Bataan. 53d Inf (PA) moves
MIDWAYGarrison is increased by 4th Defense to Bataan for rest and reorganization. Enemy seizes
Bn units and ground echelon of VMF211, who had Luisiana, on Route 1, and 1st Inf (PA) withdraws
made a futile attempt to relieve the Wake garrison. westward.
P.I.Naval defense forces under Adm Rock- L IBYA 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, continues
well move to Corregidor. Manila is declared an assault on Agedabia with 22d Armd Brig of 7th
open city. North Luzon Force, except for 194th Armd Div, whose tank strength by this time has
Tank Bn, falls back from the Agno to line Santa been greatly reduced because of mechanical failure.
IgnaciaGuimbaSan Jose. South Luzon Force con- After futile effort to get behind enemy position, 22d
tinues to withdraw in 2 columns and organizes Armd Brig falls back to El Haseiat. Both sides
first line of defense of Sariaya. suffer heavy tank losses.
M ALAYA Ipoh is evacuated by Ind 11th Div
troops, but Ind 12th Brig Gp fights rear-guard action
at Chemor, to N. 29 December
C HINA Tulsa Incident ends with conciliatory P.I.On N Luzon, gist Div (PA) holds Ca-
meeting between Chiang Kai-shek and Gen Ma- banatuan against strong enemy thrust, but Japa-
[ 10 ] [ 3031 DECEMBER 1941 ]

nese succeed in crossing Pampanga R near there. M ALAYA Japanese maintain pressure against
Another enemy force, heading for Tarlac in 21st Kampar position in W Malaya; on E coast threaten
Div (PA) sector, reaches position just N of Tarlac. Kuantan from N in greater strength. Kuantan de-
All elements of South Luzon Force withdraw fense force is in process of concentrating W of Kuan-
quickly toward Bataan. Japanese planes attack Cor- tan R, which is crossed by a single ferry.
regidor for the first time. Medium and dive bombers L IBYA After another costly and unsuccessful
drop some 60 tons of bombs. Although wooden tank battle for Agedabia, during which 22d Armd
structures suffer heavily, little damage is done to Brig is rendered ineffective as a fighting force, 13
military installations. AA fire from forts guarding Corps of Br Eighth Army suspends assault pending
Manila Bay destroys a number of bombers. 4th arrival of reinforcements. German tanks have proved
Marines takes responsibility for beach defense. superior both mechanically and in gun power.
M ALAYA On Ind 11th Div front, Ind 12th USSRWhile German Army Group South
Brig holds firmly against strong enemy attack but, continues offensive against Sevastopol, Soviet Cau-
since its position is becoming untenable, falls back casian troops make amphibious assault against E
through Kampar to Bidor, where it is held in Crimea and seize Kerch and Feodosia. On central
reser ve. front, Germans continue to withdraw from Moscow
B ORNEO Ind detachment from Kuching, Sar- area under Red Army pressure.
awak, arrives at Sanggau, Dutch Borneo, and is
placed under Dutch command.
CHINA Establishment of China Theater under 31 December
supreme command of Chiang Kai-shek, who is to be I N T E R N AT I O N A L C O N F E R E N C E A RC A D I A con-
assisted by an Allied staff, is announced. Theater ferees order joint Australian-British-Dutch-Ameri-
is to include portions of Thailand and Indochina in can (ABDA) Command to be established under Gen
friendly hands. Wavell of the British Army.
B URMA From Bokpyin, Japanese withdraw P.I.Evacuation of Manila is completed as rear
under pressure into Thailand. echelon of USAFFE hq leaves. North Luzon Force
closes in final defense positions, Bamban-Arayat, be-
30 December fore San Fernando and Plaridel, E of Calumpit
U.S.Forces of Naval Coastal Frontiers are bridge. On E flank, 91st Div (PA) goes into reserve
placed under U.S. Fleet. S of Baliuag, leaving 71st Div (PA) to delay enemy
P.I.North Luzon Force is unable to hold brief ly at Baliuag; both divs then retire toward
enemy on line CabanatuanTarlac and begins with- Calumpit bridge. Firm contact is made between
drawal southward toward final defense positions North and South Luzon Forces in San Fernando
before Bataan. From Cabanatuan, gist Div (PA) area after latter crosses Calumpit bridge. Gen Jones
withdraws along Route 5 through Gapan toward is placed in command of all forces E of Pampanga R.
Baliuag, NE of Calumpit. Tank bns are ordered to M ALAYA Ind 11th Div now holds relatively
Plaridel-Baliuag area to defend vital Calumpit well-organized defense position in W Malaya, with
bridge over Pampanga R, across which South Luzon Ind 6/15 Brig disposed on MLR at Kampar and
Force must withdraw to reach San Fernando and Ind 28th Brig Gp to E. Japanese increase pressure
the road leading into Bataan, and 71st Div (PA) against 28th Brig Gp. On E coast, Kuantan defense
is dispatched to Baliuag. In center, 11th Div (PA) force completes concentration W of Kuantan R and
succeeds in delaying enemy column heading for destroys ferry.
Tarlac from Cabanatuan, 21st Div (PA) falls back C HINA Joint Military Council is formed in
from Tarlac along Route 3 toward line Bamban- Chungking.
Arayat. South Luzon Force, ordered to delay en- A USTRALIA Gen Brett arrives from Chungking
emy, halts at Santiago, where ambush is arranged, to take command of USFIA.
but because of reverses of North Luzon Force is L IBYA On Libyan-Egyptian frontier, S African
directed in evening to continue withdrawal and 2d Div, assisted by 1st Army Tank Brig of 30 Corps,
cross Calumpit bridge not later than 0600 on 1 Janu- Br Eighth Army, attacks and penetrates Bardia
ary. 51st Inf ( ) and battery of 51st FA are dis- fortress, on main road from Tobruk to Egypt.
patched to assist in defense of Calumpit bridge. 2d USSRGermans on southern front break off
Philippine Constabulary (PC) covers withdrawal attacks on Sevastopol in order to counter Soviet
while main body moves toward Bataan. President thrusts from Kerch and Feodosia. On central front,
Manuel Quezon is inaugurated on Corregidor. Red Army troops seize Kaluga, SW of Moscow.
[ 11 ]

1 January ing the town at 0200 and organize delaying posi-
U.S.Declaration of the United Nations is tions along 10-mile front from Porac to Guagua.
signed by 26 nations in Washington, D. C. Holding this line are 21st Div (PA) on W, its left
L UZONSouth Luzon Force, upon completing flank covered by 26th Cav (PS) at San Jose, S of
withdrawal across the Pampanga at Calumpit by Porac, and 11th Div (PA) on E. Japanese attack W
0500 and destroying bridges there at 0615, is dis- flank in vicinity of Porac in afternoon and force
banded. Its components continue withdrawal to- 21st Div to fall back. Meanwhile, Japanese E of
ward Bataan, and Gen Jones rejoins 51st Div (PA). the Pampanga succeed in crossing the river and
Japanese move through Plaridel to Calumpit but move to San Fernando, where they join with Jap-
are unable to cross the Pampanga. Covering force anese from Angeles. Japanese occupation force
(elements of 71st and 91st PA Divs) withdraws moves into Manila. Japanese planes begin daily
from river line toward San Fernando. Meanwhile, attacks on Corregidor.
21st and 11th Divs (PA) continue fighting with- M ALAYA Japanese force reaches Telok Anson
drawals, 91st along route BambanAngelesPorac via Perak R and goes ashore, greatly increasing
and 11th on route MalagangSan FernandoGuagua threat to Ind 3 Corps. 1st Independent Co and Ind
(N of Sexmoan), arriving on line PoracGuagua 3d Cav Sq defending this area are forced back
during night 12. through Ind 12th Brig Gp, which in turn comes
M ALAYA Japanese attack Kampar position in under severe pressure. Although enemy attacks on
W Malaya in force but are unable to break through. Kampar position are still being contained, it is de-
Ind 11th Div is in grave danger as enemy amphibi- cided to withdraw to Slim R after nightfall because
ous force lands in Utan Melentang area, at mouth of precarious situation along coast. Japanese landing
of Bernam R, behind Kampar line. Ind 12th Brig attempt at Kuala Selangor is frustrated by arty fire
Gp moves from Bidor to meet this threat. Japanese late in day.
aircraft deliver first severe blow against Tengah L IBYA Bardia garrison, under pressure of S
airdrome on Singapore I. African 2d Div and 1st Army Tank Brig (30 Corps,
CHINAChinese request lend-lease aid for con- Br Eighth Army), surrenders early in day.
struction of road across N Burma to link with
Burma Road. The projected road would extend 3 January
from Ledo, India, to Fort Hertz, Myitkyina, and
Lungling. A LLIED S TRATEGY Gen Wavell, as supreme
B URMA Air Vice Marshal D. F. Stevenson commander of ABDA forces, is directed to hold
takes command of Allied air forces in Burma, re- Malay Barrier (line Malay PeninsulaSumatraJava
placing Gp Capt E. R. Manning, RAF. Australia) and operate as far beyond the Barrier
L IBYA 30 Corps, Br Eighth Army, renews as- as possible in order to check Japanese advance; hold
sault on Bardia after nightfall. Burma and Australia; restore communications with
USSRRed Army continues broad offensive the Philippines through NEI; maintain communi-
throughout January with spectacular success in some cations within theater.
sectors, but is unable to relieve besieged ports of LuzonJapanese continue determined attacks
Leningrad and Sevastopol. on W flank of Porac-Guagua line, where 21st Div
(PA) succeeds in halting enemy below Pio; exert
strong pressure on E flank in vicinity of Guagua.
2 January M ALAYA Ind 11th Div completes withdrawal
U.S.Lt Gen Hugh A. Drum, tentatively to Slim R line. Because of threat to communications
selected for field command in China, arrives in in W Malaya, Kuantan force on E coast, which had
Washington, D. C., where he confers with various previously been ordered to hold airdrome until to
military leaders and finds opinions as to role of January, begins fighting withdrawal at once. Newly
U.S. in China widely divergent. formed and poorly trained Ind 45th Brig, reinf,
LuzonDefenders complete successful with- and an Ind Pioneer bn (a labor unit) arrive at
drawal through San Fernando, final elements clear- Singapore and concentrate in S Malaya.
[ 12 ] [ 47 JANUARY 1942 ]

BORNEO Japanese invade Labuan I., in Brunei ference in Segamat, plans for withdrawal into Johore.
Bay, without opposition. From there, detachment On Slim R front, Ind 11th Div repels enemy attack
moves to mainland at Mempakul, thence to Weston down railway.
on foot, and from Weston to Beaufort by rail. A USTRALIA Gen Brett assumes duties as CG,
U.S. Army Forces in Australia (USAFIA, previ-
4 January ously USFIA).
L UZON Continuing strong attacks against E BURMA Hq of Ind 17th Div is established at
f lank of Porac-Guagua line, Japanese overrun Moulmein. Of 3 brigs that this div is to contain, only
Guagua and continue along Route 7 to Lubao, oneInd 16this in Burma.
cutting planned line of retreat of 11th Div (PA). M IDDLE E AS T Gen Auchinleck is given re-
21st Div zone (W part of line) is relatively quiet. sponsibility for Iraq and Iran. Lt Gen E. P. Quinans
Withdrawal from line PoracGuagua begins under forces in Iraq become Br Tenth Army, correspond-
cover of darkness, 45, with 21st Div covering for ing to Br Ninth Army under Gen Sir Henry Mait-
11th. Some cut-off elements of 11th Div make cir- land Wilson in Syria.
cuitous withdrawal through San Jose, while others USSRRed Army lands reinforcements on
move down Route 7 and form OPL between Lubao Crimean coast near Eupatoria and Sudak in effort
and Santa Cruz. to break siege of Sevastopol naval base, but can
M ALAYA Ind 11th Div is under constant air make little headway against firm German resistance.
attacks as it prepares defensive positions along Slim On central front S of Kaluga, Soviet forces hold
R in W Malaya. Japanese force moves S along W Belev, W of Oka R. Action on northern front along
coast to Selangor R, then E along the river, threaten- Volkhov R is indecisive.
ing communications line at Rawang. To meet this
threat, Ind 6/15 Brig Gp starts toward Batang 6 January
Berjuntai. L UZON After destructive arty exchanges in
N EW B RITAIN Japanese begin air offensive morning, Japanese having the advantage of air
against Rabaul, strategic base in Bismarck Archi- spotting, enemy attacks the overextended delaying
pelago, garrisoned by 1,400 men (principally 2/22d line S of Layac Junction in force and makes limited
Bn of 8th Div, AIF; RAAF detachment; 100 men of penetration; enters Dinalupihan without opposition.
NGVR; and a few RAN officers). Located at Withdrawal of line begins during night 67.
Rabaul are a fighter strip at Lakunai and a bomber Japanese aerial bombardment of Corregidor ends
strip at Vunakanu. except for nuisance raids. Enemy air attacks during
CHINAChinese halt enemy drive in Changsha first week of 1942 have resulted in little damage to
area of Hunan Province. fortifications.
MALAYAOn Ind 11th Div front, Ind 6/15 Brig
5 January Gp reaches Batang Berjuntai area and takes up de-
L UZON U.S. and Filipino troops complete fensive positions S of Selangor R. Kuantan force
withdrawal to new line extending along base of completes withdrawal from E Malaya through Jeran-
Bataan Peninsula from Dinalupihan on W to Her- tut during night 67; continues W in Raub area.
mosa on E. During night 56, withdrawal continues CHINAHaving accepted nomination of Chiang
through Layac Junction, the funnel through which Kai-shek as Supreme Commander of an Allied China
all roads into Bataan pass, final elements clearing it Theater, Chinese ask that a senior U.S. officer be
by 0200 after which the bridge is blown. Delaying sent to China to act as chief of the Generalissimos
position, called Layac line, is formed S of Layac Allied staff.
Junction and manned by 71st and 72d Regts of 71st L IBYABr 1st Armd Div, which has recently ar-
Div (PA), U.S. 31st Inf of Philippine Div, and 26th rived from U. K. and relieved 7th Armd Div of 13
Cav (PS). 31st Inf, the only completely U.S. regt Corps, Br Eighth Army, reaches Antelat. Port at
in the Philippines, has not yet been in action. Ration Derna opens to traffic.
of Bataan defense force and of garrisons of fortified
islands in Manila Bay is cut in half. Bataan echelon 7 January
of hq is established on Bataan under Brig Gen L UZON Siege of Bataan begins as U.S. and
Richard J. Marshall. Japanese continue daily air Filipino forces complete withdrawal from Layac line.
attacks on Corregidor and occasional attacks on North Luzon Force becomes I Philippine Corps,
other targets in Manila Bay area. containing about 22,500 men of 1st 31st, 71st, and
M ALAYA CinC Eastern Fleet moves hq from 91st Divs (all PA), 26th Cav (PS), miscellaneous
Singapore to Batavia, Java. Gen Percival, at con- troops, and supporting weapons. Bataan Defense
[ 810 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 13 ]

Force is renamed II Philippine Corps and consists Natib) with 57th Inf (PS) on E, 41st Div (PA) in
of about 25,000 men of 11th, 21st 41st, and 51st center, and 51st Div (PA) on W, opens fire on
Divs (all PA), 57th Inf (PS) of Philippine Div, and enemy combat team driving down East Road and
supporting weapons. Defense of Bataan as far S as makes patrol contact with it. To W, another Japa-
Mariveles Mts is divided about equally between the nese column advances unmolested down trail from
2 corps, I Corps being responsible for W half and Dinalupihan to vicinity of Album. In I Corps area,
II Corps for E half. Service Command Area is lo- enemy column from Dinalupihan is slowed only
cated at S tip below Mariveles Mts and is the re- by demolitions while moving W along Route 7
sponsibility of Brig Gen A. C. McBride; in this area toward Olongapo. Disposed along I Corps Mauban
are 2d Div (PC)organized on this dateprovi- line (Mt Silanganan on E to Mauban on Subic Bay)
sional infantr y units formed from air cor ps are Co K of 1st Inf (PA); 31st FA bn of 31st Div
personnel, and provisional bn of Navy and Marine (PA) organized as infantry; and 3d Inf of 1st Div
personnel. Defenses on Bataan are organized in (PA). Additional troops are maintaining OPL to
depth: MLR extends from Mauban on W to Maba- front.
tang on E, a distance of 20 miles; OPL is disposed M ALAYA Gen Percival issues instructions for
before the MLR; and rear line of defense, manned withdrawal of Ind 3 Corps into Johore, where final
by USAFFE reserve (Philippine Div, less 57th Inf; stand before Singapore Naval Base is to be made.
tank group; SPM group), is being formed. Corps begins withdrawal at once, executing demoli-
MALAYA Japanese, in strong tank-infantry as- tion program as it goes. Ind 11th Div and line of
sault beginning before dawn, break through Slim communications troops are to delay enemy along
R positions of Ind 11th Div and drive rapidly toward two lines: one covering Seremban and Port Dick-
Kuala Lumpur, reaching positions a miles S of son, and the other covering Tampin and Malacca;
Slim village. Ind 3 Corps withdraws the Slim R line Ind 9th Div is to clear Kuala Pilah and Tampin,
southward to Tanjong Malim, between village of respectively.
Slim and road junction at Kuala Kubu. This action B ORNEO RAF planes from Malaya terminate
temporarily leaves Ind 11th Div ineffective as a action over Borneo with rcn flight over Kuching.
fighting force. Gen Wavell arrives at Singapore. C HINA As consideration of the U.S. role in
B ORNEO Japanese in Sarawak reach frontier China continues in Washington, Gen Marshall de-
of Dutch West Borneo. cides to recommend against sending Gen Drum to
L IBYA 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, patrols to China because of the small effort that is currently
Agedabia and finds that enemy has withdrawn. to be made there.
Convoy arrives safely at Benghazi. Because of rough
seas, this port is not put into full operation.
10 January
L UZON Gen MacArthur inspects Bataan de-
8 January fenses. Japanese make their first surrender demand,
U.S.War Department orders that only Air dropping it from the air. In II Corps area, Japanese
Corps, AA, and service troops be sent to Australia, force driving S along East Road splits, most of it
where emphasis will be placed on rapid build up moving W; both forces reach OPL along Calagui-
of air forces. man R below Samal and exert strong pressure
LuzonFront is quiet as Japanese regroup for against it. Enemy column pushing S in central
drive on Bataan and U.S. and Philippine forces Bataan is slowed by jungle terrain. In I Corps area,
organize defense positions. Japanese W assault force reaches Olongapo without
M ALAYA Gen Wavell visits Malayan front, opposition.
where preparations are being made for withdrawal MALAYAInd 3 Corps abandons Port Swetten-
of Ind 3 Corps into Johore. ham and Kuala Lumpur while falling back to cover
B ORNEO Japanese occupy Jesselton, British Port Dickson and Seremban area. Japanese planes,
North Borneo. which since late December have been making night
attacks on airdromes on Singapore, begin daylight
9 January raids on the airdromes.
LuzonJapanese open assault on Bataan at NEIGen Wavell, Supreme Commander of
1500 From Dinalupihan-Hermosa area, 3 RCTs ABDA area, flies to Java, where he confers with
with arty support move forward, a against II Corps members of ABDA staff; establishes hq at Lembang,
on E and I toward I Corps sector on W. None of 10 miles N of Bandoeng.
the columns reaches the OPL. II Corps, defending B URMA Commander of Ind 17th Div arrives
Abucay line (from Mabatang on Manila Bay to Mt in Burma to take charge of Tenasserim operations.
[ 14 ] [ 1114 JANUARY 1942 ]

11 January reduces part of salient on left flank of 57th Inf (PS).

U.S.Plan to dispatch U.S. V Corps, reinf, Japanese are thus prevented from launching planned
and air and supply forces to N Ireland (MAGNET ) is offensive in that area, but make progress to W
approved. against 51st Div (PA), forcing it back to MLR along
L UZON In II Corps area, Japanese advancing Balantay R. Enemy column driving S in central
down E coast of Bataan drive back OPL of 57th Bataan, with task of turning corps left flank, is not
Inf (PS), cross Calaguiman R, and after nightfall yet in position for attack.
begin assault on MLR, forcing 57th Inf to fall back M ALAYA Gen Wavell again visits front and
a little. Fighting continues throughout night 1112. confers with commanding officers. Withdrawal of
Reserves are committed and 57th Inf counter- Ind 3 Corps into Johore reaches final stage; all
attacks, regaining most of lost ground by dawn of vehicles are being moved through Segamat. Convoy
12th. To W, another enemy column shifts W in with badly needed reinforcements reaches Singapore
sector of 41st Div (PA) and is contained by that and unloads first echelon of Br 18th Div (53d Brig
div. Advance elements of still another column, Gp), AA units, and 50 Hurricane fighters with
pushing slowly S in central Bataan toward 51st Div crews.
(PA), reach, Orani R by morning. B URMA Joint Military Council recommends
MALAYALull develops in ground action as Ind construction of Ledo and Imphal roads.
3 Corps continues withdrawal into Johore, but USSRRed Army has driven deep salient be-
enemy planes remain active and begin series of tween German 2d Pz and 4th Armies on central
strikes against Muar. front SW of Kaluga; deepens it with capture of
NEIJapanese invade NEI at 2 points. Central Kirov.
assault force, with air support from Jolo I., lands 14 January
at rich oil center of Tarakan, off E coast of Dutch
Borneo, while E assault force from Davao, Min- I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES Anglo-Ameri-
danao, invades Celebes at Menado and Kema. can A RCADIA Conference ends in Washington.
Naval paratroop force is dropped on airfield just Among major decisions reached are: agreement to
establish Combined Chiefs of Staff to direct British-
S of Menado. Allied planes are unable to halt enemy,
American war effort; the main effort must be made
and the small Dutch garrisons are quickly over-
first against Germany; occupation of French N
whelmed. Japanese soon put Tarakan and Menado Africa (G YMNAST ) is of strategic importance in
into use as air bases from which to support op- Atlantic area.
erations to S. U.S.As discussions are begun in Washington
L IBYA -E GYPT S African 2d Div of 30 Corps, to consider who shall go to China instead of Gen
Br Eighth Army, attacks Sollum, just across Egyp- Drum, Gen Marshall proposes Maj Gen Joseph W.
tian border, and captures it early on 12th. 13 Corps Stilwell, who is being considered for command of
pursues Rommels forces toward El Agheila, a GYMNAST.
strong natural position. L UZONIn II Corps area, strong Japanese pres-
USSRSoviet forces continue to push west- sure against W flank of 41st Div (PA) forces out-
ward on central front and cut NS RzhevBrvansk posts to retire across Balantay R. 51st Div (PA)
RR line. withdraws to S bank of river to tie in with 41st.
Japanese enveloping column continues slowly down
12 January center of Bataan but is still N of MLR. In I Corps
L UZONJapanese exert strong pressure against area, Japanese start S on W coast toward Moron in
II Corps, particularly on W, while taking up posi- 2 columns, one by sea and the other along trail from
tions for concerted assault. 51st Div (PA) is hard Olongapo. Waterborne elements land about mid-
hit and gives ground, some of which is regained way between Olongapo and Moron and continue S
after reserves are committed. In center, Japanese on foot. Gen Wainwright sends containing force to
push back OPL of 41st Div (PA). On E coast, Moron.
Japanese regain positions on S bank of Calaguiman M ALAYA Ind 3 Corps completes withdrawal
R; to meet threat there, 21st Inf (PA) is released into Johore and assumes responsibility for S part of
from reserve to assist 57th Inf (PS). In I Corps area, Johore; assault elements (Aus 22d Brig of Aus 8th
Japanese detachment moves by boat and seizes un- Div) are designated East Force and disposed astride
defended Grande I. MalaccaSegamat road. AIF Malaya (less Aus 22d
Brig), responsible for NW Johore, is reinf by Ind
13 January 9th Div and Ind 45th Brig and is designated West
L UZONOn E flank of II Corps, 21st Inf (PA) Force. Aus 27th Brig and Ind 8th Brig Gps are
counterattacks at 0600 after arty preparation and astride main road and RR N of Segamat. Enemy is to
[ 1517 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 15 ]

be kept N of line MuarSegamatMersing, if pos- making limited progress on right, is subjected to

sible. Japanese overtake West and East Forces. Many severe pressure and falls back in confusion, W flank
cyclists are killed in ambush prepared near Gemas elements making futile attempt to gain contact with
by elements of West Force. East Force patrols en- I Corps on rugged terrain of Mt. Natib. Entire line
counter enemy from Kuantan in Endau area. On this on Bataan is jeopardized by enemy breakthrough in
date and 15th, Dutch detachment of about 80 native this sector. Japanese encircling force, although in
troops with European officers flies from NEI to position to turn W flank of corps, prepares instead
Singapore and concentrates in Labis area, N Johore, to advance down Abo-Abo R valley. To E, 41st Div
for guerrilla action against enemy communications. (PA) refuses its left flank in effort to tie in with
USSRMoscow announces capture by Red 51st Div and, with assistance of elements of 23d and
Army of Medyn, on central front NW of Kaluga. 32d Regts and quickly formed prov bn, succeeds in
halting enemy. U.S. 31st Inf moves to vicinity of
15 January Abucay Hacienda, on left flank of 41st Div, and
ALASKA Alaskan Air Force is activated at Elm- prepares to counterattack; reserve force, 45th Inf
endorf Field under command of Lt Col Everett S. (PS), also moves toward attack positions. I Corps
Davis. engages enemy for first time. Japanese cross Batalan
L UZON In II Corps area, Japanese, attacking R and attack Moron but are forced back to river line
vigorously at junction of 41st and 51st Divs (PA), by 1st Inf and elements of 26th Cav. Cavalrymen are
gain foothold on S bank of the Balantay. 51st Div withdrawn after engagement because of heavy
commits reserves and service troops to no avail. losses.
Further reinforcements, Philippine Div (less 57th MALAYAJapanese cross Muar R and force Ind
45th Brig from Muar, on S bank; continue landings
Inf) from USAFFE reserve and 31st Div ( ) (PA)
on W coast in Muar-Batu Pahat area, increasing
from I Corps, are sent forward. Japanese enveloping
threat to communications. 53d Brig of Br 18th Div
column in central Bataan arrives in position to
is released to Ind 3 Corps, which places it under
turn corps W flank and pauses to reorganize. Re-
Ind 11th Div command; 2 bns are dispatched to
grouping is conducted to E as enemy threat there
positions W of Yong Peng and the third is held in
diminishes. In I Corps area, the 2 Japanese columns
reser ve at Ayer Hitam. RAF, concentrated on
driving on Moron converge and push closer to
Singapore I, prepares to withdraw to Sumatra.
Singapore airdromes are still targets of daily enemy
M ALAYA Forward elements of Aus 27th Brig
air attacks.
Gp inflict more casualties on enemy in Gemas area
B U R M A 46th Brig, Ind 17th Div, arrives.
before pulling back to main position. On W coast,
Japanese attack and eventually outflank Imperial
Japanese reach N bank of Muar R and land small
forces at Myitta, threatening Tavoy.
party between Muar and Batu Pahat, threatening
communications of West Force in Yong Peng area.
Boundary between West Force and Ind 3 Corps is 17 January
altered to give this region, which Ind 45th Brig is U.S.War Department appoints Gen Breton
defending, to 3 Corps. commander of tactical forces in ABDA area.
ABDA C OMMAND Headed by Gen Wavell, LuzonII Corps counterattacks to restore W
ABDA opens officially at Batavia, Java, at noon portion of line, formerly held by 51st Div (PA),
GMT. Gen Wavell is replaced as CinC India by and makes limited progress. U.S. 31st Inf, moving
Gen Sir Alan Hartley. N from Abucay Hacienda area, reaches Balantay R
MIDDLE EASTU.S. War Department, learning on left but is unable to make much headway on
of transfer of Iraq and Iran to Middle East Com- right. Reserves move forward to plug gap between
mand from India Command, cables the informa- the assault bns. Japanese encircling column begins
tion to chiefs of U.S. Military North African Mis- unopposed march down Abo-Abo R toward Orion.
sion and U.S. Military Iranian Mission. In I Corps area, Moron defenders fall back under
enemy pressure to ridge S and SE of Moron.
MALAYAAdditional reinforcements are moved
16 January into Muar-Yong Peng area as enemy continues at-
I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES Representatives tacks and build up. West Force withdraws bn from
of 21 American Republics meet in Rio de Janeiro, Segamat, and East Force releases one from Jema-
Brazil, to provide for hemispheric solidarity against luang for operations in this area.
attack. B ORNEO Japanese force lands at Sandakan,
LuzonIn II Corps area, 51st Div (PA) coun- British North Borneo.
terattacks to restore positions on corps W flank; after L IBYA -E GYPT 30 Corps, Br Eighth Army, re-
[ 16 ] [ 1821 JANUARY 1942 ]

ceives surrender of Halfaya garrison and takes many BORNEO British North Borneo is surrendered
prisoners. 1st Free French (FF) Brig Gp was to to Japanese at Sandakan.
have participated in attack on Halfaya, had the gar- B URMA Japanese seize Tavoy and its airfield.
rison not surrendered. With destruction of enemy Because of this, it is decided to withdraw Mergui
in E Cyrenaica and reopening of communication garrison by sea to Rangoon at once, although Mergui
line from there into Egypt, first phase of Libyan has not yet been attacked. Balance of Ch 93d Div
campaign is successfully concluded. In W Cyrenaica, (6th Army) is ordered to move into Burma.
13 Corps reconnoiters enemys El Agheila position. M IDDLE E AST Gen Auchinleck issues opera-
tions instructions to Commander, British Troops in
18 January Egypt (BTE), and Commander, Eighth Army, re-
stating that objective in Libya is Tripoli and outlin-
L UZON II Corps renews efforts to restore W ing plan for defensive stand in the event the Libyan
flank positions. U.S. 31st Inf is still unable to gain offensive cannot be continued.
Balantay R line on right and is under strong pres- USSRHeavy fighting continues on southern
sure along the river on left. Bn of 45th Inf (PS) front; Germans in the Crimea recapture Feodosia.
reaches the Balantay to W of 31st Inf and is attached
to 31st Inf. 2 other bns of 45th Inf advance toward
the Balantay between 31st Inf and 41st Div (PA), 20 January
but are halted short of objective. In I Corps area, L UZON Japanese contain repeated attacks by
Japanese increase pressure and force outposts to with- Philippine Div (U.S- 31st and PS 45th Regts) on W
draw. Small enemy force is moving eastward un- flank of II Corps while preparing for major assault
opposed to outflank E portion of line. to begin on 22d. After further fighting before Guitol,
M ALAYA Ind 45th Brig, reinf, repels further Japanese retire northward. In I Corps area, Japanese
enemy attacks in Muar-Yong Peng area and destroys maintain pressure and continue infiltration into right
a number of tanks, but landing of strong Japanese flank from Mt. Silanganan.
force a few miles N of Batu Pahat increases danger M ALAYA Br 53d Brig counterattacks W of
in this sector. In evening, Commander West Force Yong Peng but is unable to recover lost ground.
orders withdrawal. Entire Muar front is placed Muar force begins difficult withdrawal toward Yong
temporarily under Ind 3 Corps command. During Peng. Withdrawal of Segamat forces continues;
night 1819, Ind 9th Div falls back behind Muar R, during night 2021, Aus 27th Brig Gp moves from
as does AUS 27th Brig Gp behind Segamat R. Segamat R line to Yong Peng; Ind 9th Div pulls
RAF bomber group withdraws from Singapore I. to back to defensive position to E.
Sumatra. B ISMARCK A RCHIPELAGO More than 100 Japa-
USSROn southern front, Red Army makes nese carrier-based planes attack Rabaul, New Britain,
deep penetration near Izyum, on Donets R in the causing serious damage. Kavieng, New Ireland, is
Ukraine; gains ground E of Kursk. also attacked by air but in much less strength.
B URMA Japanese cross into Burma in force
19 January and begin assault on N Tenasserim, attacking 16th
Brig, Ind 17th Div, on MyawadiKawkareik road,
L UZON II Corps continues efforts to regain near Thai border E of Moulmein, in conjunction
positions along Balantay R on W f lank, 45th Inf with air attacks.
( ) (PS) reaching river in region between 31st Inf USSRMozhaisk, about 60 miles W of Mos-
(U.S.) and 41st Div (PA). 31st Inf, however, is cow, falls to Soviet forces.
under increasingly strong pressure. Enemy column
driving down Abo-Abo R valley reaches positions
near Guitol and is engaged by 31st Div and elements 21 January
of 21st Div (PA). I Corps restores OPL in counter- LuzonIn II Corps area, Japanese continue
attack but is forced to abandon it after nightfall. preparations for offensive, massing assault forces on
Elements of 92d Inf (PA) are sent to block enemy extreme W flank of corps; contain further attempts
infiltrators from Mt Silanganan, on corps E flank. of Philippine Div to restore W flank positions. In I
M ALAYA Bitter fighting continues in Muar- Corps area, small enemy force, having circled about
Yong Peng area. 53d Brig of Br 18th Div, under E flank of corps, reaches West Road in area 4 miles
command of Ind 11th Div, takes responsibility for E of Mauban and blocks it, cutting off 1st Div troops
strategic positions W of Yong Penga defile and along MLR from forces to S. Forces that can be
bridgebut loses them. Muar force (Ind 45th Brig spared from other sectors attack the Japanese block
and 2 Aus bns), now isolated, is ordered to with- from N and S but are unable to reduce it.
draw. M ALAYA Withdrawal of defense forces from
[ 2223 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 17 ]

Muar and Segamat fronts continues. Commander of East Force repels enemy attempt to cross river at
West Force is placed in charge of all troops on Yong Mersing. Partly trained Ind 44th Brig, reinf, and
Peng-Muar road. Muar force is supplied by air. East 7,000 Ind reinforcements arrive at Singapore.
Force patrols ambush enemy force driving on M A K A S S A R S T R A I T U.S. submarine attacks
Mersing. enemy convoy.
CELEBES SEAEnemy convoy is observed mov- B URMA Ind 16th Brig breaks off action in
ing S in Celebes Sea. Kawkareik area and falls back toward Moulmein.
B ISMARCK A RCHIPELAGO Japanese planes con- L I BYA Continuing swif tly eastward, Axis
tinue preinvasion bombardment of Rabaul (New forces occupy Agedabia.
Britain) and Kavieng (New Ireland). At Rabaul,
the only coastal battery is destroyed.
N EW G UINEA Japanese begin air offensive 23 January
against New Guinea with 50-plane attack on Lae- U.S.Gen Stilwell, in Washington, accepts
Salamaua area. China assignment and takes over part of staff pre-
CHINAChinese Government accepts proposal viously selected by Gen Drum.
that Gen Stilwell act as chief of the Generalissimos LuzonPhilippine Div, on II Corps W flank,
Allied staff and agrees to give him executive au- withstands increasingly heavy pressure. After night-
thority over Allied units. Ch 49th Div (6th Army) fall, II Corps begins withdrawal to final defense
is authorized to move into Burma. line. In I Corps area, Japanese maintain heavy pres-
L IBYA Axis forces, with strong air support, sure against Mauban MLR and frustrate further
go on the offensive in W Cyrenaica, pushing rapidly attempts to reduce roadblock on West Road. In
eastward in 3 columns astride main road. Br Eighth Service Command Area, enemy amphibious force
Armys 13 Corps commander orders withdrawal to heading for Caibobo Pt, having lost its way during
line AgedabiaEl Haseiat at once and a further re- night, arrives at 2 points on SW coast, both well
treat if necessary; orders Ind 4th Div to check coastal S of objective. About a third land at Longoskawayan
advance toward Benghazi. Pt; the rest land at Quinauan Pt. Gen McBride, re-
sponsible for defense of S tip of Bataan except for
22 January naval reservation near Mariveles, sends Philippine
L UZONGen MacArthur orders withdrawal of Constabulary elements to Quinauan Pt, but they
entire MaubanAbucay line southward to final de- make little headway. Comdr Francis J. Bridget, com-
fense position on Bataan, behind PilarBagac road; manding naval reservation, dispatches sailors and
withdrawal is to start after nightfall on 23d and be marines to Longoskawayan Pt; these, reinf by per-
completed by daylight of 26th. In II Corps area, sonnel of U.S. 301st Chemical Co and a howitzer
Japanese open offensive that forces Philippine Div from the Constabulary, clear Pucot Hill, but enemy
back to positions E and S of Abucay Hacienda, returns after nightfall.
approximately those held at beginning of counter- MALAYARear guards from Segamat and Muar
offensive on 16 January. In I Corps area, elements fronts complete withdrawal through Yong Peng at
of 91st Div (PA), supported by Scouts of 26th Cav midnight, 2324; West Force then comes under
and tanks, attempt unsuccessfully to reduce road- command of Ind 3 Corps, which is to defend central
block on West Road and to reach 1st Div troops still Johore and thereby protect Singapore naval base
fighting along MLR to N. Japanese begin series of until reinforcements arrive. Japanese are to be kept
amphibious operations, night 2223, when bn em- N of line Batu PahatAyer HitamKluangJema-
barks in barges at Moron and sails toward Caibobo luang, if possible. Fighting continues in Batu Pahat
Pt, below Bagac. U.S. PT boat encounters and sinks area, and road from there to Ayer Hitam is closed.
2 vessels. Japanese intensify air attacks.
MALAYASix-day battle on Muar front ends in B ISMARCK A RCHIPELAGO Japanese Fourth Fleet
victory for Japanese. Ind 45th Brig, despite close air lands troops at Rabaul (New Britain) and Kavieng
and naval support during the operation, is destroyed (New Ireland). Small Aus garrison of the important
as a fighting body. Muar force destroys its vehicles Rabaul base is soon overwhelmed. Kavieng is unde-
and weapons and pushes toward Yong Peng by fended. Japanese are now within easy striking dis-
infiltration, leaving wounded behind. Batu Pahat tance of New Guinea.
defense force (detachment of Ind 11th Div) skir- SOLOMON IS.Elements of Japanese Fourth Fleet
mishes with enemy on Batu PahatAyer Hitam road. invade Kieta (Bougainville) without opposition.
Ind 8th Brig Gp, 9th Div, having withdrawn from NEIJapanese invasion forces move S in 2
Segamat sector to positions astride main road be- convoys, one through Makassar Strait to Balikpapan
tween Labis and Yong Peng, is attacked by enemy. (Borneo) and the other through Molucca Passage
[ 18 ] [ 2426 JANUARY 1942 ]

to Kendari (Celebes). Unopposed landings are area and capture Barvenkova, about 40 miles E of
made at both places, but convoy off Balikpapan is Lozovaya; in Valdai Hills sector to N, deepen salient
attacked by Dutch planes. On Sumatra, RAF rein- between Cholm and Rzhev to vicinity of Velikie
forcements from Middle East begin arriving at Luki, where Germans are firmly established.
Palembang, where one of the 2 airdromes is attacked
for first time by enemy planes.
B URMA Japanese planes begin period of in- 25 January
tensified attacks on Rangoon area in effort to de- MIDWAYShelled by Japanese submarine.
stroy Allied aircraft in Burma. L UZON Responsibility for defense of beach
L IBYA Axis troops take Antelat and Saunnu area of S Bataan passes from Gen McBride of Serv-
despite opposition of 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army. ice Command Area to commanders of I and II
USSRThrusting strongly SW from Valdai Corps. II Corps continues withdrawal under air
Hills, NW of Moscow, Red Army seizes Cholm, attack and with Japanese in full pursuit. I Corps
German center of resistance near boundary of Cen- abandons Mauban MLR. Withdrawal of 1st Div
ter and Northern Army Groups. To SE, Rzhev, an- southward begins during morning and continues
other enemy center of resistance, is being en- through night 2526. Diverting enemy attention,
circled. other elements of I Corps press in on roadblock on
West Road from the W. In South Sector, opera-
24 January tions against Japanese at Quinauan and Longo-
L UZONII Corps begins disengaging and with- skawayan Pts remain indecisive.
drawing combat troops. Japanese maintain intense THAILANDDeclares war on U.S.
pressure on Philippine Div and attack covering MALAYASince Batu Pahat must be abandoned
force, but bulk of troops withdraw successfully. at once, Gen Percival orders entire line in central
Situation in I Corps area deteriorates rapidly. 1st Johore withdrawn. Ind 3 Corps is responsible for
Div, exhausted by prolonged fighting along MLR withdrawal operation, which begins after nightfall.
and critically in need of supplies and ammunition, Meanwhile, Batu Pahat defense force fights losing
remains under pressure. Additional strength is battle for that town throughout day. Ind 11th Div
applied against Japanese roadblock on West Road commander sends Br 53d Brig Gp to relief of Batu
without avail. In Service Command Area Japa- Pahat defense force, but most of the column is
nese cannot be ousted from Quinauan and Long- unable to get through. To E, enemy attacks in Ayer
oskawayan Pts. Sailors and marines succeed, how- Hitam-Kluang area are beaten off.
ever, in regaining Pucot Hill and driving enemy BURMAGen Wavell, visiting Rangoon, orders
back to Longoskawayan and Lapiay Pts. Moulmein held. 16th Brig, Ind 17th Div, is disposed
MALAYAOutline plan for withdrawal to Sing- W of Salween R, opposite Moulmein. Ind 46th Brig
apore is issued. Hard fighting continues at Batu is ordered to Bilin area. Lull ensues as Japanese
Pahat. Japanese are approaching Kluang, in Ind 9th bring up reinforcements to vicinity of Paan and
Div sector. Additional units (Aus MG bn and about Moulmein, on Salween R.
2,000 Aus reinforcements, many of whom are poorly L IBYA Speeding eastward again, Rommells
trained) arrive at Singapore. forces seize Msus. Weakened 1st Armd Div of 13
M AKASSAR S TRAIT Battle of Makassar Strait, Corps, Br Eighth Army, is ordered to fall back on
first big naval battle of the war, occurs early in Mechili, leaving detachment to protect withdrawal
morning when 4 U.S. DDs strike at enemy shipping of Ind 4th Div from Benghazi and Barce. Gen
off Balikpapan, Borneo, with good effect. Auchinleck visits Eighth Army hq, where he re-
NEIThe first of a small group of U.S. P40s mains until 1 February. Gen Ritchie revokes order
reaches Java from Australia. for general withdrawal of 13 Corps and orders Ind
NEW G UINEA Allied forces evacuate Lae and 4th Div, over which he takes direct control, and
Salamaua, which are threatened by Japanese. 1st Armd Div to counterattack in Msus area.
A USTRALIA Combined Chiefs of Staff order
Darwin area incorporated into ABDA Command.
B URMA Rear elements of Mergui garrison ar- 26 January
rive at Rangoon. Moulmein is now threatened. L UZON Philippine II and I Corps complete
L IBYA Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps prepares withdrawal to final defense line on Bataan in
to counterattack or, if enemy cannot be contained, morning, closely followed by Japanese. The new
to fall back on line DernaMechili as Axis offensive line, which is to be continuous for the first time,
halts briefly. extends from Orion on E to Bagac on W and is gen-
USSRSoviet forces on Donets front in the erally behind PilarBagac road. Gaps develop in each
Ukraine break through enemy positions in Izyum corps sector when USAFFE withdraws Philippine
[ 2728 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 19 ]

Div as its reserve. Units are hastily shifted to replace 2728. Japanese are contained but cannot be cleared
31st (U.S.) and 57th (PS) Regts in II Corps line from Quinauan Pt. Water-borne reinforcements for
and 45th Inf (PS) in I Corps line. II Corps, re- this position land short of objective, between Anya-
sponsible for E Bataan from coast to Pantingan R, san and Silaiim Rivers, before dawn and put beach
organizes its line into 4 sectors, from E to W: Sector defenders, 1st Bn of 1st Philippine Constabulary, to
A, 31st Inf of 31st Div (PA); Sector B, Prov Air flight. 17th Pursuit Sq, from reserve, and 2d Bn of
Corps Regt; Sector C, elements of 31st Div (PA) 2d Philippine Constabulary, from MLR to N, move
and remnants of 51st Div (PA); Sector D, 41st and against Japanese but are halted about 1,000 yards
21st Divs (PA) and 33d Inf, less 1st Bn, of 31st from shore. Japanese are ordered, upon reinforcing
Div (PA). In addition, beach defense forces are or- Quinauan beachhead, to drive to Mariveles.
ganized as Sector E. 1st Bn of 33d Inf, 31st Div M ALAYA Gen Percival, receiving permission
(PA), and regt of PA combat engineers constitute from Gen Wavell to retire to Singapore at his discre-
corps reserve. Japanese patrol along E slopes of Mt tion, decides to withdraw at once through Johore
Samat almost to MLR but do not discover gap in Bahru and across causeway to Singapore. With-
line, which exists for several hours. I Corps line, ex- drawal is to be accomplished under cover of dark-
tending from Pantingan R to W coast, is divided ness and completed during night 3031. East Force
into Right and Left Sectors: Right Sector is manned meets no opposition as it pulls back. While elements
by 2d PC Regt (less one bn) on E and 11th Div of Ind 11th Divs Batu Pahat force fall back to Benut,
(PA) on W; disposed in Left Sector are elements the rest move to Ponggor R mouth, from which they
of 1st Div (PA) on E and 91st (PA) on W. Beach are withdrawn by sea during the following nights.
defense forces make up South Sector. 26th Cav West Force fights local actions while retiring along
(PS) is held in corps reserve. Japanese open offen- main road and RR.
sive, driving S along West Road toward Binuangan NEISingkawang II airfield, Borneo, under
R. 91st Div (PA) contains these attacks. In South enemy attack, is ordered evacuated.
Sector, Japanese maintain beachheads at Quinauan AUSTRALIA Gen Barnes assumes command of
and Longoskawayan Pts and move reinforcements base facilities in Australia.
toward former. USAFFE sends 88th FA (PS) to W L IBYAAs 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, prepares
coast from II Corps sector, one of its gun batteries to counterattack in Msus area, enemy renews offen-
to Quinauan Pt and another to Longoskawayan Pt. sive, making main effort toward Benghazi while
MALAYAJapanese amphibious force lands in E moving strong diversionary column toward Mechili.
Malaya at Endau and moves rapidly inland. Some USSROn Donets front, Soviet forces seize im-
damage is done to the convoy by RAF planes as it portant rail center of Lozovaya, W of Izyum.
approaches Endau and by naval vessels after it has
anchored, but British lose HMS Thanet in the action.
Ind 11th Div makes another unsuccessful attempt to
28 January
relieve Batu Pahat force, which withdraws by infil- I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES Rio Conference
tration, leaving wounded behind. of American republics ends.
N O RT H E R N I R E L A N D First convoy of U.S. U.S.Eighth Air Force is activated at Savan-
troops arrives. nah, Georgia, under Brig Gen Asa N. Duncan.
L UZON In II Corps area, 41st Inf completes
27 January movement into Sector C line, taking up positions
L UZON In II Corps area, Japanese begin as- between 31st and 51st Div elements. Japanese renew
sault against MLR in afternoon. After feint down attack against corps in evening: some cross Tiawir
East Road, main attack is made against Sectors C R in front of Sector D, where they are halted;
and D. Sector C is thinly manned and in the process others attempt to move forward in Sector C with-
of being reinf by 41st Inf from Sector D. Japanese out success. From W coast, in I Corps area, Japanese
force the outposts back and get small advance group move eastward along corps MLR to 1st Div sector,
across Pilar R. In I Corps area, enemy renews efforts where defense preparations are not yet completed;
to break through MLR on W coast and is again during night 2829, Japanese breach MLR there
brought to a halt by 91st Div (PA). In South Sec- and pour southward through gap. As the enemy
tor, Gen Wainwright sends 3d Bn of 45th Inf to force becomes divided in dense jungle, two pockets,
Quinauan Pt and 2d Bn of 57th Inf to Longoska- called Little Pocket and Big Pocket, are formed,
wayan Pt to dislodge or destroy enemy along SW Little Pocket about 400 yards below MLR and Big
coast. Meanwhile, after preparatory fire from all Pocket nearly a mile behind MLR. In South Sector,
available guns is conducted against Longoskawayan Scouts of 2d Bn, 57th Inf, attack Longoskawayan
Pt, infantry attacks but is unable to clear it. Scouts of Pt and advance two thirds of its length before arty
2d Bn, 57th Inf, relieve naval bn there during night support is obstructed by Pucot Hill. 3d Bn of 45th
[ 20 ] [ 2931 JANUARY 1942 ]

Inf (PS) attacks enemy beachhead at Quinauan is to become principal route for movement of
Pt, but jungle terrain and enemy make progress supplies to USSR.)
slow and costly. At night 3d Bn is reinf by Co B of L IBYAAxis main forces remain in Msus area,
57th Inf. In Anyasan-Silaiim sector, 17th Pursuit but elements pursue Ind 4th Div of Br Eighth Army
Sq and Philippine Constabulary elements push al- as it falls back slowly toward Derna line.
most to coast of Anyasan Bay, but Constabulary, USSROn central front, Red Army continues
fearing counterattack, withdraws in confusion after to deepen salient SW of Kaluga and reports capture
dark. of Sukhinichi.
M A L AYA East Force continues unopposed
withdrawal toward Singapore. Japanese reach Benut 30 January
and continue southward behind Ind 11th Div. Gap P.IGen MacAr thur t akes control of all
develops between the two brigs of Ind 9th Div naval forces in the Philippines.
withdrawing along RR; 22d Brig becomes isolated LuzonIn Sector C of II Corps, efforts to dis-
from main body. lodge enemy from Pilar R bridgehead fail. Inde-
L IBYAInd 4th Div is authorized to withdraw cisive fighting continues along MLR. I Corps makes
from Benghazi since armored elements of 13 Corps, slow progress against enemy pockets behind MLR.
Br Eighth Army, are too busily engaged to assist it. While 1st Div attempts to reduce Little Pocket,
Ind 7th Brig, the last to withdraw, finds its line of elements of 11th and 45th Regts attack Big Pocket
retreat blocked but breaks out to S and eventually from N and S, respectively. In South Sector, 3d Bn
makes its way back to Eighth Army. of 45th Inf, reinf, continues to attack Quinauan Pt
beachhead. 2d Bn of same regt, reinf, supported by
29 January 88th FA battery, pushes slowly toward Silaiim R
U.S.Combined Chiefs of Staff establish mouth.
ANZAC Area, covering ocean expanses between M A L AYA British withdrawal to Singapore
Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia. This reaches its final stage. East Force is the first unit
area is to be under U.S. naval command. to cross causeway and is followed by Ind 11th Div
FIJI IS.U.S. troops arrive in islands. and West Force. West Force delays withdrawal as
LuzonII Corps withstands further efforts of long as possible in futile effort to recover 22d Brig
Japanese to breach MLR. In r Corps area, troops of of Ind 9th Div. Remnants of this brig are eventually
1st and 11th Divs operate against Little and Big ferried across Strait of Singapore. It is decided to
Pockets, respectively, in effort to determine their withdraw Malaya Air Force to NEI except for a
strength and disposition, and evoke sharp opposi- single squadron.
tion. Scouts of 1st Bn, 45th Inf,, prepare to assist NEIJapanese invade Ambon (Amboina),
11th Div in attack on Big Pocket. In South Sector, second largest naval base in NEI, and are opposed
after half-hour arty preparation augmented by fire by garrison of Dutch and Australians. Allied air
of mine sweeper offshore, ad Bn of 57th Inf (PS) and naval forces have already been withdrawn be-
attacks and clears Longoskawayan Pt; enemy rem- cause of enemy air attacks.
nants are being mopped up. 3d Bn of 45th Inf (PS) B U R M A Japanese open strong att ack on
continues to make slow and costly progress at Moulmein and seize the airdrome.
Quinauan Pt. In Anyasan-Silaiim sector, Scouts of
2d Bn, 45th Inf, prepare for attack and are reinf by 31 January
1st Bn of Philippine Constabulary and 1st Bn of U.S.Gen Stilwell, in memo to Gen Marshall,
12th Inf (PA), both of these having been relieved estimates his needs for China assignment and re-
at Quinauan Pt. Co A of 57th Inf is to guard West quests that his staff and any forces that may join
Road. it be called a task force. War Department subse-
M ALAYA Withdrawal toward Singapore con- quently approves designation of Stilwells forces as
tinues. Additional elements of Br 18th Div arrive U.S. Task Force in China.
at Singapore; also, a sq of obsolete light tanks arrives L UZON After air and arty preparation, Japa-
from India, the only tanks to reach Malaya. nese begin attack on II Corps in evening but are
NEIJapanese occupy Pontianak, on W coast halted by corps fire. Enemy regt concealed in bridge-
of Dutch Borneo. head across Pilar R begins withdrawing under cover
I RAN Great Britain and Soviet Union sign of darkness. I Corps continues battle against enemy
treaty of alliance with Iran, wherein Iran agrees to pockets in sectors of 1st and 11th Divs. The pockets
remain neutral; Britain and USSR promise to with- are now cut off from supply. In South Sector, oper-
draw their troops from Iranian territory 6 months ations against enemy beachhead at Quinauan Pt
after hostilities with Axis cease. (Persian Corridor continue with little change in positions. Japanese
[ 13 FEBRUARY 1942 ] [ 21 ]

reinforcements are ordered to the area. 192d Tank Hacheim in order to avoid envelopment. Ind 4th
Bn (less one co) is sent to W coast to help reduce Div; which reverts to 13 Corps command, completes
Quinauan Pt beachhead. withdrawal to Derna line during night 12.
MALAYAMalaya defense force completes with- USSRRed Army continues powerful offen-
drawal to Singapore Island at 0815 and blows cause- sive throughout February but with diminishing
way. For defense purposes, Singapore is divided success as German resistance stiffens with arrival of
into 3 sectors. Ind 3 Corps, under command of Gen reinforcements. Further efforts to break through to
Heath, consisting of Ind 11th and Br 8th Divs and Leningrad and Sevastopol are futile, but some suc-
corps troops, is responsible for N area. S Area, which cess is achieved in other sectors. Soviet forces in
includes Singapore town, is the responsibility of the Crimea are reinforced.
Maj Gen F. Keith Simmons, commander of Singa- N ORWAY Puppet government is established
pore Fortress troops, who has under his command under Vidkun Quisling.
in addition to fixed defenses, 1st and 2d Malayan
Brigs and Strait Settlements Volunteer Force. W 2 February
Area, under command of Gen Bennett, Com-
mander AIF, is manned by Australians and Ind U.S.Gen Stilwell is designated Chief of Staff
44th Brig, with attachments. Activity from this time to Supreme Commander, China Theater, and is
until Japanese invasion is confined to arty exchanges, directed by War Department to increase the effec-
air attacks, and patrolling. Chief targets for enemy tiveness of United States assistance to the Chinese
planes are docks and Kalang airdrome. Government for the prosecution of the war and to
B URMA Moulmein garrison withdraws across assist in improving the combat efficiency of the
the Salween to Martaban. 48th Brig of Ind 19th Div Chinese Army.
arrives in Rangoon and is held in reserve. Another L UZON II Corps attacks to clear bridgehead,
brief lull ensues in ground action as Japanese pre- at first employing 31st Engr Bn (PA) and then
pare for further attacks, infiltrating across the Sal- reinforcing with elements of 41st Inf after opposition
ween and bombing and shelling Martaban. proves stubborn. Enemy completes withdrawal from
E THIOPIA Great Britain recognizes indepen- bridgehead during night 23. In I Corps area, armd
dence of Ethiopia. platoon of 192d Tank Bn and platoon of 1st Bn,
IRANMaj Gen John N. Greely, head of U.S. 45th Inf, attempt unsuccessfully to reduce Big
Military Mission to USSR, which is to advise and Pocket. In South Sector, Co C of 192d Tank Bn
assist Russians on lend-lease matters, arrives at Basra, assists Scouts in another attack on Quinauan Pt
Iraq; from there proceeds to Tehran, Iran, where he beachhead, but results are no more satisfactory.
establishes his hq. Other Scout bns 2d Bn of 45th Inf; 3d and 1st
Bns of 57th Inf) attack abreast to clear Anyasan
1 February Silaiim sector, making slow progress except on left,
G I L B E RT A N D M A R S H A L L Is.Units of U.S. where no opposition is met.
Pacific Fleet make surprise air and naval attacks E RITREA Personnel of U.S. North African
on Japanese air and naval bases at Roi, Kwajalein, Mission embarked on Siboney reach Massawa.
Wotje, Taroa, and Jaluit Islands in the Marshall L I BYA Gen Auchinleck orders Br Eighth
group and Makin in the Gilbert group, severely Army to hold Tobruk as a supply base for future
damaging enemy shipping and aircraft facilities. offensive.
L UZONII Corps prepares to attack in Sector C
to clear enemy bridgehead from which Japanese 3 February
continue to withdraw. I Corps continues efforts to L UZON II Corps, finding enemy bridgehead
reduce pockets S of MLR with negligible success. clear, advances OPL in that sector. I Corps con-
In South Sector, Scouts renew battle against tinues to make little headway against enemy pockets
Quinauan Pt beachhead but progress is still limited. in sectors of 1st and 11th Divs. In South Sector,
Scout casualties by this time are estimated at 50 Scouts and tanks are still unable to make much
percent. Japanese reinforcements for Quinauan Pt progress against Quinauan Pt beachhead. Progress
are spotted, night 12, and attacked by remaining is also limited in AnyasanSilaiim sector although
4 P40s of FEAF, motor torpedo boats, and arty tanks of 192d Tank Bn and arty assist Scouts there.
and infantry weapons from shore. Enemy is forced NEIJapanese begin preinvasion air attacks on
to land instead in AnyasanSilaiim area. Java. From Kendari, Celebes, enemy aircraft strike
E RITREA Placed under command of GHQ hard at Soerabaja, Madionen, and Malang.
MEF. N EW G UINEA Japanese begin bombing Port
L IBYAGen Ritchie orders general withdrawal Moresby, garrisoned by small Aus force.
of 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, to line GazalaBir BURMA Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek agrees
[ 22 ] [ 58 FEBRUARY 1942 ]

to let Ch 5th Army take over Toungoo front. Bal- 6 February

ance of Ch 6th Army is ordered to move into U.S.Naval Coastal Frontiers are redesignated
Burma. Ind 48th Brig is ordered to zone of Ind Sea Frontiers.
17th Div, under which it is to fight. L UZONIn I Corps area, Japanese receive rein-
forcements and attack late in day to relieve pockets.
4 February While some elements increase pressure against 1st
P.I.USAFFE takes direct control of Panay and and 11th Philippine Divs, others drive toward Big
Mindoro garrisons, which were previously part of Pocket until stopped by 11th Div 800 yards from
VisayanMindoro Force, established early in objective. Small salient in corps MLR is thus formed
January under command of Brig Gen William F. and called Upper Pocket. In Manila Bay area, Japa-
Sharp. nese arty, emplaced along S shore of Manila Bay in
L UZON II Corps front is relatively quiet. In vicinity of Ternate, begins daily bombardment of
I Corps area, Japanese in Big Pocket repel still fortified islands. Forts Drum and Frank receive
another tank-infantry attack. In South Sector, Scouts main weight of shells.
and tanks continue attack against Quinauan Pt and NEIJapanese now hold Samarinda, on E coast
this time succeed in compressing enemy into small of Dutch Borneo.
area at tip. In AnyasanSilaiim sector, tank-infantry 7 February
attacks against enemy still make slow progress.
MADOERA STRAITU.S.Dutch naval force of 4 P ACIFIC ANZAC Force is placed under com-
cruisers and. 7 DDs, under command of Rear Adm mand of Vice Adm Herbert F. Leary, USN.
Karel W. Doorman of Royal Netherlands Navy, L UZON I Corps opens all-out attack, under
command of CG, Left Sector, against enemy pockets
sets out to attack enemy shipping off Balikpapan but
and partially encircles both. 1st Div is employed
is detected and attacked by enemy planes in Madoera
against Little Pocket. 92d Inf of 91st Div (PA)
Strait and abandons mission. USS Houston and makes main attack against Big Pocket from W and
USS Marblehead are damaged in the action. is supported by elements of 11th, Philippine, and
NEISmall Aus garrison of Ambon I. (largely 51st Divs. In South Sector, after Scouts on left
2/21 Bn) surrenders to Japanese. flank come up against enemy positions in Anyasan
L IBYA 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, completes Silaiim area and are brought to a halt, Filipino air
withdrawal to line GazalaBir Hacheim and is for- corps troops and Constabulary bn are committed to
tifying it. Axis forces hold line TmimiMechili. Lull form continuous line from Silaiim Bay to Quinauan
ensues until summer during which both sides con- Pt. Methodical destruction of enemy remnants at
duct harassing operations and prepare to renew of- Quinauan Pt continues. Japanese relief force at-
fensive. British gradually relieve battle-weary forces tempting to evacuate troops from SW coast is at-
with fresh troops as they become available. tacked by P40s and shore guns and forced back to
5 February 8 February
U.S.Caribbean Air Force is redesignated Sixth M IDWAY Bombarded by Japanese submarine.
Air Force; Pacific Air Command becomes Seventh L UZONLt Gen Masaharu Homma orders gen-
Air Force; Alaskan Air Force is redesignated eral withdrawal northward to more favorable posi-
Eleventh Air Force. tions where troops can be rested and reorganized
L UZONI Corps plans to attack with all avail- while awaiting reinforcements for final assault on
able forces against enemy pockets. In South Sector, Bataan. I Corps continues battle to destroy Little
Japanese are driven to edge of cliff overlooking and Big Pockets and completely encircles latter.
beaches at Quinauan Pt. Little progress is made Japanese escape from Little Pocket through small
against enemy in AnyasanSilaiim sector. gap on E during night 89. In South Sector, resist-
SINGAPORE Convoy bringing final elements of ance on Quinauan Pt ends after small naval craft
Br 18th Div and some Ind reinforcements arrives. from Mariveles neutralize beaches, then land party
Slowest ship of the convoy, Empress of Asia, is sunk of 21st Pursuit Sq, which works inland and meets
by enemy planes before reaching destination. Scouts pushing toward beaches. Co of 57th Inf and
Japanese air attacks on docks at Singapore prevent platoon of 37-mm. guns are released at Quinauan for
other ships of the convoy from unloading some of action against enemy in AnyasanSilaiim sector.
their cargo. Japanese make final attempt to withdraw forces from
B URMA Gen Wavell again visits Burma and SW coast by water and succeed in rescuing 34.
inspects situation W of the Salween opposite S INGAPORE Japanese intensify bombardment
Moulmein. and about 2045 begin landing in force on NW coast;
[ 914 FEBRUARY 1942 ] [ 23 ]

despite opposition at beaches, gain firm bridge- BURMAAdditional enemy forces cross Salween
head and start toward Tengah airfield, driving in Paan area and engulf bn of Ind 46th Brig.
wedge in Aus line in W Area.
NEW BRITAINJapanese seize Gasmata.
12 February
9 February U.S.Tenth Air Force is activated at Patterson
L UZON In I Corps area, Japanese remnants Field, Ohio, and assigned to Gen Stilwell.
from Little Pocket are destroyed while seeking to L UZON I Corps regains important trail junc-
escape. 1st Div is now free to join in battle against tion unopposed. In South Sector, Japanese try
Big Pocket, which is being compressed and from desperately to escape from Silaiim Pt; break through
which Japanese are trying to escape. In South Sec- Philippine line, but are overtaken as they push N
tor, 2d Bn of 57th (PS) replaces 3d Bn in center of toward Silaiim R and are forced steadily toward the
line in AnyasanSilaiim region and makes limited sea:
progress against enemy. SINGAPORE Japanese attack strongly at several
S INGAPORE Although reinforcements are sent points and make further gains. During night 1213,
to W Area from other sectors, Japanese reach Ten- beach defense forces on E and SE coasts are with-
gah airfield. In evening, additional enemy land in drawn to strengthen defense perimeter around town
area just W of causeway. Gen Percival orders gar- of Singapore. Supply situation is deteriorating
rison to defend S part of the island, where Singa- rapidly.
pore town, Kalang airdrome, the reservoirs, and M EDITERRANEAN 3 supply ships leave Alex-
supply depots are located. Far East War Council andria (Egypt) for Malta, but all are lost to enemy
meets for the last time. before reaching destination.
U.K.Pacific War Council, composed of rep- E NGLISH C HANNEL German warships Scharn-
resentatives from Great Britain, Australia, Nether- horst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen proceed from
lands East Indies, and New Zealand, is formed in Brest up English Channel under attack by RAF
London. and air arm of Royal Navy.
10 February
CHRISTMAS I.U.S. detachment arrives.
13 February
MIDWAYShelled by enemy submarine. W ESTERN H EMISPHERE U.S. and Canada ap-
L UZONI Corps is rapidly reducing Big Pocket. prove construction of U.S. Militar y Highway
South Sector forces are compressing Japanese in through Canada to Alaska.
AnyasanSilaiim area. CANTON I.U.S. detachment arrives.
S INGAPORE Gen Wavell visits Singapore and L UZONI Corps, after searching entire area of
orders the island held and all remaining RAF per- Big Pocket without finding any live Japanese, turns
sonnel withdrawn to NEI. Japanese deepen pene- its full attention to the salient, Upper Pocket, in
tration to supply depot area. AIF Malaya, which is MLR. Elements released from the Big Pocket assault
further reinf in W Area, falls back to line Kranji force join in the battle. In South Sector, troops
Jurong, partially prepared switch line position; is complete destruction of enemy in Silaiim area.
later forced from this line. S INGAPOREJapanese further compress British
NEIJapanese ,continue conquest of Borneo on Singapore. Main thrusts are against W part of S
and Celebes; on Celebes, land force at Makassar. Area; Br forward units pull back, night 1314, to
B URMA 46th Brig, Ind 17th Div, which has cover Alexandra area, where main ordnance depot
recently relieved Ind 16th Brig along the Salween and ammunition magazine are located. All remain-
in Martaban area, begins fighting withdrawal from ing Br shippingsmall ships and other light craft
Martaban toward Thaton, since Japanese have by- sail from Singapore, night 1314. Some personnel
passed Martaban. are withdrawn in these vessels among them Rear
Adm, Malaya, and Air Officer Commanding, Far
11 February East.
L UZON I Corps makes substantial progress NEIJapanese overrun Bandjermasin, key
against Big Pocket, but enemy succeeds in with- point in SE Borneo.
drawing through gap on N side. In South Sector,
Japanese fall back to Silaiim Pt, between Silaiim
and Anyasan Rivers, under pressure. 14 February
SINGAPORE Japanese gain further ground; drop L UZON I Corps further reduces salient in
appeals for the garrison to surrender. MLR, which is now about half its original size.
[ 24 ] [ 1518 FEBRUARY 1942 ]

ABDA C OMMAND Vice Adm Conrad E. L. Hel- 148th FA Regt, less one bn), sails from Darwin.
frich of Royal Netherlands Navy succeeds Adm Hart The units are to secure Penfoie airdrome, the only
as commander of ABDA Combined Naval staging point on Timor for flights to Java.
Striking Force. B URMA Ind 17th Div begins withdrawal be-
S INGAPORE Japanese continue to make main hind Bilin R line, 46th Brig abandoning Thaton.
effort against W part of S Area and gain ground Japanese follow closely and try to outflank div.
near Alexandra. Water supply of garrison is in
danger of failing within a short time. Supplies of
food and ammunition are also dwindling rapidly. 16 February
Br flotilla withdrawing from Singapore is attacked C ARIBBEAN S EA German submarines attack
by enemy naval and air forces in approaches to Aruba I., off coast of Venezuela.
Bangka Strait and suffers heavily. Boat carrying L UZON I Corps reduces salient in MLR to
Rear Adm, Malaya, and Air Officer Commanding, area 75 by 100 yards. In South Sector, enemy rem-
Far East, is driven ashore on small deserted island nants from Silaiim Pt, attempting to escape north-
where the men later perish. ward, are detected about 7 miles from the point
NEIJapanese invade Sumatra, dropping para- and destroyed in 2-day fight. In Manila Bay area,
troopers in Palembang area after air attack on Japanese destroy section of pipeline on Cavite shore
Palembang I airdrome. Small force defending air- through which Fort Frank on Carabao I. received
drome ( 150 Dutch infantry and about 60 RAF fresh water. Distillation plant is put into operation
ground defense gunners) is forced to withdraw to- at Fort Frank.
ward W coast, Japanese having blocked road to NEIWithdrawal of Br personnel and opera-
town of Palembang. Allied naval TF moves N to tional aircraft from Sumatra to Java is completed.
engage enemy shipping in Bangka Strait but comes Equipment is left behind at Oesthaven. Allied con-
under heavy air attack and retires to base. Palem- voy bound for Timor is recalled to Darwin because
bang-based aircraft are attacking enemy shipping in of heavy attacks by Japanese planes.
Bangka Strait and cannot be notified in time to
intercept invasion force.
I RAQ Siboney reaches Basra where American 17 February
civilian construction force debarks and proceeds by BORA BORA U.S. Army units arrive.
lorry to Umm Qasr, hq of Iranian District engineer, L UZONI Corps completely restores MLR with-
to begin construction projects. Cargo does not arrive out opposition as enemy continues to withdraw.
at Umm Qasr until end of month. B URMA Japanese maintain pressure against
Ind 17th Div along Bilin R and continue outflank-
15 February ing attempts.
L UZON In II Corps area, Japanese attack in M IDDLE E AST Gen Auchinleck is ordered to
limited strength to ease pressure against troops release a more divs for action in Far EastBr 70th
withdrawing northward from I Corps sector. I and Aus 9th. Aus 9th Div is subsequently allowed
Corps continues to make steady progress against to remain in Middle East.
salient in MLR.
S INGAPORE Malayan campaign ends with sur- 18 February
render of Singapore, W anchor of Malay Barrier,
to Japanese. Gen Percival meets with Japanese com- U.S.War Department orders overseas con-
mander, Gen Tomoyuki Yamashita, and surrenders tract activities throughout the world militarized.
his forces (more than 64,000 troopsIndian, British, All civilian contract activities are to be terminated
and Australian) unconditionally, effective at night- by 18 August 1942.
fall. NEIJapanese invade Bali, off E coast of Java,
NEIJapanese invasion fleet enters river mouth landing on SE coast, night 1819. This completes
near Palembang, Sumatra, and unloads troops de- isolation of Java. Br volunteer party from Batavia
spite repeated and costly attacks by aircraft from (Java) sails to Oesthaven (Sumatra), where equip-
Palembang II airdrome. Dutch and RAF personnel ment is salvaged and demolitions are performed
withdraw from Palembang, where demolition of without interference from enemy.
refineries is only partially completed. Br personnel BURMASituation of Ind 17th Div deteriorates
holding landing grounds in central and N Sumatra as Japanese gain foothold on W bank of Bilin R
are ordered to W coast for withdrawal. near Bilin and continue pressure on flanks. TFs
AUSTRALIA Allied convoy with reinforcements are formed by Burma Army to protect Pegu from
for Koepang, Timor (Aus 2/4 Pioneer Bn and U.S. SE and sea approaches to Syriam.
[ 1924 FEBRUARY 1942 ] [ 25 ]

19 February 22 February
BADOENG STRAIT Combined Allied naval force U.S.President Roosevelt orders Gen Mac-
under Adm Doorman, Royal Netherlands Navy, Arthur to leave the Philippines.
attacks enemy vessel off Bali, night 1920. Although B URMA Japanese open strong attacks against
considerable damage is believed to have been done 2 brigs of Ind 17th Div E of Sittang R in Mokpalin
to enemy, Dutch DD Piet Hein is sunk and other area before withdrawal through Sittang bridge
Allied vessels are damaged. bottleneck can be accomplished.
A USTRALIA Darwin undergoes destructive at- U.K.Hq of U.S. Army Bomber Command,
tack by Japanese planes from carriers in Banda Sea USAFBI, is established under Gen Eaker.
and ground base at Kendari. Most of the shipping
in the harbor, including USS Peary (DD), is de-
stroyed. Virtually all the aircraft crowded on the 23 February
airfield are demolished. This is the greatest single I NTERNATIONAL A GREEMENTS U.S. and Great
Japanese air effort since attack on Pearl Harbor. Britain sign mutual-aid agreement on settlement of
B URMA Ind 17th Div continues to defend lend-lease obligations.
Bilin R line throughout day but is ordered to fall U.S.Enemy submarine shells Bankline Oil
back after dark. Mandalay receives its first enemy Refinery near Santa Barbara, California. This is the
air attack. first attack of the war on U.S. mainland.
20 February makes first attack against Rabaul, New Britain. 6
B17s from Townsville, Australia, strike with un-
U.S.Grants billion-dollar loan to USSR.
observed results.
L UZON In Manila Bay area, Japanese arty
NEIJapanese report conquest of Ambon
bombardment of fortified islands reaches peak
completed. Gen Brett flies from Java, which is in
imminent danger, to Australia.
NEIJapanese invade Timor, where Aus
BURMAViolent fighting for Sittang R bridge-
2/40th Bn defends Penfoie airdrome.
head continues. Ind 17th Div destroys Sittang bridge
S OUTH P ACIFIC Newly formed U.S. naval TF,
at 0530 to prevent enemy from using it, although
consisting of USS Lexington with screen of cruisers
16th and 46th Brigs are still E of the river. Rem-
and DDs, heads toward Rabaul, New Britain, to
nants of these brigs eventually cross in small craft or
disperse Japanese concentrations but when attacked
by swimming, but battle of Sittang bridgehead is
by enemy planes withdraws without executing
disastrous for Ind 17th Div; 46th Brig must be
mission. Japanese suffer heavy plane losses and
broken up to provide replacements.
postpone operations scheduled against New Guinea.
MIDDLE EAST Auchinleck revises plans for de-
B URMA Ind 17th Div begins withdrawal be-
fense of Northern Front, instructing Br Ninth and
hind Sittang R, 48th Brig leading.
Tenth Armies to impose maximum delay on enemy
U.K.Maj Gen Ira C. Eaker, who is to com-
in the event of Axis offensive.
mand VIII Bomber Command, arrives by air to pre-
pare for reception of U.S. air force (Eighth); reports
to Maj Gen James E. Chaney, CG USAFBI. 24 February
W AKE U.S. naval TF (Enterprise, 2 cruisers,
21 February 7 DDs), under command of Vice Adm William F.
L UZON Lull settles over entire front as both Halsey, Jr., considerably damages Japanese positions
sides dig in and prepare for further action. Japanese by aerial and naval bombardment.
have completed withdrawal from I Corps area; di- NEIEvacuation of Java continues. Gen
versionary forces employed against II Corps are Brereton and his staff leave for India.
ordered back to Balanga area. INDIA Gen Stilwell arrives at Karachi.
BURMA Removed from jurisdiction of ABDA USSRDuring 10-day battle on northern front,
Command and placed under command of CinC, Red Army encircles II Corps of German Sixteenth
India. 7th Armd Brig arrives at Rangoon from Army SE of Staraya Russa. German forces to S are
Middle East; is soon committed on Pegu front. Ind containing Soviet efforts to break through to Smo-
17th Div continues toward Sittang bridge near lensk on central front and to Dnieper bend in the
Mokpalin with Japanese in close pursuit. Ukraine.
[ 26 ] [ 25 FEBRUARY 1 MARCH 1942 ]

25 February 28 February
ABDA COMMAND Is dissolved and defense of U.S.War Department directive gives Gen
Java is left to the Dutch, who are to be assisted by Wheeler mission of expediting flow of supplies and
Br, Aus, and U.S. detachments. equipment to Gen Stilwell.
B URMA Japanese are infiltrating into Pegu NEIAfter severe air attacks on air and naval
Yomas through gap of some 3040 miles that exists installations, Japanese 16th Army invades Java dur-
between Burma 1st Div at Nyaunglebin and Ind ing night 28 February1 March, going ashore on N
17th Div at Pegu, threatening RangoonMandalay coast and making main effort near Batavia. Allied
road. planes attack enemy shipping before and during
I NDIA Gen Stilwell, who receives rank of Lt landing. Adm Doormans naval force, split into
Gen, AUS, confers with GHQ, India, at New Delhi. small groups, heads toward Soenda Strait in effort
to escape from Java Sea; some of the vessels are not
heard from again. Sea Witch, with 27 crated P40s
26 February on board, reaches Tjilatjap safely, but P40s are
P.I.Japanese amphibious force, consisting of destroyed to prevent them from falling into enemy
a bn of infantry and a FA battery, sails from Olon- hands.
gapo, Luzon, for Mindoro. B URMA Br Imperial forces fall back on Pegu
AUSTRALIA U.S. TF bound for New Caledonia from Payagyi and Waw in anticipation of general
reaches Australia. withdrawal.
I NDIAN O CEAN USS Langley (ACV), with 32
fighters on board, is sunk en route to Java by Japa- 1 March
nese planes.
B URMA Hard fighting is developing in Waw M IDWAYMAG 22 is formed from squadrons
area, NE of Pegu, as enemy continues infiltration on the island.
westward from Sittang R. L UZON Japanese 14th Army, during period 6
L IBYA13 Corps is responsible for defenses or- January to date, has suffered severe setback on
ganized in depth over 36-mile area from Gazala to Luzon and sustained almost 7,000 casualties (2,700
Bir Hacheim. 30 Corps prepares defensive positions killed and over 4,000 wounded).
on frontier and has detachment at Giarabub. NEIJapanese, now in undisputed control
of air and sea, make rapid progress on the ground
on Java. Allied planes based on Java are virtually
27 February wiped out, many of them on the ground. After a
final effort to stall enemy by air, surviving air per-
U.S.President Roosevelt, by executive order, sonnel begin assembling in Jogjakarta, the last re-
authorizes creation of joint MexicanU.S. Defense maining airfield in Java, for withdrawal to Aus-
Commission. Brig Gen Raymond A. Wheeler, now tralia. Since Java ports are untenable, Allied naval
in Iran, is named commander of SOS CBI; Gen command is dissolved and ships are directed to
Wheeler is also to continue as chief of Iranian withdraw to Australia. U.S. DDs Edsall and Pills-
Mission. bury and PG Asheville, as well as a few Br corvettes,
P.I.Japanese force lands on NE Mindoro, are unable to make good their escape. Of Adm Door-
where a town and airfield are overrun. No effort is mans original Java Sea striking force (5 cruisers
made to secure rest of island. Enemy blockade about and 10 DDs), only 4 U.S. DDs succeed in reaching
the Philippines is thus tightened. Australia. Cruisers Houston (U.S.) and Perth
J AVA S EA Organized Allied naval resistance (Aus) and DDs Pope (U.S.), Encounter (Br), and
collapses during Battle of Java Sea. Combined naval Evertsen (Dutch) are lost while trying to escape.
TF under Adm Doorman attacks Japanese convoy BURMABurma 1st Div covers concentration of
approaching Java and is decisively defeated. Br DDs Ch 5th Army in Toungoo area. 200th Div of the
Electra and Jupiter and Dutch DD Kortenaer are army, which is already disposed in this area, re-
sunk, as are Dutch cruisers De Ruyter and Java. gains Nyaunglebin and Pyuntaza, on Rangoon
Japanese sustain some damage but not enough to Mandalay road. Gen Wavell arrives in Burma and
interfere with their plan for completing conquest orders Rangoon held as long as possible, at least
of NEI. until reinforcements en route (63d Brig Gp) arrive.
INDIA Gen Wavell arrives in New Delhi from Ind 17th Div returns toward Waw, which is to be
Java. defended.
F RANCE British successfully raid radio loca- USSRSoviet advance comes to a halt during
tion station at Bruneval during night 2728, drop- March. Battle line remains about the same through-
ping parachute force of 120. out month, despite continued fighting on all fronts.
[ 27 MARCH 1942 ] [ 27 ]

Germans are unable to relieve isolated II Corps, 5 March

Sixteenth Army, SE of Staraya Russa, but succeed NEIDutch continue a losing battle for Java.
in withdrawing salient SW of Kaluga; contain Batavia is reported evacuated.
Soviet attacks on southern front, which are extended N E W B R I TA I N Japanese convoy bound for
to region E of Kharkov. Huon Gulf, New Guinea, sails from Rabaul, New
Britain, during night 56.
2 March I NDIA Gen Breton takes command of U.S.
Tenth Air Force, which is at this time extremely
NEIJapanese gain further ground in Java, small, with hq at New Delhi.
where Dutch are continuing to resist; claim capture B URMA Lt Gen Sir Harold R. L. G. Alex-
of Batavia, from which NEI Government has been ander arrives at Rangoon to take command of
forced to move to Bandoeng. Many ships are Burma Army. Gen Hutton remains as Chief of
scuttled off Java to prevent them from falling into General Staff. Gen Alexander at once begins offen-
enemy hands. sive to close gap between Burma 1st and Ind 17th
NEW GUINEA Japanese begin heavy air strikes Divs. Japanese attack Pegu from W and succeed
on New Guinea in preparation for invasion of Huon in entering the town.
Gulf area. USSRMoscow announces recapture by Red
B URMA Japanese continue to infiltrate west- Army of Yukhnov, NW of Kaluga, on central front.
ward between Burma 1st and Ind 17th Divs and
are swinging SW on Rangoon, bypassing Pegu.
6 March
3 March A USTRALIA U.S. TF sails for New Caledonia.
NEIDutch continue losing battle for Java CHINAGen Stilwell confers for the first time
against superior enemy forces. with Chiang Kai-shek in Chungking.
A US T R A L I A Japanese planes strike hard at B URMA Newly arrived 63d Brig, under com-
Broome, where refugees from Java are concentrated, mand of Ind 17th Div, makes futile effort to clear
destroying many planes on ground and in water. block on RangoonPegu road and relieve Pegu
B URMA Fighting continues in Waw-Pyinbon garrison, which is isolated. Gen Alexander orders
area, NE of Pegu. 63d Brig Gp arrives at Rangoon. Rangoon evacuated since situation in lower Burma
is deteriorating rapidly; denial program is to be put
4 March into effect at midnight 67.
H AWAII 2 Japanese planes drop total of 4
bombs near Punch Bowl crater, Oahu. No damage. 7 March
MARCUS I.U.S. planes from carrier Enterprise
make surprise attack on island just before dawn, NEIJapanese conquest of Java is virtually
achieving satisfactory results. completed. Radio and cable communications with
P.I.Gen MacArthur is reorganizing his forces Bandoeng cease. Final reports indicate that enemy is
in the Philippines in preparation for his departure. still advancing on all fronts, that the defenders are
Composite Visayan-Mindanao Force is divided into completely exhausted, and that all Allied fighter
2 commands. Gen Sharp retains command of forces planes have been destroyed.
on Mindanao; the Visayan forces are placed under NEW GUINEAJapanese convoy arrives in Huon
Brig Gen Bradford G. Chynoweth. MacArthurs Gulf during night 78 and under cover of naval
plans envisage the formation of 2 more commands. bombardment lands assault forces at Salamaua and
Maj Gen George F. Moores harbor defense forces Lae without opposition.
on Corregidor and other islands in Manila Bay will N E W C A L E D O N I A Maj Gen Alexander M.
constitute one, the forces on Luzon the other. Patch, commander-designate of New Caledonia Task
NEIDutch continue fighting on Java and Force, arrives.
report that destruction of principal installations has B U R M A Burma Army evacuates Rangoon,
been completed. moving along Prome road except for demolition
CHINAGen Stilwell establishes Hq, American forces, which are removed by sea. Loss of Rangoon
Army Forces, China, Burma, and India, at Chung- seriously handicaps supply and reinforcement of
king, using his U.S. Task Force in China and Burma Army, which must now depend on air for
AMMISCA personnel as a nucleus. Gen Magruders this. Withdrawal from Rangoon is halted at Tauk-
directive is altered to place AMMISCA personnel kyan by enemy roadblock. Bypassed force in Pegu
at disposal of Gen Stilwell. is ordered to withdraw.
[ 28 ] [ 813 MARCH 1942 ]

8 March Arthur, after his withdrawal from the Philippines,

ALASKA Brig Gen William O. Butler assumes plans to remain in control of Philippine operations
command of U.S. Eleventh Air Force under Alaska from Australia through Col Lewis C. Beebe, who
Defense Command (Maj Gen Simon B. Buckner, will be deputy chief of staff of USAFFE.
Jr.). Alaska Defense Command is in turn under NEW GUINEAJapanese make another landing
Western Defense Command (Lt Gen John L. De- on New Guinea, at Finschhafen. U.S. planes, 104
Witt), which was designated a theater of operations strong, from carriers Lexington and Yorktown make
early in the war. co-ordinated attacks on enemy shipping and instal-
BURMA 63d Brig and elements of 16th, with lations at Lae and Salamaua, considerably damag-
tank and arty support, clear Japanese block on Ran- ing shipping and airfields. A few B17s from
goonProme road at Taukkyan. During period 813 Townsville, Australia, follow up carrier strikes with
March, heavy bombers of U.S. Tenth Air Force attacks on same area. Japanese fly fighters from
transport troops and supplies from India to Magwe, Rabaul, New Britain, to Huon Gulf area and con-
Burma. tinue neutralization of Port Moresby by air.
MIDDLE EASTGen Ritchie is ordered by Gen IRANDeclared eligible for U.S. lend-lease.
Auchinleck to provide diversion in Libya for passage
of convoy to Malta. Supply situation on Malta is 11 March
very serious.
P.I.Gen MacArthur and his family and staff
9 March embark from Corregidor in 4 PT boats for Min-
U.S.Major reorganization of U.S. Army is ef-
BURMABurma Army regroups in preparation
fective this date. GHQ is abolished and 3
autonomous commandsArmy Ground Forces un- for defense of upper Burma. In Irrawaddy Valley,
der Lt Gen Lesley J. McNair, Army Air Forces Ind 17th Div is disposed in Tharrawaddy area. In
under Lt Gen Henry H. Arnold, and Services of Sittang Valley, Burma 1st Div, after successful
Supply (later designated as Army Service Forces) diversionary attacks against Shwegyin and Madauk,
under Maj Gen Brehon B. Somervellare given E of Nyaunglebin, withdraws, except for 13th Brig,
responsibility for Zone of Interior functions under to positions N of Kanyutkwin. Gen Stilwell is placed
Gen Marshall as Chief of Staff. Field forces remain in command of Ch 5th and 6th Armies. Ch 6th
under control of War Department General Staff. Army is holding Shan States. Ch 5th Army, except
Adm King is appointed Chief of Naval Opera- for 200th Div disposed in Toungoo area, is to con-
tions in addition to his post of CinC, U.S. Fleet. centrate at Mandalay.
Adm King succeeds Adm Harold R. Stark, who MALTAMilitary garrison is placed under com-
will command U.S. naval forces operating in mand of CinC MEF. Naval and RAF garrisons are
European waters. under command of CinC Mediterranean and Air
P.I.Gen MacArthur announces that Gen Officer Commanding in Chief, respectively. Lt Gen
Yamashita has replaced Gen Homma as CinC of Sir William Dobbie, Governor of Malta, remains
enemy forces in the Philippines. commander in chief.
NEIJapanese complete conquest of Java and
thereby gain control of entire NEI. With Malaya 12 March
Barrier thus penetrated, Australia is in greater NEW CALEDONIA U.S. TF (17,500 men) under
danger. Gen Patch reaches Noumea to assist in defense of
N EW G UINEA Land-based planes attack Japa- that area.
nese convoy in Huon Gulf with unobserved results. ANDAMAN Is.Garrison of Andaman Is. (co of
Japanese aircraft continue neutralization of points British and bn of Gurkhas) is withdrawn, since loss
in New Guinea. of Rangoon makes it unfeasible to maintain this sea-
BURMABurma Army forces at Taukkyan con- plane base.
tinue northward withdrawal without serious diffi- B U R M A Burma Army est ablishes hq at
culty. Maymyo.
10 March
MIDWAYEnemy patrol plane is shot down SW 13 March
of island. N EW G UINEA Japanese, having gained firm
P.I.Gen Wainwright visits Gen MacArthur positions in Lae-Salamaua area, replace infantry
on Corregidor and learns that he (Wainwright) with naval forces.
will head Luzon Force and that his I Corps will be S OLOMON Is.Japanese force from 4th Fleet
turned over to Gen Jones, 51st Div CG. Gen Mac- sails from Rabaul, New Britain, for Buka, which is
[ 1422 MARCH 1942 ] [ 29 ]

eventually seized together with other positions in ing determined efforts to break through to II Corps,
N Solomons. Sixteenth Army, in Cholm-Staraya Russa area. Red
I NDIA First detachment of U.S. troops (Air Army maintains pressure on enemy on central and
Forces personnel) to reach CBI arrive at Karachi, southern fronts.
having been diverted from Java.
20 March
P.I.Gen Wainwright learns that he has been
14 March promoted to rank of lt gen and that Washington
U.S.Joint Chiefs of Staff decide to continue has placed him in command of all U.S. forces in the
on the defensive in the Pacific with forces already Philippines.
there and to build up forces in United Kingdom L IBYA Complying with request of 8 March
for an offensive against Germany. for offensive action to divert enemys attention from
P.I.Gen MacArthur and his party reach Malta-bound convoy, Br Eighth Army raids landing
Mindanao. grounds in Derna and Benghazi areas after night-
I RAN U.S. Iranian Mission begins releasing fall.
civilian contractors in accordance with War Depart-
ment directive of 18 February calling for militariza- 21 March
tion of contract activities throughout world.
P.I.Gen Wainwright, as commander of U.S.
Forces in the Philippines (USFIP), which super-
15 March sedes USAFFE, establishes hq on Corregidor and
L UZONIn Manila Bay area the Japanese, hav- appoints Gen Beebe his chief of staff. Maj Gen
ing emplaced additional arty along S shore of Edward P. King, Jr., is to be commander of Luzon
Manila Bay SW of Ternate, renew intensive bom- Force.
bardment of fortified islands. Shelling is conducted A US TRALIA Lt Gen George H. Brett, U.S.
daily and in great force through 21 March, despite Army, becomes commander of combined air forces,
U.S. counterbattery fire. Forts Frank and Drum retaining command of USAFIA.
are particularly hard hit. CBIAssam-Burma-China Ferry Command is
B URMA Gen Stilwell is notified that Gen activated. It consists of 25 Pan-American transports,
Wavell, as Supreme Commander, India, is respon- which are soon diverted from mission of taking
sible for operations in Burma. supplies to China in order to supply forces with-
drawing from Burma.
B URMA Burma 1st Div, upon being relieved
17 March on Toungoo front by 200th Div, Ch 5th Army,
AUSTRALIA From Mindanao, Gen MacArthur begins movement to Irrawaddy front, leaving large
flies to Darwin, where he will be in supreme com- area S of Toungoo undefended. Gen Stilwell, now
mand of forces in SW Pacific. Formal delineation of in Burma, issues orders for Ch participation in
this area has not yet been agreed upon. Col Beebe, defense of line ToungooProme. Ch 5th Army
deputy chief of staff of USAFFE, is promoted to is charged with defense of Toungoo. Its 200th Div
brig gen. is reinf by attachment of Temporary 55th Div
CBIAir Vice Marshal Stevenson, command- (T-55th) of Ch 6th Army, which is to move to
ing Allied air forces, moves hq from Burma to Pyawbwe. In army reserve, Ch 22d Div is directed
Calcutta, India. to Taungdwingyi, where it is to be prepared to assist
British in Prome area while Ch 96th Div is to move
18 March to Mandalay. Crippling enemy air attack on Magwe
airdrome reduces the already meager air force
N EW H EBRIDES U.S. Army troops (2 cos of defending Burma.
182d Inf and an engr co of Americal Div) arrive L IBYA Br Eighth Army continues raids on
at Efate to build airfield. forward landing grounds of Axis forces as diversion
for convoy to Malta. Raids are partially successful,
19 March drawing off part of enemys aircraft, but convoy is
B URMA Lt Gen William J. Slim arrives in unable to reach Malta intact and later suffers addi-
Burma to take command of Imperial troops, now tional damage under air attack while unloading.
formed into Burma I Corps. In Sittang Valley, Japa-
nese begin drive on Toungoo and are opposed by 22 March
Ch 200th Div. U.S.President Roosevelt sends message to
USSRGerman Army Group North is mak- Gen MacArthur in Australia expressing his desire
[ 30 ] [ 2330 MARCH 1942 ]

that Gen Wainwright control all forces in the scale operation in autumn 1942 (S LEDGEHAMMER )
Philippines; Gen MacArthur concurs. as an emergency measure if Soviet forces show signs
BURMAJapanese planes make another destruc- of collapsing or main Anglo-American invasion
tive attack on Magwe airdrome, forcing AVG and (R OUNDUP ) in spring 1943 If SLEDGEHAMMER IS not
RAF aircraft to withdraw to Loiwing (on Ch fron- required. Build-up plan for the invasion is coded
tier) and Akyab, respectively. Troops defending BOLERO.
Burma are thus denied close air support. Gen Stil- B URMA Ch 200th Div continues to resist
well, upon arriving at front, begins planning for enemy onslaughts against Toungoo. On Irrawaddy
counterattack in support of Ch 200th Div at Toun- front, Japanese are massing forces S of Prome. RAF
goo. Chinese continue to withstand pressure against planes withdraw from Akyab to India as result of
Toungoo from the S. heavy enemy bombing of Akyab.
FRANCE British conduct combined operations
23 March against harbor installations at St. Nazaire, night
ANDAMAN Is.Japanese invade islands without 2728. HMS Campbeltown (DD) rams main lock gate
opposition. and lands troops who carry out demolitions.

24 March 28 March
U.S.Pacific Theater is established as an area L UZONJapanese, moving into position for all-
of U.S. responsibility by Combined Chiefs of Staff. out offensive against Bataan, feint against I Corps
L UZON Japanese begin intense air and arty and push in OPL of Sector D on II Corps front.
bombardment of Bataan. Luzon-based Japanese Increasingly heavy air and arty bombardment of Ba-
Army and Navy planes begin thorough bombard- taan is lowering efficiency of defense force as well as
ment of Corregidor, continuing through end of destroying badly needed materiel. Efforts to run the
March. During this period night air attacks are blockade and supply the garrison with necessary
conducted for the first time. items have virtually failed, and supply situation is
B URMA In surprise attack on Kyungon air- growing steadily worse.
field, N of Toungoo, Japanese rout defenders BURMAGen Alexander, at request of Gen Stil-
(troops of Ch 200th Div and rear elements of well, agrees to attack on Irrawaddy front. Rcn ele-
Burma 1st Div) and cut rail line and road, thus ments of Burma I Corps clash with enemy at
partially surrounding Toungoo. Chinese fall back Paungde, SE of Prome.
on Toungoo, while Burmese succeed in withdraw-
ing to Irrawaddy front. 29 March
BURMAGoing on the offensive to relieve pres-
25 March sure on Chinese at Toungoo and restore communi-
SOCIETY Is.162d Inf, U.S. 41st Div, arrives at cations, TF of Burma I Corps attacks and clears
Bora Bora. Paungde, but its situation becomes precarious as
BURMACh 200th Div is virtually besieged in Japanese establish themselves a few miles N at Padi-
Toungoo. Elements of T-55th Div arrive N of the gon and on E bank of the Irrawaddy at Shwedaung.
town but do not attack. Burma I Corps is ordered
to concentrate in Prome-Allanmyo area.
30 March
26 March U.S.Directives are drafted for Gen Mac-
C ELEBES Japanese carrier force leaves Ken- Arthur as Supreme Commander, SWPA, and for
dari for Indian Ocean. Adm Nimitz as CINCPOA, for submission to Al-
BURMA Continuing pressure against Chinese lied governments concerned. SWPA is to include
in Toungoo, Japanese seize the town as far as RR Australia, Philippines, New Guinea, Bismarck
line. Ch 22d Div, which has previously been ordered Archipelago, Solomons, and most of NEI. As
to Pyinmana-Yedashe area, N of Toungoo, to coun- Supreme Commander of SWPA, Gen MacArthur
terattack in support of Ch 200th Div, arrives in posi- is to maintain positions in Philippines and bases in
tion but fails to take the offensive. Australia; guard approaches to SWPA; halt
enemys advance on Australia; protect communica-
tions within theater; support POA forces; and be
27 March prepared to take the offensive. POA comprises N,
U.S.War Plans Division issues Plan for Op- Central, and S Pacific, all under over-all command
erations in Northwest Europe, calling for small- of Adm Nimitz, and the first two under his direct
[ 31 MARCH5 APRIL 1942 ] [ 31 ]

command. As CINCPOA, Adm Nimitz is to main- 3 April

tain communications between U.S. and SWPA; sup- L UZONJapanese open all-out offensive against
port operations in SWPA; and be prepared to take Bataan line, which is by now understrength, under-
offensive action. In addition to SWPA and POA, nourished, poorly clothed and equipped, and battle
Pacific Theater is to include Southeast Pacific Area weary. After air and arty bombardment, lasting
ocean stretches W of Central and South America. from 1000 until 1500, Japanese move forward,
Pacific War Council is established in Washington. making main effort against Sector D, the W flank
Inter-American Defense Board holds its first of II Corps, where 41st and 21st Divs (PA) are
meeting in Washington. thinly spread and dazed as result of preliminary
BURMA Ch 200th Div withdraws from Toun- bombardment. 41st, on W, gives way and is ren-
goo under pressure. On Irrawaddy front, Burma I dered virtually ineffective as a fighting force,
Corps TF falls back to Prome from Paungde area, although regt on extreme W succeeds in withdraw-
leaving vehicles behind at Shwedaung. During night ing in an orderly fashion. Bn on W flank of 21st Div
3031, Japanese attack Ind 63d Brig at Prome and is forced to pull back. Effort to re-establish line of
soon breach defenses, exposing right flank of Ind 41st Div after dark is partially successful. The only
17th Div. corps reserve unit, 33d Inf (PA), less 1st Bn, is
ASCENSION I.First detachment of U.S. forces released to Sector D as is Prov Tank Gp ( ) of
arrives to build airstrip on this small island, which Luzon Force reser ve. In I Corps sector to W,
lies about midway between South America and Japanese succeed in reaching MLR on E f lank but
Africa. are unable to pierce it.
B URMA Burma I Corps continues northward
31 March withdrawal from Allanmyo area although not under
BURMACh 200th Div makes contact with Ch enemy pressure. In Sittang Valley, Gen Stilwell
22d Div N of Toungoo and withdraws N of Pyin- begins deploying Chinese for stand at Pyinmana.
mana as reserve. With loss of Toungoo, road to Ch 22d Div is to fall back gradually on Pyinmana,
Mawchi is left undefended and Japanese, during where Ch 96th Div is to take over.
next few days, overrun small Ch garrison at Maw- M IDDLE E AS T India is removed from U.S.
chi; continue E, forcing elements of Ch T-55th Div Iranian Missions sphere of responsibility, but Ka-
back to Bawlake rachi remains base for the 2 U.S. Middle East
missions. Gen Wheeler is relieved as chief of Iranian
1 April Mission.
U.S.Pacific War Council holds its first meet-
ing at Washington, D.C. 4 April
N EW G UINEA Japanese from NEI land at a L UZON In II Corps area, Japanese attack is
number of points on Dutch New Guinea coast, from again preceded by demoralizing arty bombardment
Sorong on NW tip to Hollandia, during period 120 in conjunction with air attacks. MLR of Sector D
April; landings are virtually unopposed. collapses as 41st Div withdraws again and 21st Div
B URMA CinC India, visiting front, agrees to is forced from MLR to reserve line in front of Mt
immediate withdrawal of Burma I Corps to Allan- Samat. After nightfall, Japanese regroup for assault
myo area, N of Prome. Japanese continue to press on Mt Samat. Sector C has to refuse its left flank
in on Prome. because of enemy breakthrough. Luzon Force sends
IraqDock construction project at Umm Qasr 2 regts of Philippine Div31st (U.S.) and 45th
is begun after cargo of City of Dalhart is unloaded. (PS)to support II Corps.
USSRStalemate exists along entire line. Ger- INDIAN OCEAN Japanese naval force in Indian
mans of Army Group North are largely concerned Ocean sinks Br cruisers Dorsetshire and Cornwall
during the month with extricating II Corps of Six- near Colombo, Ceylon.
teenth Army from pocket SE of Staraya Russa. MIDDLE EASTCol Don G. Shingler is notified
that he is to head U.S. Iranian Mission, replacing
2 April Gen Wheeler. Iranian projects now have top prior-
ity, and construction project at Umm Qasr, Iraq, is
INDIA U.S. Tenth Air Force flies its first com- suspended.
bat mission, attacking shipping off Andaman Is.;
subsequently concentrates on enemy positions in
Burma. 5 April
B U R M A Burma I Cor ps withdraw s from L UZON After air and arty preparation, Japa-
Prome. nese resume offensive in the II Corps area, concen-
[ 32 ] [ 610 APRIL 1942 ]

trating on 21st Div, which yields Mt Samat and is 8 April

left virtually ineffective as a fighting force. Corps L UZON II Corps disintegrates completely un-
prepares to counterattack on 6th with all available der sustained enemy attacks from ground and air.
forces. Japanese invasion force of 4,852 troops sails Japanese soon discover gaps in Alangan R line
from Lingayen Gulf toward Cebu, in the Visayan held by 31st Inf (U.S.), 57th Inf (PS), 26th Cav (PS),
Islands. 803d Engr Bn (U.S.), 14th Engr Bn (PS), and Con-
C EYLON Japanese carrier-based planes attack stabulary troopsand stream southward at will. In
Colombo. final effort to stem enemy advance, Prov Coast Arty
Brig (AA), serving as infantrymen, forms weak line
6 April just N of Cabcaben, but other units ordered to ex-
tend this line are unable to do so. Gen King de-
L UZON II Corps counterattacks N toward re- cides to surrender Luzon Force; orders equipment
serve line in Sector D but meets enemy attack head destroyed during night 89. Of the 78,000 men
on and falls back. On corps E flank, U.S. 31st Inf of Luzon Force, about 2,000 succeed in escaping
and 21st Div (PA), directed to drive N in region to Corregidor.
E of Mt Samat, are unable to reach line of departure. U.K.Gen Marshall and Mr Harry Hopkins
In center, Philippine 33d Inf, followed by 42d and arrive in London for series of conferences with
43d, endeavors to drive N between Catmon and the British on B OLERO .
W slopes of Mt Samat, but 33d is surrounded and
presumed lost and units to rear are routed. Hq of 9 April
Sector D and W flank troops are thus separated from
rest of II Corps. On W, Philippine 41st Inf, followed L ABRADORU.S. detachment arrives.
by 45th, makes limited progress, but 45th is unable P.I.On Luzon, at 0330, emissaries of Gen
to overtake 41st and 41st becomes isolated. U.S. King start to Japanese lines under white flag to ar-
31st Inf and bn of 57th Inf (PS) are assigned to range for surrender. Gen King surrenders Luzon
Sector C, where line is withdrawn to San Vicente Force unconditionally at 1230, and grim march of
R. Japanese receive effective air and arty support prisoners from Balanga to San Fernando follows. Fall
throughout day. of Bataan permits Japanese aircraft previously em-
A DMIRALT Y I S .Small Japanese naval force ployed against it to devote their full attention to
Corregidor. For the first time since end of March,
from Truk lands at Lorengau.
enemy planes attack in force. Japanese arty emplaced
AUSTRALIA Main body (Hq, 163d Regt, 167th
at Cabcaben, S Bataan, opens fire on Corregidor.
FA Bn, and other units) of U.S. 41st Div reaches
In the Visayan Is., Cebu I. garrison is alerted as en-
emy flotilla heading toward the island is spotted.
BURMAJapanese land reinforcements at Ran-
BURMABurma I Corps is now disposed to de-
goon. Chiang Kai-shek, visiting Maymyo, urges that
fend oil fields, on general line MinhlaTaung-dwingyi,
Taungdwingyi be held and agrees to provide Ch div
a 40-mile front. Chinese are not in position to sup-
to assist Burma I Corps. Ch 200th and 96th Divs are port corps because of a series of contradictory orders.
in position to defend Pyinmana. CEYLON Trincomalee undergoes heavy air at-
M IDDLE E AST U.S. War Department decides tack by Japanese planes from carriers. HMS Hermes
that no fixed installations are to be established in (aircraft carrier) is sunk offshore.
Iranian Mission territory. USSRStrong Soviet efforts to advance from
Kerch area in the Crimea make little headway against
7 April stubborn enemy forces. Germans remain on the de-
fensive on central front, containing most of Red
L UZON Japanese, attacking again in II Corps Army thrusts; on northern front, make slow progress
area with air and arty support, force entire corps against firm opposition toward encircled forces in
MLR back to Mamala R line; this line, too, becomes vicinity of Cholm and Staraya Russa.
untenable, and Americans and Filipinos withdraw
under cover of darkness, 78, to Alangan R. 26th
Cav (PS), released to II Corps from I Corps reserve, 10 April
establishes holding position while line is formed V ISAYAN Is.Japanese invade Cebu I., garri-
along the Mamala. Meanwhile, attempts by Philip- soned by about 6,500 troops under command of
pine Div units to form continuous line prove futile. Col Irwin C. Scudder. Bulk of enemy assault force
Philippine Constabulary regts defending beaches are goes ashore on E coast at Cebu City, the rest on W
ordered into battle line. I Corps is directed to with- coast in vicinity of Toledo. Cebu MP Regt at Cebu
draw southward to Binuangan R line. City and 3d Bn of 82d Inf (PA) at Toledo fight
[ 1117 APRIL 1942 ] [ 33 ]

lively delaying actions before withdrawing inland Mawchi-Loikaw areaare delivered to Ch 6th
from both towns under pressure. Gen Chynoweth, Army. Ch 66th Army, less 38th Div, is to concen-
CG Visayan Force, whose hq is on Cebu, sends 3d trate below Mandalay.
Bn of 83d Inf to defend Cantabaco, where cross-
island highway branches. 14 April
B URMA Patrols of Burma I Corps find that U.K.British Government and Chiefs of Staff
Japanese are moving forward toward the Minhla- accept BOLERO Plan, proposed by Gen Marshall, for
Taungdwingyi. build-up to attack Germany.
GERMANY RAF Bomber Command drops first AUSTRALIA Government approves directive of
2-ton bomb during attack on Essen, night 1011. 30 March to Gen MacArthur as Supreme Com-
mander, SWPA. This is the last of the nations
11 April concerned to do so.
Visayan Is.On Cebu, 3d Bn of 83d Inf fails B URMA Yenangyaung oil fields are ordered
to stop enemy at Cantabaco, and Japanese drive destroyed, night 1415; this is accomplished during
rapidly eastward from Toledo with little difficulty. next 48 hours. Japanese are moving around Ch
BurmaJapanese open attacks against center T-55th Div in Mawchi-Loikaw area.
of line MinhlaTaungdwingyi. F RANCE Pierre Laval is restored to power by
USSRGermans vigorously oppose Soviet Marshal Henri-Philippe Ptain.
efforts to land additional forces on Crimean coast
near Eupatolia. Stalemate continues on central front. 15 April
On northern front, Germans continue to make slow BURMAJapanese continue to press northward
progress toward encircled forces. and are bypassing Burma 1st Div.
U.K.Gen Eaker est ablishes hq of U.S.
12 April Bomber Command at High Wycombe. U.S. Eighth
Air Force, which was originally to have supported
U.S.Gen Arnold, Chief AAF, sends Gen
G YMNAST , is now committed to U.K. instead.
Marshall, attending BOLERO conference in London,
air plan for B OLERO , calling for establishment of
Eighth Air Force in England. 16 April
P.I.Since Japanese now control cross-island V I SAYA N Is.Gen Wainwright places Gen
highway on Cebu, Gen Chynoweth retreats to moun- Sharp in command of Visayan garrisons and orders
tains of N Cebu, where he organizes remnants of him to reorganize Visayan-Mindanao Force for
the garrison for guerrilla warfare. Japanese, employ- stand on Mindanao. Cebu I. is thus conceded to be
ing guns on Bataan and Cavite, intensify arty bom- lost. Japanese force of 4,160 invades Panay at dawn,
bardment of Corregidor. Enemy aircraft continue most going ashore at Iloilo and the rest at Capiz.
to pound the island. Landings are unopposed by Col Albert F. Christies
BurmaCh 38th Div of 66th Army, previously Panay Force of about 7,000 which retires to moun-
earmarked for defense of Mandalay, begins move- tains to wage guerrilla warfare.
ment to Irrawaddy front to assist Burma I Corps in MALTAAwarded the George Cross in recogni-
holding line MinhlaTaungdwingyi. During night tion of its heroism under attack.
1213, Japanese occupy Migyaungye, exposing W
flank of Burma Army.
17 April
U.S.Adm William D. Leahy, U.S. Ambassa-
13 April dor to France, is recalled to Washington for con-
SOUTH P ACIFIC Vice Adm Robert L. Ghormley sultation.
is designated Commander, South Pacific Area B URMA On Irrawaddy front, Japanese block
(COMSOPAC) and S Pac Forces. road N and S of Pin Chaung near Yenangyaung.
BURMAGap develops in Burma I Corps line, Ch 38th Div leaves Kyaukpadaung at night to re-
and Japanese are moving N through it toward oil lieve isolated Burma 1st Div. To S, Ind 17th Div
fields. Burma 1st Div, under pressure S of Magwe, sends out strong columns from Natmauk and
is reinf by 7th Armd Brig (less 7th Hussars). Gen Taungdwingyi to ease pressure on Burma 1st Div,
Stilwells orders designed to avert threat to Lashio but Japanese are not diverted. On Sittang front,
93d Div (less regt) is directed to move to Taunggyi; Ch 22d Div, ordered to delay for 2 weeks in prepa-
49th Div plus regt of 93d is to continue to guard ration for trapping enemy at Pyinmana, is in Lewe
Thailand border; T-55th Div is to remain in area, but because of reverses suffered by Burma I
[ 34 ] [ 1823 APRIL 1942 ]

Corps, Gen Stilwell is forced to abandon plans for Stivers, G1; Col Charles A. Willoghby, G2; Brig
stand at Pyinmana. Japanese continue pressure Gen Stephen J. Chamberlain, G3; and Col Lester
against Ch T-55th Div in Bawlake-Mawchi area. G4.
VISAYAN Is.Japanese claim all of Cebu I.
18 April BURMA113th Regt, Ch 38th Div, drives into
Yenangyaung and finds Japanese firmly established
P ACIFIC Gen MacArthur assumes supreme there; clears 3 of 5 enemy strongpoints. Burma 1st
command of SWPA, USAFFE becoming inactive. Div continues efforts to advance in Twingon area
Gen Sir Thomas Blarney, CinC Australian Military until ordered to withdraw northward, then escapes
Forces, is to command Allied Land Forces; Gen with heavy losses in men and equipment. Threat to
Brett is to head Allied Air Forces; Adm Leary, pre- Burma Road is increased as Japanese columns con-
viously in command of ANZAC Force, is to com- verge a few miles S of Loikaw.
mand Allied Naval Forces. USAFIA, under Gen
Barnes, has about the same supply and administra-
tive functions. USAFIP, under Gen Wainwright, 20 April
remains in the new command structure until its VISAYAN Is.Japanese conquest of Visayan Is. is
dissolution on 6 May. virtually completed. Cebu and Panay are in enemy
VISAYAN Is.Japanese make another unopposed hands, although guerrillas continue to hold out in
landing on Panay, at San Jose. mountain areas. Small garrisons in hills of Negros,
JAPANTokyo undergoes its first air attack of the Samar, Leyte, and Bohol are too weak to interfere
war. 16 B25s of 17th Bombardment Gp, U.S. Eighth with enemy plans.
Air Force, led by Lt Col James H. Doolittle, take off BURMA Ch 38th Div troops withdraw north-
from USS Hornet, standing with naval TF under Adm ward from Yenangyaung toward Gwegyo and cover
Halsey some 800 miles from Tokyo, in morning and retreat of Burma 1st Div toward Mt Popa area. In
at 1215 begin strikes on Japanese homeland, hitting Sittang Valley, Ch 5th Army troops fall back north-
Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama, and Nagoya with good ef- ward from Pyinmana. Japanese continue active in
fect. Search and fighter support are provided by planes vicinity of Loikaw. Taunggyi-Meiktila road is left
of USS Enterprise. After the attack, all bombers head undefended as Chinese withdraw toward Hopong,
for China where they were to have come under con- closely followed by Japanese. 2 bns of Ch 93d Div
trol of Gen Stilwell, but because of poor weather con- reach Loikaw area but return at once to Kengtung.
ditions and the late hour, all crash-land or are aban- Ch 49th Div is ordered to move W.
doned by crews. One lands near Vladivostok and its
crew is interned; 2 land in enemy territory and their 21 April
crews are imprisoned, some of the flyers being ex-
ecuted on 15 October 1942. Adm Halseys naval TF BurmaJapanese overtake Ch 6th Army at
(the 2 carriers plus 4 cruisers, 8 DDs, and 2 oilers) Hopong. Ch 49th Div is moving quickly W as
withdraw safely. This is the first occasion on which ordered, and elements are committed in Mong
medium land bombers are moved by carriers and Pawn-Loilem region.
launched off enemy shores.
BURMA In Yenangyaung area, Burma 1st Div 22 April
drives to outskirts of Twingon; Ch 38th Div clears BURMAGen Stilwell orders Ch 200th Div to
portion of Pin Chaung. On Sittang front, Ch 22d move from Meiktila to Taunggyi to counter enemy
Div is relieved by Ch 96th and withdraws N of moves in Loikaw-Loilem area. Ch 28th Div, 66th
Pyinmana. Ch 200th Div is ordered to Meiktila but Army, concentrated in Mandalay area, is directed to
does not move. Ch T-55th Div collapses under en- move to Loilem via Hsipaw but does not do so. Ch
emy attacks S of Loikaw, and communications be- 96th Div continues delaying action in Sittang Val-
tween it and Ch 6th Army cease. Road to Lashio is ley, while Ind 17th Div, 7th Armd Brig, and Ch 22d
thus uncovered. Elements of 93d Div, which were Div take up positions around Meiktila and Thazi.
to have assisted T-55th, do not reach the T-55th in
time to be of help. 23 April
BURMACh 200th Div, reinf, of 5th Army en-
19 April gages enemy W of Taunggyi. Japanese seize Loilem.
SWPAGen MacArthur appoints staff of Ch 6th Army retires into China.
GHQ SWPA. Among members are Maj Gen Ri- U.K.Germans begin series of retaliation air
chard K. Sutherland, Chief of Staff; Gen Richard attacks on cathedral cities, the first occurring night
Marshall, Deputy Chief of Staff; Col Charles P. 2324 against Exeter.
[ 25 APRIL1 MAY 1942 ] [ 35 ]

25 April NEW G UINEA Japanese order landing at Port

BURMAGen Alexander orders withdrawal to N Moresby.
bank of Irrawaddy from line MeiktilaKyaukpadaung B URMA Japanese overrun Lashio, terminus of
to start after nightfall. Ch 22d Div withdraws from Burma Road, the only land route to China, just as
Pyawbwe and is being encircled in Meiktila area by leading elements of Ch 29th Div, 66th Army, ar-
Japanese. Ch 5th Army force (200th Div and 1st and rive there. Blockade of China is thus completed.
2d Regts of T-55th) clears enemy from Taunggyi but Ch 200th Div reaches Loilem; subsequently with-
is unable to halt drive toward Lashio. Gen Stilwell draws from this area to China. Gen Alexander
confers with Br and Ch commanders concerning decides to make a stand on line KalewaKatha
defense of Lashio. BhamoHsenwi and orders withdrawal to this line
to begin on 2 May.
26 April MIDDLE EASTGen Auchinleck issues operation
instructions to commanders of Br Ninth and Tenth
FANNING I.U.S. detachment arrives.
Armies for action in the event of enemy attack
M INDANAO Japanese detachment from Cebu
sails for Mindanao. Enemy forces already on through Anatolia.
Mindanao are exerting pressure against Digos de-
fense force101st FA (PA), less bn, and 2d Bn of 30 April
102d (PA).
BURMAGen Alexander decides to concentrate MindanaoFrom Cotabato, Japanese move E
on defense of India rather than that of Burma. toward Sayre Highway via Route I and Mindanao
R and reach Piket, about 8 miles from objective.
27 April Philippine forces from Cotabato move N and
guard trails leading N from Route I. The Parang
U.S.U.S. Army Air Services is formed under detachment of Japanese, having left holding force
Maj Gen Rush B. Lincoln to take responsibility for
there and moved NW during night 2930 by
air service from USAFIA.
boat, lands S of Malabang and at dawn attacks
C HINA Gen Stilwell presents Proposal to
61st Inf (PA), disposed along Mataling R, forc-
Organize and Train a Chinese Force in India to
ing it to withdraw 4 miles northward. Action in E
Chiang Kai-shek and gains his approval in prin-
ciple. Mindanao is limited and indecisive.
BurmaJapanese complete conquest of cen-
tral Burma. Br Imperial forces withdraw across
28 April the Irrawaddy over Ava bridge, which is de-
MindanaoJapanese are particularly aggressive stroyed at midnight. Ch 22d Div, after cover-
against Digos defense force. ing withdrawal, pulls back from Mandalay.
B URMA Ch 28th Div, 66th Army, is ordered Japanese follow withdrawal closely and begin
to Lashio from Mandalay, since Lashio is in great action against Monywa, crossing river on night
danger. 30 April1 May. Allied commanders agree that
Ch 5th Army plus 38th Div will move from
29 April Katha to Imphal, India, if line KalewaKatha
BhamoHsenwi cannot be held.
S PACIFIC Adm King establishes South Pacific
Amphibious Force (primarily 1st Mar Div).
P.I.On Mindanao, Japanese begin offensive 1 May
to clear the island. Force of 4,852 men from Cebu
lands on W coast at Cotabato and Parang and takes P.I.On Mindanao, Japanese force driving N
both towns despite opposition of ad Bn of 104th along Route I gains control of that highway as far N
Inf, 101st Div (PA), at Cotabato and of 2d Inf of as Lake Lanao and virtually eliminates 61st Inf (PA).
1st Div (PA) at Parang; 3d Bn of 102d Inf is unable Other forces continue E unopposed toward Sayre
to prevent elements of the Parang force from es- Highway at Kabacan. Fighting in E Mindanao con-
tablishing contact with the Cotabato force. Enemy tinues indecisive. Japanese planes and arty begin fi-
detachment already on Mindanao, having been re- nal phase of preinvasion bombardment of
lieved at Davao, turns NW toward Sayre Highway, Corregidor.
which extends from Kabacan on S to Bugo on N. BURMAJapanese overrun Monywa.
The E and the W assault forces both have air sup- INDIAAir Service Command of Tenth Air Force
port. Preinvasion air and arty bombardment of is activated under Brig Gen Elmer E. Adler, with hq
Corregidor becomes intense. at New Delhi.
[ 36 ] [ 25 MAY 1942 ]

2 May S OLOMON Is.Small Japanese force invades

U.S.Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, in Tulagi, which is soon converted into a seaplane base.
letter to Gen Greely, terminates U.S. Mission to Learning of this, Rear Adm Frank J. Fletcher, com-
USSR since Soviet Government has refused it manding naval force cruising the Coral Sea, heads
diplomatic clearance as a whole. for Tulagi in carrier Yorktown.
MIDWAYAdm Nimitz visits Midway to inspect
MINDANAO73d Inf (PA), reinf with stragglers 4 May
of defeated 61st, attempts to stall enemy advancing P.I.Filipinos complete withdrawal to new de-
N along Route I. Unable to hold at SW corner of fense line on Mindanao and begin organizing it.
Lake Lanao, 73d withdraws N, establishes line from 102d Div, reorganized to include the 2.95-inch gun
lake Lanao across Route I, and delays enemy briefly. detachment, 62d Inf, 81st FA, and 2 PS cos of 43d
Japanese detachment from Cotabato continues E Inf, is stationed in Dalirig sector and 61st FA and
toward Kabacan. Brig Gen Joseph P. Vachon, CG of 93d Inf in Puntian sector. 103d Inf, isolated from
Cotabato-Davao defense sector, places all available rest of force, is to defend Cagayan R Valley. Japa-
forces at Kabacan. Digos defense force, ordered to nese planes are active, but front is otherwise quiet.
withdraw to Kabacan, starts movement during night Japanese air and arty bombardment of Corregidor
23. Cagayan defense sector is alerted as enemy con- reaches peak of intensity.
voy heading toward Macajalar Bay is sighted. SOLOMON Is.Carrier planes from the Yorktown
SOLOMON Is.After enemy invasion force is de- attack Tulagi harbor early in modeling, opening se-
tected approaching Tulagi I., off S coast of Florida ries of Coral Sea actions. A number of enemy ves-
I., in S Solomons, small RAAF garrison destroys sels are sunk or damaged before the Yorktown with-
installations and withdraws to New Hebrides. draws toward rest of Coral Sea naval force.
BURMA Elements of Burma I Corps (63d, 13th, NEW BRITAIN Japanese transports leave Rabaul
and 1st Brigs) attack into Monywa while transport for Port Moresby, New Guinea.
moves about the town toward Ye-U. Action is then BURMABr Imperial forces evacuate Akyab, on
broken off and Burma 1st and 2d Brigs withdraw Bay of Bengal. AVG abandons Loiwing for Kunming,
independently while rest of Burma Army falls back China. Japanese occupy Bhamo and defeat Ch 29th
toward Shwegyin. Div at Wanting. Chiang Kai-shek orders Ch 5th
N A TLANTIC HMS Edinburgh (cruiser) is sunk Army to Myitkyina.
during enemy attacks on homeward-bound convoy MADAGASCARBr naval and military forces un-
from USSR. der Rear Adm Syffret and Maj Gen Sturges land on
N Madagascar at Courier Bay against little opposi-
3 May tion from Vichy French.
P.I.Japanese amphibious force from Panay
goes ashore on Mindanao about 0100 at Cagayan 5 May
and Tagoloan R mouth, in Macajalar Bay, and
presses S along Sayre Highway. Troops of Cagayan U.S.Lt Gen Carl Spaatz is appointed com-
defense sector (PA 102d Div, formed from 61st mander of Eighth Air Force, replacing Gen Duncan.
and 81st FA and 103d Inf) oppose landing but CORAL SEAYorktown rejoins Lexington and the
are unable to halt enemy. In a desperate effort combined naval force (the 2 carriers plus 7 CAs, 1
to hold Sayre Highway, reser ves2.95-inch gun CL, 13 DDs, a oilers, and a seaplane tender) moves
detachment and 62d and 93d Regts (PA)are NW searching for enemy.
committed, but these, too, fall back under pres- P.I.After final day of intense bombardment,
sure. During night 34, Gen Sharp orders gen- Japanese invade Corregidor, landing at North Pt
eral withdrawal. Meanwhile, other Japanese during night 56. On Mindanao, Filipinos continue
forces gain control of road to N shore, routing to organize defense line.
73d Inf, which withdraws into hills N of Lake JAPAN Imperial General Headquarters directs
Lanao. Still other enemy forces arrive at Kabacan Combined Fleet to assist Army invasion of Midway
after Digos force has made good its escape, but and the Aleutians.
are halted there. Preinvasion air and arty bom- B URMA Gen Stilwell, withdrawing toward
bardment of Corregidor continues without let Myitkyina, learns at Indaw that railway is blocked
up. U.S. submarine succeeds in withdrawing 25 and enemy are in Bhamo, so decides to take his party
persons from the island. W instead to India.
[ 612 MAY 1942 ] [ 37 ]

6 May of Allied defensive and paves way for a defensive-

CORAL SEA Continuing search for enemy ves- offensive period.
sels, Adm Fletchers TF moves toward Louisiade P.I.Gen Wainwright dispatches messages to key
Archipelago, leaving DD Sims and tanker Neosho officers in the Philippines, urging them to surren-
behind at fueling point. der their forces. On Mindanao, Japanese renew at-
P.I.Gen Wainwright surrenders all forces in the tack in evening and continue it throughout night
Philippines to Japanese unconditionally. Surrender 89. Defeated 62d Inf is pursued toward Dalirig.
negotiations are begun at 1030 and continued until BURMAJapanese occupy Myitkyina.
midnight, when surrender document is signed. On USSRGermans begin series of limited
Corregidor, Japanese seize Malinta Tunnel and land offensives to straighten lines in preparation for main
additional troops. Garrison of 11,000 surrenders. On summer offensive toward oil fields of the Caucasus.
Mindanao, Japanese resume attack, moving into 11th Army of Army Group South leads off in the
Tankulan and pushing on toward Dalirig, which Crimea, pushing toward Kerch.
comes under arty fire.
BURMACh 200th Div plus elements of T-55th, 9 May
still at Taunggyi, are ordered to Myitkyina and even-
tually make their way to China. MINDANAO Japanese take Dalirig and rout de-
LIBERIAInitial detachment of U.S. forces arrives fenders. Although forces defending Puntian sector
in Liberia. are still intact, their position is untenable and Min-
MADAGASCAR British hold northern ports of danao campaign is virtually over.
Diego Suarez and Antsirene. NEW GUINEA Japanese Imperial General Head-
quarters orders invasion of Port Moresby suspended
7 May T ONGA Is.U.S. troop detachment arrives at
C ORAL S EA Japanese carrier planes discover Tongatabu.
and sink DD Sims and tanker Neosho. Aircraft G A L A PAG O S Is.U.S. troops arrive on the
from Lexington and Yorktown encounter Japanese Galpagos Is., off W coast of South America.
carrier Shoho off Misima I. and sink it as well as
an escorting CL. 10 May
P.I.From Manila, Gen Wainwright broadcasts
terms of surrender to forces still holding out in the P.I.Gen Sharp directs Visayan-Mindanao Force
Philippines. On Mindanao, Japanese break off to surrender. These, as well as small forces holding
ground action but continue to employ air and arty. out on Luzon and Palawan, are reluctant to yield
MALTASpitfire reinforcements are being flown but do so gradually during period 10 May9 June.
in from carriers Wasp and Eagle. B URMA Japanese attack Br covering force at

8 May
SWPAGen MacArthur recommends that an
11 May
offensive be undertaken against Japanese but desires CHINAIn retaliation for the Doolittle raid, Japa-
naval, air, and ground forces strengthened first. nese launch strong drive in Chekiang Province.
B ATTLE OF CORAL S EA Main action occurs as MEDITERRANEAN 3 of 4 Br DDs attempting to
Adm Fletchers naval force encounters enemy force halt enemy convoy are lost to Axis aircraft.
of 2 carriers, 4 CAs, and several DDs, main sup-
port force of a Port Moresby invasion group. In the
first major naval engagement conducted entirely by 12 May
carrier aircraft, Japanese carrier Shokaku is badly B URMA Japanese force heading for Kengtung
damaged. Both the Yorktown and the Lexington are crosses the Salween.
damaged; Lexington is abandoned and sunk after USSRWhile Germans continue Crimean of-
the action. Both sides lose heavily in aircraft, but fensive toward Kerch, Red Army opens 2-pronged
U.S. loss of 66 planes is considerably less than that attack toward Kharkov, thrusting SW across upper
of enemy. As a result of Battle of Coral Sea, Japa- Donets on N and northward from Izyum salient on
nese are turned back from Port Moresby, key point S. Attack at first goes well.
in New Guinea and of vital importance to security U.K.First large detachment of U.S. Eighth Air
of Australia. Coral Sea battle also marks the end Force arrives.
[ 38 ] [ 1326 MAY 1942 ]

13 May U.K.U.S. Eighth Air Force detachment hq un-

F IJI Is.Americans relieve NZ forces of re- der Gen Eaker takes control of all U.S. Army air
sponsibility for Fiji Is. and prepare to reinforce organizations in British Isles.
positions there.
A US TRALIA Rear echelon of U.S. 41st Div 20 May
POAReinforcements are being hastily moved
to Midway and the Aleutians, since Japanese plan
14 May to invade the islands is by now known. In the Aleu-
U.S.Legislation establishing Womens Army tians, work on secret air base on Umnak I. is being
Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) is enacted. rushed to a conclusion. Rear Adm John S. McCain
AUSTRALIA U.S. 32d Div arrives. takes command as COMAIRSOPAC.
B URMA Br Imperial forces withdrawing from B URMA With conquest of Burma completed,
Burma reach Tamu, Assam. Japanese (56th, 18th, 33d, and 55th Divs of 15th
Army) take up defensive positions.
15 May INDIABurma I Corps is placed under command
N EW G UINEA Aus 14th Brig Gp and 700 at- of 4 Corps as rear guard reaches India.
tached Aus AA troops start to Port Moresby to
bolster positions there. 21 May
I NDIA Gen Alexander moves hq from Burma
to Imphal area of India. Gen Stilwell arrives in POARear Adm Robert A. Theobald, as com-
India. mander of TF 8, becomes responsible for all forces,
L IBYABr Eighth Army has completed most of U.S. Army and naval and Canadian, in Alaska area.
its preparations for offensive, but Rommels forces GERMANYAdolf Hitler decides to postpone pro-
are showing signs of forestalling it. jected conquest of Malta, Operation HERCULES,
USSRGermans announce capture of town and until Egypt is conquered.
harbor of Kerch, in the Crimea. Red Army contin-
ues offensive toward Kharkov. 22 May
16 May N EW G UINEA 21st Troop Carrier Sq begins
movement of some 300 troops and supplies to Wau
INDIA First detachment of SOS troops393d to reinforce weak Aus group, called Kanga Force,
QM Bn (Port) and 159th Station Hospitalarrives defending Bulolo Valley. Kanga Force consists
at Karachi. largely of troops of New Guinea Volunteer Reserve
17 May
USSRBattle of Kharkov opens as Germans
counterattack from Izyum area and in region E of 23 May
Kharkov, bringing Soviet offensive to a halt. ALEUTIANS U.S. fighter aircraft land safely on
runway at new air base on Umnak I.
18 May USSRContinuing counterof fensive in
Kharkov area, Germans isolate Red Army forces in
POAU.S. Seventh Air Force is alerted for pos- Izyum salient W of the Donets.
sible enemy attack on Midway or Hawaii.
BURMAChiang Kai-shek orders Ch 5th Army,
which now consists largely of Ch 22d and 96th Divs, 25 May
to take up positions between Myitkyina and Fort
INDIA Ch 38th Div ( 113th Regt, which acts
Hertz. Ch 22d Div survivors reach Ledo area in July
as rear guard) reaches India.
and August. Ch 96th eventually makes its way to
China via Fort Hertz.
26 May
19 May HAWAIINaval TF under Rear Adm Raymond
MIDDLE E AST Gen Auchinleck issues instruc- A. Spruance, built around carriers Enterprise and
tions to Commander, Br Tenth Army, on action to Hornet, arrives at Pearl Harbor from S Pacific.
be taken should the enemy attack through Iran from MIDWAYUSS Kittyhawk brings in additional air
the Caucasus. and ground reinforcements.
[ 27 MAY1 JUNE 1942 ] [ 39 ]

NEW GUINEA Aus Kanga Force is strengthened L IBYA Br Eighth Army defeats enemy efforts
by arrival of Aus 5th Independent Co by air. to break out to coast in rear of Gazala positions in
L IBYARommel prepares to resume offensive, order to gain supply line to forces NE of Bir
moving armored forces around S flank of Br Eighth Hacheim.
Army to positions SE of Bir Hacheim under cover USSRBattle of Kharkov ends as Germans
of darkness. Br Eighth Army is now disposed with complete reduction of Red Army salient W of the
13 Corps (50th Div; S African 1st and 2d Divs; 1st Donets in Kharkov area.
Army Tank Brig; 9th Brig of Ind 5th Div) on N and
30 Corps (1st and 7th Armd Divs; 201st Gds Brig; 29 May
Ind 3d Motor Brig Gp; 29th Brig of Ind 5th Div; FF L IBYAUpon breaching mine fields in center of
1st Brig Gp) on S. Br Eighth Armys position, enemy starts passing ve-
U.K.Anglo-American air conference opens in hicles through gaps despite Br fire. Rommels main
London to consider allocation policy. Among those armored forces, temporarily on the defensive until a
attending are Gen Arnold, Rear Adm John H. Tow- supply route can be opened to them, fall back south-
ers, and British Chief of Air Staff Sir Charles Por- ward under attack by armor of 30 Corps.
tal. 20-year Anglo-Soviet mutual aid agreement is
signed in London. 30 May
POAAdm Fletchers Yorktown force sails for
Midway from Pearl Harbor. Japanese TF (2 trans-
27 May ports, 2 carriers, 2 CAs, 3 DDs) leaves Japan for
Aleutians, where it is to create a diversion for the
HAWAIIAdm Fletchers naval force, based on
invasion of Midway and land small forces on W Aleu-
carrier Yorktown, arrives at Pearl Harbor from S
tians. Initial detachment of U.S. troops arrives at
Pacific. New Zealand.
MIDWAYJapanese Vice Adm Chuichi Nagumos INDIACh 113th Regt, rear guard covering with-
Carrier Striking Force leaves Japan for Midway. En- drawal of 38th Div and 5th Army from Burma,
emy transports depart from Saipan and covering crosses the Chindwin.
cruisers and DDs from Guam for same objective. L IBYA Axis forces, in effort to consolidate
NEW CALEDONIA Americal Div, its name a con- bridgehead at gaps in mine fields, move W under
traction of words America and New Caledonia, attack by Br Eighth Army and RAF. Gen Ritchie
is activated under Gen Patch. decides to counterattack on night of 31st, but ac-
INDIAUSAFCBI SOS Base Section I is activated cedes to request of corps commander to postpone
at Karachi; Base Section 2 (Calcutta) is authorized. attack 24 hours. 1st Armd Brig, which has recently
LIBYAAxis forces open offensive against Gazala- arrived in Libya, is used to bring other units up to
Bir Hacheim line of Br Eighth Army at dawn, mak- strength.
ing main effort on S and staging demonstration on GermanyRAF opens air offensive against Ger-
N. In 30 Corps sector, FF 1st Brig Gp holds detached many with attack of unprecedented scale against
strongpoint at Bir Hacheim against attack. German Cologne, night 3031. Over 1,000 planes participate;
armored columns disposed SE of this village sweep more than 2,000 tons of bombs are dropped.
northward toward El Adem and Acroma and are
opposed by Ind 3d Motor Brig, a few miles E of Bir 31 May
Hacheim, and 7th and 1st Armd Divs to N. LIBYAAxis forces begin assault on Sidi Muftah,
detached strongpoint of 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army,
28 May and are engaged by 150th Brig of 50th Div, to whom
armored assistance is rushed. Later, 13 Corps be-
POAMain body of Japanese naval force under gins preliminary phase of general counterattack but
command of Adm Isoroko Yamamoto leaves Japan makes little headway.
for Midway. From Pearl Harbor, Adm Spruances
naval force also heads for Midway. U.S. troop de-
tachment (500 from the Efate garrison) arrives at 1 June
Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, where bomber strip AUSTRALIA Japanese midget submarines enter
is to be built to support invasion of the Solomons. Sydney harbor and sink an Aus boat.
C H I N A Chinese withdraw from Kinhwa, L IBYAContinuing attack on Sidi Muftah, en-
Chekiang Province, under pressure. emy wipes out 150th Brig of 50th Div and much of
BURMAJapanese seize Kengtung. 1st Army Tank Brig assisting it. Lull ensues as
[ 40 ] [ 28 JUNE 1942 ]

Br Eighth Army prepares for general counterattack 5 June

and enemy strengthens his salient. U.S.Declares war on Bulgaria, Hungary, and
2 June M IDWAY Despite poor visibility, U.S. planes
POANaval TFs of Adms Fletcher and pursue enemy force retreating from Midway and
Spruance rendezvous 350 miles NE of Midway. The score damaging hits.
combined force (3 carriers, 7 CAs, 1 CL, 13 DDs, L IBYABr Eighth Army counterattack ends in
and 25 submarines), under command of Adm failure. 13 Corps 69th Brig (50th Div), supported
Fletcher, moves to point about 200 miles N of Mid- by 32d Army Tank Brig, attacks enemy salient from
way. Reconnoitering from the Aleutians, PBY dis- N while 30 Corps, employing 9th and Loth Brigs
covers 2 enemy carriers about 400 miles S of Kiska. (Ind 5th Div) and 22d Armd Brig 1st Armd Div),
USSRGerman 11th Army of Army Group South makes main effort from E toward Sidi Muftah but is
begins 5-day ar ty preparation for assault on halted short of objective. British lose 2 brigs of in-
Sevastopol in the Crimea. fantry and 4 regts of arty.

3 June 6 June
A LEUTIAN Is.Japanese carrier-based aircraft MIDWAYUSS Yorktown, still under tow, is hit
bomb and strafe Fort Mears and Dutch Harbor, by torpedoes from Japanese submarine as is USS
Unalaska I., in several waves. Hammann (DD), which is alongside; both vessels
sink. Despite these U.S. losses, Battle of Midway is
MIDWAYBattle of Midway opens when planes
a severe setback to the Japanese and costs them the
based there locate and attack elements of Japanese
invasion force as it approaches.
L IBYAHeavy, indecisive fighting occurs as en-
M IDDLE E AST 22d Inf Brig Gp of Br East Af-
emy begins concentrating armor in Knightsbridge
rica Command sails for Madagascar to relieve Br
area, threatening Tobruk, and at the same time in-
tensifies action against the Bir Hacheim strongpoint.
4 June 7 June
A LEUTIAN Is.Japanese planes from carriers POABrig Gen Howard C. Davison replaces
again attack Dutch Harbor, Unalaska I., damaging Maj Gen Clarence L. Tinker, who was lost in Battle
fuel installations and a station ship. Attempts of of Midway, as commander of Seventh Air Force.
PBYs, B17s, and B26s to locate and attack the A LEUTIAN Is.Japanese invade western Aleu-
carriers are largely ineffective because of poor vis- tians, landing some 1,800 men on Attu and Kiska.
ibility, and Japanese retire southward with light C HINA Continuing drive in Chekiang Prov-
losses confined to aircraft. Subsequent efforts to find ince, Japanese seize Chuhsien airfield and attack
the enemy TF are futile. city itself.
M IDWAY Japanese are decisively defeated in USSRAfter 5 days of heavy air and arty prepa-
main Battle of Midway. Enemy carrier planes ration, German Army Group South renews ground
(about 80 bombers and 50 fighters) strike in force, assault to clear the Crimea in preparation for main
damaging installations but leaving runways intact. offensive on the rich Caucasus, moving against
Midway-based planes oppose the attack and take Sevastopol fortress. Local actions to improve posi-
heavy toll of enemy planes, then, together with tions in other sectors continue.
aircraft from the 3 U.S. carriers in the vicinity,
attack enemy shipping. Japanese carriers Kaga,
Akagi, and Soryu are hit. Kaga sinks at once; USS 8 June
Nautilus sinks the damaged Soryu; Japanese scuttle SWPAAs a result of the successful Midway ac-
the Akagi. Japanese carrier Hiryu scores damaging tion, Gen MacArthur proposes to Gen Marshall that
hits on USS Yorktown, which is abandoned and a limited offensive to regain positions in Bismarck
taken under tow. The Hiryu is in turn badly dam- Archipelago be undertaken.
aged by planes from Enterprise and Hornet and is N EW G UINEA Small party of Americans and
scuttled at dawn of 5th. Plane losses are heavy on Australians flies from Port Moresby to reconnoiter
both sides. Milne Bay area for air base site. Such a base would
LIBYABr Eighth Army opens counterattack with strengthen defenses of Port Moresby.
infantry after nightfall in effort to reduce enemy L IBYAIndecisive fighting continues in vicinity
salient in center of line. of Knightsbridge and Bir Hacheim. Free French,
[ 916 JUNE 1942 ] [ 41 ]

stubbornly defending Bir Hacheim, are forced to RUMANIA U.S. air combat from Africa begins
yield some ground; their supply situation is critical. with attack on Ploesti oil fields at dawn. Heavy
U.K.European Theater of Operations, U.S. bomber TF (coded HALPRO), under Col Harry A.
Army (ETOUSA) is established under command of Halverson and temporarily based in Egypt, makes
Gen Chaney, superseding U.S. Army Forces in Brit- the attack. On return trip, several of the B24s are
ish Isles (USAFBI). forced to land in Turkey and crews are interned.
L IBYAIndecisive tank battles occur in vicinity
of El Adem and Knightsbridge.
9 June
Britain agree to pool food and production resources. U.S.Gen Marshall orders establishment of a
P.I.Japanese conquest of the Philippines is U.S. Middle East organization, U.S. Army Forces in
completed, although small, isolated detachments the Middle East (USAFIME), in order to unify
continue to hold out. Combined U.S. and Filipino Middle East missions. Iraq and Iran are to come
force of 140,000 is now eliminated as a fighting force. within its geographical sphere.
USFIP ceases to exist. German submarine lands 4 enemy agents on
L IBYAFree French continue to hold out at Bir beach at Amagansett, Long Island.
Hacheim against furious ground and air attacks. LIBYAAxis armor decisively defeats armor of Br
Efforts to relieve them are unsuccessful. Eighth Army, forcing British from escarpment be-
tween El Adem and Knightsbridge. Br tank strength
10 June is dangerously depleted, and 13 Corps supply line is
consequently in danger. Knightsbridge garrison
C HINA Chinese withdraw from Chuhsien,
(201st Gds Brig) is ordered to withdraw to Acroma.
Chekiang Province, after 4 days of hard fighting.
LIBYAGen Ritchie orders evacuation of the iso-
lated Bir Hacheim position and FF 1st Brig, assisted 14 June
by 7th Armd Div, withdraws during night 1011. NEW ZEALANDFirst echelon of U.S. 1st Mar Div
USSRGerman Army Group South continues (5th Marines) arrives.
assault on Sevastopol in the Crimea, making slow LIBYAGen Ritchie orders withdrawal of forward
progress against Red Army strongpoints; opens lim- divs (S African 1st and Br 50th) of 13 Corps, since
ited offensive NE of Kharkov to improve positions. tank losses in El Adem area have left them precari-
ously situated. S African 1st Div withdraws safely to
Egyptian frontier, using coastal route. 50th Div re-
11 June tires SE through enemy territory. Enemy turns his
I NTERNATIONAL A GREEMENTS U.S. and Great attention to Acroma but can make little headway
Britain make simultaneous announcements of mu- against firm opposition, although favored by supe-
tual-aid agreement with Soviet Union. The agree- rior tank strength.
ment permits USSR to repay lend-lease debts in kind
rather than in cash. 15 June
A LEUTIAN Is.Upon discovering enemy on LIBYA29th Brig of Ind 5th Div (30 Corps) with-
Kiska, Allied aircraft begin series of long-range, stands 3 tank-supported attacks on El Adem with
small-scale attacks on the island, striking as often as assistance of aircraft. Maj Gen Klopper, CG of S
the difficult weather conditions permit, in an effort African 2d Div, is named commander of Tobruk
to weaken enemy by attrition. Attu is beyond range fortress and instructed to defend it at all costs.
of aircraft.
CHINAAdvance Section 3, under SOS, is acti-
vated in China. 16 June
L IBYAExploiting capture of Bir Hacheim, Axis L IBYAGen Auchinleck authorizes Gen Ritchie
forces surge northward toward El Adem, which pro- to organize the garrison of Tobruk as he wishes. 4
tects S approach to Tobruk. inf brigs with supporting arty and tanks are dis-
posed within Tobruk. Rest of Br Eighth Army is to
act as mobile columns outside the fortress. Gen
12 June Klopper is authorized to withdraw the garrison if
SWPAGHQ authorizes construction of air necessary. Acroma garrison holds out against enemy
bases at head of Milne Bay, New Guinea. tank attacks. Other enemy tank columns drive on
[ 42 ] [ 1723 JUNE 1942 ]

Sidi Rezegh and feint toward El Adem. El Adem ference of 26 May and subsequent discussions in
garrison withdraws after nightfall. Washington, is signed. This agreement, which con-
cerns U.S. air commitments and provides strong air
17 June force for BOLERO, is approved by U.S. Joint Chiefs
U.S.German submarine lands 4 enemy agents of Staff on 25 June and by Combined Chiefs of Staff
on Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. on a July.
MIDDLE EAST Maj Gen Russell L. Maxwell ac- L IBYATobruk falls to enemy. Gen Ritchie de-
cepts appointment as head of USAFIME. cides to withdraw to Matruh, Egypt, and orders 13
LibyaEnemy gains control of coastal road to Corps to delay enemy while 30 Corps begins orga-
Bardia, completing isolation of Tobruk. nization of the Matruh position.

22 June
18 June
U.S.Japanese submarine shells Fort Stevens
U.S.Prime Minister Churchill arrives for military reservation in Oregon at mouth of Colum-
series of Anglo-American conferences with President bia R, doing no damage. The shelling is the first
Roosevelt in Washington. foreign attack on a continental military installation
L IBYAAxis forces drive to Gambut. This is a since the War of 1812 and the only one of World
blow to the Tobruk garrison, since air support from War II.
forward landing grounds in Gambut area is now War Department orders all units and individu-
denied the garrison. als under Gen Stilwells command assigned under a
USSRGermans report reduction, after 12 days permanent change of station to American Army
of hard fighting, of northern part of Sevastopol for- Forces in India, China, and Burma rather than to
tifications except for one coastal fort. Army Group, Washington, D.C. This is the first step
U.K.Gen Spaatz, in London, takes command in the evolution of a U.S. theater of operations on
of U.S. Eighth Air Force. the Asiatic mainland.
SWPAMaj Gen Robert L. Eichelberger is
19 June named commander of U.S. I Corps, replacing Maj
POAAdm Ghormley takes command of South Gen Charles F. Thompson. I Corps eventually comes
Pacific Area and South Pacific Force. under operational command of Gen Blarney, Com-
MIDDLE EASTUSAFIME is activated by order mander Allied Land Forces. Gen MacArthur autho-
of Gen Maxwell, with hq in Cairo, Egypt, replacing rizes small airfield at Merauke, on S coast of Dutch
U.S. North African Military Mission. New Guinea, to protect Port Moresby from the W.
Initial force to garrison Milne Bay, New Guinea (2
cos and an MG platoon on loan from Aus 14th Brig
20 June at Port Moresby, sails from Port Moresby.
U.S.President Roosevelt and Prime Minister INDIAFirst CO of USAFCBI SOS Base Section
Churchill, in a closed session in Washington, 2 assumes his duties at Calcutta.
decide upon a northwest African campaign. EGYPT -LIBYABr Eighth Army begins withdrawal
POAMaj Gen Willis H. Hale becomes com- to Matruh without interference as enemy reorga-
mander of U.S. Seventh Air Force, although Navy nizes. Small enemy force moves into Bardia. Gen
has operational control of the force. Auchinleck visits Eighth Army hq,
LIBYAAxis forces, with strong arty and close air USSRGerman Army Group South begins limited
support, open assault on Tobruk and penetrate attack in Izyum area to improve positions E of the
deeply into the fortress, destroying tanks and arty Donets; continues battle for Sevastopol. Fall of the
of Br garrison. Gen Klopper receives permission to last of the northern coastal forts at Sevastopol is an-
break out but is unable to do so since his transport nounced.
is cut off in harbor area. 30 Corps sends 7th Armd
Div to relief of Tobruk garrison, but it fails to arrive 23 June
in time to assist. CBIGen Brereton is ordered to Middle East
USSRGermans reach N shore of Sevastopol with all available bombers because of crisis there.
harbor and continue assault on last coastal fort in Flight of 24 B17s intended for China is diverted
N fortifications. at Khartoum, Egypt, for the same reason.
MIDDLE EASTU.S. Military Mission is redesig-
21 June nated IranIraq Ser vice Command under Hq,
I NTERNATIONAL A GREEMENT S Arnold-Portal- USAFIME, effective 24 June. Col Shingler, with hq
Towers agreement, stemming from London con- at Basra, heads the new command.
[ 2430 JUNE 1942 ] [ 43 ]

L IBYAEnemy continues preparations for drive when enemy infiltrates between them and partially
into Egypt; forward elements are engaged by 7th envelops former in Matruh area.
Armd Div of 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, near
Sollum. 28 June
MIDDLE EAST U.S. Army Middle East Air Force
24 June is established in Middle East under command of Lt
EGYPT -LIBYARommel begins drive into Egypt, Gen Lewis H. Brereton. It at first consists of
pushing rapidly NE and E against ineffective rear Halverson Detachment (HALPRO) and 9 B17s.
guard resistance to vicinity of Sidi Barrani. 10 Corps EGYPTEnemy overruns 29th Brig of Ind 5th Div
hq, which has recently arrived in Egypt from Syria, as it attempts to cover withdrawal of io Corps in Fuka
takes command at Matruh, releasing 30 Corps, area. 10 Corps retires southward to El Alamein.
which moves E to El Alamein to organize defenses. USSRGermans launch main summer offen-
10 and 13 Corps constitute mobile elements of Br sive. On N flank of Army Group South enemy pushes
Eighth Army. eastward toward the Don from Kursk. Battle for
USSRGerman Army Group South attains its Sevastopol continues, with Soviet forces losing
objective in Izyum area, Oskol R line; continues to ground steadily.
make progress in battle for Sevastopol.
U.K.Maj Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower assumes 29 June
command of ETOUSA. U.S.Adm King proposes to Joint Chiefs of
Staff that Adm Ghormley command offensive to
25 June seize lower Solomons and that Gen MacArthur con-
POAAdm King presents his views on projected trol moves against New Guinea and New Britain.
offensive to Gen Marshall. This is a compromise on the question of whether
NEW GUINEAGen Basil M. Morris forms new the planned offensive in the Pacific shall be con-
unit, called Maroubra Force, to hold Kokoda Trail trolled by the Navy or by the Army.
over Owen Stanley Range between Port Moresby and NEW GUINEACo E of U.S. 46th Engrs arrives
Buna. Maroubra Force consists of Aus 39th Bn, less at Milne Bay to begin work on base.
one co, of Aus 30th Brig and a Papuan bn of 300. ChinaChiang Kai-shek, meeting with Gen
Allied garrison arrives at Milne Bay. Stilwell, makes 3 demands essential for the main-
EGYPT-LIBYAAxis forces continue rapidly toward tenance of the China Theater of War: 3 U.S. divs,
Matruh despite air attacks. Gen Auchinleck takes 500-plane air force in China, monthly transporta-
personal command of Br Eighth Army, relieving Gen tion by air of 5,000 tons of supplies into China.
Ritchie; after reviewing situation, decides to con- EGYPT Axis forces speed eastward to within 15
tinue withdrawal from Matruh to El Alamein. miles of El Alamein despite action of 13 Corps, Br
Eighth Army.
26 June
30 June
NEW GUINEAElements of Maroubra Force (Co
B of Aus 39th Bn) are ordered to Kokoda. U.S.Hq Co of U.S. Army Forces in the South
CBIGen Brereton leaves for Middle East and Pacific Area (USAFISPA) is organized at Fort Ord,
is succeeded as commander of U.S. Tenth Air Force California.
by Brig Gen Earl L. Naiden. N E W G U I N E A Aus Kanga Force, guarding
EgyptEnemy armor breaches mine field of Br Bulolo Valley, conducts its first offensive action, a
Eighth Army S of Matruh. raid on Salamaua. This is followed a few days later
by a raid on Lae.
E GYPT Upon completing withdrawal to pre-
27 June pared positions at El Alamein, Br 30 Corps takes
U.S.By this date the 8 enemy agents that responsibility for N flank and 13 Corps for S flank.
landed on Long Island and in Florida have been 10 Corps staff is withdrawn to command Delta
arrested. They have caused no damage. All are sub- Force, which is to defend Alexandria and the Nile
sequently court martialed and six are executed. Delta.
SWPAGen MacArthur completes plan, T ULSA USSRGermans broaden offensive toward the
I, for offensive to secure New Britain-New Ireland- Don in Army Group South sector. While 2d Army
Admiralty Is. area. and 4th Pz Army continue toward the river at Vo-
Egypt10 and 13 Corps of Br Eighth Army are ronezh, 6th Army begins drive to E in region SE of
forced to withdraw eastward toward El Alamein Belgorod. In the Crimea, battle for Sevastopol is in
[ 44 ] [ 18 JULY 1942 ]

its final stage. On N front, German Army Group 3 July

North eliminates last of Soviet pocket W of Volkhov. U.S.Gen Marshall authorizes creation of a
mobile air force for SWPA and another for POA.
1 July Preparations for offensive in the Pacific continue at
a rapid pace.
PACIFICTULSA II, a modified version of T ULSA
I, is drawn up as planning for offensive continues.
2d Marines, reinf, 2d Mar Div, sails from California
4 July
in 5 ships escorted by carrier Wasp. CBIAVG is inducted into Tenth Air Force as
MADAGASCARLt Gen Sir William Platt, CinC its contract with China terminates.
East African Command, takes responsibility for oc- EGYPT 30 Corps, Br Eighth Army, is strength-
cupied portion of Madagascar. ened by arrival of Aus 9th Div, which is concentrat-
EGYPT Enemy forces make their deepest pen- ing in vicinity of El Alamein fortress. 13 Corps con-
etration into Egypt with capture of fortified posi- tinues to attack on S flank, making slow progress.
tion of Deir el Shein, S of the El Alamein fortress. WESTERN E UROPEU.S. air operations against
Ind 18th Brig Gp, which has recently arrived from Europe are initiated. 6 U.S. aircraft manned by U.S.
Iraq, is overrun in this action. crews participate in RAF attack on airdromes in
USSRGerman Army Group South completes Holland.
reduction of Sevastopol fortress in the Crimea and,
to the N, continues toward the Don. 5 July
USSROrganized Soviet resistance in the
2 July Crimea ends. To N, German 4th Pz Army has reached
the Don at Voronezh, where Red Army is resisting
U.S.Joint Chiefs of Staff issue directive pre- strongly. Army Group Center is improving positions
scribing occupation of New Britain-New Ireland- N of Smolensk in local actions.
New Guinea area. Offensive is to be conducted
in 3 phases, during which the following are to be 6 July
secured and occupied: (1) lower Solomons (Santa CBIGen Stilwell issues letter of instructions
Cruz Is., Tulagi, and adjacent positions) (Task setting up command structure of a theater in CBI,
One); (2) rest of Solomons and NE coast of New with Headquarters, American Army Forces, China,
Guinea (Task Two); (3) Rabaul, New Britain, and Burma, and India at Chungking and branch office
adjacent positions in New Guinea-New Ireland at New Delhi. A few days later another branch of-
area (Task Three). Target date is set as 1 August fice is established at Kunming. China Air Task Force
but subsequently postponed to 7 August. Navy is (CATF) is activated.
to command first phase and Army the second and USSRVoronezh falls to German Army Group
third. Boundary between SWPA and S Pacific is South after it has been evacuated by Red Army forces.
to be altered to place lower Solomons within S
Pacific zone.
AustaliaAUs 7th Brig is directed to move to
7 July
Milne Bay, New Guinea. POACarrier Saratoga, followed by carrier En-
CBIChiang Kai-shek names Gen Stilwell CinC terprise, each with supporting ships, sails from Pearl
of Chinese Army in India, but Stilwells power over Harbor for S Pacific. Elements of the Enterprise sup-
the troops is restricted. port force leave main force at sea and proceed to
MAYOTTE I.Br and E African troops land on New Caledonia to embark 1st Raider Bn.
island, at N end of Mozambique Channel, and se- AUSTALIAAdm Ghormley arrives in Australia and
cure it for seaplane base. confers with Gen MacArthur on coming offensive.
EGYPT Br Eighth Army wrests initiative from NEW GUINEACo B, Aus 39th Bn, leaves Port
Rommel as 13 Corps, on S flank, counterattacks Moresby for Kokoda, traveling on foot along tortu-
northward in rear of enemy. With close air support, ous trail over Owen Stanley Range.
13 Corps maintains pressure on enemy throughout USSRGerman 6th Army effects junction with
month, gaining some ground and easing pressure 4th Pz Army NE of Valuiki.
against N and central sectors. Enemy makes repeated
efforts to break through but is unable to do so; gradu- 8 July
ally extends positions S and E of 13 Corps to Qattara PACIFICGen MacArthur and Adm Ghormley
Depression. recommend that offensive be postponed until SW
[ 916 JULY 1942 ] [ 45 ]

and S Pacific forces can be strengthened. Adm to camp near Brisbane, Australia. Maj Gen George
Nimitz issues his final plan of attack, ordering S C. Kenney, CG of Fourth Air Force, is directed to
Pacific Force to seize Santa Cruz Is. and Tulagi- take command of Allied Air Forces, replacing Gen
Guadalcanal area in the Solomons. Brett.
CBIGen Chennault t akes command of
CATF. 14 July
USSRRussians announce evacuation of St PACIFIC Maj Gen Millard F. Harmon is named
Oskol, SE of Kursk. commander of U.S. Army Forces in South Pacific
Area (COMGENSOPAC). In preparation for inva-
9 July sion of the Solomons, ships from SWPA (TF 44)
SWPAAus 7th Brig commander and advance leave Brisbane, Australia, for New Zealand, where
elements of the brig leave Townsville, Australia, for all except I CA, which becomes part of Air Support
Milne Bay, New Guinea. Force, are assigned to Solomons Amphibious Force.
USSRGerman Army Group South is divided TF 42 (submarines) is to interdict enemy shipping
in Rabaul area. Adm Ghormley alerts 7th Marines,
into 2 groups. Army Group A, on S consists of
1st Mar Div, on Samoa to be prepared to sail for the
1st Pz, 17th, and 11th Armies. Army Group B com-
Solomons on 4 days notice.
prises 2d, Hungarian 2d, 4th Pz, and 6th Armies.
EGYPT Br Eighth Army makes limited attack
Group A is to seize Rostov, where major Soviet
along and to S of Ruweisat Ridge and gains some
forces are believed concentrated, then continue
S through the Caucasus. Group B is to drive along
USSRGerman Army Groups B and A continue
the Don to Stalingrad, thence along the Volga
rapidly toward Stalingrad and Rostov, respectively.
to Astrakhan. 4th Pz Army is assigned to Army Group A for opera-
tions S of Rostov.
10 July
U.S.In response to recommendation of Gen 15 July
MacArthur and Adm Ghormley on 8 July, Joint SWPAPlan is drawn up for Operation
Chiefs of Staff rule that offensive must be conducted PROVIDENCE, occupation by Allied forces of Buna area
as planned. on N coast of New Guinea.
NEW GUINEA Small Allied party flies from Port CBIIndia-China Ferry Command is activated.
Moresby to Buna area to reconnoiter for airfield EGYPT In tank-supported counterattack, enemy
site. recovers part of ground lost in Ruweisat Ridge area.
E GYPT In limited offensive, 30 Corps of Br USSRRussians admit loss of Boguchar and
Eighth Army seizes Tel el Eisa mounds, W of El Millerovo. German Army Group A continues rapidly
Alamein. Enemy makes a number of unsuccessful toward Rostov, 1st and 4th Pz Armies reaching
attempts to reduce this salient. Kamensk, on the Donets.
USSRWhile Army Group Bs 4th Pz and 6th
Armies drive along the Don toward Stalingrad, 1st 16 July
Pz and 17th Armies of Army Group A drive on Rostov.
U.S.Breaks off consular relations with Fin-
Russians admit loss of Rossosh.
land, effective 1 August 1942. Gen Harmon, with
small forward echelon of USAFISPA, starts air jour-
11 July ney from Washington to S Pacific.
USSRContinuing drive on Rostov, Army Group PACIFIC Adm Ghormley issues Operation Plan
A overruns Lisichensk, on the Donets. No. 1-42, covering Task One of projected offensive.
TFs 61 and 63 are formed. TF 61, under Vice Adm
12 July Frank J. Fletcher, is the Solomons Expeditionary
AUSTALIAU.S. 41st Div, which has been train- Force, which includes Air Support Force under Rear
ing near Melbourne, starts to Rockhampton. Adm Leigh Noyes and Amphibious Force com-
NEW GUINEA Co B, Aus 39th Bn, advancing manded by Rear Adm Richmond K. Turner. TF 63,
overland from Port Moresby, reaches Kokoda. under Adm McCain, consists of all Allied landbased
aircraft in S Pacific.
EGYPT 30 Corps of Br Eighth Army enlarges
13 July salient W of El Alamein with capture of ridge 3
P ACIFIC Operation Plan T ULSA -II A is drawn miles W of railway station. 13 Corps exerts pressure
up. U.S. 32d Div begins movement from Adelaide against S flank of enemy.
[ 46 ] [ 1725 JULY 1942 ]

17 July 22 July
SWPAMovement order for Operation PACIFIC98th Sq of 11th Heavy Bombardment
P ROVIDENCE , occupation of Buna area, New Guinea, Gp lands in New Caledonia. Solomons Amphibi-
is issued. Serial One is to leave Port Moresby on 31 ous Force, with 1st Mar Div embarked, sails from
July. D Day is to be 1012 August. Wellington, New Zealand. 3d Defense Bn, final re-
U.K.Gen Marshall, Adm King, and Harry inforcing unit, begins voyage from Pearl Harbor to
Hopkins arrive in England to urge that S LEDGE - join 1st Mar Div.
HAMMER be undertaken in 1942. NEW GUINEA Allied planes continue to attack
enemy shipping off N coast, setting fire to a trans-
18 July port. Upon landing, Japanese Navy units move to
USSRContinuing southward on broad front, Buna and Army forces to Giruwa. Advance force
Germans take Voroshilovgrad, coal and coke center pushes inland at once from Giruwa to reconnoiter
of Donets basin, and to SE reach the Don at trail to Port Moresby and reaches Soputa area. Gen
Tsimlyansk. MacArthur orders Gen Morris, commander of New
Guinea Force, to reinforce Kokoda as quickly as
19 July possible.
E GYPT Br Eighth Army continues attack, gain-
SWPAFrom Rabaul, Japanese invasion force ing some ground but failing to break through en-
of about 1,800 men sails for Buna, New Guinea. emy line. 23d Armd Brig, which has recently ar-
Lugger arrives at Buna with supplies and MGs of rived from England, passes through gaps made by
Co B, Aus 39th Bn. infantry in mine fields but is unable to gain ground
CBIGen Stilwell submits to Chiang Kai-shek and loses many tanks. NZ 6th Brig and bn of Ind
a plan, dated 18th, calling for Allied co-operation 161st Brig are virtually destroyed by enemy coun-
in regaining Burma as a necessary preliminary to terattacks.
getting aid to China. USSRGerman Army Group A opens all-out
assault against Rostov.
20 July U.K.British refuse U.S. proposal to launch
PACIFICUSAFIA, largely a supply organization, Operation SLEDGEHAMMER .
is discontinued, and U.S. Army Services of Supply,
Southwest Pacific Area (USASOS SWPA) is estab- 23 July
lished under command of Gen Richard Marshall.
GHQ SWPA moves for ward in Australia from NEW CALEDONIA 42d Sq of 11th Heavy Bom-
Melbourne to Brisbane to be nearer scene of offen- bardment Gp arrives.
sive. Maj Gen Alexander A. Vandegrift, CG 1st Mar NEW GUINEAContinuing along Kokoda Trail,
Div, issues tactical orders for invasion of Solomons. Japanese clash with Aus Maroubra Force near Awala,
CBIDr. Lauchlin Currie arrives in China to forcing Australians back toward Wairopi.
discuss U.S.-Chinese relations with Stilwell and the
Chinese. 24 July
FIJI Is.431st Sq of 11th Heavy Bombardment
21 July Gp arrives.
PACIFICSolomons Expeditionary Force (TF 61) N EW G UINEA Lt Col William T. Owen, CO
is ordered to rendezvous SE of Fiji Is. on 26 July. Aus 39th Bn, flies to Kokoda, which is in immi-
Allied planes sight and attack enemy convoy ap- nent danger. Outnumbered Maroubra Force, fight-
proaching New Guinea, despite poor visibility, which ing delaying action as it falls back toward Kokoda,
prevents Japanese naval planes at Lae, however, from crosses Kumusi R and destroys Wairopi bridge
supporting enemy. After naval gunfire bombardment across it.
of Buna, Japanese begin landing near Gona, night USSRRostov falls to German Army Group A.
2122, forestalling Allied Operation P ROVIDENCE ,
which was to have secured the same general area.
Japanese naval forces at Salamaua provide diversion 25 July
by raiding Mubo and Komiatum, and enemy sub- U.S.Combined Chiefs of Staff agree upon
marines become increasingly active. command setup for TORCH, as GYMNAST is renamed.
E GYPT Br Eighth Army opens attack against POAAdm McCain issues orders for Solomons
center of enemys line late in day, employing infan- offensive to TF 63. 26th Sq of 11th Heavy Bombard-
try to clear mine fields for passage of armor. ment Gp arrives at Efate, New Hebrides.
[ 2631 JULY 1942 ] [ 47 ]

N EW G UINEA Japanese cross Kumusi R over N E W G U I N E A Maroubra Force recaptures

improvised bridge and outflank Maroubra Force, Kokoda in counterattack, but this position is in great
which falls back to Oivi, 6 miles from Kokoda. danger as Japanese reinforcements move forward
USSRGermans claim capture of Novocher- from beachhead.
kassk, NE of Rostov. CHINAJapanese campaign in Chekiang Prov-
ince, conducted in retaliation for Doolittle raid on
Japan, ends.
26 July
POAGen Harmon takes tactical command
of all U.S. Army forces in S Pacific and establishes 29 July
provisional CP at Suva, Fiji Is. Solomons Expedi- POAGen Harmon shifts USAFISPA CP from
tionary Force (TF 61), except for party bringing Suva, Fiji Is., to Noumea, New Caledonia.
3d Defense Bn across the Pacific, assembles SE of NEW GUINEAJapanese recapture Kokoda, again
Fiji Is. forcing defenders back to Deniki. Lull ensues as Japa-
NEW GUINEANew Guinea Force flies 30 men nese consolidate and strengthen positions. Allied
from Co D, Aus 39th Bn, to Kokoda; 15 of these planes frustrate efforts of 2 enemy transports to
are sent forward to Oivi. After Japanese surround unload troops and supplies on N coast. One returns
Oivi position, small defense force at Kokoda (pla- to Rabaul without unloading. The other is disabled
toon of Co B and 15 men of Co D) abandons it for and subsequently sinks; troops embarked reach
prepared positions at Deniki. Giruwa by small craft.
EGYPT 30 Corps, Br Eighth Army, launches at- CBIGen Stilwell broadens plans for offensive
tack on N flank after nightfall. with Pacific Front proposal calling for recapture
of Burma by Allied forces from Yunnan and
27 July Manipur.
POAS Pacific commanders of island bases are
informed by COMSOPAC that Gen Harmon will 30 July
be responsible for training Army ground and air U.S.Womens Reserve is established by law in
personnel. TF 61 sails to Koro, Fiji Is., to rehearse Navy and called WAVES from expression Women
for invasion of Solomons. Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service.
N EW G UINEA Aus Oivi force, having broken POAAdm Turner issues Operation Plan No.
through enemy during night 2627, joins elements A342 to Solomons Amphibious Force.
of Maroubra Force at Deniki. New Guinea Force, NEW GUINEACo C of Aus 39th Bn completes
upon learning of evacuation of Kokoda, recalls 2 air march to Demki.
transports bound for Kokoda with reinforcements NEIJapanese invade Aru, Kei, and Tanim-
and supplies. bar Is.
EGYPT 30 Corps, Br Eighth Army, continues EGYPT Gen Auchinleck decides to remain on
attack but is unable to make progress. 13 Corps, in the defensive until reinforcements arrive.
support of 30, feints and patrols. USSRGerman Army Group A establishes
USSRGerman Army Group B continues to clear bridgehead across Manych R SW of Proletarskaya;
Don bend near Stalingrad. 6th Army begins battle Army Group B continues reduction of Kalach
to reduce Soviet bridgehead across the Don at bridgehead across the Don W of Stalingrad. On
Kalach, W of Stalingrad. central front, Soviet forces begin attacks in Rzhev
28 July
PACIFICGen Harmon arrives at New Caledonia. 31 July
Gen Kenney, commander-designate of Allied Air POAAdm Turners Amphibious Force, cov-
Forces, arrives in Australia. Expeditionary Force (TF ered by Adm Noyes Air Support Force and Adm
61) begins rehearsal at Koro, Fiji Is., for invasion of McCains TF 63, begins voyage to the Solomons from
Solomons. Adm Fletcher issues Operation Order Fiji Is. B17s of TF 63, from New Hebrides bases,
No. 1-42 to TF 61. start 7 days of attacks on Guadalcanal and Tulagi in
JAPAN Tokyo orders all-out offensive for E New preparation for invasion.
Guinea, including amphibious assaults on Milne Bay NEW GUINEAAdditional elements (Co A of Aus
and attack on Port Moresby by land and sea. 39th Bn) of Maroubra Force reach Deniki.
[ 48 ] [ 18 AUGUST 1942 ]

1 August 7 August
CHINAChiang Kai-shek formally approves Gen ALEUTIAN Is.Kiska undergoes its first bombard-
Stilwells proposal of 18 July for offensive and modi- ment by surface forces. TF of cruisers and destroy-
fies the 3 demands of 29 June. ers under Rear Adm W. W. Smith, part of Adm
EGYPT Activity on both sides is confined to pa- Theobalds North Pacific Force (TF 8), bombards
trolling, arty exchanges, and preparations for renew- shore installations with unobserved results. This
ing offensive. action had been planned for 2d July but was post-
USSRGerman Army Group A, to which 1st Pz poned because of weather conditions.
Army reverts, is fanning out S of Rostov and has cut SOLOMON Is.After preparatory bombardment of
NovorossiskStalingrad RR with capture of rail junc- landing areas, U.S. 1st Mar Div (7th Marines), re-
tion of Salsk; forward elements reach Kuban R. inf, invades S Solomons with close air and naval sup-
Heavy fighting continues in Don bend opposite port. Unloading operations are delayed by enemy air
Stalingrad as German Army Group B continues ef- attacks during which USS Mugford (DD) is damaged.
forts to isolate Soviet forces. Red Army continues At 0910, 5th Marines ( 2d Bn) lands unopposed
local attacks in Rzhev sector. on N coast (Beach Red) of Guadalcanal about 6,000
yards E of Lunga Pt and establishes beachhead be-
tween Tenaru and Tenavatu Rivers. 1st Marines and
3 August supporting weapons follow 5th Marines ashore. 1st
USSRGerman Army Group A continues rap- Bn of 5th Marines drives W along coast toward
idly southward into Kuban area, where it is attempt- Lunga R; 1st Marines pushes SW toward Mt Aus-
ing to est ablish bridgehead, and overruns ten. Advance halts for night after each of the assault
Voroshilovsk. Soviet forces continue to resist Army forces has gained about a mile, 1st Bn of 5th Ma-
Group B in Don bend opposite Stalingrad and to rines reaching mouth of Ilu R.
attack Germans in Rzhev sector. At 0740, 1st Bn of 2d Marines begins landing on
S coast of Florida I., Co B near Haleta and rest at
Halavo. The bn meets no opposition and is later
4 August withdrawn. At 0800, 1st Raider Bn, followed by 2d
SWPAGen Kenney assumes command of Bn of 5th Marines, lands on S coast (Beach Blue) of
Allied Air Forces, succeeding Gen Brett. Tulagi without opposition. Marines clear NW end
of island without difficulty, but Raiders meet bitter
opposition from enemy in caves and dugouts on SE
5 August end in afternoon and are forced to halt some 1,000
USSRGerman Army Group A establishes yards from SE tip. Co G of 5th Marines helps hold
bridgehead across the Kuban in Armavir- this perimeter against enemy attacks.
Nevinnomyssk area, threatening Maikop oil fields; At noon, 1st Para Bn invades twin islets of Ga-
claims capture of Kropotkin. Red Army units con- vutu and Tanambogo, which are joined by causeway,
tinue to fight losing battle inside Don bend near E of Tulagi; clears most the a islets despite enemy
Stalingrad. fire. From Florida I., Co B of 2d Marines makes
unsuccessful attempt to land on N coast.
6 August N EW G UINEA Activity is confined to patrol
clashes. By this time all 5 rifle cos of Aus 39th Bn
POAAllied invasion force continues toward
are at the front and Maroubra Force contains 480
Solomons undetected.
men. Because of Solomons offensive, Japanese re-
N EW G UINEA New Guinea Force takes com- call convoy heading for Buna from Rabaul.
mand of all Aus and U.S. forces in Australian New E GYPT Prime Minister Churchill visits Br
Guinea (Papua and NE New Guinea). Eighth Army front.
CBIDr. Currie leaves China for Washington
to present Gen Stilwells Pacific Front plan and
Chiang Kai-sheks modified demands to President 8 August
Roosevelt and Combined Chiefs of Staff. A LLIED C OMMAND President Roosevelt and
USSROn Novorossisk-Stalingrad RR, Ger- Prime Minister Churchill agree on Gen Eisenhower,
mans claim capture of Tikhoretsk and Russians ad- CG ETO, as commander of T ORCH.
mit loss of Kotelnikov: German Army Group A over- SOLOMON Is.Japanese planes continue to attack
runs Armavir, on Kuban R. Soviet resistance to Army Allied shipping, destroying USS George F. Elliott (AP)
Group B in Don bend near Stalingrad is growing and damaging USS Jarvis (DD). Jarvis heads for
weaker. Noumea but is never heard from again.
[ 913 AUGUST 1942 ] [ 49 ]

Abandoning thrust toward Mt Austen on Guad- 11 August

alcanal, 1st Mar Div advances W in 2 columns. 1st
Bn of 5th Marines crosses Lunga R and secures U.S.Adm Leahy makes the first of many sug-
coastal village of Kukum. To S, 1st Bn of 1st Ma- gestions that Burma Road be reopened.
rines takes airfield and reaches E bank of Lunga R. N EW G UINEA U.S. Advanced Base in New
Both Kukum and the airfield are found to have been Guinea, a logistical agency, is established by
hastily evacuated. USASOS with hq at Port Moresby, which is to be-
On Tulagi, 1st Raider Bn and 5th Marines finish come a large supply and communications center.
clearing the island by 1500. Maroubra Force abandons Kokoda airfield, night
On Gavutu-Tanambogo, 1st Para Bn, assisted by 1112, since it is untenable.
3d Bn of 2d Marines from div reserve, completes MEDITERRANEAN Enemy U-boats heavily attack
capture of Gavutu-Tanambogo. Malta-bound convoy and sink HMS Eagle (aircraft
BATTLE OF SAVO I.During night 89, Japanese carrier).
naval force of cruisers and DDs attacks Allied war- MIDDLE EASTIran-Iraq Service Command is re-
ships off Savo I. and inflicts heavy damage before designated Persian Gulf Service Command (PGSC);
retiring to Rabaul. As a result of the action, HMAS remains directly under Hq USAFIME.
Canberra and USS Astoria, Quincy, and Vincennes are USSRThreat to Stalingrad increases as Ger-
lost and other vessels are damaged. man Army Group A eliminates Soviet bridgehead in
EGYPT Gen Alexander flies to Cairo, where he Don bend near Kalach.
learns that he is to relieve Gen Auchinleck as CinC
MEF. Lt Gen W. H. E. Gott, CG of Br 13 Corps,
who was to have been given command of Br Eighth 12 August
Army, is killed in airplane accident. N E W H E B R I D E S Elements of original
USSRSurovikino, W of Stalingrad, falls to Guadalcanal invasion force (1,390 of 2d Marines)
German Army Group B. debark at Espiritu Santo.
GUADALCANAL TF 63, under Adm McCain, is
9 August given responsibility for getting aviation supplies,
S OLOMON Is.Amphibious and Air Support ammunition, and ground crews from Espiritu Santo
Forces of TF 61 retire, former with more than half to Guadalcanal. First U.S. plane, a PBY, lands on
the 60 days supplies and elements of landing force airfield, called Henderson Field after Midway hero
still embarked. Of the original landing force of over Maj Lofton Henderson. Patrol led by 1st Mar Div
19,000, almost 17,000 are now ashore. Guadalcanal Intelligence Officer embarks at Kukum to make con-
beachhead is being consolidated and work is begun tact with enemy in Matanikau area; upon landing,
on uncompleted airstrip, where air warning system night 1213, is wiped out, except for 3 persons, by
is established. During 8 and 9, 2d Marines completes enemy.
northern attack with occupation of Mbangai, EGYPTLt Gen Sir Bernard L. Montgomery, who
Makambo, and Kokomtambu islets. is to head Br Eighth Army, arrives from U.K.
NEW GUINEAMaj Gen Sydney F. Rowell, CG USSRPrime Minister Churchill arrives in Mos-
Aus I Corps, is designated to command New Guinea cow where, during a 4-day visit, he discusses the sub-
Force. ject of a second front in Europe with Marshal Jo-
USSRKrasnodar and Maikop fall to German seph Stalin. On central front, local Soviet attacks
Army Group A. against Rzhev reach their climax without achieving
a decisive victory. Elements of German Army Group
10 August A, driving toward the Kuban in region E of Sea of
NEW IRELAND U.S. submarine sinks Japanese Azov, reach Slavyansk.
cruiser Kako off the island.
New GuineaMaroubra Force counterattacks 13 August
toward Kokoda with 3 cos One seizes Kokoda air-
field, but the others are unable to advance. NEW G UINEA Japanese convoy, with 3,000 con-
EGYPTGen Alexander receives directive calling struction troops embarked, reaches Basabua, a short
for destruction of Rommels army in Egypt and distance from Gona. Japanese attack Maroubra
Libya. Force at Deniki in strength, forcing it back beyond
USSRSoviet resistance in foothills of Caucasus Isurava, 5 miles from Deniki. After this victory,
range is increasing, but forward elements of German which firmly secures Buna-Kokoda track, enemy
Army Group A reach Pyatigorsk. pauses to consolidate.
[ 50 ] [ 1420 AUGUST 1942 ]

JAPAN Imperial General Headquarters orders 18 August

17th Army at Rabaul to take responsibility for ground NEW GUINEA Large Japanese detachment, em-
operations on Guadalcanal. barked on 3 escorted transports, reaches Basabua
MIDDLE EASTCol Shingler becomes CO of Per- undetected and goes ashore. Gen Rowell assumes
sian Gulf Service Command. command of New Guinea Force, replacing Gen
EGYPTGen Montgomery takes command of Br Morris.
Eighth Army. CBIMaj Gen Clayton L. Bissell is given com-
USSRGermans claim capture of Elista, in mand of U.S. Tenth Air Force.
Kalmyk district S of Stalingrad.
19 August
14 August G UADALCANAL 5th Marines, in limited offen-
U.S.Directive is sent to Gen Eisenhower as sive, clears coastal villages of Matanikau and
CinC TORCH. Kokumbona, then returns to Lunga Pt. Cos L and B
attack Matanikau from E and S. Co I, moving for-
15 August ward by sea, clears Kakumbona. While patrolling to
GUADALCANAL Marine rations are cut. First de- locate enemy radio station, Co A of 1st Marines
stroyer-transports arrive with supplies and aviation encounters and virtually wipes out party of 34 Japa-
ground crews. neserecently landed Army forcesnear Taivu Pt.
MIDDLE EASTGen Alexander takes command NEW BRITAIN Japanese reinforcements, about
of MEF from Gen Auchinleck. 1,500 in 4 transports screened by DDs, leave Rabaul
EGYPT Gen Montgomery is rapidly reorganiz- for Guadalcanal.
ing and strengthening Br Eighth Army, for which NEW GUINEALeading elements of Aus 7th Div
10 Corps is to serve as reserve. Considering Alam (21st Brig) arrive at Port Moresby, from which they
el Halfa ridge, far in rear of El Alamein Line, of start at once toward Isurava to bolster Maroubra
vital importance, 44th Div and 10th Armd Div Force.
(9th Brig) are ordered to this area from Delta re- EGYPT Gen Alexander directs Gen Montgom-
gion, where they have been training. 132d Brig of ery to hold current positions at El Alamein while
44th Div is attached to NZ 2d Div. preparing for offensive.
USSRGermans report capture of Georgievsk. F RANCE Canadian (Cdn) and Br troops, 5,000
strong, raid Dieppe for 9 hours, damaging military
16 August installations at great cost in casualties. 50 U.S.
Rangers accompanied the expedition; of these, 6
EGYPT Enemy installations on Egyptian front
are bombed for first time by U.S. medium bombers were wounded and 7 were reported missing. Many
in support of Br Eighth Army. German planes are destroyed by supporting Allied
17 August
GILBERT Is.Lt Col Evans F. Carlsons 2d Mar 20 August
Raider Bn, consisting of 221 marines, moves by 2 U.S.Twelfth Air Force is activated at Bolling
submarines to Makin and begins 2-day raid on Field, Washington, D.C.
Butaritari I., during which scattered enemy forces NEW HEBRIDES Advanced supply depots are es-
are engaged and radio station is destroyed. Enemy tablished at Noumea and Espiritu Santo.
planes attack the Raiders on both days. 30 marines GUADALCANAL First planes (advance echelon of
are lost in the action. MAG 23, 1st Mar Air Wing) arrive for duty at
GUADALCANAL Adm Ghormley shifts responsi- Henderson Field. The group consists of VMF 223
bility for establishing line of communications to (19 F4F4s) and VMSB 232 (12 SBD3s). Supply
Guadalcanal from TF 63 to Adm Turners TF 62. and evacuation between Guadalcanal and Espiritu
Henderson Field becomes operational. Japanese land Santo is begun by MAG 25. 1st Mar Div units along
reinforcements near Taivu Pt and in Kokumbona Ilu R exchange fire with enemy moving up from E,
area, night 1718. beginning in evening.
USSRGerman Army Group A establishes N EW G UINEA Japanese order amphibious as-
bridgeheads across Kuban R. sault on Milne Bay by about 1,500 men from
F RANCE U.S. Eighth Air Force conducts first Kavieng, New Ireland, and from Buna.
attack against Europe. Sq of B24s, escorted by RAF USSRGerman Army Group B makes slow
Spitfires, bombs rail center at Rouen. progress toward Stalingrad against stubborn resis-
[ 2125 AUGUST 1942 ] [ 51 ]

tance and gains foothold across the Don in Kletskaya 23 August

area. In the Caucasus, Soviet rear guards continue USSRGerman Army Group B presses in steadily
strong delaying action. on Stalingrad, spearhead reaching the Volga; Army
Group A gains additional ground along E coast of
21 August Black Sea and captures Elbrus.
G UADALCANAL In predawn attack toward air-
field, about 200 Japanese attempt to gain W bank 24 August
of Ilu R; the few who succeed are killed or driven
back by 2d Bn of 1st Marines. Japanese remaining E BATTLE OF EASTERN S OLOMONS American naval
of the Ilu are surrounded and destroyed in concerted TFs, centering about CVs Enterprise and Saratoga,
attacks by 2d and 1st Bns, 1st Marines. 1st Bn crosses intercept Japanese fleet units (3 carriers, 8 BBs, 4
river upstream and attacks enemy from rear while CAs, 2 CLs .and 21 DDs, plus the 4 transports
2d, with light tank platoon spearheading, attacks at with reinforcements for Guadalcanal) well E of
river mouth. Japanese sustain almost 800 casualties; Guadalcanal. Major air battle ensues (U.S. carrier
15 of the enemy are captured; 35 marines are killed planes being assisted by a few land-based planes),
and 75 wounded. Lunga garrison, already strength- and Japanese sustain heavy losses before retiring
ened by raiders and parachutists, is further increased northward. Japanese carrier Ryuju, 1 CL, and 1 DD
by 2d Bn of 5th Marines from Tulagi. Rations and are sunk, and other vessels are damaged. Japanese
aviation supplies in limited quantities are landed. lose 90 planes; Americans, 20 planes.
SWPAOperation Plan TULSA II-B is drawn up GUADALCANAL Henderson Field is subjected to
as planning for offensive continues. almost daily air attacks and Lunga perimeter is bom-
NEW GUINEA Japanese convoy reaches Basabua barded from sea at frequent intervals. Marine fight-
and lands reinforcements, completing quota for over- ers intercepting enemy aircraft over Henderson Field
land drive on Port Moresby. Aus 18th Brig reaches shoot down 21 for loss of 3. 11 dive bombers from
Milne Bay, where it joins Aus 7th Brig, CMF, which the Enterprise land on the field and remain for 3
reached there in July. months.
USSRElements of German Army Group A, NEW GUINEA Gen Horii orders general offen-
clearing E coast of Black Sea, overrun Krymskaya.
sive. Japanese amphibious forces leave for Milne Bay,
those from New Ireland in a transports and the force
22 August from Buna in 7 large landing barges. Barges are de-
BRAZILAngered by the recent sinking of 5 of tected by coastwatcher in afternoon.
her ships by enemy, Brazil declares war on Germany
and Italy. United Nations shipping is thus able to 25 August
make full use of the comparatively short S Atlantic
route via Ascension I. B ATTLE OF E AS TERN S OLOMONS U.S. carrier
A LEUTIAN Is.After consideration of the rela- forces are unable to locate enemy fleet units, but
tive merits of Tanaga and Adak as an advanced air U.S. Marine and Army land-based bombers attack
base from which to attack Kiska, Adak has been Japanese transpor t force continuing toward
chosen. Directive for its occupation on 30 August Guadalcanal and cause it to delay landings and re-
is issued. tire northward. Enemy transport and DD are sunk
SOLOMON Is.On Guadalcanal, first U.S. Army and cruiser is damaged.
planes, 5 P-400s of 67th Fighter Sq, arrive for duty NEW GUINEAEnemy amphibious force bound
at Henderson Field, flying there from New Hebrides. for Milne Bay from Buna is stranded on Good-
Ships bringing supplies are thus afforded greater enough I., DEntrecasteaux Is., when P40s from
protection, but shipments remain small. CO and Milne Bay destroy all 7 of their beached barges.
staff of 2d Marines arrive on Tulagi from New Aircraft from Australia and Milne Bay attack enemy
Hebrides. convoy proceeding from New Ireland toward Milne
NEW GUINEA Maj Gen Cyril A. Clowes takes Bay but are hampered by weather conditions and
command of Milne Force, which by this time com- fail to stop it. After shelling beaches, Japanese begin
prises 9,458 men (7,429 Australians, 1,365 Ameri- landing, night 2526, at 3 points E of Rabi, their
cans, 664 RAAF). The U.S. component consists intended landing site, and push W at once. Ele-
largely of engineers and AA personnel. Japanese Maj ments of Aus 61st Militia Bn stationed at K. B.
Gen Tomitaro Horii leaves for the front to take per- Mission, E of Rabi and in path of Japanese advance,
sonal charge of operations. His forces now total over engage enemy who retires at dawn of 26th to land-
11,000 men. ing point. Other elements of 61st Bn are moving
[ 52 ] [ 2631 AUGUST 1942 ]

from Ahioma to head of Milne Bay at Gili Gili by 28 August

sea and lose to the enemy 1 of 2 ketches loaded with GUADALCANAL 1st Bn of 5th Marines, in flank-
troops. ing movement without enemy contact, returns with
MIDDLE EASTCol Shingler is directed by Gen Co I of 3d Bn to Kukum area.
Maxwell to take responsibility for construction, N EW G UINEA Milne Force withstands deter-
maintenance, supply, and administration of instal- mined frontal assaults against No. 3 airstrip. Aus
lations in new PGSC area, which comprises Iraq, 7th Brig, reinf by Americans of 709th Airborne AA
Iran, and parts of Saudi Arabia bordering on Per- Battery and of 43d Engrs, staunchly defends the
sian Gulf. strip. Other Australians continue fighting with-
drawal across Owen Stanley Range.
USSRGerman Army Group A begins assault on
26 August Novorossisk, on Black Sea.
GUADALCANAL 5th Marines, 1st Mar Div, pre-
pares for limited attack to eliminate resistance on 29 August
W flank of Lunga perimeter. NEW GUINEAOrders for Aus 18th Brig to clear
New GuineaPlanes from Milne Bay and Port N shore of Milne Bay are revoked when another
Moresby attack Japanese in Milne Bay, destroying enemy convoy is detected approaching that area. 775
most of their supplies on shore and damaging large Japanese reinforcements are unloaded from the con-
transport. After nightfall, enemy convoy bringing voy. Fighting continues along overland trail to Port
rest of 1,170-man force from New Ireland arrives Moresby, but because of situation at Milne Bay and
safely in Milne Bay. Japanese make another night in the Solomons, South Seas Detachment is ordered
attack, 2627, to W, forcing Aus militia back to to halt upon reaching S foothills of Owen Stanley
Gama R line; at dawn of 27th Japanese retire once Range. Aus 21st Brig relieves 39th Bn and elements
more to landing point. Meanwhile, Japanese forces of 53d Bn.
in Isurava area renew overland drive on Port
Moresby at dawn and force Australians (depleted 30 August
39th Bn, 30th Brig Hq, 2 cos of 53d Bn) back
steadily by overwhelming pressure. Japanese sup- A LEUTIAN Is.U.S. occupation force lands on
ply lines, which are becoming overextended, are Adak without opposition.
frequently attacked by air. GuadalcanalJapanese bombers attack shipping
INDIATraining center for Ch troops is activated off coast and sink Colhoun (APD). Rear echelon of
MAG 23 (12 dive bombers and 18 fighters) arrives
at Ramgarh, Bihar Prov, with Col Frederick McCabe
at Henderson Field.
as commandant.
NEW GUINEAAfter quiet day, Japanese attack
at night in effort to secure No. 3 airstrip but are
27 August repulsed and retreat at dawn of 31st, leaving many
dead. Enemy continues to gain ground in overland
G UADALCANAL 1st Bn of 5th Marines lands drive on Port Moresby.
about 1,000 yards W of Kokumbona and starts E EGYPT During night 3031, Axis forces open
along shore while Co I of 3d Bn pushes W from offensive against El Alamein Line, making main
Kukum by overland trail to intercept enemy with- effort against 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, on S while
drawal inland. 1st Bn is halted by enemy fire about conducting a unsuccessful diversionary thrusts
1,500 yards E of Kokumbona. 9 more P400s of against 30 Corps.
67th Fighter Sq arrive at Henderson Field.
NEW GUINEAFresh AIF troops (2/10th Bn of
18th Brig) advance unopposed to K. B. Mission dur- 31 August
ing day. After nightfall, Japanese, with tanks, renew SOLOMONS Is.USS Helm (DD) tows 3 harbor
attack and split defending force, which withdraws. patrol boats to Tulagi. USS Saratoga (CV) is dam-
Japanese overland drive on Port Moresby continues, aged by enemy torpedo while patrolling W of Santa
with Australians falling back gradually. Reinforce- Cruz Is. and is forced to retire to Tongatabu for
ments (21st Brig) are moving to forward area to as- emergency repairs; on 12 September leaves there for
sist Australians. Pearl Harbor where she remains until November.
USSRGerman Army Group B continues battle NEW GUINEAAustralians take the offensive in
for Stalingrad; Army Group A presses closer to oil Milne Bay area against demoralized enemy. 18th Brig
prize of Grozny, seizing Prokhladny and reaching drives E to K. B. Mission. While tide has turned
Terek R. against enemy in Milne Bay area, other forces
[ 15 SEPTEMBER 1942 ] [ 53 ]

continue across Owen Stanley Range toward Port drive toward Port Moresby. About 1,000 Japanese
Moresby. Gen Horii is ordered to go on the defen- reinforcements from Rabaul land at Basabua, night
sive upon crossing the range. 23.
INDIAGen Stilwell agrees to SOS proposal that EGYPTMassing armor S of Alam el Halfa ridge,
main base in India be established at Calcutta rather enemy halts to await frontal counterattack, but Br
than Karachi. armor remains in prepared positions.
EGYPT Axis forces, against strong opposition, USSRArmy Group A continues to press toward
breach mine field on S flank of 13 Corps, Br Eighth Novorossisk and Grozny. Threat to Novorossisk in-
Army, and German armor then drives through and creases as German and Rumanian forces from the
attacks W toward W end of Alam el Halfa ridge Crimea cross Kerch Strait and join other Axis forces
until halted short of it with heavy losses. Air and in the area.
arty are employed against enemy with good effect.
Heavy attacks by U.S. and Br planes throughout
August have seriously affected Rommels supply po- 3 September
sition. SWPAGen Kenney, Commander Allied Air
USSRAlthough Soviet resistance along Terek Forces, makes Fifth Air Force, the U.S. component,
R has stiffened considerably, German Army Group A a separate command in order to achieve greater
secures foothold across it in Mozdok area. efficiency. Fifth Air Force is given responsibility for
operations in NE area; RAAF is to defend the Aus-
1 September tralian continent, particularly the Darwin area.
EGYPT Aircraft continue to harass enemy, who
JAPAN Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo resigns begins to fall back, concentrating on supply trans-
and Premier Hideki Tojo is asked to assume duties port, which Axis can ill afford to lose. During night
of Foreign Ministry. 34, attack of 13 Corps to close gap in mine field is
SOLOMON IS.USS Betelgeuse lands 200 men of begun by NZ 2d Div, reinf, and evokes furious
6th Naval Construction Bn in Lunga area. Through- opposition.
out September, Americans on Guadalcanal lack USSRGermans continue to push toward
adequate fighter strength, although carrier planes Stalingrad, Grozny, and Novorossisk against stub-
that can be spared are employed at Henderson Field. born resistance; are reported at W suburbs of
Trickle of supplies to the garrison increases only Stalingrad.
N EW G UINEA Australians continue to make
progress in Milne Bay area and to fall back slowly 4 September
along trail over Owen Stanley Range. As diversion
SOLOMON IS.1st Raider Bn patrols Savo I., find-
for Milne Bay forces, Japanese from Salamaua attack
ing it free of enemy, and returns to Guadalcanal.
Aus Kanga Force guarding Bulolo Valley and seize
U.S. destroyer-transports Little and Gregory are sunk
by enemy warships in Sealark Channel, night 45.
NEW GUINEA Continuing E along Milne Bay,
LANDS Transferred from command of Br Army Hq,
Australians reach Goroni. After nightfall, Japanese
India, to East Africa Command. These, with
place wounded on board ship for withdrawal.
Madagascar, are formed into Islands Area under
E GYPT 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, is still
Maj Gen G. R. Smallwood. strongly opposed as it attempts to close gap in mine
EGYPT Br Eighth Army repels further enemy field.
attempts to reach W end of Alam el Halfa ridge
and prepares for counterattack to close gap in mine
field on S flank. 30 Corps is thinned out to reinf 13 5 September
Corps; 10 Corps is ordered forward.
USSRArmy Group B continues to batter U.S.-U.K.Final decision is made that TORCH
defense ring about Stalingrad. Anapa, important is to include landings at Algiers and Oran in Algeria
Black Sea port, falls to Army Group A. and at Casablanca, Morocco.
SWPAU.S. 32d and 41st Divs are assigned to
Gen Eichelberger, CG U.S. I Corps.
2 September NEW GUINEAJapanese continue evacuation of
SAMOA7th Marines and part of 5th Defense Milne Bay under cover of darkness. About 1,300 of
Bn embark for New Hebrides. original force of some 1,900 are withdrawn by sea.
NEW GUINEAAustralians continue to clear N Australians, following withdrawal closely, capture
coast of Milne Bay but are unable to stem Japanese supply dump at Waga Waga.
[ 54 ] [ 612 SEPTEMBER 1942 ]

E GYPT Enemy opposition to 13 Corps, Br 9 September

Eighth Army, as it continues battle to close gap in U.S.Japanese plane, launched from submarine
mine field is unabated. off coast, drops incendiary bomb on mountain slope
near Brookings, Oregon, causing small forest fire.
6 September This is sole bombing by plane of continental U.S.
during the war.
NEW GUINEA Aus 18th Brig continues to clear NEW GUINEA25th Brig of Aus 7th Div is rushed
enemy from Milne Bay against light, scattered resis- toward Owen Stanley Range front. 16th Brig of Aus
tance. In Owen Stanley Range 2/14th and 2/16th 6th Div is ordered to Port Moresby.
Bns of 21st Brig, Aus 7th Div, fall back to Efogi Spur, M ADAGASCAR Br forces of East Africa Com-
beyond The Gap, where 2/27th Bn of same brig is mand renew offensive in order to insure safety of
already established. certain military objectives and gain air and sea con-
EGYPT 13 Corps, Br Eighth Army, continues trol of Mozambique Channel. 29th Independent Inf
offensive, making slow progress southward against Brig makes surprise landing, night 910, on W coast
firm opposition. in vicinity of Majunga and seizes Majunga virtually
USSRGermans announce capture of unopposed. After being passed through by E Afri-
Novorossisk, leading port on E coast of Black Sea. can 22d Brig Gp, which starts toward Tananarive,
Fierce fighting continues around Stalingrad. 29th begins re-embarking for another landing. As
diversion for Majunga landing, small landings are
made on Nosy Be I., of f NW coast, and at
7 September Morondava, on W coast; forces on N part of island
move southward along W and E coasts.
NEW GUINEAOrganized resistance in Milne Bay
G ERMANY RAF BC, during heavy attack on
sector ceases; stragglers are eventually mopped up
Duesseldorf, night 1011, drops first 2-ton incendiary
by Australians. Decisive defeat of Japanese removes
threat to Port Moresby from Milne Bay area, but
enemy drive along trail over Owen Stanley Range
toward Port Moresby is still unchecked. 11 September
EGYPT Gen Montgomery halts battle of Alam ALEUTIAN IS.Completion of runway on Adak
el Halfa before original positions have been restored, permits stepped up air offensive against Kiska, some
leaving enemy in possession of 45 mile stretch of 250 miles distant.
desert on S flank. Lull ensues in ground action dur- GUADALCANAL From 29 August to date, about
ing which Br Eighth Army prepares intensively for 6,000 Japanese have arrived, landing mostly at night
offensive. Deceptive measures are taken on a com- from DDs and destroyer-transports.
prehensive scale to conceal plans from enemy. NEW GUINEAGen MacArthur submits to Gen
USSRSoviet forces continue stubborn resis- Blarney a plan for accelerating operations. While
tance to Army Group B in Stalingrad area and to Army Australians, upon receiving reinforcements, are to
Group A in vicinity of Novorossisk. attack to drive enemy back along Port Moresby
Kokoda trail, an RCT of U.S. 32d Div is to execute
8 September wide flanking movement to E to get behind Japa-
nese at Wairopi and thus hasten their expulsion from
GUADALCANAL Prov bn composed of depleted New Guinea. Aus 2/14th and 2/16th Bns break
1st Raider and 1st Para Bns moves E from Lunga Pt through enemy forces and fall back to Nauro; then
by sea to destroy enemy force at Tasimboko, near yield Nauro under pressure and take up positions
Taivu Pt. Debarking E of Tasimboko, the bn moves on ridge N of Ioribaiwa, where 2/1st Pioneer Bn
W, clashing with outposts of strong enemy force that and 3d Bn of 14th Brig are established.
has landed recently near Taivu Pt. Japanese holding
force is driven from Tasimboko. Raiders sustain 8
casualties and kill 27 Japanese. Henderson-based 12 September
aircraft support raiders. Japanese in Taivu Pt area NEW HEBRIDES7th Marines and elements of 5th
constitute main body of new assault force, smaller Defense Bn arrive at Espiritu Santo. Adm Turner,
group of which is in vicinity of Kokumbona. af ter conferring with Gen Vandegrif t on
NEW GUINEAGen Horii, with 5 reinf bns in Guadalcanal, recommends to Adm Ghormley that
assault, attacks 21st Brig of Aus 7th Div on Efogi 7th Marines be used to strengthen Lunga defenses.
Spur, forcing 2/27th Bn off trail and encircling G UADALCANAL Prov raider-parachute bn con-
2/14th and 2/16th Bns. ducts reconnaissance in force along ridge, later
[ 1317 SEPTEMBER 1942 ] [ 55 ]

called Bloody or Edsons, S of OPL and about 800 raider-parachute bn. On E flank along the Ilu, 3d
yards E of Lunga R, to close the route of approach Bn of 1st Marines moves 6 light tanks against enemy,
to Henderson Field; despite enemy fire, reaches but 3 are disabled; Japanese continue sporadic fire
southernmost knoll. Fire fight continues throughout in this sector. In afternoon, Japanese attack 3d Bn
night 1213, and enemy succeeds in infiltrating. of 5th Marines on ridge commanding coastal road
U.K.Gen Eisenhower officially announces as- to W sector of perimeter but are driven off. 3d Bn
sumption of command as CinC Allied Expedition- of 2d Marines arrives on Guadalcanal from Tulagi.
ary Force for TORCH, and Allied Force Headquarters N EW G UINEA Advance elements (2/31st and
(AFHQ) is activated in London. 2/33d Bns) of 25th Brig, Aus 7th Div, reach
Ioribaiwa, where they take over defense of ridge from
13 September Aus 21st Brig. Japanese, with 2 full regts in line, force
G UA DA L C A N A L Adm Ghormley orders 7th a further withdrawal, to Imita Ridge, the last before
Marines to reinforce garrison. Air defense is Port Moresby, lying 32 miles from that objective.
strengthened by arrival of 12 dive bombers and 6 This is the last withdrawal of Aus forces on this front.
TBFs. Japanese launch air, naval, and ground at- L IBYATo assist withdrawal of Benghazi raiding
tacks against Lunga perimeter in attempt to recap- party, diversionary raids are made on Gialo and
ture airfield. Prov raider-parachute bn is unable to Barce.
advance on Bloody Ridge and digs in on central
knoll, about 250 yards N of previous bivouac area. 15 September
After nightfall, main enemy assault force of at least S P ACIFIC Japanese submarines attack U.S.
2 bns drives northward to northernmost knoll where warships on patrol S and E of the Solomons, sinking
Prov raider-parachute bn, with close arty support, CV Wasp and damaging BB North Carolina; latter is
holds firm against further determined attacks. Other forced to return to Pearl Harbor for repairs.
Japanese, about 2 cos, attack 3d Bn of 1st Marines G UADALCANAL 5th Marines, 1st Mar Div, ex-
on E flank along Ilu R, night 1314, but are unable tends positions S of Henderson Field to include
to break through. Bloody Ridge. Enemy SE of Lunga perimeter con-
C HINA Gen Stilwell presents to Chiang Kai- tinues to fire intermittently on 3d Bn of 1st Marines.
shek a proposed plan of operations for China Air NEW GUINEA First elements (Co E and attach-
Task Force, calling for defense of ferry route from ments) of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, f ly to Port
India to China as primary mission. Moresby from Brisbane, Australia. This is the first
MADAGASCARGen Platt, CG E African Com- U.S. infantry force to arrive in New Guinea.
mand, establishes hq ashore at Majunga. E African
22d Brig continues toward Tananarive, hampered
chiefly by roadblocks. 16 September
L IBYADuring night 1314, small raiding par- ALEUTIAN IS.Enemy, during period 27 August
ties of Br MEF move against Tobruk and Benghazi 16 September, transfers Attu garrison to Kiska.
in effort to destroy enemy supplies and installations NEW GUINEAJapanese overland drive on Port
at the ports. The Tobruk raid is made by land and Moresby grinds to a halt at Ioribaiwa. Australians
sea, overland party moving from Egypt. From are firmly entrenched on Imita Ridge, to S, where
Kufra, motorized column moves overland more than they are preparing for counteroffensive.
500 miles to Benghazi. The raids prove costly and CHINAGen Chennault presents to Gen Bissell
accomplish little. a plan for employment of CATF that calls for de-
N A TLANTIC Large Allied convoy to USSR fense of IndiaChina ferry route as primary mission;
suffers heavy losses during enemy air attacks. suggests that CATF operate directly under Stilwell
and that it be detached from U.S. Tenth Air Force.
M ADAGASCAR French Governor General re-
14 September quests peace terms.
ALEUTIAN IS.Kiska undergoes its first major air USSRArmy Group B penetrates NW suburbs
raid, by 12 heavy bombers with 28 fighters from of Stalingrad.
NEW HEBRIDESTF 65, organized to transport
7th Marines to Guadalcanal, leaves Espiritu Santo. 17 September
G UADALCANAL Japanese break off attacks on NEW GUINEA In preparation for wide flanking
Bloody Ridge at dawn and withdraw under air movement to E, Allied rcn parties move E along S
attack, leaving about 600 dead; Marine casualties coast from Port Moresby. Party of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d
are 143. 2d Bn of 5th Marines starts relief of Prov Div, under Capt William F. Boice, leaves by lugger
[ 56 ] [ 1826 SEPTEMBER 1942 ]

for Kapa Kapa to reconnoiter inland from there to 22 September

Jaure. Another party, headed by SWPA Engineer U.S.Combined Chiefs of Staff approve plan
officer Brig Gen Hugh J. Caseys deputy, Col Leif drawn up in Washington by SOS, The Plan for
J. Sverdrup, who is already charged with locating and Operation of Certain Iranian Communication Fa-
developing landing fields, moves towards Abau in cilities between Persian Gulf Ports and Tehran by
order to reconnoiter trail inland from there. Japa- U.S. Army Forces. The plan gives U.S. direct
nese at Ioribaiwa are in a precarious position. Al- responsibility for moving supplies through Persian
though within sight of Port Moresby, troops are in Corridor to USSR.
no condition to attack without reinforcements and
supplies, neither of which can be spared. 23 September
MADAGASCARFrench plenipotentiaries receive
and reject terms for cessation of hostilities. GUADALCANAL 1st Mar Div begins limited op-
eration to W of Lunga perimeter to eliminate
enemy within striking distance of Henderson Field:
18 September 1st Bn, 7th Marines, is directed to advance along N
GUADALCANALImproved Allied supply situation slopes of Mt Austen, cross the Matanikau, and push
permits restoration of full rations to garrison. W to Kokumbona; 1st Raider Bn is to establish
TF 65 arrives off Kukum and unloads rest of 1st Mar patrol base at Kokumbona at point where inland
Div4,180 of 7th Marines, reinfplus vehicles, trails intersect coastal road.
equipment, ammunition, and supplies. This is the N EW G UINEA Gen Blarney arrives in Port
first ammunition to arrive in response to request of Moresby to take direct command of New Guinea
22 August, 3 other vessels unload aviation gasoline. forces. Lt Gen Edmund F. Herring becomes Com-
TF 65 retires to Espiritu Santo with 1st Para Bn, mander, Advance New Guinea Force, succeeding
American wounded, and 8 Japanese prisoners. Gen Rowell. 128th Inf of U.S. 32d Div reaches Port
Marines are patrolling aggressively from defense Moresby by air and is assigned to garrison force
perimeter. under operational control of Aus 6th Div.
N E W G U I N E A Japanese Imperial General M A DAG A S C A R E African 22d Brig enters
Headquarters orders current positions held as long Tananarive, which has been declared an open city.
as possible and Buna-Gona beachhead held as pri- USSRGerman Army Group B continues to
mary defensive position. Gen Horii prepares to thin make slow progress in Stalingrad against bitter
lines gradually. opposition. Army Group A assembles an assault force
AUSTRALIA Main body of 126th Inf (less arty), for drive on Black Sea port of Tuapse.
U.S. 32d Div, embarks at Brisbane for New Guinea.
MADAGASCAR29th Independent Inf Brig of Br 24 September
E African Command lands without opposition on GUADALCANAL 1st Bn of 7th Marines engages
E coast at Tamatave and moves inland toward in fire fight with enemy on NW slope of Mt Austen.
Tananarive virtually unopposed. E African 22d Brig
continues toward Tananarive from W coast. 25 September
GUADALCANAL 2d Bn of 5th Marines joins 1st
19 September Bn, 7th Marines, on NW slope of Mt. Austen to
continue attack against enemy in Matanikau-
GUADALCANAL Gen Vandegrift establishes con- Kokumbona area. 2 COS of 1st Bn, 7th Marines,
tinuous defense lines, divides Lunga area into 10 return to Lunga perimeter. Patrol of 1st Bn, 1st
sectors. Marines, reconnoiters Koli Pt without incident.
NEW GUINEA 25th Brig, Aus 7th Div, opens
20 September counteroffensive to drive enemy back along Port
MoresbyKokoda trail, attacking strongly for
N EW G UINEA 127th Inf of U.S. 32d Div is Ioribaiwa.
ordered to Port Moresby. M ADAGASCAR E Africa 22d Brig establishes
INDIABase Section 2, SOS, at Calcutta, receives contact with 29th Independent Brig, giving British
its first troops from Karachi. control of central part of island.
USSRStubborn street fighting is in progress
in Stalingrad. Town of Terek falls to German Army
Group A. 26 September
U.K.Outline plan for T ORCH is issued; D Day G UADALCANAL 2d Bn, 5th Marines, and ele-
is set for 8 November. ments of 1st Bn, 7th Marines, reach the upper Ma-
[ 27 SEPTEMBER6 OCTOBER 1942 ] [ 57 ]

tanikau and push N along E bank, encountering Kokoda Trail, where Australians are now pursuing
enemy fire from vicinity of Matanikau village. Arty enemy; from S coast to Jaure along either Rigo or
and aircraft are employed against the enemy posi- Abau track, both of which are being reconnoitered;
tion. 1st Raider Bn passes through 5th Regt sector NW along coast from Milne Bay.
to join in attack. MIDDLE EASTLetter of Instructions is issued to
M A DAGA S C A R Gen Platt moves hq from Brig Gen Donald H. Connolly, commander-desig-
Majunga to Tananarive. nate of PGSC. CG USAFIME is to exercise admin-
istrative supervision over PGSC.
27 September USSRBitter fighting continues within and
GUADALCANAL1st Raider Bn attempts to attack near Stalingrad throughout October, German Army
enemy strongpoint in Matanikau village area from Group B making limited progress against deter-
rear but is unable to cross river. 2d Bn of 5th mined resistance. Red Army efforts to relieve the
Marines attacks frontally at river mouth but cannot besieged city, which is under severe air and arty
force crossing. 1st Bn of 7th Marines lands near Pt bombardment, prove futile. Drives of German Army
Cruz and takes ridge inland from beach but is pre- Group A are virtually halted by Soviet resistance.
vented by fire from advancing farther; with naval Red Army contains attacks toward Grozny oil fields.
and air support, returns to shore and re-embarks for In NW sector of this front, fierce battles occur in
Kukum. 2d Bn, 5th Marines, covers withdrawal of Novorossisk-Tuapse area along Black Sea coast.
1st Raider Bn and returns during night to Lunga German offensive is steadily losing momentum be-
perimeter. cause of fuel shortage, heavy losses in manpower,
N EW G UINEA Japanese abandon Ioribaiwa difficult terrain, and firm opposition.
Ridge under Aus pressure and are in full retreat.
2 October
ELLICE IS .5th Defense Bn force from Espiritu
28 September Santo, New Hebrides, occupies Funafuti.
NEW G UINEAMain body of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d MADAGASCARBr forces take Antsirabe.
Div, reaches Port Moresby and is assigned to New
Guinea Force to assist in advance on Wairopi.
3 October
INDIA India Air Task Force is activated in up-
29 September per Assam under Brig Gen Caleb V. Haynes to pro-
S OLOMON I S .Troop strength of Guadalcanal tect the India end of the Hump ferry route.
garrison is now 19,261; 3,260 troops are on Tulagi. USSROn Caucasian front, Army Group A
6th Naval Construction Bn is constructing airstrip. captures Elkhotovo, within 7 miles of Darg Kokh.
MADAGASCARContinuing S from Tananarive, Fierce fighting continues in Stalingrad area.
Br forces occupy Fianarantsoa. 2 cos of Pretoria Regt
and a few armd cars from Diego Suarez land on SW
coast at Tulear in order to secure the port, airfield,
4 October
and seaplane base site for patrolling Mozambique NEW GUINEACapt Boices rcn party (elements
Channel. of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Div) reaches Jaure, complet-
U.K.U.S. fliers of 3 RAF Eagle Sqs are trans- ing rcn of Kapa Kapa-Jaure trail, which is found to
ferred to USAAF. be difficult but practicable.
ENGLISH C HANNEL Small Br party raids Sark I.
30 September
ALEUTIAN IS.Enemy makes the first of a num- 6 October
ber of nuisance raids on Adak. U.S.Second Protocol for U.S. aid to USSR,
covering period to 1 July 1943, is signed in Wash-
ington. 3,300,000 tons are to be sent by N Soviet
1 October ports and 1,100,000 by Persian Gulf route.
N EW G UINEA GHQ issues plan for encircle- POAGen Harmon recommends to Adm
ment and reduction of Buna-Gona beachhead. Upon Ghormley that projected invasion of Ndeni, Santa
securing Kumusi R line from Wairopi southeast- Cruz Is., scheduled to follow capture of Tulagi and
ward, Goodenough I, and N coast from Milne Bay Guadalcanal airfield, be postponed and that Guadal-
to Cape Nelson, concerted assault is to be made on canal be reinf; that naval operations in the Solomons
Buna-Gona area. Advance will be along 3 routes: be increased; and that adequate airdrome construc-
[ 58 ] [ 711 OCTOBER 1942 ]

tion personnel and equipment be sent to Guadal- are made for stand at Templetons Crossing, N
canal. Adm Ghormley decides to proceed with plan of Myola.
to occupy Ndeni as landing field site and agrees to CBIGen Chennault delivers Wendell L.
reinf Guadalcanal with an Army regt and to im- Willkie a letter for President Roosevelt asking for
prove airdrome facilities. 164th Inf of Americal Div increased authority and air power in order to de-
is chosen to reinf Guadalcanal and 147th Inf (less 2 stroy Japanese Air Force in China, then attack Japa-
bns) to occupy Ndeni. nese Empire.
NEW GUINEA Fifth Air Force completes move-
ment of reinf Aus 18th Brig to Wanigela. Channel 9 October
from Milne Bay to Cape Nelson has now been GUADALCANAL Rear echelon of 2d Marines, 2d
charted in order to permit shipment of supplies by Mar Div, arrives. 164th Inf of Americal Div sails
water. to Guadalcanal from Nouma, New Caledonia.
E GYPT Gen Montgomery issues instructions Whaling Group and 7th Marines force cross the
for El Alamein offensive in Western Desert. Matanikau and, with arty assistance of 11th Marines,
USSROil city of Malgobek, near Grozny, falls drive N to coastal area; retire eastward across
to Army Group A. Matanikau R mouth, covered by 5th Marines,
concluding 3-day action during which Japanese lose
7 October nearly 700 men as against 65 marines killed and
125 wounded.
G UADALCANAL 1st Mar Div, with air and arty FRANCEIn heaviest daylight raid to date, about
support, opens offensive to extend perimeter west- 100 U.S. heavy bombers with strong RAF and U.S.
ward beyond arty range of Henderson Field, moving fighter support attack industrial targets at Lille.
3 columns forward toward the Matanikau, line of Many enemy planes are encountered and more than
departure, from Kukum area. While 5th Marines 100 are damaged or destroyed.
(less bn) moves along coast to conduct holding
action at Matanikau R mouth, 7th Marines (less
bn), followed by Whaling Group (3d Bn of 2d 10 October
Marines and div scout-sniper detachment under GUADALCANAL In anticipation of enemy coun-
Col William J. Whaling), advances SW with teroffensive, marines strengthen defense positions
mission of crossing river and enveloping Pt Cruz. and patrol aggressively. 3 bns of 1st and 7th Marines
5th Marines column soon meets opposition and plus elements of Special Weapons Co take respon-
drives enemy back almost to Matanikau R mouth. sibility for E bank of the Matanikau, where per-
The other 2 columns reach Hill 65, overlooking manent positions are established at river mouth. By
Matanikau R, with little difficulty and halt for the this time, 12 P39s of 67th Fighter Sq are at
night. After nightfall, attack preparations are simu- Henderson Field. B17s are occasionally staging
lated at river mouth and 5th Marines is reinf by through the field.
co of 1st Raider Bn. NEW GUINEA Main body of 2d Bn, 126th Inf,
N EW G UINEA U.S. 32d Div force (platoon of U.S. 32d Div, with suppor ting units, leaves
Co E, 126th Inf; AT and Cannon Cos; native Kalikodobu on foot for Jaure.
carriers) under Capt Alfred Medendorp begins dif-
ficult march from Kalikodobu, 40 miles SE of Port
Moresby, toward Jaure. The force is dependent 11 October
upon airdrops for most of its supplies. B ATTLE OF C APE E SPERANCE After Japanese
naval force moving toward Guadalcanal is spotted
by U.S. planes in afternoon, TF of 4 cruisers and 5
8 October DDs under Rear Adm Norman Scott, standing off
GUADALCANALMarine attack across Matanikau Rennell I. to protect convoy bringing elements of
R is postponed because of heavy rains, but 5th Ma- Americal Div to Guadalcanal, moves toward Cape
rines and raiders reduce enemy bridgehead on E Esperance to engage enemy and at 2346 opens fire.
bank in costly fighting. When Japanese plans for During 34-minute battle, the TF sinks Furutaka
counteroffensive are discovered, 1st Mar Div CG (CA) and Fubuki (DD) and damages Aoba and
changes plan of attack. Instead of driving toward Kinugasa (CAs). Enemy retires northward, leaving
Kokumbona and the Poha, marines are to raid Pt DDs Natsugumo and Murakumo to rescue survivors.
Cruz area in force and return to Lunga perimeter. U.S. losses are light: Duncan, Boise, Salt Lake City,
NEW GUINEA Japanese withdrawal across Owen and Farenholt are damaged; of these, only the DD
Stanley Range toward Kokoda slows as preparations Duncan sinks, on 12th.
[ 1219 OCTOBER 1942 ] [ 59 ]

MADAGASCARGen Platt, CG E African Com- 15 October

mand, relinquishes command on island to Maj Gen GUADALCANAL Japanese 17th Army issues tacti-
Smallwood, General Officer Commanding Islands cal orders for assault on Lunga Pt, setting date ten-
Area. tatively for 18th. 5 escorted enemy transports un-
load final elements of assault force (3,0004,000
12 October men) and most of cargo at Tassafaronga. Aircraft
from Guadalcanal and New Hebrides join in attacks
B ATTLE OF CAPE E SPERANCE Henderson-based on enemy, sinking 2 vessels and damaging others.
planes conclude action against retiring enemy naval Vitally needed gasoline arrives from Espiritu Santo
force, sinking DDs Murakumo and Natsugumo. on Army and Marine transport planes and on sea-
S OLOMON IS .4 boats of MTB Sq 3, the first plane tender MacFarland.
naval craft to be permanently based at Tulagi except
for harbor patrol boats, are towed in.
CBIGen Stilwell requests that a second 30 16 October
Chinese divs be equipped. G UADALCANAL Japanese begin march along
narrow trail from Kokumbona assembly area to-
ward attack positions E of Lunga R. Japanese arty
13 October shelling of Lunga perimeter increases in volume and
GUADALCANALJapanese aircraft, long-range arty accuracy. U.S. patrol craft attack enemy coastal
from Kokumbona area, and naval TF that includes positions from Kokumbona to Cape Esperance.
2 BBs alternate in bombarding Henderson Field Operational aircraft number 66 after arrival of 20
during day and throughout night 1314, severely F4Fs and 12 SBDs. Seaplane tender MacFarland is
damaging field and sharply reducing U.S. air seriously damaged by enemy aircraft in Sealark
strength. First ground force units of U.S. Army, Channel but is salvaged by crew.
164th Inf of Americal Div, arrive on McCawley and
on Zeilin, which also bring 210 men of 1st Mar Air
Wing and 85 Marine casuals plus weapons and sup- 17 October
plies. Unloading despite air attacks, the vessels em- NEW GUINEABitter fighting is in progress on
bark 1st Raider Bn and sail for New Caledonia. Kokoda Trail at Eora Creek, where Japanese com-
Troop strength of 1st Mar Div is thus brought up to mit reinforcements. Abels Field at Fasari, on upper
23,088, excluding forces on Tulagi. 1st Mar Div CG Musa R near Mt Sapia, becomes operational. Field
divides Lunga perimeter into 5 regimental sectors, is named for Cecil Abel, a missionary who con-
massing greatest strength on W. structed it with assistance of native labor and equip-
C HINA Gen Stilwell presents to Chiang Kai- ment dropped by Fifth Air Force. First luggers
shek President Roosevelts reply of 12 October to reach Wanigela and continue toward Pongani with
the Generalissimos 3 demands. men and supplies.
U.K.Convoys for TORCH begin assembling at
Firth of Clyde.
14 October
GUADALCANALFurther enemy bombardment of
Henderson Field puts it out of action temporarily, 18 October
forcing aircraft to use Fighter Strip No. 1, a rough POAAdm Halsey succeeds Adm Ghormley as
runway SE of Henderson. Strength of operational Commander, South Pacific Area.
aircraft is reduced during 13th and 14th from 90 to NEW GUINEAAir movement of most of 128th
42. Supply of aviation gasoline is critically low, but Inf, U.S. 32d Div, to Wanigela is completed. Ele-
SBDs and P39s take to the air in effort to halt ments are left at Port Moresby temporarily when
enemy convoy of transports escorted by DDs pro- Wanigela field becomes unserviceable because of
ceeding toward Guadalcanal. The planes fail to stop rains. Hard fighting continues on Kokoda Trail in
the convoy but sink a transport and set another vicinity of Eora Creek.
vessel on fire.
N EW G UINEA Fifth Air Force begins f lying
coastal force (128th Inf of U.S. 32d Div and 2/6th 19 October
Aus Independent Co, under command of Brig Gen U.S.War Department agrees to equip 30 more
Hanford MacNider) to Wanigela. Australians ad- Chinese divs.
vancing along Kokoda Trail are meeting stubborn POAU.S. 25th Div is alerted for movement
opposition in vicinity of Templetons Crossing. to Guadalcanal.
[ 60 ] [ 2023 OCTOBER 1942 ]

N EW G UINEA Col Sverdrups rcn party com- line and is joined by Medendorps main group, the
pletes march along Kapa Kapa trail, which is so entire force being called Wairopi Patrol. Australians
poor that it is rejected as a possible route of advance, maintain pressure on enemy along Kokoda Trail,
to upper Musa R, where Abels Field is already in slowly gaining ground in flanking attacks.
use; searches for additional airfield sites.
MADAGASCARTroops of Br E African Command 22 October
continue to clear S part of island and in 2 pronged G UADALCANAL Japanese postpone attack on
attack overcome opposition at Andriamanalina. Lunga perimeter until 23d, since main assault force
is still short of line of departure, but continue arty
20 October fire against Marine positions along Matanikau.
POAGen Vandegrif t, repor ting to Adm N EW G UINEA To secure NE coast of Papua,
Halsey aboard his flagship in Nouma harbor, re- 2/12th Bn of Aus 18th Brig embarks in 2 DDs at
quests and is promised more support for Guadal- Milne Bay and during night 2223 lands at a points
canal. Adm Halsey orders 147th Inf, which had been on Goodenough I., from which submarines have
earmarked for invasion of Ndeni, Santa Cruz Is., withdrawn 60 of the 353 Japanese stranded there
to Guadalcanal. The Ndeni operation is never on 25 August.
undertaken. I NDIA Combined planning staff conference
GUADALCANAL Japanese attack is postponed to opens to consider offensive in Burma.
22d, since main enveloping force has not yet reached ALGERIA In preparation for TORCH , Maj Gen
line of departure, but patrol of supporting coastal Mark W. Clark, deputy commander to Gen Eisen-
force is taken under fire at mouth of Matanikau R hower, and small U.S. party arrive in Algeria by
and retires after 1 of its 2 tanks is hit. submarine under cover of darkness to meet secretly
NEW GUINEA16th Brig of Aus 6th Div enters with pro-Allied French party headed by Brig Gen
fight for Kokoda Trail, relieving 25th Brig of Aus Charles E. Mast. During the meeting Gen Mast
7th Div; continues action to clear Eora Creek area. assures Gen Clark and U.S. Consul General Robert
U.S. 32d Div party under Capt Medendorp, having Murphy that French will co-operate under leader-
left elements at Laruni, where dropping ground is ship of Gen Henri Giraud.
staked out, arrives at Jaure, where Capt Boices party EGYPT U.S. advanced base hq becomes Desert
is searching for airfield sites. Air Task Force Hq under command of Gen Brereton.
CBICh troops begin moving by air into India Br Eighth Army moves secretly into assault positions
to meet Ramgarh requirements. Ch 22d and 38th during night 2223.
Divs are being brought up to strength. U.K.TORCH cargo convoy leaves for Africa.
IRAQGen Connolly reaches Basra, where he
assumes command of PGSC, replacing Col Shingler,
who remains as acting chief of staff until relieved by 23 October
Col Stanley L. Scott on 20 November. Strength of U.S.Forces from U.S. begin movement to N
PGSC at this time is about 400 officers and men of Africa in preparation for TORCH . First detachment
SOS and AAF and just under 1,000 American of Western Naval Task Force, under Rear Adm
civilians. Henr y K. Hewitt, sails from Hampton Roads,
EGYPT Allied air action is intensified in effort Virginia.
to attain high degree of air superiority before Gen G UADALCANAL After quiet day, Japanese arty
Montgomerys El Alamein offensive opens. Air opens up at 1800 with heaviest fire to date, after
superiority is achieved by assault date, 24 October. which assault force (tank co and inf regt) makes
determined but futile efforts to cross Matanikau R
mouth and overrun 3d Bn of 1st Marines. Japanese
21 October sustain heavy losses: 600 are estimated killed and at
U.S.Adm King informs Adm Nimitz that Joint least 8 tanks are knocked out. 1st Marines casualties
Chiefs of Staff have agreed to strengthen air forces are 25 killed and 14 wounded. Main enemy envel-
in S Pacific by 1 January 1943. oping force, which was to have attacked simulta-
G UADALCANAL Japanese coastal force, with neously with coastal force, is not yet in position and
support of arty and 9 tanks, attempts to cross to E postpones for another day its attack on S perimeter.
bank of the Matanikau but pulls back after losing EGYPT Br Eighth Army opens El Alamein of-
a tank to U.S. fire. fensive at 2140. More than 1,000 guns pound enemy
N EW G UINEA From Jaure, 50-man patrol of batteries until 2200, then switch to enemy forward
Cannon CO, U.S. Sad Div, sets out for Kumusi R positions as Br troops move forward, 30 Corps on N
Valley, where it subsequently establishes defense making main effort and 13 Corps conducting diver-
[ 2427 OCTOBER 1942 ] [ 61 ]

sionary actions on S. Heavy fighting continues 1st Bn of 7th Marines and 3d Bn of 164th Inf on S
throughout night. flank of Lunga perimeter and other enemy forces
attack 2d Bn of 7th Marines E of Hill 67 and
24 October Matanikau R. Both attacks are repulsed and lull in
U.S.Final detachment of Western Naval Task ground action follows.
Force sails from Hampton Roads for N Africa. EGYPT As El Alamein battle continues, Gen
Covering group of warships sails from Casco Bay, Montgomery decides to make main effort on N flank
Maine. of 30 Corps and withhold attacks of 13 Corps in
GUADALCANAL Japanese column is observed E order to preserve strength of 7th Armd Div. On N
of the Matanikau on foothills of Mt Austen in after- flank of 30 Corps, Aus 9th Div drives N toward
noon and bombarded by arty and aircraft with un- coastal road to Rahman; 1st Armd Div, attempting
observed results. Shortly after midnight 2425, regt to push W in Kidney Ridge area, is unable to ad-
of main Japanese assault force attacks S flank of vance. Series of determined enemy counterattacks
Lunga perimeter, where 1st Bn of 7th Marines is with strong tank support is repulsed. In 13 Corps
thinly spread along 2,800-yard front, 2d Bn having sector, 50th Div attempts to improve positions in
been withdrawn to plug gap between Lunga perim- Munassib area with little success.
eter and forward positions along the Matanikau.
Marines, assisted by fire of adjacent troops2d Bn
of 164th Infand reinf during night by 3d Bn of 26 October
164th Inf, hold against repeated attacks, and enemy NEW HEBRIDES172d Regt of U.S. 43d Div ar-
retires morning of 25th. rives at Espiritu Santo, but vessel bringing it, Presi-
N EW H EBRIDES 2 U.S. naval carrier forces, dent Coolidge, is sunk off coast by U.S. mines.
based on Enterprise and Hornet, rendezvous NE of B ATTLE OF S ANTA C RUZ I S .Adm Kinkaids
New Hebrides and come under command of Rear naval force, upon learning of presence of Japanese
Adm Thomas C. Kinkaid.
naval units near Santa Cruz Is., moves forward and
N E W G U I N E A Organized resist ance on
engages in naval air battle. 3 Japanese carriers and
Goodenough I. ceases; 250 Japanese are withdrawn
to Rabaul by DD after nightfall. After exhausting over- 2 DDs are damaged and 100 planes are destroyed.
land journey, head of 2d Bn, 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Cost is high, however, since carrier Hornet and DD
Div, reaches Jaure. From there the force is to move Porter are sunk; 4 vessels, one of them the carrier
to Buna area via Natunga and Bofu, AT and Can- Enterprise, are damaged; 20 planes are lost to enemy
non Cos protecting its rear and harassing enemy in and 54 from other causes. This is the last time dur-
Wairopi area. ing the Guadalcanal Campaign that Japanese use
EGYPT 30 Corps, with 4 divs in assault, secures carrier aircraft in close support.
2 corridors through enemy mine fields on N flank G UADALCANAL Operational aircraft on Hen-
of Br Eighth Army, Aus 9th and Br 51st Divs gain- derson Field now total 29.
ing one on N and NZ 2d and S African 1st Divs one EGYPT El Alamein battle continues but with
on S. 10 Corps armor then begins passing through: decreasing momentum. 30 Corps, Br Eighth Army,
1st Armd Div, debouching through N corridor, improves positions in vicinity of Miteiriya Ridge and
breaks through mine field during night 2425, but during night 2627 succeeds in taking Kidney
10th Armd Div, using S corridor, is unable to reach Ridge. Gen Montgomery decides to regroup for next
W edge of mine field. On Eighth Army S flank, 13 phase, the breakout attack, and withdraws NZ 2d
Corps 7th Armd and 44th Divs succeed in breaking Div into reserve. Allied planes continue effective
through mine fields N of Himeimat, night 2425, support of ground operations and disperse enemy
and establish small bridgehead; to S, FF 1st Brig force concentrating for attack. Enemy air action,
pushes W but is driven back. which has been rather light thus far, increases.
I TALY RAF Lancasters, after f light of some USSRHard fighting continues in Stalingrad.
1,400 miles from Britain, attack Milan in force. This In the Caucasus, Nalchik falls to Army Group A.
is the first daylight attack on Italy by Br planes from U.K.TORCH troop convoy leaves for Africa.
home bases.

25 October 27 October
BERMUDAAir group for T ORCH (carriers) sails CBIGenerals Wavell and Stilwell agree that
for N Africa. Stilwell shall conduct offensive in Hukawng Valley
G UADALCANAL Japanese arty and aircraft are of N Burma and occupy area Myitkyina-Bhamo;
very active during day but ground attacks are with- make contact with Ch forces from Yunnan. Ameri-
held until night 2526, when 2 enemy regts attack cans are to be responsible for construction of Ledo
[ 62 ] [ 28 OCTOBER2 NOVEMBER 1942 ]

Road to Myitkyina; the road is eventually to link with 30 October

Burma Road. E GYPT Br Eighth Army renews assault on N
EGYPT Enemy counterattacks strongly against flank of 30 Corps during night 3031. Aus 9th Div
Kidney Ridge, committing reinforcements that have drives N to the sea, then pushes E, trapping large
moved up from the S, and is repulsed with heavy enemy force. Allied planes provide excellent tactical
losses. Br Eighth Army continues regrouping for support, attacking accurately in small area to neu-
breakout assault. 7th Armd Div, reinf by brig of tralize Thompsons Post. Most of the pocketed
44th Div, brig of 50th Div, and Greek Brig, is trans- enemy force subsequently succeeds in escaping when
ferred from 13 to 30 Corps. 1st Armd Div of 10 tanks from W break through to assist.
Corps is withdrawn into reserve.
31 October
28 October G UADALCANAL 1st Mar Div completes prepa-
N EW G UINEA 2d Bn of 126th Inf, U.S- 32d rations for offensive. 5th Marines and 2d Marines
Div, and portable hospital begin difficult march ( ) move into attack positions along the Matani-
from Jaure toward Natunga and Bofu, preceded by kau. During night 31 October1 November, Co E
Cos E and F, which are to secure dropping grounds. of 5th Marines crosses the Matanikau and outposts
EGYPT After probing Br positions in Kidney W bank, and 1st Engr Bn constructs 3 footbridges.
Ridge area, enemy begins forming for attack but is
forced by Allied aircraft to abandon it. During night 1 November
2829, Aus 9th Div of 30 Corps, Br Eighth Army, G UADALCANAL 1st Mar Div, with arty, naval
begins northward attack toward the sea in effort gunfire, and air support, launches attack toward
to eliminate enemys coastal salient and secure Poha R. 5th Marines, followed by 2d Marines (less
coastal road and RR. Narrow wedge is driven almost 3d Bn) in reserve, crosses footbridges over Matanikau
to the road despite stubborn opposition from R and drives W about 1,000 yards in 2 columns
Thompsons Post, key point in enemys coastal to positions short of Pt Cruz, 1st Bn, the right flank
positions. column, meeting considerable delaying opposition
along coast. Whaling Group (3d Bn of 7th Marines
29 October and scout-sniper detachment) crosses the river up-
stream and advances W on inland route to protect
WESTERN HEMISPHERE Alaska Military Highway left f lank of 5th Marines. To forestall expected
opens to traffic. enemy landings in Koli Pt area, E of Lunga
ALEUTIAN IS.Japanese reoccupy Attu. perimeter, 2d Bn of 7th Marines starts E toward
GUADALCANAL Japanese, having suffered heavy Metapona R.
casualties in recent battles, begin general withdrawal USSRClose combat between Soviet garrison
about this time toward Koli Pt and Kokumbona. of Stalingrad (62d and 64th Armies) and German
1st Mar Div prepares for offensive to drive enemy 6th and 4th Pz Armies of Army Group B continues,
westward beyond Poha R. 2d Marines ( 3d Bn) but the garrison has proved itself capable of weather-
is ordered to Guadalcanal from Tulagi to assist in ing maximum effort of enemy. In the Caucasus, Red
the offensive; 3d Bn, which has been operating as Army has frustrated every enemy effort to reach
mobile reserve in Lunga area, is to return to Tulagi Grozny and is containing attacks toward Tuapse,
for garrison duty. Attack is to begin on 1 November but German Army Group A captures Alagir, blocking
after outposts have been established W of the Ossetian Highway, which extends from Alagir
Matanikau and bridges have been constructed across to Kutais.
the river.
N EW G UINEA Japanese commit fresh forces
from beachhead to hold heights at Oivi in order to 2 November
cover withdrawal across Kumusi R. GUADALCANAL 5th Marines envelops enemy on
E G Y P T Australians withstand determined coast at Pt Cruz. 3d Bn joins 1st Bn in coastal battle
enemy attacks against their wedge in N sector of E of Pt Cruz while 2d Bn, on left, drives N to coast
30 Corps and Br Eighth Army front. Gen Mont- W of Pt Cruz and turns E, trapping enemy. 2d
gomery, learning of the presence of strong German Marines ( 3d Bn) moves forward on left of 5th
reinforcements on N coast, alters breakout plan. Marines to continue westward attack. Stores, ammu-
Instead of pushing W along coast, he decides to nition, and 1 Army and 1 Marine Corps 155-mm
shift axis of advance S in order to drive against gun battery arrive at Lunga Pt. The 2 batteries are
Italians. the heaviest U.S. arty to reach the island and the first
[ 34 NOVEMBER 1942 ] [ 63 ]

capable of countering enemy fire effectively. E of gomery orders attack to outflank the screen. Dur-
Lunga perimeter, 2d Bn of 7th Marines crosses ing night 34, 51st Div and brig of Ind 4th Div
Metapona R mouth and establishes itself near drive quickly to Rahman track S of Tel el Aqqaqir,
Tetere village. During night 23, Japanese 17th breaking through the screen in S sector and forcing
Army lands supplies and about 1,500 men E of enemy to turn it. Allied aircraft fly over 400 sorties
Koli Pt to supply and reinf Japanese already there; against enemy retreating along coastal road.
orders an airfield constructed.
N EW G UINEA Aus 25th Brig, which has re-
entered battle for Kokoda Trail, seizes Kokoda 4 November
and its airfield, greatly facilitating supply and rein- G UADALCANAL Lunga perimeter command is
forcement of Australians in this area. Piecemeal reorganized and garrison is reinf. 2 sectors are es-
movement by night of 128th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, less tablished, the commander of each being responsible
elements still at Port Moresby, by lugger from to div hq. Brig Gen William H. Rupertus, Asst CG
Wanigela to Pongani and Mendaropu is completed of 1st Mar Div, is assigned sector E of Lunga R and
by this time and supplies are being accumulated. Brig Gen Edmund B. Sebree, Asst CG of Ameri-
Gen MacArthur sets 15 November as tentative date cal Div, the W sector. 8th Marines, reinf, of 2d Mar
for attack to reduce Buna-Gona beachhead and Div debarks from naval TF in Lunga-Kukum area
agrees to proposal by Gen Blarney that troops be and is attached to 1st Mar Div. 1st Mar Div halts
transferred by air to Pongani. westward offensive short of Kokumbona because of
E GYPT Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps opens enemy threat E of perimeter. 2d Marines ( 3d Bn),
breakout assault, called S UPERCHARGE, at 0100. NZ reinf by 1st Bn of 164th Inf, after driving 2,000
2d Div, in the lead, advances W under cover of arty yards W of Pt Cruz, breaks off attack and digs in
barrage and secures new corridor through enemy at Pt Cruz; 5th Marines and Whaling Group return
mine fields. 9th Armd Brig passes through corridor to positions E of the Matanikau. E of perimeter, Gen
in mine field and establishes bridgehead across track Rupertus and Hq and 1st Bn, 7th Marines, arrive
extending S from Rahman. At daybreak, the armd in Koli Pt area to assist 2d Bn, 7th Marines. 164 Inf
brig meets furious opposition from enemy AT screen ( 1st Bn) and Co B of 8th Marines march to W
and sustains over 75% casualties, but maintains the bank of Nalimbiu in region S of 7th Marines and
bridgehead. 10 Corps armor begins debouching elements start N along the river. Meanwhile, the
through the bridgehead, and 1st Armd Div becomes naval TF transporting 8th Marines lands forces at
strongly engaged near Tel el Aqqaqir. Aola Bay to establish airfield. Aola Force (1st Bn
of 147th Inf; elements of 2d Raider Bn; 5th Defense
3 November Bn detachment; Battery K of 246th FA Bn, Ameri-
G UADALCANAL 5th Marines completes reduc- cal Div; and 500 naval construction troops) estab-
tion of Japanese pocket at Pt Cruz. 2d Marines takes lishes beachhead a little E of Aola R without opposi-
the lead, 1st Bn and Whaling Group attacking W tion. Work is begun at once on airfield, but site is
of Pt Cruz. E of Lunga perimeter, 2d Bn of 7th later found unsuitable. 2d Raider Bn is ordered to
Marines encounters enemy moving W along coast Koli Pt.
from Tetere and is forced to retire to W bank of NEW GUINEAAus 16th Brig begins attack on
Nalimbiu R and await reinforcements. When in- Oivi and finds enemy prepared for firm stand. Col.
formation of enemy landing reaches div hq in after- Sverdrup by this time has cleared sites for 3 more
noon, naval and air support is provided immedi- airfields in general vicinity of Dyke Ackland Bay,
ately; 1st Bn of 7th Marines is dispatched by landing the most important of these at Pongam. Fifth Air
craft to Koli Pt. Force completes movement of rear elements of 128th
CBIGeneralissimo Chiang Kai-shek agrees Inf, U.S. 32d Div, to Wanigela.
conditionally to plans formulated during recent con- M ADAGASCAR Governor General again seeks
ference in India, promising 15 divs from Yunnan, peace terms and accepts those rejected on 17 Sep-
provided Allies furnish strong sea and air forces. Gen tember.
Stilwell is to command Chinese Army in India (CAI) M IDDLE E AST Lt Gen Frank M. Andrews re-
during Burma operations. Chiangs promise of the lieves Gen Maxwell as CG USAFIME. Gen Max-
Yunnan divs leads to accelerated planning for reor- well becomes CG SOS USAFIME.
ganization of Yunnan force, called Y-Force. EGYPT Enemy, now in full retreat, is pursued
EGYPT 1st Armd Div of 10 Corps, Br Eighth W by Br Eighth Army and harassed by aircraft.
Army, is unable to penetrate enemys AT screen. 10 Corps armor clashes with Axis rear guards S of
Since enemy is obviously withdrawing, Gen Mont- Ghazal.
[ 64 ] [ 58 NOVEMBER 1942 ]

5 November EGYPTBr pursuit of enemy is delayed in Matruh

GUADALCANAL 164th Inf ( 1st Bn) crosses area as heavy rainfall immobilizes supporting ve-
flooded Nalimbiu about 3,500 yards S of Koli Pt hicles. Enemy seizes opportunity to withdraw some
and drives N along E bank in effort to outflank forces. By this time, 4 German and 8 Italian divs are
enemy facing 7th Marines. ineffective as fighting units. British have taken
NEW GUINEA Aus 16th Brig continues attack 30,000 prisoners, among them 9 generals.
on Oivi against determined resistance. Aus 25th Brig NW AFRICAGen Giraud arrives at Gibraltar for
moves against Gorari from Kokoda. conference with Gen Eisenhower, having traveled
I NDIA Rcn of Ledo area, terminus of Ledo from France by submarine and plane. T ORCH inva-
Road to Myitkyina, Burma, and base from which sion armada from U.S. and U.K. closes in along N
operations in N Burma, R AVENOUS , are to start, is African coast. U.S. transport Thomas Stone is torpe-
begun. doed off SE Spain and disabled; troops aboard are
MADAGASCARHostilities cease at 1400. transferred to landing boats but do not reach Algiers
EGYPTBr Eighth Army regroups and continues until after its surrender.
pursuit of enemy. 10 Corps, now consisting of 1st
and 7th Armd and NZ 2d Divs, pushes rapidly W, 8 November
overcoming rear guard resistance near Fuka. 30 Corps GUADALCANAL 7th Marines ( ) and 2d Bn of
takes up positions between El Alamein and Matruh. 164th Inf, latter being attached to 7th Marines as
13 Corps is given task of mopping up battle zone. reserve, move E along coast to surround enemy now
NW AFRICAAs convoys from U.S. and U.K., disposed astride Gavaga Creek, W of Tetere. 1st and
with assault forces for TORCH , continue toward NW 2d Bns of 7th Marines take up positions on W and
Africa, Gen Eisenhower flies to Gibraltar and es- E banks, respectively, of the creek. Tokyo Express
tablishes AFHQ CP. U.S.-Br staff consists of: Adm has been landing reinforcements along coast from
Sir Andrew B. Cunningham, naval CinC; Brig Gen Kokumbona to Cape Esperance during the period
James H. Doolittle, U.S. air forces; Air Marshal Sir 28 October to date.
William L. Welsh, Br air forces (Eastern Air Com- NEW GUINEA Final elements of TF Warren (1st
mand); Lt Gen K. A. N. Anderson, Br ground forces. Bn of 128th Inf, U.S. 32d Div) are flown from Port
Moresby to Wanigela; from there are moved forward
6 November by boat.
GUADALCANAL 7th Marines establishes bridge- EGYPT Br Eighth Army, although still delayed
head on E bank of Nalimbiu. 164th Inf ( ) contin- by rainfall, clears opposition in Mersa Matruh area.
ues toward Koli Pt, 3d Bn reaching it after nightfall. NW AFRICAAllied troops invade French NW
Aola Force transports complete unloading opera- Africa, landing on Algerian and Moroccan coasts.
tions and withdraw. Warships and carrier planes provide close support.
NEW GUINEA Gen MacArthur arrives at Port ALGERIAEastern Naval Task Force lands Eastern
Moresby, where advance echelon of GHQ opens, to Assault Force (RCT 39, U.S. 9th Div; RCT 168, U.S.
direct operations. 34th Div; 11th and 36th Brigs, Br 78th Div; Br 1st
EGYPT 10 Corps, Br Eighth Army, continues and 6th Cdo Bns), under command of Maj Gen
close pursuit of enemy, advance elements approach- Charles W. Ryder, USA, E and W of Algiers, begin-
ing Matruh bottleneck as heavy rains begin. ning at 0100; 11th Brig and RCT 168 go ashore W of
USSRFighting continues in Stalingrad area Algiers near Castiglione and Sidi Ferruch, and RCT
but on a diminishing scale. In the Caucasus, Red 39 lands E of Algiers near Cap Matifou. As troops
Army is strongly countering enemy efforts to reach move forward toward Algiers against little or no resis-
Ordzhonikidze. tance, 2 Br DDs, with 3d Bn of RCT 135, U.S. 34th
Div, embarked, make frontal attack on Algiers Har-
7 November bor in effort to take it intact; one DD is forced to
GUADALCANAL 164th Inf enveloping force com- withdraw; the other enters harbor and lands troops
pletes northward movement along E bank of the about 0530, but is forced to retire under heavy fire,
Nalimbiu to Koli Pt and joins 7th Marines. Com- leaving troops ashore. Eastern Assault Force takes
bined force then moves E along coast without oppo- Blida and Maison Blanche airfields; pushes to edge
sition to within a mile of Metapona R. of Algiers, which capitulates at 1900.
CBIGen Stilwell, with approval of Foreign Center Naval Task Force lands Center Assault
Minister T. V. Soong, sends for Gen Wheeler to sur- Force (U.S. II Corps assault force, consisting of 1st
vey Ch supply situation in preparation for projected Div, 1st Ranger Bn, and CCB of 1st Armd Div),
campaign in spring of 1943. under Maj Gen Lloyd R. Fredendall, USA, E and
[ 910 NOVEMBER 1942 ] [ 65 ]

W of Oran, beginning at 0130, a half hour behind 9 November

schedule. Rangers and RCTs 16 and 18 of 1st Div GUADALCANAL 7th Marines, committing 2d Bn
land E of Oran in Arzew area; take Arzew, where of 164th Inf to its S, completes encirclement of en-
harbor is secured by U.S.-Br naval landing party with- emy along Gavaga Creek except for small gap on S
out opposition; thrust SW toward Oran to St Cloud, at creek line; repels spirited attempts of enemy to
which enemy retains, and Fleurus; elements drive break out. In preparation for renewing attack on
SE along coast to La Macta. Passing through beach- Kokumbona, 164th Inf units (Hq, AT Co, and 3d
head, TF Red of CCB seizes Tafaraoui airport, 15 Bn) and Co B of 8th Marines are withdrawn from
miles S of Oran, enabling 31st Fighter Gp planes to Koli Pt area to Lunga perimeter.
support operations from there. W of Oran, RCT 26 N EW G UINEA Advance elements of 2d Bn,
of 1st Div lands at Les Andalouses; takes Bou Sfer 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, arrive at Natunga. Airlift
and An et Turk but is halted short of Oran. TF of 126th Inf, less 2d Bn, from Port Moresby to for-
Green of GCB, 1st Armd Div, debarks at Mersa Bou ward area begins. Leading elements of 1st Bn, un-
Zedjar, 16 miles W of Les Andalouses, and heads der Lt Col Edmund J. Carrier, are flown to Abels
for La Senia airport, clearing Lourmel and reaching field, since Pongani Field is temporarily unservice-
Sebkra dOran. 2d Bn of 509th Para Inf (trained as able, and start toward Pongani on foot. Rest of 1st
2d Bn, 503d Para Inf) is dropped to assist in capture Bn (Cos D and C, less 2 platoons), under Maj Rich-
of La Senia and Tafaraoui airports, but drops are ard D. Boerem, is flown to Pongani and starts march
scattered and paratroopers arrive too late to help. toward Natunga.
Meanwhile, HMS Walney and Hartland, carrying EGYPT Br Eighth Army resumes pursuit of en-
detachments of 3d Bn, 6th Armd Inf Regt, 1st Armd emy as weather improves. NZ 2d Div reduces oppo-
Div, and Br naval landing party, are sunk by enemy sition at Sidi Barrani and continues W.
fire while attempting to take Oran Harbor intact. TUNISIA Germans invade Tunisia without op-
M OROCCO Western Naval Task Force, sched- position from French, initial elements landing on
uled to land troops at 0400, is delayed at least an El Aouna airport, Tunis.
hour in landing Casablanca assault forces; engages A LGERIA Gen Giraud arrives on front. Gen
French fleet at Casablanca. Northern Attack Group K. A. N. Anderson takes command of Br First Army
TF (60th Inf of 9th Div and 1st Bn of 66th Armd at Algiers and prepares to move light forces as rap-
Regt, 2d Armd Div) under Maj Gen Lucian K. idly as possible to Tunis and Bizerte in order to fore-
Truscott, Jr., USA, lands on beaches N and S of stall enemy seizure of these important objectives.
Sebou R at Mehdia; attempts to reach Port-Lyautey Enemy sinks U.S. transport Leedstown off Algiers.
and airfield 2 miles N but meets considerable op- Flanking attack on Oran continues to meet resis-
position and cannot reach objective. TF of Center tance as it reaches outskirts of city, but La Senia air-
port is captured and Fr resistance at St Cloud is by-
Attack Group (3d Div and 1st Bn of 67th Armd
passed and contained.
Regt, 2d Armd Div) under Maj Gen Jonathan W.
MOROCCOWestern Task Force establishes hq
Anderson, USA, lands NE of Fedala, sustaining
at Fedala, where Adm Hewitt, USN, transfers to Maj
serious loss of landing craft (242, 64 percent), and Gen George S. Patton, Jr., USA, command of troops
takes D-Day objectives. Surprised Fedala garrison ashore. French continue to resist strongly at ap-
surrenders and advance is continued toward proaches to Port-Lyautey and airport. 3d Div delays
Casablanca. Southern Attack Groups landing force advance on Casablanca to await unloading of heavy
(47th Inf of 9th Div; 2d and 3d Bns of 67th Armd equipment and arty. RCT 47, 9th Div, organizes Safi
Regt, 2d Armd Div; and special units) under Maj beachhead.
Gen Ernest N. Harmon, USA, secures 5,000-yard
beachhead in Safi area and takes Safi. 2 U.S. DDs,
with Cos K and L of 47th Inf, 9th Div, and naval 10 November
contingent aboard, enter Safi Harbor ahead of land- G UADALCANAL 7th Marines ( ) and 2d Bn
ings; after silencing batteries with gunfire, land of 164th Inf continue reduction of pocket astride
assault force, which takes harbor facilities without Gavaga Creek; make unsuccessful attempt to close
opposition. gap in line. Westward offensive toward Kokumbona
G ERMANY Hitler reaffirms his intention of is renewed under command of CO, 2d Marines.
taking Stalingrad, despite very heavy losses in men 1st Bn of 164th Inf and 2d Marines ( 3d Bn)
and equipment, lack of reserves, and overextended attack W from Pt Cruz with 8th Marines protecting
supply lines. left rear.
F RANCE Vichy France breaks off diplomatic N EW G UINEA Aus 16th Brig forces Japanese
relations with U.S. from Oivi toward Kumusi R mouth.
[ 66 ] [ 1112 NOVEMBER 1942 ]

EGYPT Br Eighth Army clears Halfaya Pass. 12 November

ALGERIAAdm Franois Darlan broadcasts from
G UADALCANAL Enemy pocket along Gavaga
Algiers order for Fr forces in N Africa to cease resis-
Creek is completely eliminated. The action has cost
tance. Troops of 1st Div and of CCB, 1st Armd Div,
Japanese 450 killed, and the few who have eluded
converge on Oran; RCT 16 has leading elements
the trap are being harassed, while retiring toward
within the city by 0830; CCB columns enter Oran Mt Austen, by Col Carlsons 2d Raider Bn march-
from S before French CG surrenders at 1230. ing W from Aola Bay. Kokumbona assault force com-
M OROCCO French resistance in Port-Lyautey pletes withdrawal across the Matanikau. Transports
area ends. By noon, Twelfth Air Force fighters are and cargo ships from New Hebrides and New
landing on airfield from USS Chenango. U.S. forces Caledonia arrive off Lunga Pt and begin unloading;
from Fedala close in on Casablanca and prepare for withdraw at 1815 under DD escort after all troops,
concerted assault at dawn on 11th. CCB, 2d Armd totaling about 6,000 and including RCT 182 of
Div, breaks off drive toward Marrakech from Safi Americal Div, and part of the supplies are ashore,
area and marches toward Mazagan in order to con- because of news that heavy Japanese naval force,
serve strength for attack on Casablanca. including 2 BBs, is moving S toward the island.
Warships remain to engage enemy.
11 November NAVAL BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL During night
1213, Japanese warships are located by radar be-
G UA DA L C A N A L Westward offensive toward tween Savo and Cape Esperance and naval battle
Kobumbona is halted because of strong indications ensues during which 2 enemy DDs are sunk and 4
of an all-out enemy attempt to recover Lunga area. damaged. Japanese retire northward without having
After reaching positions a little beyond those gained accomplished mission of neutralizing Henderson
on 4 November, assault force begins withdrawal Field before arrival of transport force. U.S. losses
across the Matanikau. E of Lunga perimeter, 2d Bn are heavy: AA cruisers Atlanta and Juneau and DDs
of 164th Inf closes gap on S flank of U.S. line about Barton, Cushing, Laffey, and Monssen are sunk; 5 other
enemy along Gavaga Creek and drives N to beach vessels are seriously damaged.
while 7th Marines closes in from E and W. Naval NEW GUINEAGorari falls to Aus 25th Brig. Japa-
force bringing reinforcements and supplies from nese succeed in withdrawing main forces across
New Hebrides arrives and begins unloading; when flooded Kumusi R, night 1213. 2d Bn of 126th Inf,
the 3 transports of the force are damaged by enemy U.S. 32d Div, moves toward Gora and Bofu, Co E,
aircraft, the group retires to join naval forces ap- in the lead, reaching Bofu. 3d Bn of 126th, upon
proaching from New Caledonia. reaching Pongani by air, starts toward Natunga.
NEW GUINEAHq of 126th Inf, 32d Div, is flown CBIGen Stilwell, in memorandum to Foreign
to Pongani. Minister Soong, suggests that a commander be
EGYPTL IBYA10 Corps, Br Eighth Army, drives chosen at once for Y-Force; that units to participate
last of enemy from Egypt and enters Libya, taking in offensive be designated and reorganized; that
Bardia without opposition. 1st and 7th Armd Divs available 75-mm guns be sent to Yunnan; and that
continue pursuit of enemy in Libya. NZ 2d Div incompetent commanders be removed.
pauses at frontier to reorganize. M IDDLE E AST U.S. Ninth Air Force is estab-
NW AFRICAIn response to Adm Darlans or- lished by order of Gen Andrews, CG USAFIME.
der of 10th, all resistance of Fr forces in NW Africa Gen Brereton activates Hq Sq, Ninth Air Force, and
ceases by 0700. IX Air Service Command. Hq and Hq Sq of 19th
MOROCCO Western Task Force cancels attack Bombardment Wing arrive by sea.
on Casablanca because of armistice; 3d Div enters M OROCCO U.S. transports Hugh L Scott and
city at 0730. CCB of 2d Armd Div receives surren- Edward Rutledge are lost off Morocco to enemy tor-
der of Mazagan and establishes bridgehead at pedoes.
Azemmour without opposition. Enemy torpedoes ALGERIA Br First Army takes Bne, 150 miles
and sinks U.S. transport off coast. E of Bougie, without opposition, but enemy planes
ALGERIA Br First Army lands elements of 36th make damaging attacks later in day. 6th Cdos land
Brig, 78th Div, at Bougie, 110 miles E of Algiers, by sea and secure port. U.S. transport planes drop 2
without opposition. Hart Forcemobile TF based cos of 3d Para Bn at Duzerville airdrome, 6 miles
on 11th Brig of 78th Divmoves out of Algiers to- SE of Bne. Paratroop Task Force (60th Troop Car-
ward Bne, traveling overland. rier Gp and 2d Bn of U.S. 509th Para Inf) is placed
F RANCE Axis troops march into unoccupied under operational control of Br First Army at
France. Algiers.
[ 1317 NOVEMBER 1942 ] [ 67 ]

13 November attacked by arty, naval gunfire, and aircraft from

SOLOMON IS.Crippled Japanese BB Hiei is at- Henderson Field and the New Hebrides. All 4 are
tacked by air near Savo throughout day and is sub- destroyed and supplies on beach are fired. This de-
sequently scuttled. cisive defeat almost isolates Japanese on
G UADALCANAL 8 P38s of 339th Sq, 347th Guadalcanal.
Fighter Gp, arrive on fighter strip just E of L I BYA 10 Cor ps, Br Eighth Army, seizes
Henderson Field after flight from Milne Bay. Martuba airfields.
NEW G UINEA Australians destroy enemy rear ALGERIA -TUNISIA Br First Army reaches Tunisia
guard at Kumusi R crossing. at Tabarka, 80 miles W of Tunis. Tabarka is occu-
L IBYA Tobruk falls to 10 Corps, Br Eighth pied by 36th Brig, 78th Div. 2d Bn of U.S. 509th
Army. Para Regt lands in Algeria at Youk-les-Bains, near
A LGERIA Gen Eisenhower flies to Algiers to Tbessa and 100 miles S of Bne.
conclude agreement with Adm Darlan. Allied con-
voy arrives at Bne and unloads 17/21 Lancers Regi- 16 November
mental Gp (later called Blade Force), 1st Para Brig NEW GUINEA U.S. 32d and Aus 7th Divs move
( ), transport of 78th Div ( ), and Advance Hq forward to eliminate Buna-Gona beachhead, 32d
of Br First Army. Main body of 36th Brig, 78th Div, toward Buna and 7th toward Gona and Sanananda.
advances to Djidjelli, 40 miles E of Bougie. Japanese, expected to be few and dispirited, are pre-
pared for a determined stand and have organized a
14 November series of strong positions favored by terrain for de-
G UADALCANAL Japanese continue attempts to fense. Col Yosuke Yokoyama commands all forces
neutralize Henderson Field with naval gunfire in W of Girua R (Gen Horii having been lost at sea
preparation for landing of reinforcements. Enemy while withdrawing from Kokoda Trail battle) and
cruiser-DD force opens fire early in the morning, Capt Yoshitatsu Yasuda those E of river. In Aus 7th
but bombardment is cut short by PT boats. The en- Div sector on W, 25th Brig moves toward Gona and
emy group, as well as large convoy loaded with some 16th toward Sanananda. To E, U.S. 32d Divs 126th
10,000 troops, is later attacked by aircraft with ex- Inf heads for Buna along axis InondaHoranda
cellent results. Planes of carrier TF under Adm Dobodura, and Warren Force (based on 128th Inf)
Kinkaid, based on USS Enterprise, the last carrier in moves along coast toward Cape Endaiadere. Al-
S Pacific, join land-based planes in attacking enemy though by evening Aus arty is employed to support
vessels. I enemy CA is sunk and 3 other warships coastal advance, Warren Force suffers severe blow
are damaged. Of 11 transports in the transport con- when small craft bringing urgently needed supplies
voy, 7 are sunk , but the others continue to are destroyed by enemy planes; among personnel
Tassafaronga after nightfall to unload about 4,000 embarked on these is Maj Gen Edwin F. Harding,
troops and a few tons of supplies. In another effort CG U.S. 32d Div, who swims to shore.
to neutralize Henderson Field, Japanese move pow- N EW B RITAIN Japanese establish 8th Army
erful warship force forward. Elements of Adm Area at Rabaul under command of Lt Gen Hitoshi
Kinkaids naval force intercept enemy warships, Imamura. This command comprises 2 armies:
night 1415, and in long-range gun battle sink a DD 17th, charged with operations in the Solomons, and
and badly damage BB Kirishima, which is scuttled 18th, to operate in New Guinea.
by her crew. U.S. losses in this engagement are 3 T UNISIA Br First Army continues movement
DDs sunk and 2 other warships damaged. into Tunisia. 1st Para Bn lands at Souk el Arba,
NEW GUINEA New Guinea Force issues attack 30 miles S of Tabarka. Several thousand Germans
plan for reduction of Buna-Gona beachhead. form bridgehead in Bizerte-Tunis area. Fr 19th
Advance elements of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, are Corps reports contact with German patrol on Bdja
consolidating positions at Natunga. TF Warren Djebel Abiod highway. Fr forces at Oued Zarga
(128th Inf of 32d Div and Aus 2/6th Independent and Mateur drive off enemy patrols.
Co) is consolidating and patrolling in Oro Bay- MEDITERRANEAN Allied aircraft from Martuba
Embogu-Embi area. On Kokoda Trail, Aus 25th Brig protect Malta-bound convoy, which departs from
starts crossing improvised bridge at Wairopi, and Port Said.
Fifth Air Force drops bridging equipment.
17 November
15 November N EW G UINEA Aus and U.S. forces continue
G UADALCANAL The 4 surviving transports of toward Japanese beachhead in Buna-Gona area. U.S.
Japanese convoy are sighted at Tassafaronga and 32d Divs TF Warren suffers another setback as
[ 68 ] [ 1821 NOVEMBER 1942 ]

Japanese planes put 2 more supply luggers out of accurate enemy fire from concealed positions and
action, leaving only I serviceable and necessitating suffer heavy casualties; maximum gain of 200 yards
supply of vital items by air until more luggers be- is made on right along coast.
come available. Wairopi Patrol reports to Aus 7th T UNISIA Gen Louis Jacques Barr, Fr 19th
Div at Wairopi. Japanese reinforcements arrive at Corps, rejects German ultimatum to evacuate
Basabua by DD in evening. Medjez el Bab, where German tank-infantry assaults
TUNISIA CG Br First Army orders 78th Div to supported by arty and air are repulsed by French
concentrate for advance on Tunis. 36th Brig of 78th aided by U.S. arty and Br troops.
Div makes contact with Germans W of Djebel USSRRed Army opens winter offensive.
Abiod, 70 miles W of Tunis. To S, 2d Bn of U.S. After 7 1/2-hour arty preparation, 6 corps of Don
509th Para Regt occupies Gafsa airfield. Front attack from Serafimovich bridgehead across
the Don NW of Stalingrad and make deep penetra-
18 November tion in Kletskaya area. This is the beginning of a
pincers movement to isolate Axis forces attacking
GUADALCANALGen Sebree, CG of W Sector, Stalingrad. Offensive is well timed and indirectly
begins moving forces toward line of departure W of aided by Allied offensive in NW Africa.
the Matanikau (from Pt Cruz southward along ridge
containing Hills 80, 81 and 66) in preparation for
full-scale westward offensive. 2d Bn of 182d Inf, cov-
20 November
ered by 8th Marines, which remains E of the GUADALCANAL Japanese attack left flank of 1st
Matanikau, crosses the river about 700 yards from Bn, 182d Inf, early in day and force it back, but 1st
its mouth and takes Hill 66, southernmost point of Bn recovers lost ground with assistance of air and
the line of departure. arty and drives forward until stopped by enemy fire
NEW GUINEA Aus 16th Brig drives to Popon- just W of Pt Cruz. Enemy retains Pt Cruz itself. 164th
detta, where airfield construction is begun, and con- Inf moves forward during night 2021 to bridge gap
tinues toward Soputa without making contact with between assault bns of 182d Inf.
the enemy. U.S. 32d Divs 126th Inf is ordered to NEW GUINEA Advance elements of Aus 25th
establish contact with Australians. Because of sup- Brig enter Gona but are driven out after nightfall.
ply problems, TF Warren remains in place. 126th Inf of U.S. 32d Div, upon reaching Popon-
T U N I S I A 36th Brig of 78th Div, Br First detta, is sent on to Soputa to assist Aus 16th Brig.
Army, repels German attack at Djebel Abiod, but Aus 16th Brig clears enemy rear guard from Soputa
Hart Force (11th Brig), spearheading drive, becomes and continues along Sanananda track to its junc-
isolated in region E of Djebel Abiod. Germans at- tion with main trail to Cape Killerton but is halted
tack Fr forces of 19th Corps at Medjez el Bab, 35 at enemys forward defense line. TF Warren contin-
miles SW of Tunis and 30 miles S of Mateur. ues to meet heavy fire, which pins down 3d Bn of
128th Inf on left; 1st Bn is halted after 100-yard
advance in coastal area. Col Carriers detachment
19 November (elements of 1st Bn, 126th Inf) and Aus 2/6th Inde-
G UA DA L C A N A L 1st Bn, 182d Inf, crosses pendent Co arrive at front and prepare to join in
Matanikau and moves W along shore with Co B, attack along coast.
8th Marines, covering left flank; digs in just E of Pt L IBYA Benghazi falls to 10 Corps, Br Eighth
Cruz. Gap of over 1,000 yards separates 1st and 2d Army.
Bns of 182d Inf W of the Matanikau. During night T UNISIA Fr 19th Corps units, together with
1920, Japanese move forward from Kokumbona British and attached U.S. forces, withdraw from
and open fire on 1st Bn. Medjez el Bab to Oued Zarga, 10 miles W, where
NEW GUINEA Forward elements of Aus 25th forward elements of Blade Force, Br First Army, are
Brig encounter enemy one mile S of Gona; Aus 16th located. Main body of Blade Force is concentrated
Brig makes contact with Japanese just outside in Souk el Arba area. Br 1st Para Bn is holding Bdja.
Soputa. After establishing contact with Australians USSRContinuing offensive, 3 Soviet corps of
near Popondetta, 126th Inf of U.S. 32d Div heads Stalingrad Front penetrate German positions S of
for Buna but, since Japanese appear to be concen- Stalingrad.
trated W of Girua R, is directed to assist Maj Gen
George A. Vaseys Aus 7th Div instead. Gen Harding
thus loses half his assault force; left flank of TF 21 November
Warren is left exposed. 1st and 3d Bns of 128th Inf, GUADALCANAL 1st Bn, 182d Inf, clears enemy
Warren Force, attack in parallel columns, 1st Bn from Pt Cruz but is unable to advance any farther.
from Boero and 3d Bn from Simemi. Both meet To S, 164th Inf attacks from Hills 8081 ridge line
[ 2223 NOVEMBER 1942 ] [ 69 ]

but is halted after negligible gains by Japanese, whose behind 1st Bn, though Co I holds former position
defenses are skilfully organized in depth and mutu- astride trail just W of New Strip.
ally supporting. TUNISIA 36th Brig of 78th Div, Br First Army,
NEW GUINEA 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, upon repels attack at Djebel Abiod. 11th Brig of 78th Div
reaching Soputa, is attached to Aus 76th Brig, which completes concentration at Bdja. Fr and U.S. troops
continues costly and fruitless efforts to advance to- reoccupy Gafsa.
ward Sanananda. 2d Bn of 128th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, USSRRed Army forces of Don and Stalingrad
begins drive on Buna Mission, moving from Ango Fronts make junction at Kalach, encircling 6th Army
along DoboduraBuna track; upon reaching trail of German Army Group B at Stalingrad.
junction, called the Triangle, where trails to Buna
Mission and Buna Village converge, is halted by well-
organized bunker positions that are made more 23 November
formidable by swampy terrain on both sides of the
Triangle. Since no further progress can be made with U.S.Bill authorizing Womens Reserve, U.S.
forces present, 2d Bn of 126th Inf is ordered to cross Coast Guard (SPARS) is signed by President
Girua R and assist. Attack of Warren Force is Roosevelt.
delayed by series of mishaps, but gets under way by G UADALCANAL After 30-minute arty prepara-
1630 after air and arty preparation, which is of little tion, 8th Marines passes through 764th Inf to con-
benefit. Casualties are again heavy and gains negli- tinue attack westward but is unable to advance. Since
gible. 3d Bn, 128th Inf, attempting to take bridge the offensive has proved too costly to be continued
between airstrips, is pinned down by enemy fire. Aus for the time being, attack is halted along Hills 66
2/6th Independent Co tries to secure E end of New 8081Pt Cruz line to await reinforcements. By this
Strip by infiltration and knocks out a few MG posi- time, 84 U.S. (Army, Navy, and Marine Corps) and
tions in the area. Along coast, 1st Bn of 128th Inf New Zealand planes are operating from Guadalcanal.
and Col Carriers detachment of 1st Bn, 126th, NEW GUINEAMain body of Aus 25th Brig ar-
attack abreast, gaining a few yards and destroying rives at front and begins assault on Gona against
some MG nests. Situation improves somewhat as determined resistance. 3d Bn of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d
additional guns are brought forward and airstrip at Div, continues toward Sanananda; Co L, on right is
Dobodura becomes operational. pinned down by fire at edge of food dump. Airfield
LIBYAB24s of IX Bomber Command, staging at Popondetta becomes operational, and 4 guns are
out of Gambut, make successful attack on Tripoli flown in and emplaced just S of Soputa. 2d Bns of
harbor. 126th and 128th Regts are combined to form Ur-
T UNISIA Elements of Hart Force succeed in bana Force under command of CO, 128th Inf. 2d
rejoining 36th Brig of 78th Div, Br First Army. Bn of 128th Inf is slowed by extremely difficult ter-
Enemy withdraws to E bank of river at Medjez, but rain as it advances against the Triangle along main
78th Div is too weak to follow up and is ordered to track and swamps on either side of it. Warren Force
await reinforcements. 2d Bn of U.S. 509th Para Inf commander, Gen MacNider, is wounded while in-
withdraws from Gafsa to Friana, 40 miles N. specting front and replaced by Col J. Tracy Hale, Jr.
After ineffective preparatory fire against enemy bun-
22 November kers, 1st Bn of 128th Inf and Col Carriers detach-
GUADALCANAL182d and 764th Regts again meet ment of 1st Bn, 126th Inf, attack along coast toward
strong resistance while attempting to push W and Cape Endaiadere, gaining some 300 yards against
are unable to advance. 8th Marines prepares to at- intense fire. Aus 2/16th Independent Co makes lim-
tack through 764th Inf. ited progress toward E end of New Strip.
NEW GUINEA While Aus 25th Brig continues LIBYAUpon being outflanked by 7th Armd Div
toward Gona, U.S. 126th Inf ( ) attacks through of 10 Corps, Br Eighth Army, enemy withdraws from
Aus 76th Brig toward Sanananda. Maj Boerems Agedabia for El Agheila, where he hopes to make a
detachment (elements of 1st Bn) moves along road successful stand.
as 3d Bn advances on flanks along secondary trails. A LGERIA AFHQ is moved from Gibraltar to
After nightfall, fresh Japanese forces attack Co L, Algiers.
flanking on right, to insure safety of food supply TUNISIA Verbal agreement is reached that all
dump in line of advance and are driven off. From troops N of Le KefZaghouan line are to be under
Soputa, 2d Bn of 126th Inf moves forward to assist command of Br First Army and those S of it under
2d Bn of 128th, crossing to E bank of Girua R on Fr command.
rafts during evening. On Warren Force front, 3d Bn SENEGALDakar falls to Allied forces without a
of 128th Inf secretly pulls back to positions just shot.
[ 70 ] [ 2428 NOVEMBER 1942 ]

24 November trail; on right, Co L and Australians finally overrun

NEW GUINEAJapanese continue to repel efforts the bitterly contested food dump. Urbana Force halts
of Aus 25th Brig to take Gona. 3d Bn of 126th Inf, frontal and right flank attacks on the Triangle and
U.S. 32d Div, pushes on toward Sanananda: 2 Aus prepares to make strong effort on left, since enemy
cos join Co L in battle for food dump on right; on is disposed in less strength W of Entrance Creek
left, Cos I and K reach clearing W of Killerton trail, and terrain is more favorable. Warren Force, under
some 1,200 yards N of original starting point, but personal observation of Gen Harding, makes deter-
are driven back into swamp by enemy infiltrators. mined effort to advance after strong air and arty
Urbana Force launches co-ordinated assault on the preparation. Japanese retire into bunkers during
Triangle at 1428 after ineffective air and brief mor- bombardment and emerge afterward to meet attack.
tar preparation. While Co F of 126th Inf makes fron- 3d Bn of 128th Inf ( ) and 1st Bn of 126th ( )
tal assault in which Co H of 128th joins, Co E of advance abreast, latter on left followed by 1st Bn of
126th takes over left flank positions along Entrance 128th. Little is accomplished by the attack. Co I of
Creek and Cos E and G of 128th attack on right 128th Inf and Aus 2/6th Independent Co, charged
flank. The attack, although carefully planned, is a respectively with securing W and E ends of New
failure. Warren Force front along coast is quiet. Strip, are unable to advance. Japanese retain air su-
CBIGen Stilwell is informed by U.S. War periority over Buna front and sink lugger bound for
Department that little more aid, aside from existing Hariko with ammunition. 127th Inf, U.S. 32d Div,
commitments, can be provided for N Burma reaches Port Moresby from Australia.
offensive. TUNISIA Br First Army continues to advance.
L IBYA Front is quiet generally as Gen Mont- Blade Force engages in its first armored battle on
gomery plans an assault on El Agheila bottleneck. plain S of Mateur
Br Eighth Army forces must be regrouped and
supplies and reinforcements amassed. 27 November
T UNISIA Br First Army is ordered to advance
on Tunis, with Tebourba and Mateur as first ob- NEW GUINEAThree-day lull begins as prepara-
jectives. Main body of CCB, U.S. 1st Armd Div, tions are made for renewing attack. Col John W.
begins move from Tafaraoui, Algeria, to Tunisia; Mott, Gen Hardings chief of staff, arrives on
forward elements (1st Bn of 1st Armd Regt) arrive Urbana front and takes command.
at Bdja and are attached to Blade Force. TUNISIA Tebourba, 20 miles W of Tunis, falls
USSRSoviet forces of Stalingrad Front are ex- to 11th Brig of 78th Div, Br First Army. German
ploiting their breakthroughs; on central front, are counterattack on the town, supported by tanks and
attacking in vicinity of Veliki Luki and Rzhev. dive bombers, is thrown back. CCB, U.S. 1st Armd
Div, is detached from U.S. II Corps, which oper-
ated as Center Task Force at Oran, and attached to
25 November Br First Army.
NEW GUINEAFirm Japanese opposition on en- FRANCE Fr fleet is scuttled in harbor of Toulon
tire front has resulted in virtual stalemate. Arty fire by order of Adm Jean de Laborde to prevent it from
is exchanged and patrols are active in some sectors. falling into German hands.
TUNISIABr First Army attacks toward Tunis. On
N, 36th Brig of 78th Div advances from Djebel
Abiod toward Mateur. In center, Blade Force pen- 28 November
etrates enemy positions between Mateur and S OLOMON I S .Enemy submarine torpedoes
Tebourba; attached elements of CCB, U.S. 1st Armd Alchiba, off Guadalcanal, leaving only 4 undamaged
Div, raid Djededa airfield, 5 miles E of Tebourba, cargo ships in S Pacific Force.
destroying 30 planes. 11th Brig of 78th Div recap- NEW GUINEA Capt Medendorps detachment
tures Medjez el Bab. (Cannon and AT Cos of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Div)
arrives on Sanananda front from Wairopi and takes
up positions just behind Cos I and K, W of Killerton
26 November trail.
N EW G UINEA Stalemate continues on Gona CHINAGen Wheeler reports to Gen Stilwell on
front. Further frontal and flanking attacks of 126th Chinese SOS.
Inf, U.S. 32d Div, toward Sanananda make limited F R E N C H S O M A L I L A N D Nearly one third of
progress: 1st Bn ( ) is pinned down on Soputa Vichy-controlled garrison of Djibouti crosses into
Sanananda track after 100-yard advance; on left, 3d British Somaliland and declares its adherence to
Bn ( ) drives E to within 700 yards of Killerton the Allies.
[ 29 NOVEMBER1 DECEMBER 1942 ] [ 71 ]

T UNISIA Br First Armys 11th Brig of 78th behind enemy on SoputaSanananda trail, but
Div and elements of CCB (2d Bn of 13th Armd frontal attacks along the trail in center and flank-
Regt), U.S. 1st Armd Div, reach outskirts of ing attacks on right make little headway. Urbana
Djededa, 15 miles W of Tunis. This is the point and Warren Forces each make concerted attacks but
nearest Tunis to be reached until final phase of gain little ground. Urbana Force fails in 3 attempts
campaign. To S, Germans evacuate Pont-du-Fahs, to take Buna Village; elements protecting flank and
35 miles SE of Tunis. At Gafsa, elements of U.S. rear seize crossing over Siwori Creek and outpost
1st Div (3d Bn of RCT 26) are attached to 2d Bn, region between there and Buna Creek, but are un-
U.S. 509th Para Regt. able to clear Coconut Grove or advance beyond the
Triangle. Warren Force, attacking toward Cape
29 November Endaiadere on right and NE edge of New Strip on
GUADALCANAL 3d Bn of 147th Inf, elements of left, encounters enemys MLR in Duropa Planta-
246th FA Bn, part of 9th (Mar) Defense Bn, and tion and is unable to breach it. Bren carriers that
additional Seabees are landed in Koli Pt area, where were to have spearheaded assault in this sector fail
an airfield, Carney, is to be constructed; Aola Bay to arrive.
area has been rejected as unsuitable for an airfield TUNISIA As 11th Brig, Br 78th Div, continues
site. losing battle at Djededa, Br First Army prepares for
NEW GUINEAAllied bombers intercept enemy attack on Tunis by Blade Force and CCB of U.S. 1st
force of 4 DDs, proceeding without air cover, in Armd Div on 2 December. CCB is concentrated in
Vitiaz Strait and turn it back, thus preventing rein- Medjez el Bab area and Blade Force in vicinity of
forcement of Gona with fresh troops from Rabaul. Chougui. By this time, Axis forces have about
Col Kiyomi Yazawa and part of enemy force that had 15,500 fighting troops in Tunisia.
withdrawn along W bank of the Kumusi to positions
N of Gona reach Giruwa from there by barge. Lt 1 December
Gen Robert L. Eichelberger, engaged in training U.S.
41st Div at Rockhampton, Australia, is ordered to G UADALCANAL 8th Marines, 2d Mar Div, is
New Guinea. withdrawn from forward positions W of Matanikau
TUNISIABr First Army is stalled at Djededa by R, leaving Americal Div units to hold W sector.
firm opposition, although 11th Brig of 78th Div con- N EW G UINEA Gen Eichelberger flies to Dobo-
tinues fighting there. Elements of Br 1st Para Brig dura and takes command of all troops in Buna area.
are dropped by U.S. transports at Depienne, 10 miles Aus 21st Brig, after turning back from Giruwa
NE of Pont-du-Fahs, to take Oudna airdrome and 3 barge loads of Japanese attempting to reinforce
threaten Tunis from S, but vigorous opposition pre- Gona, attacks and captures Gona, forcing Japanese
vents paratroopers from attaining their objective. back to Gona Mission for final stand. Elsewhere,
USSRRed Army offensive, which continues to Japanese show no signs of weakening. Enemy ex-
gain ground in Stalingrad sector, is expanded to the erts heavy pressure against roadblock (called
Caucasus, where attacks are begun against Terek Huggins after Capt Meredith M. Huggins) on
bridgehead. SoputaSanananda trail and withstands frontal and
flanking attacks toward it. Urbana Force makes an-
other futile attempt to reach Buna Village after arty
30 November and mortar preparation with all available weapons.
BATTLE OF TASSAFARONGA (LUNGA PT)U.S. na- Warren Force continues attacks toward Cape
val TF takes up position at entrance to Savo Sound Endaiadere on right and New Strip on left with
to prevent enemy landings in Tassafaronga area; little success; 1st Bn of 126th gets elements to NE
makes contact and, opens fire on enemy naval force edge of New Strip.
during night 30 November1 December, sinking DD CBIAirlift to China is removed from author-
and damaging another vessel. Enemy retires with- ity of Gen Stilwell and made part of Air Transport
out effecting landings. USS Northampton (CA) is Command (India-China Wing, ATC).
badly damaged and abandoned, and 3 other cruis- B URMA Japanese, having rested and refitted,
ers are damaged during the action. start back into battle line TengchungMyitkyina
NEW GUINEA Gen Eichelberger, CG I Corps, KamaingKalewaAkyab.
flies from Australia to Port Moresby. Aus 21st Brig, TUNISIA Enemy forestalls offensive, intended
having rested and reorganized after action in Owen for 2d, counterattacking strongly toward Tebourba
Stanley Range, takes over attack on Gona front, re- with tanks and infantry supported by aircraft. Blade
lieving Aus 25th Brig. In Sanananda sector, left flank Force falls back with heavy tank losses. CCB, U.S.
elements of 126th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, establish block 1st Armd Div, is attached to Br 78th Div to help
[ 72 ] [ 25 DECEMBER 1942 ]

hold Tebourba area and moves forward to vicinity succeeds Col Hale as commander of Warren Force.
of Tebourba. Concentration of 78th Div, the first Gen Eichelberger requests that 126th Inf hq be
full div of 5 Corps, Br First Army, on Tunisian front, moved E of Girua R and is promised Aus troops
is now complete. and tanks. Japanese are successfully supplied by air.
U.K.Lt Gen Ira C. Eaker replaces Gen Spaatz TUNISIAGermans continue to attack Tebourba
as head of U.S. Eighth Air Force. Gen Spaatz flies and occupy it during night 34. 11th Brig, Br 78th
to Algeria. Div, whose positions are penetrated, withdraws with
heavy losses to region N of Medjez el Bab. CCB,
2 December U.S. 1st Armd Div, engages enemy on El Guessa
heights, SW of Tebourba. To S, Fr and U.S. forces
NEW GUINEAJapanese try to reinforce bridge- capture Fad Pass.
head. 4 DDs, with about 800 men embarked, reach
Basabua early in morning, but are forced by Allied
aircraft to move on and land troops near Kumusi R 4 December
mouth, about 12 miles N of Gona. Japanese main- G UA DA L C A N A L Carlsons raiders (2d Mar
tain pressure on roadblock on SoputaSanananda Raider Bn) reach Lunga perimeter, having marched
trail, which supply party reaches, and whittle down W from Aola Bay. During the month-long journey,
its perimeter. Efforts to reach the block frontally and more than 400 enemy dead have been counted for
from right flank are again unsuccessful. Urbana Force loss of 17 raiders.
attacks again toward Buna Village, in greater strength N E W G U I N E A Japanese maintain pressure
and after increased preparatory fire, but is halted short against block on SoputaSanananda trail, Col
of objective. Since simultaneous attacks against Cape McCreary is replaced by Col John E. Grose as com-
Endaiadere and New Strip have proved unfeasible, mander of Urbana Force. Hq of 126th Inf moves
Warren Force concentrates on New Strip, leaving from Sanananda to Urbana front; U.S. troops of
holding force (Co B, 128th Inf) on coastal track, where this regt that are W of the Girua R remain under
it fails to deceive enemy with feint toward Cape operation control of Aus 16th Brig and pass to com-
Endaiadere. Warren Force attacks after air and ground mand of Maj Bernd G. Baetcke. Advance elements
bombardment, which does little damage to enemy, of 127th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, reach Dobodura. Lines
but results are negligible. Gen Eichelberger visits on Urbana and Warren fronts are rearranged to
Urbana front while his staff officers inspect Warren permit units operating under bns other than their
front. Afterwards, Gen Eichelberger relieves Gen own to return to parent bns.
Harding of command of U.S. 32d Div and designates I TALY 20 B24s of IX BC, in first attack by
Brig Gen Albert W. Waldron as his successor. U.S. bombers on Italy, damage docks and shipping
TUNISIA Br First Army withstands another at- at Naples.
tack on Tebourba. Br tank losses are now about 40
U.S. forces (2d Bn of U.S. 509th Para Regt with 3d 5 December
Bn of RCT 26, U.S. 1st Div) in conjunction with Fr
troops attack Fad Pass, 65 miles NE of Gafsa. U.S.Selective Service System is placed under
War Manpower Commission by Presidential execu-
tive order.
3 December S P ACIFIC AAF units in S Pacific are to be
NEW G EORGIA Japanese are discovered to be designated Thirteenth Air Force, although this air
constructing airfield at Munda Pt, which becomes force has not yet been formally activated.
target for almost daily air attacks. N EW G UINEA In Gona area, Aus 21st Brig
GUADALCANAL Movement of Aola Force, less 2d maintains pressure on enemy; Aus 25th Brig with-
Raider Bn, to Koli Pt, where airfield is to be con- draws for Port Moresby. Bn of 21st Brig, supported
structed, is completed. Aola Force is joined by 18th by elements of Aus 39th Bn, 30th Brig, moves E
Naval Construction Bn and rest of 9th Defense Bn. to keep enemy from Basabua anchorage while rest
NEW GUINEA Situation of 126th Inf roadblock of the 39th Bn advances W because of enemy land-
on SoputaSanananda trail remains precarious as ings at Kumusi R mouth. Roadblock on Soputa
Japanese continue to attack it repeatedly from all Sanananda trail remains under severe pressure, and
sides and to prevent forward movement of Allied food and ammunition of garrison are dwindling
units attempting to reach it. On Urbana and War- rapidly. Japanese turn back supply party attempting
ren fronts, troops are being rested and regrouped to reach the block and again repel frontal and
in preparation for all-out attack on 5 December. flanking attacks toward it. After air and arty prep-
Lt Col Melvin McCreary replaces Col Mott as com- aration, Urbana and Warren Forces launch all-out
mander of Urbana Force. Col. Clarence A. Martin attacks. Some Urbana Force elements drive to
[ 610 DECEMBER 1942 ] [ 73 ]

within 50 yards of Buna Village; others break 8 December

through to the sea; still others invest W bank of U.S.JCS present to President Roosevelt pro-
Entrance Creek except for Coconut Grove. Buna posal for recapture of all Burma, Operation ANAKIM.
Village is completely isolated. Warren Force attack, President agrees that Gen Stilwell must be provided
although preceded by Bren carriers, is a total failure means for his part of the operation-N Burma, Op-
except on left, where slight progress is made toward eration RAVENOUS .
bridge between strips. Warren Force suffers heavily GUADALCANAL RCT 132 ( ) of Americal Div
from enemy as well as intense heat. Brig Gen Clovis arrives.
E. Byers, I Corps chief of staff, replaces Gen NEW GUINEAAllied planes intercept convoy of
Waldron, who is wounded, as commander of 32d 6 DDs, with fighter cover, attempting to reinforce
Div. beachhead and force it back to Rabaul. Japanese
T UNISIA Combined Chiefs of Staff approve sustain heavy casualties while trying unsuccessfully
Gen Eisenhowers plan to attack on 9 December. to withdraw from Gona to Giruwa. Allied supply
Br First Army is handicapped by lack of advanced party reaches roadblock on SoputaSanananda trail
airfields, overextended supply lines, and lack of re- against bitter opposition. Urbana Force, continuing
serves. While preparations are being made for the battle for Buna Village, concentrates on bunker po-
attack, Allied aircraft are conducting strikes against sition on S edge. Newly arrived flame thrower proves
ports to limit enemys build-up. so ineffective that the weapon is not used again dur-
ing the campaign. Japanese fail in attempt to rein-
6 December force garrison of village with troops from mission.
NEW GUINEA Japanese frustrate effort to sup- On Warren front, preparations are made to move
ply beleaguered roadblock on SoputaSanananda guns closer to enemy bunkers as 2 more 25-pound-
trail with rations and ammunition. The garrison is ers arrive by sea. Brig Wootten is ordered to Port
near the end of its resources. Urbana Force prepares Moresby. Navy agrees to provide corvettes for move-
for another attack on Buna Village and places first ment of fresh troops to Warren front.
time on target fire of the campaign on Buna Mis- TUNISIA Gen Eisenhower gives Gen K. A. N.
sion. Since frontal attacks by Warren Force have been Anderson permission to withdraw Br First Army to
futile and costly, it is decided to soften enemy more favorable positions from which to prepare for
positions by attrition and infiltration while await- attack.
ing arrival of tanks.
TUNISIAGerman attack penetrates positions of 9 December
CCB, U.S. 1st Armd Div, on El Guessa heights.
G UADALCANAL Gen Patch, CG Americal Div,
relieves Gen Vandegrift, CG 1st Mar Div, of respon-
7 December sibility for Guadalcanal. 1st Mar Div is gradually
NEW GUINEA Aus 30th Brig relieves Aus 16th withdrawn during the month for rehabilitation.
Brig on Sanananda front where troops are greatly N E W G U I N E A After preparator y bombard-
weakened by malaria as well as protracted fighting. ment from air and ground, Aus 21st Brig launches
Cos C, D, and L of U.S. 126th Inf are relieved in final assault on Gona area and by 1630 overcomes
front line by Aus 49th and 55/53d Bns. Americans, resistance in hand-to-hand combat. Hundreds of
except for those garrisoning the roadblock and hold- Japanese dead are found. Leading bn (3d) of 127th
ing positions W of it, are ordered to rear of Aus Inf, U.S. 32d Div, completes air movement to
forces. Fresh Aus troops attack at once toward the Urbana front and prepares for final assault on
block but cannot reach it; further effort to supply Buna Village.
the block is also futile. Col Clarence M. Tomlinson
takes command of Urbana Force, relieving Col
Grose. After heavy air and arty preparation, Urbana 10 December
Force again attacks Buna Village and clears trench N EW G UINEA Japanese remaining on coast
at S edge. Elements on coast repel enemy attacks NW of Gona, now greatly depleted in strength by air
from the village and mission. Warren Force patrols attacks as well as pressure of Aus 39th Bn, are
intensively. Gen Eichelberger, who is in the process ordered to establish defensive perimeter around
of moving his hq from Henahambuti to Simemi Napapo and await reinforcements. On Sanananda
Village and of combining hqs of I Corps and 32d front, Allied supply party reaches roadblock and finds
Div into Hq Buna Force, selects Brig George F. garrison in desperate need of relief. On Urbana front,
Wootten, CG Aus 18th Brig, who is at Milne Bay, 3d Bn of 127th Inf, U.S. 32d Div, begins relief of
to command future operations of Warren Force. 2d Bn of 126th Inf, which by now is also greatly
[ 74 ] [ 1114 DECEMBER 1942 ]

understrength. Warren Force continues to bombard units. Br 6th Armd Div is in contact with enemy E
and probe enemy line in effort to soften it. Aus 2/6th and SE of Medjez el Bab.
Independent Co is detached and returns to Aus 7th USSRGermans open counterattack toward
Div. Japanese are again supplied by air. Brig Wootten Stalingrad from Kotelnikov in effort to relieve
reports to Gen Blarney for instructions. isolated 6th Army.
TUNISIA German tank-infantry columns attack
Medjez el Bab from NE and E and are repulsed.
Medjez garrison of 4 Fr bns has been reinf by 1st 13 December
Gds Brig ( ). During night 1011, 11th Brig of Br GUADALCANAL 3d Bn of 182d Inf and Co C of
78th Div and CCB of U.S. 1st Armd Div begin with- 2d Mar Engr Bn arrive.
drawal to Bdja area to refit, CCB sustaining heavy N EW G UINEA Japanese convoy of 5 DDs,
loss of equipment as it withdraws. bringing some 800 men (among them Maj Gen
Kensaku Oda, Gen Horiis successor as commander
11 December of South Seas Detachment), is detected off Madang
while proceeding toward beachhead and unsuccess-
NEW GUINEA On Urbana front, 3d Bn of 127th
fully attacked by Allied planes. Further futile ef-
Inf completes relief of 2d Bn, 126th, in line. Brig
forts are made to supply roadblock on Soputa
Wootten inspects Warren front, where positions are
Sanananda trail, which is now out of contact with
virtually static. The first of a number of freighters
rest of front. Buna Village is subjected to heavy fire
to bring supplies and personnel to Oro Bay arrives
in preparation for attack on 14th; after nightfall,
night 1112 and unloads 4 light tanks of Aus 2/6th
Japanese garrison, now reduced to about 100, evacu-
Armd Regt and supplies.
ates the village and swims for Giruwa. Corvettes
M IDDLE E AST U.S. military personnel begin
return to Oro Bay under cover of darkness and fin-
arriving in Iraq and Iran.
ish unloading Aus troops.
LIBYAGen Montgomery issues orders for attack
L IBYA Germans begin withdrawing from El
on El Agheila on 14th. Air action is stepped up in
Agheila positions early in morning, leaving rear
preparation for the offensive.
guards and numerous mines to delay Br pursuit. 51st
TUNISIA Another German attack on Medjez el
Div, Br Eighth Army, penetrates E sector of defenses.
Bab from N and E is repulsed. Br 6th Armd Div
Western Desert Air Force harasses withdrawing en-
begins arriving in forward area. CCB, U.S. 1st Armd
Div, is relieved in Bdja area by 11th Brig, Br 78th
TUNISIA 5 Corps, Br First Army, is ordered to
Div, and is placed in 5 Corps reserve.
be prepared to renew drive on Tunis. Lull ensues as
USSRRed Army retains the initiative, making
preparations are made for attack.
progress in Stalingrad sector and in the Caucasus;
sharp thrusts are continued against enemy on cen-
tral and northern fronts without materially chang- 14 December
ing situation. German 6th Army, isolated between
Don and Volga Rivers on Stalingrad front, is under GUADALCANALAdditional elements of Americal
strong pressure. German Army Group A withdraws Div arrive.
MLR in vicinity of Terek R in the Caucasus. N EW G UINEA Japanese convoy reaches Mam-
bare R mouth early in morning and unloads without
being detected. Allied planes subsequently deliver
12 December damaging attacks on troops, supplies, and landing
G UADALCANAL 2d Mar Div begins relief of craft. On Sanananda front, supply party succeeds
Americal Div W of the Matanikau. Enemy party in breaking through to roadblock. W of the block,
raids Fighter Strip 2 under cover of darkness. 2d Co K and Cannon Co are relieved by Australians
Mar Div Signal Co and 18th Naval Construction Bn and move to rear. On Urbana front, Cos I and K
arrive. of 127th Inf move cautiously to Buna Village after
NEW GUINEA From Oro Bay, tanks are moved arty and mortar preparation and find it void of
forward by sea to Hariko and hidden. Corvettes with Japanese. Recently landed Aus forces move to
Aus forces embarked (18th Brig Hq, 2/9th Bn, and Hariko from Oro Bay. Aircraft establish record for
CO of 2/10th Bn) arrive off Soena Plantation after Papuan campaign by bringing 178 tons of matrial
nightfall; withdraw to Porlock Harbor after a few to Dobodura and Popondetta airfields.
troops are unloaded because of news that Japanese L IBYABr Eighth Army continues to pursue en-
naval force is moving on Buna. emy, Br 7th Armd Div taking the lead in westward
T UNISIA Blade Force, Br First Army, is dis- push while NZ 2d Div advances rapidly SW into
solved, component elements reverting to parent desert in effort to get behind enemy.
[ 1518 DECEMBER 1942 ] [ 75 ]

15 December USSRRed Army opens strong offensive on

NEW GUINEA Aus 2/7th Cav Regt begins arriv- middle Don against Italian 8th Army, which is forced
ing at Soputa. On Urbana front, 2d Bn of 128th to give ground. As a result, Germans are forced to
Inf, employing small force of 80-odd men immedi- abandon efforts to relieve 6th Army on Stalingrad
ately available, attacks and encircles Coconut Grove, front. In the Caucasus, Germans withdraw Terek
last enemy position on W bank of Entrance Creek. bridgehead.
After nightfall, Dutch freighter unloads additional
tanks and cargo at Oro Bay. The tanks are moved 17 December
forward to Hariko and, with others already there, GUADALCANALMt Austen operations open with
are organized into X Sq of Aus 2/6th Armd Regt. rcn in force of NE slopes by elements of 3d Bn, 132d
L IBYAWhile 7th Armd Div, Br Eighth Army, Inf; no enemy are encountered. Advance elements
engages enemy rear guards from E, NZ 2d Div drives of 25th Div (RCT 35) arrive.
rapidly to coast in Merduma area to block enemys NEW GUINEAOn Urbana front, Cos G and E
escape on W. of 128th Inf make fruitless and costly attack on the
TUNISIA Br First Army is slowly building up Triangle, which they dub Bloody Triangle. In this
strength. 6th Armd Div completes concentration in action, Co G loses 10 of its 27 effectives. Orders are
Tunisia and is followed early in February 1943 by issued for capture of Musita I., between Buna Vil-
46th Div. Tanks and selected personnel of 1st Bn, lage and Mission, on 18th and the Triangle on 19th
1st Armd Regt, are sent back to Oran to rejoin 1st to pave way for assault on main objective, Buna Mis-
Armd Regt, U.S. 1st Armd Div. U.S. Ninth Air Force sion. Brig Wootten takes command of Warren Force
opens offensive against Tunisian ports with raid on and prepares for attack on 18th. Tanks of X Sq start
Sfax. toward line of departure at 1800, the noise of their
motors covered by mortar fire.
16 December B URMA Continuing drive toward Akyab, Ind
14th Div seizes Buthidaung without opposition.
G UADALCANAL Gen Patch orders 132d Inf,
TUNISIA Lull continues on Br First Army front.
Americal Div, to occupy Mt Austen, which domi-
2d Bn of U.S. 509th Para Regt and 3d Bn of RCT
nates the island, as a preliminary to major offensive
26, U.S. 1st Div, raid Maknassy, 30 miles NE of
to be undertaken in January. The Mt Austen sector
is to be controlled by Col John M. Arthur, USMC,
commander of W sector.
NEW GUINEAGen Eichelberger takes command 18 December
of U.S. 32d Div after Gen Byers is wounded while U.S.JCS authorize occupation of Amchitka,
observing operations on Urbana front. Hq of Ad- less than 100 miles from Kiska, provided it is suit-
vance New Guinea Force moves from Popondetta able for an advanced air base from which Kiska can
to Dobodura. On Urbana front, 2d Bn of 128th Inf be attacked.
renews attack on Coconut Grove and clears it by ALEUTIAN IS .Rcn party surveys Amchitka and
noon; establishes bridgehead across Entrance Creek, reports that the operation is feasible.
where engineers repair bridge, from which to attack GUADALCANAL 3d Bn, 132d Inf, advances up
the Triangle. Platoon of Co F, 126th Inf, called NW slopes of Mt Austen to Hill 35, where enemy
Schwartz patrol, is ordered to Tarakena, W of Siwori, fire is encountered.
to protect left flank. N EW G UINEA Aus 39th Bn, which has been
BURMAIn Arakan coastal sector, Eastern Army joined by elements of 2/14th Bn, has reduced enemy
of India Command, under Lt Gen N. M. S. Irwin, strength at Napapo to about half and is being re-
opens limited-objective offensive for Akyab I., at end lieved for action on Sanananda front by Aus 2/16th
and 2/27th Bns. Australians, supported by fire of
of Mayu Peninsula, which at this time is lightly held
Americans, begin concerted attack on Sanananda
by enemy. Lacking resources for an amphibious as- front. 2/7th Cav Regt, having moved elements into
sault, as planned originally, advance is made over- roadblock against firm opposition, attacks N along
land by Ind 14th Div, which consists at this time of SoputaSanananda trail, bypassing resistance just
4 Ind brigs and is later strengthened by 4 more Ind ahead of the block. Aus 30th Brig attacks at track
brigs and one Br brig. Ind 123d Brig, leading off, junction, employing 2 bns in frontal assault and an-
finds Maungdaw free of enemy and occupies it. other in region E of track, but makes little headway.
L IBYA Enemy, by breaking into small detach- Urbana Force attempts to clear Musita I. Elements of
ments, is able to withdraw from El Agheila positions Co L, 127th Inf, reach the island by means of cable,
after hard fighting, but loses about 20 tanks and but withdraw upon meeting heavy resistance. On
some 500 captured. Warren front, concerted assault against Cape Endai-
[ 76 ] [ 1922 DECEMBER 1942 ]

adere and New Strip is spearheaded by tanks, which 1st Bn attempts unsuccessfully to locate enemys E
prove invaluable in reducing concrete and steel for- flank. U.S. engineers complete construction of jeep
tifications. After preliminary air and ground bom- road to Hill 35.
bardment, Aus 2/9th Bn begins attack on Cape NEW GUINEAAustralians on Sanananda front
Endaiadere and soon breaks through main enemy continue to reduce enemy positions beyond track junc-
positions and reaches objective; then drives W along tion; consolidate new Kano perimeter. On
coast until halted near Strip Pt by new line of bun- Urbana front, 2d Bn of 126th Inf, except for Co F at
kers. 3d Bn of U.S. 128th Inf mops up and estab- tip of Triangle, is withdrawn as reserve, and 127th Inf
lishes defensive perimeter in Duropa Plantation. takes over attack. After preparatory bombardment, Co
Americans and Australians attack New Strip from S E attacks the Triangle under cover of smoke but is
and E. While 1st Bn, 126th Inf, pushes toward bridge unable to advance; another attack is also unsuccessful.
between the strips, elements of Aus 2/9th Bn, rein- During this action, its first, Co E sustains 39 casual-
forced during day by 1st Bn of 128th Inf, reduce ties. The decision is made to bypass the Triangle in the
strongpoint at E end of New Strip and pursue en- future. Gen Eichelberger replaces Col Tomlinson with
emy W along N edge of strip toward bridge. Austra- Col Grose as commander of Urbana Force. On left
lians sustain heavy casualties and lose 3 tanks in the flank of Urbana Force, Schwartz patrol, having clashed
action, which is otherwise highly successful. Advance with enemy W of Siwori Village on 18th and 19th, is
elements of Aus 2/10th Bn arrive at front by sea reinf with 20 men from 2d Bn, 126th Inf. Warren
during night 1819. Force, attacking after heavy arty preparation, clears
LIBYAContinuing pursuit of enemy, NZ 2d Div most of region E of Simemi Creek. Enemy retains only
of Br Eighth Army clashes sharply with rear guards small finger of land at creek mouth. Efforts to cross
at Nofilia. After the action, pursuit is largely aban- 125-foot bridge W of New Strip are futile as are at-
doned for administrative reasons. tempts by engineers to repair it.

19 December 21 December
GUADALCANAL After air and arty preparation, U.S.JCS direct Amchitka to be occupied as
3d Bn of 132d Inf attempts unsuccessfully to advance near 5 January as possible.
from Hill 35; 3d Bn CO is killed by enemy fire. Re- GUADALCANALOrdered to cut Maruyama Trail,
serve bn (1st, 132d Inf), less one co, advances to Co C of 132d Inf pushes 1,000 yards S without mak-
positions E of 3d Bn. ing contact with enemy or finding trail.
NEW GUINEAContinuing assault on Sanananda NEW GUINEAFrom Napapo, Gen Oda and his
front, Australians reduce several enemy positions just staff arrive at Giruwa. On Sanananda front, Austra-
beyond track junction in frontal drive; flanking ele- lians continue to batter enemy positions in front of
ments reach positions near roadblock. Enemy attack track junction. 49th Bn succeeds in entering the road-
on the block is repulsed. Aus cavalrymen destroy block and protects supply line to it. Cavalrymen push
enemy force 300 yards N of the block and establish N from Kano position toward Sanananda. Urbana
new perimeter, which they call Kano Urbana Force, Force, feinting toward the Triangle, draws enemy from
after air and mortar preparation, attacks the Tri- bunkers and kills many with arty fire. In preparation
angle, Cos E and G of 126th Inf driving S on it while for drive through Government Gardens to sea, Co K
Co F blocks from below. Attack is soon halted by of 12th Inf crosses Entrance Creek in rubber boats
cross fire, which causes heavy casualties. Bn com- under fire, night 2122, to establish bridgehead above
mander is lost in this action. Troops on Warren front the Triangle. On left flank, Schwartz patrol meets firm
regroup. Rest of Aus 2/10th Bn arrives at front af- resistance at Tarakena, about a mile W of Siwori, and
ter dark. U.S. troops to operate Oro Bay port and retires eastward; 30 more men of 2d Bn, 126th Inf,
engineers charged with construction of road from reinf the patrol. Warren Force finishes clearing re-
Oro Bay to Dobodura airfields land at Oro Bay, night gion E of Simemi Creek and begins to cross after pa-
19-20. Additional cargo is also brought ashore. trol discovers suitable site some 1,300 yards below its
USSRSoviet forces continue to gain ground mouth. The crossing is undetected by enemy.
in broad offensive. Assault forces from middle Don L IBYALight forces of Br Eighth Army, pursu-
reach Kantemirovka, on VoronezhRostov RR N of ing enemy westward, overtake rear guard at Sirte and
Millerovo. are halted.

20 December 22 December
G UADALCANAL Enemy riflemen harass flanks N EW G UINEA Gen Oda takes responsibility
and rear of 132d Inf on NW slopes of Mt Austen. for Japanese beachhead from Col Yokoyama and
[ 2325 DECEMBER 1942 ] [ 77 ]

personally directs operations on Sanananda front. ing S toward Hill 27, is stopped short by fire from
Aus reinforcements (21st Brig hq and 39th Bn of enemy strongpoint, called Gifu, between Hills 31
30th Brig) reach Soputa from Gona; relieve U.S. and 27. The Gifu position, with fixed defenses and
126th Inf forces of roadblock on SoputaSanananda interconnecting pillboxes, is held by about 500
trail. Aus 21st Brig takes command of 49th Bn, Japanese.
2/7th Cav, and U.S. forces from the roadblock. NEW GUINEA After arty preparation, Urbana
30th Brig, which is responsible for clearing pockets Force, employing 127th Inf, begins drive toward the
at track junction, retains command of 36th and sea through Government Gardens, where enemy
55/534 Bns and rest of U.S. forces on this front. defenses are organized in depth and concealed by
Firm opposition of seasoned Japanese troops limits high kunai grass. Progress is very slow. Platoon of
efforts to advance N along the track and to clear Co L discovers weak spot and drives through to line
track junction. On Urbana front, Co I of 127th Inf of coconut trees near coast; is surrounded there and
follows Co K across Entrance Creek, strengthening suffers heavy casualties before escaping by circuitous
bridgehead. Other elements of 127th Inf begin to route. As a diversion, elements move to Mission side
clear Musita I. after engineers repair bridge to it. of creek from Musita I. and from shallows between
On Warren front, Aus 2/10th Bn ( Co C) contin- Buna Village and Buna Mission, but withdraw be-
ues to cross Simemi Creek near Old Strip, while cause of intense opposition. Warren Force opens
2/9th plus Co C of 2/10th mops up E of the creek. attack on Old Strip after arty preparation. Aus
TUNISIA 5 Corps, Br First Army, renews drive 2/10th Bn, disposed along N edge of strip, is sup-
on Tunis, night 2223. 2d Coldstream Gds of 1st ported by 3 tanks while making main effort. 1st Bns
Gds Brig attacks Djebel el Ahmera (later known as of U.S. 126th and 128th Regts attack in parallel
Longstop Hill), 6 miles NE of Medjez el Bab, and columns along S edge of strip; later 1st Bn of 128th
partially occupies it. Inf follows 1st Bn of 126th. Attack gains some 450
USSRIn the Caucasus, Soviet forces begin yards, but Japanese fire prevents movement onto the
strong attacks SE of Nalchik as enemy starts with- strip and knocks out the tanks.
drawal of spearhead in the area. Red Army offensive ALGERIA Darlan is assassinated in Algiers.
continues to gain ground on Stalingrad front and in T UNISIA Decision is made at conference be-
middle Don sector. Sharp Soviet thrusts toward tween Gen Eisenhower and Gen K. A. N. Anderson
Velikie Luki, on central front, are gaining ground. to abandon attack on Tunis until after rainy season.
Br First Army regains positions on Djebel el Ahmera.
23 December
N E W G U I N E A Vir tual stalemate exists on 25 December
Sanananda front, where Japanese are stubbornly
defending their well-organized positions. On Urbana GUADALCANAL Further efforts of 3d Bn, 132d
front, 127th Inf completes capture of Musita I. and Inf, to advance toward Hill 27 are frustrated by
begins firing on Buna Mission at close range; pre- strong opposition from Gifu strongpoint.
pares to drive E across Government Gardens to sea. NEW GUINEA Japanese beachhead is supplied
Warren Force continues movement across creek, by submarine. Urbana Force, with 7 cos in assault,
where engineers repair bridge under fire, and takes continues efforts to secure corridor to sea through
up positions for concerted assault on Old Strip. Aus Government Gardens. After arty and mortars thor-
2/9th Bn and 3d Bn of U.S. 128th Inf hold their oughly cover Buna Mission, troops on Musita I. feint
positions along coast and finish mopping up region toward the Mission. Main attack, by Cos A and F,
E of the creek. During night 2324, 2 enemy vessels then opens without preparatory fire, and advance
sink barge loaded with ammunition and strafe beach elements succeed in reaching line of coconut trees
at Hariko; vessel bringing more tanks and supplies near coast where they establish defense perimeter
to Warren Force unloads at Oro Bay. and repel counterattacks. Other elements of 127th
TUNISIA 3-day period of torrential rain begins. Inf press forward toward Cos A and F; still others
Elements of RCT 18, U.S. 1st Div, relieve 2d continue reduction of enemy positions in Govern-
Coldstream Gds on Djebel el Ahmera and are forced ment Gardens, assisted by diversionary thrusts
to withdraw under German counterattack. against the Triangle. Warren Force continues to
make slow progress astride Old Strip, runway of
which remains under intense fire. Co C of Aus
24 December 2/10th Bn is disposed on extreme left in an attempt
G UADALCANAL 3d Bn of 132d Inf, followed by to turn enemys right flank.
1st Bn in reserve, moves W without incident to L IBYASirte falls to Br Eighth Army upon being
Hill 31, W of summit of Mt Austen; upon attack- outflanked by light armd force.
[ 78 ] [ 2629 DECEMBER 1942 ]

TUNISIA Germans recapture Djebel el Ahmera, In coastal sector, Ind 47th Brig arrives at Indin and
concluding seesaw battle for this hill dominating gets patrol to Foul Pt, at tip of Mayu Peninsula.
exits of Medjez el Bab. 1st Gds Brig withdraws to Advance then halts for various administrative
Medjez el Bab area, night 2526. RCT 18 of U.S. reasons, one being the difficulty of bringing rein-
1st Div, upon relief by 1st Gds Brig, moves to Te- forcements and supplies forward.
boursouk. L IBYA Br Eighth Army patrols cross Wadi
26 December TUNISIA Br First Army repels enemy attack in
Medjez el Bab area.
GUADALCANAL After arty and air preparation,
3d Bn of 132d Inf renews attack to S, making lim- 28 December
ited progress against strong opposition from Gifu
strongpoint. 3d and 1st Bns, latter on E, dig in for GUADALCANAL Patrols of 132d Inf probe Gifu
night on line between Hill 31 and Gifu. Advance line but are unable to find gaps. Since effective
elements of 2d Mar Air Wing, which is to relieve strength of the assault bns now totals only 1,541,
1st Mar Air Wing, arrive at Henderson field. 132d Inf CO is promised fresh 2d Bn.
NEW GUINEA On Urbana front, 127th Inf re- N EW G UINEA Japanese garrison of Buna is
news attack to open corridor to sea. Co C is pre- ordered to withdraw to Giruwa, assisted by detach-
vented by stubborn opposition from reaching Cos ment at Giruwa, which is to attack through U.S. left
A and F near the coast, but patrol gets through. flank. Urbana Forces 127th Inf gains broad corri-
Warren Force, assisted by 25-pound gun emplaced dor from Entrance Creek to line of coconut trees.
at SE end of Old Strip, succeeds at last in forming Co K makes futile attempt to establish bridgehead
continuous line across the strip. Advance elements on Mission side of Entrance Creek: some elements
on flanks push to NW end and begin reduction of attempting to land from boats are turned back by
enemy positions there. Japanese planes from Rabaul, fire; others begin crossing bridge between Musita I.
the first to be based there, attack Dobodura but are and the Mission, but bridge becomes unusable be-
driven off by Fifth Air Force. Under cover of dark- fore many are across. Volunteers from Co E enter
ness, 2627, additional Allied tanks and troops are the Triangle in evening and find strong defenses
landed at Oro Bay. there deserted. Warren Force overcomes all orga-
FRENCH SOMALILANDFighting French farce from nized resistance at Old Strip and swings N toward
British Somaliland moves into French Somaliland coast. Aus 2/12th Bn arrives at Oro Bay from
to seize 2 rail bridges and thus insure safety of rail Goodenough I, night 2829.
line from port of Djibouti to Addis Ababa, Ethio- CBIChiang K ai-shek radios President
pia. Action is accomplished without bloodshed. Roosevelt that although Chinese army in Yunnan
will be ready for offensive by spring of 1943 as
planned, the offensive cannot be undertaken unless
27 December there are additional naval forces for Bay of Bengal.
GUADALCANALWhile 3d Bn, 132d Inf, conducts FRENCH SOMALILAND Joins Fighting French.
holding attack that gains little ground, 1st Bn, to E, L IBYA Br Eighth Army patrols reach posi-
moves S to locate enemy flanks, elements running tions overlooking Wadi el Chebir without enemy
into Gifu strongpoint instead of outflanking it. opposition.
N E W G U I N E A Japanese under Maj Gen
Tsuyuo Yamagata at Napapo are ordered to move 29 December
to Giruwa by sea. On Urbana front; Co B of 127th N EW G EORGIA Enemy completes airfield at
Inf breaks through to Cos A and F near coast, and Munda despite frequent Allied air attacks.
Co C engages in clearing bunkers N of the gardens. GUADALCANALAt conference at Gen Patchs CP,
Japanese defense of Old Strip slackens as with- the decision is made to continue attack on Mt
drawal is begun. Warren Force finishes clearing Austen. Patrol of 1st Bn, 132d Inf, finds safe route
runway except for stubborn bunker position to rear to Hill 27, S of Gifu.
of dispersal bay. 52 Japanese planes raid Buna with- N EW G UINEA Gen Yamagata, charged with
out causing serious damage; 14 are shot down. rescue of Buna garrison, arrives at Giruwa. On
Additional Allied tanks and cargo are unloaded at Urbana front, Co B of 127th Inf drives from line
Oro Bay, night 2728. RCT 163, U.S. 41st Div, of coconut trees to sea SE of Buna Mission, com-
arrives at Port Moresby from Australia. pleting corridor from Entrance Creek to coast and
B URMA Ind 14th Div continues unopposed cutting off Japanese at Buna Mission from those
drive on Akyab astride Mayu R and range. E of river, at Giropa Pt. Patrol wades shallows between spits
Ind 123d Brig reaches vicinity of Rathedaung. extending from Buna Village and Buna Mission
[ 3031 DECEMBER 1942 ] [ 79 ]

without opposition. Warren Force attacks northward TUNISIA RCT 18, U.S. 1st Div, moves to Med-
toward coast in area between Simemi Creek and jez el Bab.
Giropa Pt, 4 tanks spearheading. Little headway is
made because of poor tank-infantry co-ordination 31 December
and determined opposition; positions are consoli- GUADALCANAL 2d Bn of 132d Inf reaches Hill
dated at edge of coconut trees. Aus 2/12th Bn ar- m, E of the Gifu strongpoint, line of departure for
rives at front. enveloping movement.
L IBYA Advance elements of Br Eighth Army NEW GUINEAUrbana Force begins envelopment
(armd cars of 4th Light Armd Brig) come to a halt of Buna Mission. Co E, 127th Inf, and Co F, 128th,
just W of enemys Buerat position. Buerat and Bu cross shallows E of Buna Village before dawn and,
Ngem are found to be free of enemy. Lull follows as although Japanese offer strong opposition upon
British prepare to attack. being alerted, advance about 200 yards along spit
USSRKotelnikov, SW of Stalingrad, falls to extending from Buna Mission. Other elements of
Red Army. Urbana Force maintain pressure on enemy from SE
and finish clearing Government Gardens, but en-
30 December emy retains positions in swamp N of gardens. Patrol
GUADALCANAL In preparation for renewing at- contact is made between Urbana and Warren Forces.
tack on Hill 27, 2d Bn of 132d Inf begins move- Warren Force finishes regrouping. Fresh Aus 2/12th
ment to forward positions. 1st and 3d Bns continue Bn is disposed on left, 3d Bn of U.S. 128th Inf in
to patrol. center, and Aus 2/10th on right. With arrival of
NEW GUINEA Urbana Force maintains pressure additional cargo at Oro Bay by sea, supplies moved
against Buna Mission from SE and prepares to en- in this manner since the first vessel arrived on 11
velop it by attacking eastward from Buna Village and December total some 4,000 tons.
Musita I. Warren Force regroups. Advance elements N ATLANTICEnemy naval force engaging USSR-
of 163d Inf ( 1st Bn and hq), U.S. 91st Div, are flown bound convoy sustains damage to 1 cruiser and at
to Dobodura and Popondetta from Port Moresby. least 3 DDs.
[ 80 ]
[ 81 ]

1 January digs in; holds firm under a number of counterat-
G UADALCANAL From Hill 11, 2d Bn of 132d tacks. 3d and 1st Bns establish lines along N and E
Inf marches slowly S and W over precipitous terrain sides of the Gifu, respectively, but gaps remain be-
to SE slope of Hill 27, arriving too late in day to tween the 3 assault bns.
open assault as planned. RCT 27, 25th Div, arrives N EW G UINEA Urbana Force overruns Buna
on island. Mission in concerted assault. Organized resistance
N EW G UINEA Urbana Force attacks toward ends at 1632. Top Japanese commanders, Capt.
Buna Mission from SE and from the spit after heavy Yasuda and Col Hiroshi Yamamoto, commit suicide.
preparatory fire, but makes little progress. In eve- With Mission clear, Co C of 127th Inf joins Co B
ning Japanese are seen swimming from the Mission. in attack along coast toward Giropa Pt, and by 1930
Co B, 127th Inf, moves E toward Giropa Pt to assist makes junction with Warren Force. Warren Force,
Warren Force, which encircles enemy between in final attack, finishes clearing region from Giropa
Giropa Pt and Old Strip. On left, Aus 2/12th Bn, Pt eastward. Japanese move forward from Giruwa to
supported by 6 tanks, drives to coast at Giropa Pt rescue survivors of Buna garrison. Japanese have lost
and turns SE, clearing coastal strip to Simemi at least 1,400 men at Buna: 500 W of Giropa Pt and
Creek; 1st Bn, U.S. 128th Inf, mops up bypassed 900 E of it. Casualties of U.S. 32d Div and Aus 18th
pockets. On right, 3d Bn of 128th Inf and Aus Brig total 2,817 (620 killed, 2,065 wounded, 132
2/10th Bn make slow progress in 2-pronged attack missing). In preparation for stepping up action on
to clear enemy entrenched in dispersal bays off NW Sanananda front, where stalemate has existed for
end of Strip. some time, Gen Herring orders 25-pound arty from
NW A F R I C A Gen Eisenhower places Gen Buna to that area. 1st Bn and Hq, U.S. 163d Inf,
Fredendall in command of U.S. II Corps, which is take responsibility for Huggins and Kano blocks on
planning for Operation SATIN , capture of Sfax, Tu- trail to Sanananda, gradually relieving Australians,
nisia, to prevent junction of Axis armies. TF S ATIN 24 January. Huggins is renamed Musket.
is to consist of 1st Armd Div and RCT 26 of 1st USSRGerman Army Group A begins withdraw-
Inf Div. AFHQ takes responsibility for communica- ing 1st Pz Army northward toward Rostov to prevent
tions lines from Bone to Constantine, relieving Br it from becoming encircled.
First Army.
USSREncircled German Sixth Army on 3 January
Stalingrad front, now compressed into area some 25 GUADALCANAL1st Bn, 132d Inf, exerts pressure
by 40 miles, remains under attack from all sides. against E part of the Gifu and establishes contact
Efforts to supply it by air meet with little success with 2d Bn to left.
and are costly in aircraft. Soviet troops of Kalinin N E W G U I N E A Urbana and Warren Forces
Front capture Velikie Luki, important rail center, mop up.
which has been under attack for some time. Elista, TUNISIA Enemy tank-infantry force, with arty
S of Stalingrad in Kalmyk steppes, falls to other Red and air support, overruns Fr 19th Corps troops at
Army forces. Fondouk. Br First Armys 5 Corps, employing 36th
2 January Brig of 78th Div, begins limited attacks to improve
G UADALCANAL Gen Harmon activates XIV positions on Djebel Azag and Djebel Ajred, W of
Corps, consisting of Americal and 25th Divs, former Mateur. Br 6th Armd Div conducts rcn in force on
reinf by 147th Inf. 2d Mar Div and other Marine Goubellat plain.
ground forces are attached to corps. Gen Patch is USSRExploiting German withdrawal in the
placed in command of corps, and Gen Sebree suc- Caucasus, Red Army occupies Mozdok and
ceeds him as commander of Americal Div. After
heavy arty preparation, 132d Inf of Americal Div
continues offensive against the Gifu strongpoint. 4 January
2d Bn, taking enemy by surprise, advances quickly N P ACIFIC Adm Nimitz replaces Adm Theo-
to crest of Hill 27, S of the Gifu strongpoint, and bald with Adm Kinkaid as commander, TF 8.
[ 82 ] [ 58 JANUARY 1942 ]

Rear Adm Charles H. McMorris relieves Adm W. of Hq ETO, dated 12 December 1942, constituted
W. Smith as commander of strike group. the army in accordance with above War Department
G UADALCANAL Japanese are ordered to with- authority.) Gen Eisenhower activates Allied Air
draw from Guadalcanal to New Georgia Is. Final Force, containing both EAC and Twelfth Air Force,
echelon of 25th Div (RCT 161) arrives. 2d Mar Div under command of Gen Spaatz, who retains com-
hq and 6th Marines, reinf, also land, bringing 2d mand of Eighth Air Force as well.
Mar Div nearly up to full strength. 132d Inf com- T UNISIA 5 Corps, Br First Army, breaks off
pletes semicircle about E part of the Gifu between action on Djebel Azag and Djebel Ajred after hard
Hills 31 and 27 with patrol contact between 1st and fighting in heavy rain, withdrawing assault force
3d Bns; halts and prepares defenses while awaiting (36th Brig, 78th Div) to original positions.
relief. In 22 days of fighting on Mt Austen, 132d USSRSoviet forces take Nalchik, in the Cau-
Inf has killed 400500 Japanese and suffered 383 casus; column advancing along the Don overruns
casualties. Tsimlyansk.
NEW GEORGIA U.S. cruiser-DD force bombards
Munda airfield night 45. 6 January
N EW G UINEA Japanese overrun outpost near SWPAJapanese convoy bound for Lae (New
Tarakena, forcing patrol there to swim for Siwori Guinea) from New Britain is detected and subse-
Village. With Tarakena spit in their possession, quently attacked by Allied planes as it proceeds
Japanese are able to rescue some of the survivors toward its destination.
of Buna garrison. Gen Herring confers with com- B URMA Ind 14th Div, renewing offensive on
manding officers on plan for reduction of enemy Arakan front, finds Japanese firmly entrenched at
W of Girua R. Donbaik and Rathedaung. Although fighting con-
L IBYA Severe 2-day storm begins, sharply de- tinues at these points for many weeks, positions re-
creasing capacity of Benghazi port and forcing Br main about the same.
Eighth Army to make greater use of the more dis-
tant port of Tobruk. Because of this, Gen Mont-
gomery alters plan of attack, scheduled for 15th, 7 January
on Buerat position, from which Italians are already GUADALCANAL In preparation for offensive on
withdrawing. 10 Corps, which was to have ad- 10th, 35th Inf of 25th Div leaves Lunga perimeter
vanced, is to remain in place while all its vehicles for Mt Austen. 147th Inf TF, under Capt Charles E.
are used to move supplies forward from Tobruk. Beach, embarks at Kukum in 2 LCTs for Beaufort
Size of the assault force, drawn from 30 Corps, is Bay to block trail leading N toward Kokumbona.
reduced by one div. About 50,000 Allied air, ground, and naval forces
are now in Guadalcanal area.
5 January N E W G U I N E A 127th Inf continues toward
Tarakena. Cos G and F, with fire support of Co E,
G UADALCANAL Staff section chiefs of XIV reach positions about 500 yards from objective. Aus
Corps assume their duties. Gen Patch, in letter of 18th Brig completes movement to Soputa. 2d Bn,
instructions to 25th Div CG, Maj Gen J. Lawton U.S. 163d Inf, arrives on Sanananda front. Japanese
Coffins, directs 25th Div to relieve 132d Inf, Ameri- convoy with reinforcements reaches Lae despite ef-
cal Div, on Mt Austen and attack W some 3,000 forts of aircraft to turn it back.
yards. 2d Mar Div, holding coastal sector from Pt IRAQAmericans take exclusive jurisdiction over
Cruz to Hill 66, is to maintain contact with N flank port of Khorramshahr, where first U.S. troops ar-
of 25th Div. rived in December 1942.
NEW G UINEA Advance elements of Aus 18th
Brig (2/9th Bn and brig hq) and 4 tanks of Aus
2/6th Armd Regt reach Soputa. Additional tanks 8 January
and arty are kept E of the river for some time be- GUADALCANAL Gen Collins issues FO I to 25th
cause of poor road conditions. As preliminary to Div concerning coming offensive. 35th Inf moves
allout offensive against Sanananda, 127th Inf starts secretly up Mt Austen toward line of departure.
NW along coast toward Tarakena. NEW GUINEACOS A, C, and F of 127th Inf
NW A FRICA U.S. Fifth Army is activated un- overrun Tarakena. 163d Inf begins offensive to
der Lt Gen Mark W. Clark, with hq at Oujda, clear road to Sanananda: 1st Bn attacks 2 enemy
Morocco. (The army was previously constituted, perimeters located between Musket and Kano,
effective 1 December 1942, by War Department making limited progress. Allied planes continue
memorandum to CG ETO, dated 8 December 1942, to attack enemy convoy as it unloads some 4,000
which assigned to it I Armd and II Corps. GO 67 reinforcements at Lae.
[ 911 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 83 ]

C HINA In message to President Roosevelt, paignfollowed by aerial bombardment, 27th Inf

Chiang Kai-shek turns down proposal for offensive drives S through 2d Mar Div against Galloping
in spring of 1943. Horse and clears more than half of the objective.
MADAGASCAR Gen Platt, CG Br East African 1st Bn on W, attacks from Hill 66 to objective, N
Command, turns over responsibility for island, ex- part of Hill 57, and establishes patrol contact with
cept for Diego Suarez area, to Gen P. Legentil- 3d Bn to E. From Hill 55, 3d Bn advances 1,600
homme, High Commissioner for French possessions yards toward Hill 53, but is halted by stubborn
in Indian Ocean. opposition on Hill 52, intermediate position. 35th
T UNISIA CCB, U.S. 1st Armd Div, is detached Infs 3d Bn begins envelopment of S flank of Sea
from 5 Corps, Br First Army, and reverts to 1st Horse, omitting preparatory fire, and takes prelimi-
Armd Div. nary objective, a small hill a short distance S of the
USSRGen Rokossovski, commanding Soviet Sea Horse, against scattered opposition. Combat
forces of Don Front, sends ultimatum to Field patrols of 2d Bn move against the Gifu after prepa-
Marshal Paulus calling for surrender of German ratory fire but are unable to make any headway.
6th Army at Stalingrad. Soviet forces seize Zimov- NEW GUINEA COs A and C, 127th Inf, estab-
niki, on StalingradNovorossisk rail line. lish bridgehead across Konombi Creek in Tarakena
area. Action is then suspended temporarily. 1st Bn,
9 January 163d Inf, finds 1 of the 2 enemy positions between
GUADALCANAL XIV Corps Completes prepara- Musket and Kano evacuated. Kano is renamed Fisk
tions for attack on 10th. 25th Div, which is to lead after 1st Lt Harold R. Fisk, 3d Bn, 163d Inf, reaches
off, moves forward to line of departure. 27th Inf, front.
on div right (N), takes up positions for assault on L IBYA Gen Montgomery briefs assault forces
hill mass called Galloping Horse, between NW and of Br Eighth Army on projected drive through
SW forks of the Matanikau. 35th Inf, on left, pre- Buerat line to Tripoli, which must be accomplished
pares to make main effort against Hills 43 and 44, within 10 days, beginning on 15th, to avoid supply
called Sea Horse, lying between the Gifu and Gal- difficulties.
loping Horse, while exerting pressure against the USSRSince ultimatum of 8th has not brought
Gifu. 3d Bn, followed by 1st, completes wide cir- about surrender of German 6th Army at Stalingrad,
cling movement about S flank of the Gifu to line of Soviet forces with strong arty and mortar support
departure for attack on the Sea Horse. 2d Bn and are attacking to destroy it. Field Marshal Paulus is
Cav Rcn Tr take up positions about eastern part of holding out in order to cover withdrawal of endan-
the Gifu, relieving 132d Inf of Americal Div. gered German spearheads from the Caucasus to
Americal Div ( ) holds perimeter defense. Capt Rostov.
Beachs 147th Inf TF lands at Beaufort Bay and
establishes beach defenses. 11 January
N EW G UINEA Enemy fire prevents 127th Inf G UADALCANAL 3d Bn Of 27th Inf, 25th Div,
from establishing bridgehead across Konombi Creek continues attack on Galloping Horse but is again
in Tarakena area. Relief of elements of 126th Inf, unable to take Hill 53. Stiff opposition coupled with
now greatly depleted in strength, is completed on insufficient drinking water make action on this front
Sanananda front. While 1st Bn, 163d Inf, contin- very difficult. 3d Bn, 35th Inf, completes circle about
ues efforts to reduce the 2 enemy pockets between the Gifu with capture of Sea Horse, where it is forced
Musket and Kano, 2d Bn establishes position, called to rely on air supply until boat line can be completed.
Rankin after Capt Pinkney R. Rankin, astride 3d Bn of 182d Inf, Americal Div, attached to 35th
Killerton trail W of Musket, isolating enemy in track Inf, closes gap between Galloping Horse and Sea
junction. Japanese convoy departs from Lae early in Horse. 2d Bn, 35th Inf, continues to meet heavy
morning shadowed by Allied planes. As result of fire from the Gifu as it probes the position with com-
recent attacks on the convoy, 2 transports have been bat patrols. Capt Beachs 147th Inf force, less ele-
sunk and about 80 planes destroyed. ments holding beachhead, starts march to Vurai, SW
of Kokumbona, to block this escape route from
10 January NEW GUINEASmall Aus Kanga Force begins 3-
G UADALCANAL 25th Div, reinf, begins largest day raid on Mubo, during which considerable dam-
and final offensive to clear Guadalcanal, immediate age is inflicted on enemy.
objectives being Galloping Horse, Sea Horse, and T UNISIA 6th Armd Div of 5 Corps, Br First
the Gifu strongpoint. After 1/2 -hour arty prepara- Army, improves positions in local attack N of Bou
tionfirst divisional TOT concentration of the cam- Arada.
[ 84 ] [ 1215 JANUARY 1942 ]

USSRAs Germans continue withdrawal from GUADALCANAL In costal sector, 8th Marines of
the Caucasus, Soviet forces occupy Pyatigorsk, 2d Mar Div is still unable to advance because of fire
Georgievsk, and Mineralnye Vody. from ravine W of Hills 80 and 81. 6th Marines re-
places 2d Marines on div left flank. CO C of 35th
Inf, 25th Div, continues vain efforts to advance W,
12 January but patrols discover route around enemys right
A LEUTIAN I S .Small U.S. Army force under flank. Depleted 2d Bn, reinf by AT Co, continues
command of Brig Gen Lloyd E. Jones lands on fruitless efforts to reduce the Gifu strongpoint. Capt
Amchitka without opposition. Beachs 74th Inf force reaches Vurai; moves forward
G UADALCANAL 27th Inf, 25th Div, continues to Tapananja, about 6 miles S of Sealark Channel,
attack on Galloping Horse, replacing 3d Bn with when patrols find Vurai area free of enemy; estab-
2d, and makes limited progress toward Hill 53. CO lishes outposts on upper Poha. Japanese land about
C, 35th Inf, starts W toward corps objective along 600 replacements near Cape Esperance to cover with-
ridge SW of Sea Horse but is soon halted by enemy drawal of forces from Guadalcanal.
fire. Efforts of 2d Bn to break through the Gifu are N EW G UINEA Gen Vasey, Aus 7th Div CG,
frustrated by strong resistance. launches offensive to intercept enemy withdrawal
N EW G UINEA After arty preparation, 2 bns of from trail junction. While 163d Inf pushes S to block
Aus 18th Brig, with tank support, attack enemy escape routes, Aus 18th Brig quickly clears enemy
positions at trail junction; 163d Inf supports as- remnants from the junction and joins forces with
sault with feints from Musket and Rankin. Japa- 163d Inf on Sanananda and Killerton trails. Final
nese AT fire soon disables tanks, but Australians mop up is left to Aus 2/7th Cav and 39th and 49th
continue battle, progressing slowly at great cost. Bns.
Japanese begin withdrawing from the junction, L IBYA30 Corps, Br Eighth Army, moves for-
night 1213 ward in preparation for assault on Buerat line and
USSRSoviet forces of Leningrad and Volkhov drive on Tripoli.
Fronts launch limited offensive, supported by air
and arty, to raise siege of Leningrad.
15 January
GUADALCANAL 2d Mar Div continues to make
13 January slow progress in coastal sector, despite use of tanks
POAGen Harmon activates U.S. Thirteenth and a flame thrower. Co B of 35th Inf, reinf by pla-
Air Force under Brig Gen Nathan F. Twining, with toon of Co, D, takes over westward attack from Co
hq at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. C. After 1/2-hour arty concentration followed by MG
G UADALCANAL XIV Corps offensive broadens and mortar fire, Co B outflanks enemy position
as 2d Mar Div begins coastal attack from line Pt barring advance and finds it to be a bivouac area
CruzHill 66, to right of 25th Div. 8th Marines, held by a single platoon. Enemy positions in the Gifu
on right, attempts to advance W From Hills 80 and remain practically intact despite further efforts of
81 but is halted by enemy fire. 2d Marines advances 2d Bn, 35th Inf, to reduce them. Surrender request
800 yards W from Hill 66. 27th Inf, 25th Div, com- is broadcast to Japanese in the Gifu.
pletes capture of Galloping Horse with reduction NEW GUINEAPreparations are made for allout
of Hill 53 by 2d Bn. Americans now hold 4,500- offensive to clear Sanananda area. Lt Col Merle H.
yard front extending S from Pt Cruz over Hill 66 Howe, 3d Div G3, takes command of Urbana Force,
to Hills 57 and 55. CO C, 35th Inf, is again halted which is to renew drive W along coast. Aus 18th Brig
by enemy fire from SW as it endeavors to push W. moves N along Killerton trail, passing through Rankin,
2d Bn makes negligible progress against pillboxes in preparation for drive to coast. 2d Bn of 163d Inf
of the Gifu strongpoint. the Rankin forcethen follows Australians northward
NEW GUINEAGen Eichelberger assumes duties and takes over trail junction E of a coconut plantation
of Commander, Advance New Guinea Force, and about 1 1/2 miles N of Rankin perimeter. On Soputa
takes control of all Aus and U.S. troops. Gen Her- Sanananda road, 1st Bn of 163d Inf envelops enemy
ring commands New Guinea Force. pocket remaining between Musket and Fisk, elements
infiltrating to attack from inside the perimeter.
L IBYA Br Eighth Army opens drive on Trip-
14 January oli, moving forward in 3 columnsthose on right
I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES 10-day Anglo- and in center under personal command of Gen
American conference opens at Anfa, near Casablanca, Montgomery; outf lanking force on left under 30
Morocco, to plan Allied strategy for 1943. Corps command. 7th Armd Div and NZ 2d Div,
[ 1618 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 85 ]

the enveloping force, drive enemy back to Wadi 17 January

Zem Zem. Coastal advance by 51st Div begins at GUADALCANAL 8th Marines, 2d Mar Div, upon
2230 and meets little opposition. 22d Armd Brig clearing ravine W of Hills 80 and St and moving
moves forward in center prepared to assist wherever forward to positions abreast 6th Marines, withdraws
needed. from line to perimeter defense. Coastal attack, which
has gained almost a mile beyond Pt Cruz since 13th,
16 January is to be continued by 182d Inf on left and 6th Ma-
GUADALCANAL CG XIV Corps orders a second rines on right. 182d Inf (less 3d Bn) moves into CAM
co-ordinated westward offensive in order to extend Div line. After ineffective broadcast calling for Gifu
positions through Kokumbona to Poha R; forms garrison to surrender, 2d Bn of 35th Inf, 25th Div,
Composite Army-Marine Div (CAM) (consisting of pulls back while 2 1/2-hour arty concentration is
6th Marines, 182d and 147th Inf Regts, and 2d placed on the strongpoint, then returns to previous
Marine and Americal Div arty units) to drive W on positions. Since darkness is approaching rapidly,
3,000-yard front in coastal sector while 25th Div ground attack is withheld. 27th Inf, 25th Div, which
attacks SW on corps S flank to envelop enemys S is to conduct holding action during corps coming
flank. In 35th Inf sector, Co B, reinf, advances W offensive while 161st Inf makes main effort, begins
to corps objective, some 1,500 yards W of the Sea forward movement. Co C, with light MG section
Horse, without opposition, gaining positions on attached, takes up positions on ridge SW of Hill 66,
precipice overlooking SW fork of the Matanikau. called Snake.
2d Bn commander decides to make double envelop- NEW G UINEA Advance elements of Aus 17th
ment attack against the Gifu on 17th and sends ele- Brig are flown to Wan. Brig M. J. Moten, CG Aus
ments from Hill 27 to Hill 42 to attack from NW as 17th Brig, takes command of Kanga Force. Aus 18th
other forces drive N from Hill 27. Brig continues to clear coastal region between Wye
NEW GUINEA After preparatory bombardment, Pt and Giruwa. Sanananda Village and Pt are over-
assault against enemy in Sanananda area opens. On run, but enemy retains positions W and S of
left, Aus 18th Brig drives quickly along Killerton trail Sanananda and in outskirts of Giruwa. On Soputa
to coast and clears broad coastal strip from Cape Sanananda road, 163d Inf probes enemy defenses N
Killerton to outskirts of Sanananda Village. On of Fisk. 127th Inf, replacing 1st Bn with 2d, contin-
SoputaSanananda road, 1st Bn of 163d Inf, hav- ues W along coastal road toward Giruwa, handi-
ing been relieved of task of clearing enemy pocket capped by extremely difficult and skillfully defended
by 3d Bn, attacks N, bypassing strongpoint immedi- terrain. 3d Bn pushes S along Konombi Creek and
ately ahead to gain position some 400 yards W of encounters enemy outpost.
road. 3d Bn finishes clearing pocket between Mus- LIBYABr Eighth Army pursues enemy W toward
ket and Fisk. From trail junction E of the coconut Tripoli, hampered by desert terrain as well as mines
plantation, 2d Bn of 163d Inf hacks its way SE to and demolitions. Coastal forces reach positions 10
SoputaSanananda road about 1,000 yards behind miles from Misurata. S column reaches Beni Ulid.
enemys main line and makes contact with 1st Bn ALGERIA U.S. II Corps TF SATIN moves forward
and Aus 18th Brig. Attacking toward Sanananda in preparation for drive on Sfax, but the operation
from E, 1st Bn of 127th Inf makes negligible progress is canceled.
along coastal road. USSRRed Army extends its hold on
IRAQDeclares war on Germany, Italy, and Ja- VoronezhRostov RR with capture of Millerovo.
L IBYABr Eighth Army, having passed through
enemys main positions at Buerat, pushes energeti- 18 January
cally toward Tripoli, coastal force reaching Churgia GUADALCANAL Americans gain continuous line
and enveloping force crossing Wadi Zem Zem. from Hill 53 northward to coast at point some 1,500
USSRSoviet forces of Voronezh front, having yards W of Pt Cruz. CAM Div continues W on N
opened offensive S of Voronezh several days earlier, flank of XIV Corps with 6th Marines on right and
are W of the Don at Rossosh, on VoronezhRostov 182d Inf on left. In 25th Div sector, 2d Bn of 35th
RR, where Italian forces are routed. On Stalingrad Inf throws tight cordon about the Gifu and begins
front, progress is being made in reduction of trapped attack on it from NW.
German 6th Army. NEW GUINEA Japanese, although facing certain
G ERMANY RAF bombers attack Berlin, night defeat, continue to offer last-ditch resistance on
1617, using target-indicator bombs for first time. Sanananda front. Australians are stubbornly op-
This is the first raid on Berlin since 7 November posed near Sanananda and Giruwa. 163d Inf works
1941. on formidable bunker positions astride Soputa
[ 86 ] [ 1920 JANUARY 1942 ]

Sanananda road N of Fisk. 127th Inf, with Cos G L IBYA Continuing toward Tripoli, Br Eighth
and F in the lead, continues W along coast against Army regains contact with enemy. Coastal force
weakening resistance and gains 300 yards. reaches Homs while column on left presses toward
BURMA Ind 47th Brig opens attack on Japanese Tarhuna. 22d Armd Brig, in reserve at Zliten, pre-
positions at Donbaik but can make little headway. pares to drive through 51st Divthe coastal force.
Ind 123d Brig remains near Rathedaung but is T UNISIA As German offensive continues to
threatened from the E as Japanese in Kaladan Val- press Fr 19th Corps back toward Rebaa Oulad
ley skirmish in Kyauktaw area with elements protect- Yahia, Br First Army refuses its S flank to con-
ing flank. form with Fr withdrawal. Br and U.S. reinforce-
L IBYABr Eighth Army continues to pursue en- ments are sent forward, to come under Fr command
emy toward Tripoli but loses contact because of ter- upon arrival: 36th Brig Gp of Br 8th Div is given
rain and obstacles. Gen Montgomery orders pursuit mission of interdicting road to Rebaa; CCB, U.S.
accelerated and continued day and night. 1st Armd Div, moves N from Sbetla to Maktar,
TUNISIACol Gen Jurgen von Arnim, NEW Axis night 1920.
commander in Tunisia, opens offensive to restore USSRSoviet troops seize rail junction of
Tunis bridgehead line by recovering ground lost to Valuiki, NE of Kharkov, and Kamensk, N of Rostov
French on 1213 January and then seizing control on rail line to Voronezh.
of passes W of Kairouan.
On Br First Army front, 6th Armd Div of 5 Corps 20 January
contains tank-infantry thrust down Bou Arada Val- C HILE Severs relations with Germany, Italy,
ley at junction of Br and Fr sectors. Main enemy and Japan.
attack, in which the NEW Mark VI Tiger tank G UADALCANAL 3d Bn of 147th Inf (less Co I
participates, forces Fr 19th Corps back on N flank and plus Co C) begins moving into CAM Div line
and reaches road leading SW to Rebaa Oulad Yahia. between 6th Marines and 182d Inf. Div attack halts
U.S. 1st Armd Div ( ) is placed under U.S. II Corps to await completion of this move. Gen Collins is-
command. sues orders to 25th Div for offensive on 22d. 161st
USSRSoviet forces of Leningrad and Volkhov Inf, upon assembling in S part of Galloping Horse,
Fronts have reopened land communications with moves 2d Bn forward to Hill X, SW of Galloping
Leningrad, isolated since fall of 1941, and hold cor- Horse. 1st Bn of 27th Inf patrols toward Hill 87,
ridor 10 miles wide to it in region S of Lake Ladoga. meeting enemy fire upon approaching it. 2d Bn,
In the Caucasus, Red Army troops along the Manych 35th Inf, continues reduction of the Gifu.
take Divnoe while Soviet units along the Kuban over- NEW GUINEA Aus 18th Brig continues to clear
run Cherkessk. coastal region W of Sanananda, N part of Soputa
Sanananda road, and outskirts of Giruwa. 163d Inf
19 January battles the 3 pockets astride SoputaSanananda
GUADALCANAL 182d Inf, On CAM Div left, has road. 127th Inf drives W along coast to within sight
gained slightly more than 1,000 yards since enter- of Giruwa.
ing line on 17th, but gap exists between it and 6th L IBYA Br Eighth Army presses more slowly
Marines. 147th Inf, upon relief at Koh Pt by Americal westward toward Homs-Tarhuna area as enemy
Rcn Sq, moves to Pt Cruz area. Japanese in the Gifu resistance stiffens.
strongpoint are beginning to weaken under blows TUNISIA Enemy continues down Rebaa Valley
of 2d Bn of 35th Inf, 25th Div. to Rebaa Oulad Yahia; upon gaining entrance to
NEW GUINEA Gen Yamagata withdraws from Ousseltia Valley, which parallels Rebaa Valley, shifts
Sanananda front by launch after issuing orders for main weight of attack there and reaches Ousseltia.
general withdrawal westward through Allied lines on Many Fr 19th Corps troops are isolated in moun-
20th. Gen Oda and Col Kiyomi Yazawa are killed tains to E. Gen Alphonse Juin places CCB, U.S. 1st
while trying to escape after nightfall. Australians Armd Div, under command of Gen Louis-Marie
reduce enemy position immediately S of Sanananda Koeltz, CG Fr 19th Corps, who orders it to Ousseltia
but are still held up along coast W of Sanananda Valley. Gen Eisenhower, having decided against Op-
and in outskirts of Giruwa. Japanese along Soputa eration S ATIN by U.S. II Corps, issues directive pre-
Sanananda road, now compressed into 3 pockets, scribing that S flank remain on the defensive and
withstand intensified efforts of 163d Inf to dislodge that as much as possible of II Corps be held in mo-
them. 127th Inf advances steadily westward along bile reserve.
coast toward Giruwa. USSRTroops of Gen Yeremenkos South Front
B URMA Ind 47th Brig continues attack on (previously called St alingrad Front) capture
Donbaik but is unable to reduce enemy positions. Proletarskaya, an StalingradNovorossisk RR; some
[ 2123 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 87 ]

elements then force the Manych while others pro- terrain than by enemy. 147th Inf seizes Hill 95. 182d
ceed toward mouth of the Donets. Inf makes contact with 27th Inf of 25th Div N of
Hill 88. On corps S flank, 25th Div attacks toward
21 January Hill 87. 1st Bn, 27th Inf, with role of conducting
holding action while 2d Bn, 161st Inf, envelops
GUADALCANAL XIV Corps completes prepara- enemys S flank, moves forward from Snake and
tions for offensive on 22d. 2d Bn of 161st Inf, 25th quickly takes Hill 87, days objective, from which
Div, advances to Hill Y, SW of Hill X, where oppo- enemy has withdrawn; continuing attack, also seizes
sition is negligible. 3d Bn, 27th Inf, moves forward Hills 88 and 89 by 1035. To exploit this advantage,
to Snake to follow 1st Bnmain assault force div boundary is altered and 27th Inf is ordered to
turning over position on Hill 57 to 2d Bn. Action continue as rapidly as possible toward Kokumbona.
against the Gifu is continued by 2d Bn, 35th Inf. By 1700, 27th Inf holds heights just E and S of
NEW GUINEA Aus and U.S. troops effect junc- Kokumbona (Hills 90 and 98). 2d Bn, 161st Inf,
tions along coast E of Sanananda and on Soputa the enveloping force, advances slowly through
Sanananda road. 127th Inf column drives through jungle from Hill Y to Hill 87. 2d Bn, 35th Inf, as-
Giruwa virtually unopposed to join Australians just sisted by a tank, forces 200-yard gap in N part of
W of the village. In afternoon AUS 2/9th and the Gifu strongpoint; repels final enemy counter-
2/10th Bns launch 3-pronged attack on enemy posi- attack, night 2223.
tions along coast W of Sanananda and clear all ex- N EW G UINEA Papua Campaign ends in deci-
cept small pocket. Aus 2/12th Bn, clearing south- sive defeat of Japanese. This is the first victory of
ward along Soput aSanananda road from the war against Japanese on land. Organized resis-
Sanananda Village, makes contact with 2d Bn of tance on Sanananda front collapses as Aus 18th
163d Inf. 163d reduces 2 of the 3 pockets on Soputa Brig eliminates last small pocket on coast W of
Sanananda road and in the course of the day kills Sanananda and 163d Inf finishes clearing Soputa
more than 500 Japanese. Sanananda road. Cost to each side has been heavy.
L IBYA Br Eighth Army continues to press W Of the estimated force of 16,000 committed by en-
toward Tripoli, 51st Div overcoming resistance in emy in Papua, about 7,000 are buried by Allied
Corradini area. Learning that enemy has strength- forces; prisoners, for the large part Korean and Chi-
ened Tarhuna at expense of Horns front, Gen Mont- nese, total some 350. Aus troops sustain approxi-
gomery decides to make main effort along coast. mately 5,700 casualties and U.S. forces 2,788.
TUNISIA Gen Eisenhower gives Gen K. A. N. Battle-weary 126th Inf is withdrawn from zone of
Anderson, CG Br First Army, responsibility for co- combat.
ordinating operations of Br, Fr, and U.S. forces. Maj L IBYA Passing through 51st Div of Br Eighth
Gen Laurence S. Kuter, USAAF, is assigned to Gen Army, 22d Armd Brig continues coastal drive on
K. A. N. Andersons hq as executive air commander Tripoli, reaching positions beyond Castelverde,
with mission of co-ordinating air action. CCB, U.S. while S column advances to within 17 miles of
1st Armd Div, with strong arty and air support, be- Tripoli.
gins attack in late afternoon to drive enemy back in TUNISIA Allied attack to clear Ousseltia Valley
Ousseltia Valley and makes considerable progress is halted by strong opposition.
until halted by darkness. USSRSoviet forces of Voronezh Front open
USSRVoroshilovsk, E of Armavir, falls to assault on Voronezh. Troops of South Front over-
Red Army. run Salsk, on StalingradNovorossisk rail line at its
U.K.CCS directive regarding bomber opera- junction with line to Rostov. German 6th Army re-
tions from U.K. relieves VIII Bomber Command to mains under attack at Stalingrad; Berlin admits So-
a large extent of necessity of supporting N African viet penetration of positions from W.
23 January
22 January I N T E R N AT I O N A L C O N F E R E N C E S Casablanca
G UADALCANAL XIV Corps Opens final offen- Conference to determine strategy for 1943 ends,
sive toward the Poha R at 0630. Assault troops are conferees having agreed: to continue assault against
supported by arty, air, and naval gunfire. CAM Div Germany, upon completion of Tunisian campaign,
pushes W toward heights SE of Kokumbona (Hills with conquest of Sicily (HUSKY ) in July or possibly
99 and 98) with elements of 3 regts in assault. 6th June of 1943; to give high priority to a combined
Marines, advancing along coast, is stopped by en- bomber offensive against the European continent
emy fire from ravine W of Hill 94. 147th Inf in from the U.K.; to advance toward the Philippines
center and 182d on left are hampered more by through Central and SW Pacific; to build up U.S.
[ 88 ] [ 2427 JANUARY 1942 ]

air forces in CBI and mount A NAKIM In fall of 1943, Div, U.S. II Corps, moving forward from Gafsa,
diverting U.S. landing craft and naval forces from conducts successful raid on Sened Station and re-
the Pacific to assist; and to terminate hostilities only tires to Gafsa as planned.
upon unconditional surrender of enemy.
G UADALCANAL XIV Corps makes substantial 25 January
progress, overrunning Kokumbona and pocketing G UADALCANAL XIV Corps, in FO 2, directs
enemy remaining E of the Poha in ravine E of Hill CAM Div to pass through 25th Div at Poha R and
99, between CAM and 25th Divs. Continuing W pursue enemy, now in full retreat. 25th Div, con-
in coastal sector, CAM Div reaches Hill 91 on S tinuing advance with 2d and 3d Bns of 27th Inf,
and to N takes Hill 92. In 25th Div zone, 27th Infs upon relief of 3d by 6th Marines on Hills 98 and
3d Bn drives N to coast, taking Hills 98 and 99; 99, reaches the Poha on right and secures Hills 105
1st Bn seizes Kokumbona in 2-pronged attack; 2d and 106 on left. 161st Inf protects corps S flank.
Bn, on S flank, pushes NW to Hill 100. 2d Bn, NEW GUINEA Maj Gen Horace H. Fuller, CG
35th Inf, meets only slight resistance as it finishes first Div, takes operational control of all Allied
clearing the Gifu, ending all Japanese resistance on troops in Oro Bay-Gona area. Aus 7th Div and U.S.
Mt Austen. 32d Div troops are relieved gradually during Janu-
L IBYABr Eighth Army columns drive into Tri- ary and flown to Port Moresby; from there they are
poli from E and S and secure the port. moved to Australia by sea.
TUNISIA Fr 19th Corps, helped by Br and U.S. L IBYA Br Eighth Army, employing 7th Armd
units, stabilizes positions on general line Bou Arada Div in pursuit of enemy to Tunisia, reaches Zavia.
Djebel BargouDjebel Bou Dabouss. Enemy breaks T UNISIA Gen K. A. N. Anderson, CG Br First
off attack and consolidates newly won positions. Army, becomes responsible for all Allied forces in
Elements of U.S. 1st Div join CCB, U.S. 1st Armd Tunisia as Gen Giraud agrees to place Fr 19th
Div, and are temporarily attached to CCB in prepa- Corps under his command. Benito Mussolini des-
ration for attack on 24th to recover Kairouan Pass. ignates Gen Giovanni Messe to succeed Field Mar-
Isolated Fr forces in hills E of Ousseltia Valley with- shal Rommel, commander of German-Italian Panzer
draw to positions S of Ousseltia covered by CCB, Army, who is to be withdrawn because of protracted
U.S. 1st Armd Div. U.S. II Corps constitutes CCC, service and ill health, but the shift does not take
U.S. 1st Armd Div, and gives it task of raiding Sened place for some time. In Fr 19th Corps sector, CCB
Station. of U.S. 1st Armd Div and elements of U.S. 1st Inf
USSRRed Army troops penetrate into Div, under command of Col Stark, CO RCT 26,
Voronezh and begin clearing the town. Armavir, on begin clearing rear-guard resistance from Ousseltia
BakuRostov RR, falls to other Soviet forces. Valley.
USSRRed Army completes capture of
24 January Voronezh.
ALEUTIAN IS.Enemy begins series of minor air
raids on Amchitka. 26 January
GUADALCANAL Continuing W in coastal sector, GUADALCANAL 25th Div, after 2d and 3d Bns
CAM Div reaches Hills 98 and 99 and gains contact of 27th Inf establish contact and are passed through
with 25th Div. 25th Div, upon being resupplied, at Poha R line by CAM Div, is withdrawn to guard
begins drive toward the Poha. 2d Bn, 27th Inf, at- airfields since there are indications of an enemy at-
tacks W from Kokumbona at 1300 and reaches Hill tempt to recover Lunga perimeter. 161st Inf, its mis-
102 on right and 103 on left. sion unchanged, passes to control of XIV Corps.
T UNISIA Implementing order of 21st for Gen CAM Div, with 6th Marines and 182d Inf abreast,
K. A. N. Anderson to co-ordinate efforts of the 3 former on right, pushes forward from the Poha about
Allied nations, U.S. II Corps is attached to Br First 1,000 yards against light resistance.
Army. Gen Juin agrees to place Fr 19th Corps un- T U N I S I A Fr 19th Corps attacks to regain
der Br First Army upon approval by Gen Giraud. Kairouan Pass in Ousseltia Valley.
Gen K. A. N. Anderson subsequently directs U.S. USSRRussians report substantial gains against
II Corps to take command of all ground troops S German pocket at Stalingrad, where defenses have
of line MorsottThalaSbiba (all exclusive) Djebel been penetrated.
TrozzaFondoukSidi Amor el Kenani (all inclu-
sive), and N of line from the salt marshes (chotts)
to Gabs. Full-scale Allied assault northward in Ous- 27 January
seltia Valley is canceled. Germans order attack on G UADALCANAL CAM Div, in 2,000-yard ad-
Fad Pass as soon as possible. CCC of U.S. 1st Armd vance, reaches Nueha R.
[ 2831 JANUARY 1942 ] [ 89 ]

B URMA Royal Ind Navy launch sinks large R mouth but pulls back under fire from W bank; 3d
Japanese launch loaded with Japanese troops in Bn, on left, is halted by enemy 1,000 yards E of the
Mayu R. Bonegi.
L IBYA Br Eighth Armys 7th Armd Div con- NEW GUINEA Aus Kanga Force, which is being
tinues to pursue enemy toward Tunisia and meets reinf by air, decisively defeats Japanese at Wau and
stiffening resistance near Zuara. forces them to begin retreating.
GERMANY U.S. Eighth Air Force makes first air TUNISIA In Br First Army area, Germans attack
attack on Germany, bombing docks at Wilhelms- Fad Pass and overrun it, forcing French back to Sidi
haven. Bou Zid. U.S. II Corps sends CCA, 1st Armd Div,
from Sbetla area to help defend Fad, but the com-
28 January bat command arrives too late. CCC starts NE from
Gafsa toward Sidi Bou ZidMaknassy road. CCD,
G UADALCANAL CAM Div continues W from with 1st Bn of RCT 168, U.S. 34th Div, attached,
Nueha R, eliminating sniper nests. moves toward Maknassy. RCT 168 is concentrating
NEW GUINEA Japanese make their last attempt in Tbessa area.
at an overland drive on Port Moresby, striking at Wau USSRRail junction of Tikhoretsk, S of Rostov,
where Australians of Kanga Force offer lively delay- falls to Red Army, cutting main line of retreat of
ing opposition until rest of Aus 17th Brig can be German Army Group A from Novorossisk area. Other
flown in during next few days. Soviet forces regain oil center of Maikop. German
CHINAT. V. Soong, Gen Chen Cheng, and Gen Army Group Don is no longer an effective fighting
Stilwell reach agreement upon program to train and body, having become separated from Army Group A
equip 30-division Chinese force in Yunnan. during northward withdrawal.
T UNISIA Fr 19th Corps continues to clear GERMANY RAF Mosquitoes make daylight at-
Ousseltia Valley, gaining control of W exit and half tack on Berlin during celebration of tenth anniver-
the length of Kairouan Pass. CCB, U.S. 1st Armd sary of Hitlers assumption of power.
Div, is detached from corps; during night 2829,
moves to Bou Chebka. RCT 26 (less one bn) of U.S.
1st Div, ordered to Sbetla, breaks off action with 31 January
enemy in afternoon. U.S. units remaining with
French in Ousseltia Valley are 2d Bn, 26th Inf; 1st GUADALCANAL147th Inf, with arty and naval
and 3d Bns of 16th Inf; 7th FA Bn; battery of 33d gunfire support, attempts to cross the Bonegi. Stiff
FA Bn; TD co; and bn of engrs. U.S. 1st Div (RCTs resistance at river mouth prevents 1st Bn from cross-
16, 18, 26) begins move from Guelma (Algeria) into ing, but 3d Bn crosses about 2,500 yards inland from
Fr 19th Corps sector. Tassafaronga Pt. Small party from 147th Inf sails
USSRSoviet forces seize Kasternoe, rail junc- from Beaufort Bay to Lavoro to outpost Titi area in
tion between Voronezh and Kursk. preparation for landing by 2d Bn of 132d Inf, reinf,
Americal Div; 6 of the party go ashore and suggest
by radio that landing be made at Nugu Pt. 2d Bn of
29 January 132d Inf sails from Kukum for Nugu Pt at 1800. 2d
GUADALCANAL CG XIV Corps detaches 147th and 8th Marines, 2d Mar Div, sail from Guadalcanal
Inf from CAM Div. 147th, reinf by pack howitzers for New Zealand.
of 2d Bn, 10th Marines, and Battery A of 9th FA NEW GUINEA Australians place arty fire on en-
Bn, under command of Brig Gen Alphonse De emy in Wau area with good effect.
Carre, is ordered to pass through 6th Marines and LIBYA7th Armd Div of Br Eighth Army finishes
continue drive along coast to Cape Esperance. 182d clearing Zuara, near Tunisian border.
Inf reverts to control of Americal Div. TUNISIA Fr 19th Corps troops, Br First Army,
TUNISIA U.S. 1st Div () is placed under com- are being withdrawn for rest and rehabilitation.
mand of Fr 19th Corps to help defend Ousseltia U.S. 1st Div takes control of Ousseltia Valley area.
Valley. CCB, U.S. 1st Armd Div, reverts to U.S. II In Rebaa Valley, 36th Brig of Br 78th Div repels
Corps. tank-infantry attacks near Sidi Said, N of Rebaa
USSRKropotkin, on BakuRostov rail line, Oulad Yahia, destroying 5 tanks of which 2 are
falls to Soviet forces. Tigers. In U.S. II Corps area, CCA of 1st Armd
Div begins action to regain Fad Pass, but attack
fails; CCC, continuing toward Eastern Dorsal, is
30 January ordered to join CCD in effort against Maknassy;
G UADALCANAL 147th Inf takes up pursuit of CCD moves from Gafsa with task of seizing Sened
enemy westward. 1st Bn, on beach, reaches Bonegi Station and then reducing enemy positions near
[ 90 ] [ 14 FEBRUARY 1942 ]

Maknassy, but is subjected to demoralizing air 2 February

attack and cannot be formed for assault. GUADALCANAL 1st Bn, 147th Inf, succeeds in
M IDDLE E AS T Gen Brereton becomes com- crossing Bonegi R at its mouth and makes contact
mander of USAFIME, succeeding Gen Andrews, with 3d Bn S of Tassafaronga Pt. 2d Bn of 132d Inf,
who is to command U.S. forces in ETO. Americal Div, begins advance northward along coast
from Verahue, main body reaching Titi.
TUNISIA In Br First Armys U.S. II Corps area,
1 February 1st Armd Div hq opens at Sbetla; CCD drives to
G UADALCANAL Command of western pursuit ridge E of Sened, where it digs in and repels coun-
passes from Gen De Carre to Gen Sebree. 1st Bn terattack.
of 147th Inf, assisted by arty and naval gunfire, USSRFinal resistance of German 6th Army at
again attempts unsuccessfully to cross Bonegi R Stalingrad ends, concluding epic struggle that has
mouth but forces enemy rear guards from E bank. turned the tide against the Axis. Action in other
2d Bn of 132d Inf, Americal Div, makes unop- sectors is unabated as Red Army endeavors to drive
posed landing at Verahue, to rear of enemy in enemy as tar W as possible before spring thaw sets
Cape Esperance area. During night 12, Japanese in. Immediate objectives are key positions of Rostov,
begin evacuation of forces by sea from Cape Kharkov, and Kursk.
N EW G UINEA Co G of 163d Inf, U.S. 41st 3 February
Div, starts NW along coast toward Kumusi R GUADALCANAL147th Inf establishes line extend-
mouth. ing S from Tassafaronga Pt and patrols to Umasani
CBIGenerals Arnold and Somervell and Field R. 2d Bn, 132d Inf, patrols northward toward Cape
Marshal Sir John Dill open conferences in New Esperance as far as Kamimbo Bay.
Delhi with Field Marshal Wavell and Gen Stilwell N EW G UINEA After heavy arty preparation,
to prepare detailed plans for ANAKIM for submission Kanga Force counterattacks from Wau to drive en-
to Chiang Kai-shek. During the conferences agree- emy back to Mubo and makes steady progress.
ment is reached upon a series of operations, ulti- BURMA On Arakan front, Ind 123d Brig unsuc-
mate objective of which is to recapture Burma in cessfully attacks Rathedaung.
order to attack Japan from China. Main effort would T UNISIA In Br First Armys U.S. II Corps area,
begin in November 1943, CCD of 1st Armd Div continues attack toward
BURMAInd 55th Brig, which has relieved Ind Maknassy until directed to withdraw; disengages
47th Brig, attacks enemys Donbaik positions but is and withdraws through Gafsa toward Bou Chebka,
no more successful than 47th had been: Of 6 sup- where it passes into corps reserve. CCB arrives at
porting tanks, 2 are knocked out by AT fire and 2 Maktar and is held in Br First Army reserve. 1st
others are abandoned. Armd Div ( ) defends region from Fondouk Gap
T UNISIA In Br First Armys U.S. II Corps area, to Maizila Pass, CCC covering N sector from point
CCA of 1st Armd Div continues attack toward Fad N of Djebel Trozza to vicinity of Sidi Bou Zid and
Pass after very heavy arty preparation but makes CCA covering area to S as far as Djebel Meloussi.
little progress. Fr units and CCA then organize First Rcn Bn is held in 1st Armd Div reserve at
defense positions and remain in place to await re- Sbetla.
inforcements. Br First Army cancels projected at- USSRContinuing toward Rostov, Soviet
tack on Maknassy because of enemy threat W of forces take rail junction of Kushchevkaya. Other
Kairouan. II Corps, protecting right flank of Al- Red Army troops seize Kupyansk rail junction, SE
lied forces, is to employ CCC and CCD of 1st Armd of Kharkov. Still others cut rail line between Kursk
Div as mobile reserve near Sbetla, although CCD and Orel.
is to secure more favorable defense position 34
miles E of Sened Station first. Brig Gen Ray E.
Porter is to command CCD temporarily, relieving 4 February
Col Robert V. Maraist. CCD, reinf by 1st Bn of GUADALCANAL 147th Inf advances about 1,000
168th Inf, 34th Div, attacks and captures Sened yards westward toward the Umasani against minor
Station. CCC, almost through Maizila Pass, N of opposition. Concentration of 2d Bn, 132d Inf, with
Maknassy, withdraws to Sbetla and thence to its arty, transport, and supplies at Titi is completed.
Hadjeb el Aoun. Japanese withdraw additional forces by sea from
USSRRed Army captures Svatovo, SE of Cape Esperance under cover of darkness.
Kharkov, cutting rail line from Kharkov to Donets N EW G UINEA Japanese, harassed by aircraft,
basin. begin retreating in disorder from Wau area. Pro-
[ 59 FEBRUARY 1942 ] [ 91 ]

longed period of intensive patrolling ensues as 7 February

Kanga Force attempts to intercept and destroy en- G UADALCANAL 161st Inf, 25th Div, crosses
emy groups, remnants of which eventually reach Umasani R and advances NW to Bunina Pt; pa-
Mubo. trols reach Tambalego R. Moving forward from
T UNISIA Br Eighth Army has completed the Titi, 2d Bn of 132d Inf, Americal Div, arrives at
conquest of Tripolitania and crossed into Tunisia, Marovovo. Night 78, Japanese destroyers make
where Rommel is hastily preparing for stand at final run down the Slot to Cape Esperance to
Mareth Line. Enemy rear guards are imposing maxi- evacuate troops.
mum delay as British approach Mareth. C HINA Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, in
ALGERIA Hq, North African Theater of Opera- letter to President Roosevelt, presents enlarged
tions (NATOUSA) is established as a separate com- version of the 3 demands and agrees to take part in
mand under Gen Eisenhower at Algiers. ETO Burma offensive.
boundary is altered to give Spain, Italy, and several TUNISIA In Br First Army area, 1st Ranger Bn
Mediterranean islands to NATOUSA. Gen Andrews arrives at Gafsa by air and is attached to U.S. II
becomes head of ETOUSA. Corps. RCT 168 ( 1st Bn), 34th Div, is attached
USSRRed Army spearheads continue to close to 1st Armd Div.
in rapidly on Rostov, Kharkov, and Kursk. Soviet USSRContinuing toward Rostov, Soviet
commandos land on Black Sea coast near troops take Azov, on Sea of Azov. In the Ukraine,
Novorossisk and are being engaged by German Army Kramatorsk, SE of Kharkov, falls to Red Army. Rus-
Group A, which is almost isolated in Novorossisk sians cut main highway between Kursk and Orel.
Krasnodar region.

5 February 8 February
GUADALCANAL147th Inf activity is limited to GUADALCANAL 161st Inf, 25th Div, overcomes
patrolling. No organized enemy forces are found E light delaying opposition at the Tambalego and pro-
of the Umasani. 2d Bn, 132d Inf, patrols northward ceeds to Doma Cove. Pushing northward from
from Titi. Marovovo, 2d Bn of 132d Inf, Americal Div, reaches
T UNISIA In Br First Army area, 2d Bn of RCT Kamimbo Bay.
16, Fr 19th Corps, joins U.S. 1st Div, to which it A USTRALIA 162d Inf, U.S. 41st Div, sails for
reverts from attachment to 36th Brig of Br 78th New Guinea.
Div. BURMAInd 77th Brig (called Chindits) under
USSRSt Oskol, on rail line SE of Kursk, falls Brig Orde Charles Wingate begins guerrilla warfare
to Soviet troops, as does Izyum, on rail line SE of program behind enemy lines: entering Burma
Kharkov. through 4 Corps front, Chindits advance in 7 col-
umns toward MandalayMyitkyina railway line.
TUNISIA In Br First Armys U.S. II Corps area,
6 February enemy orders attack against Gafsa area with pri-
G UA DA L CA N A L 161st Inf, 25th Div, passes mary purpose of destroying allied forces. 1st Divs
through 147th Inf to continue pursuit of enemy (3d RCT 26 ( 2d and 3d Bns) is released by CCA, 1st
Bn moving along beach and 2d Bn to S) and reaches Armd Div, to corps and moves from Sidi Bou Zid
Umasani R; patrols cross the river. 147th Inf, which to Friana.
moves to rear, is brought to full strength with ar- USSRSoviet columns converge on Kursk and
rival of 2d Bn from Fiji Is. overrun this important enemy base.
NEW GUINEAJapanese planes make belated and
unsuccessful attack on Wau airdrome. In air battles
during day, 24 enemy planes are destroyed and many 9 February
more damaged. No Allied planes are lost. G UA DA L C A N A L Organized resist ance on
TUNISIA In Br First Army area, U.S. 34th Div Guadalcanal ceases at 1625 with junction of 1st Bn
( RCT 168) is attached to Fr 19th Corps. of 161st Inf, 25th Div, and 2d Bn of 132d Inf,
USSROn southern front, one Soviet spear- Americal Div, at village of Tenaro. About 13,000
head is about 5 miles S of Rostov; another takes Japanese (12,000 from 17th Army and the rest naval
Yeisk, on Sea of Azov, completing isolation of Ger- personnel) have made good their escape to Buin and
man Army Group A in triangle YeiskKrasnodar Rabaul.
Novorossisk. Deepening salient in the Ukraine be- T UNISIA Kesselring, Rommel, and von Arnim
low Kharkov, Soviet forces take Lisichansk, on the modify attack plan because Americans are with-
Donets. drawing from Gafsa; von Arnim is to attack Sidi
[ 92 ] [ 1015 FEBRUARY 1942 ]

Bou Zid; Gafsa area is to be attacked later by 2 control of RostovVoronezh rail line with capture
forces under Rommels command. of Novocherkassk and Likhaya.
USSRSoviet troops capture Belgorod, rail
junction on KurskKharkov line.
14 February
10 February T UNISIA In Br First Armys U.S. II Corps area,
enemy begins strong westward push at dawn with
NEW GUINEACo G of 163d Inf, U.S. 41st Div, tanks and infantry supported by arty and dive
reaches Kumusi R mouth and establishes defense bombers. CCA, 1st Armd Div, is forced to fall back
perimeter. toward Sbetla from positions E of Sidi Bou Zid.
TUNISIA In Br First Army area, U.S. II Corps Elements of CCA and attached 168th Inf are iso-
assigns 1st Armd Div responsibility for containing lated on Djebel Lessouda, NE of Sidi Bou Zid,
Axis forces at Fad. and on Djebel Ksaira and Garet Hadid in region
In Br Eighth Army area, heavy rainfall delays op- SE of Sidi Bou Zid. To assist CCA, which suffers
erations against Ben Gardane, main outpost of heavy tank losses, CCC, reinf by 2d Bn of 1st
enemys Mareth positions. Armd Regt of CCB, is released by corps for coun-
USSRN of Rostov, Soviet forces cut terattack on Sidi Bou Zid on 15th. Because of loss
NovocherkasskRostov rail line. Red Army columns of Sidi Bou Zid on N f lank of corps, Fr and U.S.
converging on Kharkov t ake Chuguev and forces (U.S. being 3d Bn of RCT 26, 1st Div, and
Volchansk. 1st Ranger Bn) withdraw from Gafsa to Friana,
night 1415
11 February USSRRed Army occupies Rostov, key com-
TUNISIAIn Br First Army area, RCT 135 of U.S. munication center through which Germans have
34th Div, Fr 19th Corps, begins relief of French in been extricating their forces from the Caucasus.
PichonMaison des Eaux region. In Djebel Rihana Voroshilovgrad, already bypassed by Soviet thrust
area, 2d Bn of RCT 26 is relieved by 2d Bn of RCT toward Stalino, also falls. Germans reorganize
16 and becomes U.S. 1st Div reser ve. Gen forces. Army Group South (formerly Don) takes con-
Fredendall, CG U.S. II Corps, issues directive on trol of remnants of Army Groups Don and B. 2d
defense of Fad position. Army transfers to Army Group Center. Army Group
USSRS of Kharkov, Germans are forced from A ret ains Kuban bridgehead in Novoros-
RR junction of Lozovaya. sisk area.

12 February 15 February
SWPAGHQ issues draft Plans for the Seizure NW A F R I C A Gen Alex ander, selected at
and Occupation of the New BritainNew Guinea Casablanca Conference to head all Allied forces
New Ireland Area, coded E LKTON. in Tunisia, arrives at Algiers for conference at
TUNISIABr First Army, which has been strength- AFHQ.
ened by arrival of 46th Div during first week of Feb- T UNISIA In Br First Army area, Gen K. A. N.
ruary, receives orders for reorganization. Shifts are Anderson, CG, orders forces holding high ground
scheduled to begin on 15th. W of Fad withdrawn and Kasserine Pass organized
USSRSoviet forces take Krasnodar rail center for defense. In U.S. II Cor ps area, Hq, SOS
on the Kuban and are pressing W toward Novorossisk. NATOUSA, is established under Brig Gen Tho-
German escape corridor from Rostov is narrowed as mas B. Larkin. 1st Armd Divs CCC counterat-
Red Army troops cut main RR extending NW from tacks in Sidi Bou Zid area in effort to relieve en-
Rostov at Krasnoarmeisk. Shakhty, on Rostov circled forces on hills, but is unable to accomplish
Voronezh line, also falls to Russians. its mission and falls back with heavy tank losses.
Most of the U.S. force on Djebel Lessouda suc-
ceeds in escaping during night 1516. While ac-
13 February tion at Sidi Bou Zid is in progress, Gen K. A. N.
TUNISIA CinC Allied Force visits U.S. II Corps Anderson directs Gen Fredendall to withdraw all
area to review disposition of forces, since an enemy forces, after isolated troops have been extricated,
attack is imminent. Axis commanders meet to re- to positions defending Sbetla, Kasserine, and
view attack plans. Friana. Axis forces, moving cautiously against
USSRGermans are containing Soviet attacks Gafsa, discover that it has been evacuated. Fr 19th
toward Novorossisk, last enemy stronghold remain- Corps is quietly and gradually moving right f lank
ing in NW Caucasus. Red Army gains complete forces back to Shiba.
[ 1618 FEBRUARY 1942 ] [ 93 ]

In Br Eighth Army area, improving weather condi- Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur W. Tedder, with uni-
tions permit resumption of operations toward fied control over all Allied air forces based in
Mareth Line. Middle East, NW Africa, and Malta. Air Vice Mar-
shal Sir Arthur Coningham assumes command of
16 February Allied Air Support Command (AASC). Pursuant
ALEUTIAN IS .Japanese make their last nuisance to decision reached by CCS on 20 January, AFHQ
raid on Amchitka as first Allied plane lands on new issues directives to Gen Alexander, naming him
fighter strip there. Deputy CinC of Allied Forces in French North
GUADALCANAL In preparation for invasion of Africa and Commander of the Group of Armies
Russell Is.Operation CLEANSLATE first echelon of (18 Army Group, combining numbers of Br First
43d Div assault force (RCTs 103 and 169) under and Eighth Armies) operating in Tunisia, effective
43d Div CG, Maj Gen John H. Hester, arrives at 20 February.
Guadalcanal. T UNISIA In Br First Army area, Fr 19th Corps
SWPAU.S. Sixth Army is established in withdraws W to conform with withdrawal of U.S.
SWPA under command of Lt Gen Walter Krueger. II Corps. RCT 18, U.S. 1st Div, is attached to Br
Army consists of I Corps (Gen Eichelberger), 2d 6th Armd Div at Sbiba. U.S. II Corps falls back to
Engr Special Brig, and 503d Para Inf Regt; 1st Mar Western Dorsal and stations troops to defend passes
Div is attached. at Sbiba (Fr 19th Corps sector), Kasserine, Dernaa,
TUNISIA Br First Army releases CCB, U.S. 1st and El Ma el Abiod. Defensive positions are being
Armd Div, to U.S. II Corps. RCT 18, U.S. 1st Div, organized. CCB covers withdrawal of 1st Armd
is released by Br 5 Corps for movement to Shiba, Div from Sbetla. Germans enter Friana and over-
where positions are being strengthened. In U.S. II come rear-guard opposition; take Thlepte air base.
Corps area, enemy, anticipating evacuation of 3d Bn of RCT 39, 9th Div, which has moved for-
Sbetla, which 1st Armd Div is too weak to hold as ward from Souk Ahras (Algeria) comes under
result of heavy losses at Sidi Bou Zid, begins drive corps command.
on the town late in day; despite opposition of screen- Br Eighth Army, with 51st Div and 7th Armd Div
ing force, of 1st Armd Div between Sidi Bou Zid in assault, captures Mdenine and its airfields.
and Sbetla, arrives at outskirts of latter and is briskly USSRRed Army takes Slavyansk, rail junction
engaged by CCA and CCB, CCB having arrived N of Kramatorsk.
from Maktar, as withdrawal of Americans toward
Western Dorsal begins. Because of unexpectedly 18 February
sharp resistance, enemy breaks off attack for night. ALEUTIAN IS.Adm McMorris strike force bom-
Isolated Americans on Djebel Ksaira and Garet bards Attu, but weather conditions prevent obser-
Hadid, under attack throughout day, make unsuc- vation of results. This is the first time naval gunfire
cessful attempt to withdraw, night 1617, and are is employed against Attu.
virtually wiped out. From Gafsa, Germans advance SOLOMON Is.Rear echelon of Russell Is. assault
25 miles NW toward Friana and SW through force from 43d Div lands on Guadalcanal. Russell
Metlaoui to Tozeur. Is. rcn party returns to Guadalcanal, night 1819,
In Br Eighth Army area, 7th Armd Div drives into after learning that Japanese have withdrawn from
Ben Gardane, Mareth Line outpost. the islands.
USSRSoviet troops occupy Kharkov as Axis INDIA Gen Wheeler, charged with Ledo Road
forces withdraw toward Poltava. construction in late December, is given responsibil-
ity for defending the road.
B URMA Ind 77th Brig (Chindits) crosses the
17 February Chindwin unopposed; subsequently reaches and
SOLOMON Is.Small party of U.S. officers sails cuts MandalayMyitkyina railway line without
from Guadalcanal to Russell Is. to reconnoiter in interference.
preparation for invasion; goes ashore on Banika I. M E D I T E R R A N E A N Mediterranean Air Com-
after dark. mand (U.S. Ninth and Twelfth Air Forces; RAF
CHINAIt is announced that Gen Chen will be EAC, ME, Malta, Gibraltar) begins functioning.
CG Chinese Expeditionary Force. Under Mediterranean Air Command, Northwest
BURMAInd 55th Brig again attempts to reduce African Air Forces (NAAF), consisting of EAC and
enemy position at Donbaik, on Arakan front, but is Twelfth Air Force, is activated under command of
unsuccessful. Gen Spaatz.
M E D I T E R R A N E A N Mediterranean Air Com- TUNISIA In Br First Army area, U.S. II Corps
mand is constituted and activated by AFHQ under continues organization of defenses at passes through
[ 94 ] [ 1921 FEBRUARY 1942 ]

Western Dorsal as enemy action subsides to rcn. 18 Army Group: In Br First Army area, Fr 19th
Enemy stages demonstration at E exit of Kasserine Corps repels another enemy attack against Sbiba,
Pass in evening, alerting provisional U.S. defense after which enemy in the area shifts from the of-
force ( 19th Combat Engr Regt and elements of 26th fensive to aggressive defensive. U.S. 1st Div
Inf, 1st Div). Reinforcements are moved to the pass, ( ) moves to Bou Chebka and reverts to U.S. II
among them 1st Bn of 39th Inf, 9th Div. During Cor ps. In U.S. II Cor ps area, enemy breaks
night 1819, CO of 26th Inf takes responsibility for through Kasserine Pass and thrusts N toward
defense of the pass, relieving CO 19th Engrs. As a Thala and W toward Tbessa. Br force of all arms,
precautionary measure, 26th Armd Brig, Br 6th based on 26th Armd Brig of 6th Armd Div, un-
Armd Div, is sent to Thala, coming under corps der Brig C. G. G. Nicholson, is given responsibil-
control. ity, under II Corps control, for co-ordinating op-
Br Eighth Army, continuing toward Mareth Line, erations to check enemy and restore positions.
takes Foum Tatahouine. Nicholsons force is to operate NE of Hatab R
USSRII Corps of German 16th Army begins before Thala. CCB, 1st Armd Div, under com-
withdrawal on northern front. mand of Nicholson, and other troops operating S
of the Hatab are to defend passes in Djebel el
Hamra before Tbessa. Preparations are made for
19 February counterattack on 21st.
SWPANaval elements of SWPA force are re- USSRIn region S and SW of Kharkov, Soviet
designated U.S. Seventh Fleet. forces take Pavlograd and Krasnograd.
T UNISIA Gen Alexander, upon visiting, the
front, finds situation so serious he takes command 21 February
of 18 Army Group At once, a day ahead of sched-
ule. 18 Army Group comprises Br First and Eighth SOLOMON Is.U.S. 43d Div invasion force lands
Armies, Fr 19th Corps, and U. S. II Corps. Br First on 3 beaches in Russell Is., 2 of them on Banika I.
Army retains command of the Fr and U.S. corps. and the other on Pavuvu I, without opposition. Ini-
Upon taking command, Gen Alexander orders Br, tial landing force consists of 43d Div hq, BLTs I
U.S., and Fr forces organized under separate com- and 2 and of RCT 103, 43d Cav Rcn Tr, 3d Mar
mands and their respective commanders at once; the Raider Bn, 11th Mar Defense Bn detachment, and
front held by static troops while armored and mo- 43d Signal Co. LCTs bring rest of 43d Div, less RCT
bile forces are withdrawn as reserve striking force; 172, from Guadalcanal to Russell Is. by end of Feb-
plans made to regain the initiative. ruary, at which time 9,000 men are ashore.
In Br First Army area, Fr 19th Corps contains B URMA During night 2122, coastal craft of
German tank-infantry attack on Sbiba Pass, where Royal Ind Navy land party at Nyebon, SE of Akyab;
strong defense force (U.S. 34th Div ( ), RCT 18 of party successfully raids enemy positions and
U.S. 1st Div, elements of Br 6th Armd Div, and Fr withdraws.
units) is stationed. In U.S. II Corps area, enemy N AFRICAGen Spaatz takes control of Western
opens attack on Kasserine Pass with tanks and in- Desert Air Force (WDAF).
fantry, supported by arty, and succeeds in gaining T U N I S I A 18 Army Group: Gen Alexander
positions within it but cannot drive defenders out. orders Gen Montgomery to apply pressure against
Some reinforcements are sent forward to bolster enemys S f lank as diversion for Br First Army. In
Allied positions. CCB, 1st Armd Div, is alerted for Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomery, who is
possible commitment. now planning for assault on Mareth Line, is not
USSRRed Army reports progress S and SW yet ready for large-scale operations but decides to
of Kharkov and announces that KharkovKursk RR risk sending small forces forward along coast and
and highway are cleared of enemy. to move Fr force under Gen Leclerc (called L
Force), which has recently joined Br Eighth Army
and driven from Nalut to Ksar Rhilane, northward
20 February from Ksar Rhilane.
S OLOMON Is.U.S. naval force under Adm In Br First Army area, Fr 19th Corps halts prob-
Turner leaves Guadalcanal for Russell Is. with ini- ing thrust toward Sbiba with assistance of newly
tial assault echelon of 43d Div. arrived Churchill tanks. In U.S. II Corps area,
T UNISIA Axis forces are being reorganized. strong enemy forces continue attack from Kasserine
Gen Messe assumes command of Italian First Pass toward Thala and are barely contained short
Army; Rommels GermanItalian Panzer Army ceases of this objective after hard fighting. Nicholsons
to exist. Rommel remains in Tunisia, however, a force defending Thala is augmented by 2 Hamp-
few weeks longer. shires and by 2 FA bns of U.S. 9th Div, latter
[ 2227 FEBRUARY 1942 ] [ 95 ]

arriving from W Algeria after 4-day forced march. T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Army
Limited enemy thrust toward Tbessa is contained area, U.S. II Corps, hampered only by mines and
by CCB of 1st Armd Div, reinf by elements of booby traps, recovers Kasserine Pass. 9th Div is
RCT 16, 1st Div. concentrating in Tbessa area under corps com-
USSREnemy opens counteroffensive toward mand.
Kharkov from Stalino. U.K.RAF begins round-the-clock air offensive
against enemy.
22 February
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys 26 February
U.S. II Corps area, enemy continues offensive un- SWPAAll units of the U.S. Army in SWPA and
til afternoon, when Rommel abandons effort to all elements of the Philippine Army called into the
drive through to Le Kef and orders withdrawal. service of the USA are assigned to USAFFE, which
Attack is broken off and enemy starts back toward has been inactive since April 1942.
Kasserine Pass, leaving many mines behind. 1st BURMAPipeline that is to parallel Ledo Road
Armd Div assumes command of Nicholsons force gets high priority from CCS. Royal Ind Navy
at Thala and of its own CCB. launches sink enemy launch loaded with troops and
USSROn central front, Soviet forces open of- damage another N of Ramree I.
fensive in OrelBryansk area and renew efforts to T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys
take Rzhev. 5 Corps area, German 5th Panzer Army, under von
Arnim, opens offensive on broad front, threaten-
23 February ing Bdja and Medjez el Bab. On N, attacks W of
T UNISIA Rommel assumes command of Ger- Jefna are contained. Br outpost at Sidi Nsir, on
man Army Group, Africa, as Axis forces continue road from Mateur to Bdja, is overwhelmed after
reorganization. vigorous battle that gains time for 46th Div to con-
18 Army Group: Gen Alexander informs Gen centrate for defense of pass to Bdja. Attack on
Montgomery that situation at Kasserine has im- Medjez itself is repulsed, but in region to S en-
proved and orders him not to take undue risks. emy makes deep penetration that is contained N
In Br First Armys U.S. II Corps area, final en- of El Aroussa. 38th Brig contains attack N of Bou
emy forces withdraw into Kasserine Pass during Arada, but is in an exposed position because of
morning, followed unaggressively by Allied forces. enemys success to N. Gen K. A. N. Anderson, to
Enemy and Allied planes are active during day. strengthen defenses of GoubellatBou Arada re-
USSRSumy, in the Ukraine NW of Kharkov, gion, forms provisional div, called Y, from 38th
falls to Red Army. Brig and 1st Para Brig. In U.S. II Corps area, RCT
16 reverts to 1st Div, which assumes responsibil-
ity for Kasserine Pass and for maintaining con-
24 February tact with 34th Div, which comes under II Corps
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys command. 1st Armd Div is assembling as reserve
U.S. II Corps area, CCB of 1st Armd Div and 26th S of Tbessa.
Armd Brig of Br 6th Armd Div continue to fol- In Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomery sets
low withdrawing enemy. 1st Armd Div prepares 20 March as D Day for attack on Mareth Line
to attack to recover Kasserine Pass; attached 16th (P UGILIST ); expects to have sufficient troops and
Inf, 1st Div, is to lead off on 25th. RCT 26 ( 2d supplies in forward area by 4 March. Because of
and 3d Bns), reverting to 1st Div control, moves enemy movements, Gen Alexander warns Gen
to El Ma el Abiod to defend pass. Montgomery that enemy will attack as soon as
In Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomer y possible.
orders 7th Armd and 51st Inf Divs to maintain
pressure on enemy along coast and on Gabs road, 27 February
NEW GUINEA162d Inf, U.S. 41st Div, reaches
Milne Bay.
25 February TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys 5
SWPA-S P ACIFIC Rough draft of long-range Corps area, hard fighting continues around Bdja,
plan for advance to the Philippines (R ENO ) is but enemy is unable to advance. In U.S. II Corps
drawn up. area, 9th Div relieves 1st Div at El Ma el Abiod and
R USSELL Is.Torpedo boat base at Wernham Dernaa Pass, NW of Friana, and 1st Div assembles
Cove becomes operational. E of Tbessa.
[ 96 ] [ 28 FEBRUARY4 MARCH 1942 ]

28 February vert enemy forces from Br Eighth Army area, gain

SWPAGHQ revises ELKTON plan for drive on forward airfields from which Eighth Armys offen-
Rabaul. sive against Mareth Line can be supported, and
NEW GUINEA 1st Bn of 168d Inf, U.S. 41st Div, establish alternative supply line for Eighth Army.
having arrived at front and relieved elements of In Br Eighth Army area, NZ 2d Div concen-
163d in SananandaKillertonGona area and at trates S of Mdenine, having been rushed forward
Kumusi R mouth, starts N from Killerton by water, from Tripoli.
leapfrogging cos. USSRGerman Army Group Center evacuates
B URMA Construction of road from Ledo, In- Rzhev.
dia, crosses Burmese border. In order to subdue
Kachin guerrillas in N Burma, Japanese are mov- 3 March
ing one small force toward Sumprabum, Br outpost ALEUTIAN IS .Adm Kinkaid recommends lim-
near Fort Hertz, and another toward Tanai R in ited offensive with available forces be conducted
Hukawng Valley. against Attu, bypassing Kiska, the objective for which
TUNISIA18 Army Group: In Br First Army area, planning has been in progress for some time.
S Corps continues to contain enemy attempts to B ISMARCK S EA During heavy co-ordinated at-
advance on Bdja. In U.S. II Corps area, enemy has tacks, Allied planes severely cripple Japanese con-
now retired to Eastern Dorsal, abandoning Sbetla voy, which has arrived off Huon Gulf. After night-
and Friana. II Corps patrols actively. fall, PT boats of Seventh Fleet destroy one of the
USSRDetermined German counterattacks in vessels previously damaged by aircraft.
upper Donets are making progress and have over- T UNISIA German Africa Corps issues plan for
run Kramatorsk and Lozovaya. Hard fighting con- attack from Mareth Line.
tinues in OrelBryansk sector. Spring thaw is ham- 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys 5 Corps area,
pering operations around Kuban bridgehead and on fighting around Bdja subsides, but enemy seizes
Mius R. Sedjenane, about 12 miles W of Jefna. U.S. II Corps
continues to patrol actively without making contact
1 March with enemy. Sidi Bou Zid and Hadjeb el Aoun are
BISMARCK S EA B24 detects Japanese convoy, free of enemy.
well protected with fighters, en route from Rabaul In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, enemy makes
(New Britain) to Huon Gulf (New Guinea). local probing attack against 81st Div positions near
B URMA Sumprabum is evacuated by Br civil Mareth and is driven off with heavy casualties.
authorities. Japanese subsequently move into the USSROn KharkovBryansk rail line, Soviet
village and continue to skirmish with Kachin levies forces capture Lgov and Dmitriev Lgovsky. 1st Pz
in the area, but make no further progress toward Army of Army Group South reaches the Donets and
Fort Hertz. overruns Slavyansk and Lisichansk.
N A F R I C A Gen Spaatz takes command of
Twelfth Air Force, an organization that has been 4 March
merely a name since air reorganization of February. BISMARCK SEABattle of Bismarck Sea ends in de-
Twelfth Air Force is to be continued as administra- cisive victory for Allied land-based planes. During the
tive hq for U.S. Army elements of NAAF. running battle (14 March), Japanese lose the entire
USSRMoscow announces that an offensive of convoy of 8 transports and 4 DDs, many of the air-
NW Front, begun a few days earlier by Marshal craft protecting it, and many personnel embarked in
Timoshenko, has regained Demyansk, Lichkova, and it. This is the last enemy attempt to use large vessels to
Zaluchie. reinforce positions on Huon Gulf, New Guinea.
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys 5
2 March Corps area, 139th Brig of 46th Div remains under
B ISMARCK S EA Allied planes make damaging heavy pressure along MateurTabarka road and dur-
attacks on enemy convoy bound for Huon Gulf. ing night 45 falls back to Tamera, about 8 miles W
Some Japanese are rescued from sinking transport of Sedjenane.
and put ashore at Lae, night 23, by DDs. Br Eighth Army, having completed concentration
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys 5 of troops and weapons in forward area, is now pre-
Corps area, enemy renews attack on N along pared to meet enemy attackwhich appears to be
MateurTabarka road near Jefna and forces 139th imminent because of troop movements in mountains
Brig, 46th Div, back to Sedjenane. U.S. II Corps is W of Mdenineand is greatly superior to enemy in
directed to begin limited offensive on S flank of Br tanks and AT weapons.
First Army not later than 115 March in order to di- USSRRussians take Sievsk, S of Bryansk.
[ 512 MARCH 1942 ] [ 97 ]

5 March to Br First Army. II Corps continues planning for

offensive in mid-March. Forward elements of SE
SOLOMON Is.U.S. naval TF successfully bom-
Algerian Command occupy Tozeur.
bards Vila and Munda, night 56.
In Br First Army area, 5 Corps continues to with-
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys
stand pressure against N flank in Tamera area.
g Corps area, 1st Para Brig, upon relief by RCT
USSRRed Army troops capture Sychevka, N
26 of U.S. 1st Div, moves N to strengthen 46th
of Vyazma, forcing enemy back toward Smolensk.
Div units in Tamera area, where enemy threat is
still serious. U.S. II Corps continues to patrol
aggressively. Rcn force of 34th Div enters Pichon, 9 March
from which Germans have withdrawn, but later NEW G UINEA Japanese planes attack Wau in
withdraws because of enemy forces on hills to force. This is the first of a series of heavy air attacks
N and S. on strategic points in New Guinea, among them
USSRRed Army troops are attacking toward Dobodura, Oro Bay, Porlock Harbor, Port Moresby,
Staraya Russa. and Milne Bay.
BURMAColumns of Ind 77th Brig (Chindits)
6 March begin crossing the Irrawaddy R in order to harass
enemy farther E.
R U S S E L L Is.Islands undergo enemy air at- N AFRICAAxis reorganization of forces contin-
tack. This is the first indication that Japanese ues. Field Marshal Kesselrings authority aver
have learned of American occupation of the ground, air, and sea units in the Mediterranean the-
islands. ater is extended. Gen von Arnim takes command of
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys 5 Army Group Africa, succeeding Field Marshal
Corps area, enemy maintains pressure against N Rommel, who leaves Africa. Gen Gustav von Vaerst
flank of corps in Tamera area. In U.S. II Corps area, succeeds von Arnim as commander of Fifth Panzer
Gen Patton takes command of corps, relieving Gen Army.
Fredendall. As head of I Armd Corps in Morocco, 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps area, 1st Div is
Gen Patton had been preparing to command U.S. joined in Bou Chebka area by RCT 18, which re-
troops of projected invasion of Sicily. Maj Gen Omar verts to it from attachment to 34th Div.
N. Bradley, who is to succeed Gen Patton after op-
erations in S Tunisia are completed, becomes deputy
corps commander. 10 March
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Rommel TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys 5
makes his last attack in Tunisia and is decisively Corps area, enemy continues to attack 46th Div
defeated. Four strong thrusts toward Mdenine are positions in vicinity of Tamera. French relieve RCT
repulsed by British, who commit only one sq of 26, U.S. 1st Div, in Bou Arada area. SE Algerian
tanks. Enemy retires after nightfall, having lost about Command takes Metlaoui.
50 tanks. In Br Eighth Army area, Fr force under Gen
USSRGzhatsk, on rail line between Moscow Leclerc (L Force), screening W flank of Eighth Army
and Smolensk, falls to Red Army. at Ksar Rhilane, repels sharp enemy attack.
USSRNW of Vyazma, Soviet forces seize
7 March
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: SE Algerian Com- 11 March
mand, disposed generally SW of Gafsa between U.S.
II Corps and Br Eighth Army, occupies Redeyef and CHINAU.S. Fourteenth Air Force is activated
patrols toward Tozeur. This command, which in- under Maj Gen Claire L. Chennault.
cludes Fr Camel Corps, was formed late in January TUNISIA18 Army Group: In Br First Army area,
under Gen Robert Boissau, previously Fr Army com- 5 Corps remains under enemy pressure in Tamera
mander at Oran. sector.
USSRContinuing counteroffensive toward
Kharkov, enemy reaches the town, which Red Army
8 March is staunchly defending.
CHINAJapanese cross Yangtze between Ichang
and Yoyang. 12 March
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: Takes command of U.S.Pacific Military Conference opens in
U.S. II Corps, but leaves Fr 19th Corps attached Washington to plan for operations against the Japa-
[ 98 ] [ 1318 MARCH 1942 ]

nese during 1943. During the conference, which N EW G UINEA 1st Bn of 162d Inf, U.S. 41st
continues through 15th, Gen Sutherland, Gen Mac- Div, occupies positions at Mambare R mouth with-
Arthurs chief of staff, presents E LKTON plan for out opposition.
reduction of Rabaul, as revised on 28 February, T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Gen Eisenhower
calling for mutually supporting drives, one by visits U.S. II Corps hq as preparations for offensive
SWPA forces from New Guinea to New Britain continue. While corps line from Shiba to Kasserine
and another by S Pacific forces through the Solo- is held by 34th Div and from Kasserine to El Ma el
mons. Of great concern to the planners is the short- Abiod by 9th Div, assault forces (1st Inf and 1st
age of shipping in which to transport the necessary Armd Divs) prepare to attack on 17th. 1st Div, reinf
reinforcements to the Far East. by 1st Ranger Bn and arty and TD units, assembles
B URMA Because of recent enemy activity in in Bou Chebka area.
Sumprabum sector and Hukawng Valley, Gen Stil-
well orders Ch troops to Ledo area. On Arakan 16 March
front, Japanese are employing envelopment tactics TUNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps com-
against Br Imperial forces and are splitting them pletes preparations for attack. 1st Div, which is to
into small groups. lead off, moves forward, night 1617, to line of
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Succeeds in estab- departure. 1st Armd Div is greatly hampered by
lishing a reserve force, Br 6th Armd and 78th Divs, muddy terrain as it moves into position to protect
under recently arrived hq of Br 9 Corps. 6th Armd left flank of 1st Div.
Div is in the process of being refitted with Sherman In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, Y Div (38th
tanks. In U.S. II Corps area, RCT 60 of 9th Div is Brig and 1st Para Brig) is dissolved upon relief by
attached to 1st Armd Div in preparation for coming 3d Brig of 1st Div. This is the first unit of 1st Div
offensive. to arrive in Tunisia.
USSRGermans report violent street fighting Br Eighth Army, as a preliminary to main assault
in Kharkov. Red Army takes important enemy base on Mareth Line, conducts limited attacks, night 16
of Vyazma. 17, to mislead enemy and drive in his outposts. The
actions are largely successful.
13 March
NEW GUINEA Kanga Force continues to press 17 March
enemy back inch by inch toward Mubo and is now B U R M A On Arakan front, Ind 55th Brig,
N of Guadagasel. which has previously relieved 123d in region E of
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Sets 17 March as Mayu R, is attacked and outflanked by enemy at
D Day for U.S. II Corps offensive, initial objective Rathedaung. Assisted by Ind 71st Brig of 26th Div,
of which is Gafsa. 1st Armd Div, reinf by RCT 60 55th Brig later succeeds in withdrawing toward
of 9th Div, begins movement from Tbessa area, Buthidaung. E flank of forces W of the Mayu is thus
where it has been refitting since 26 February, toward exposed.
assembly area NE of Gafsa. Elements are formed TUNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps opens
into TF, under Col Clarence C. Benson, for detached offensive as planned after arty and air preparation,
service and move to region SW of Sbetla during 1st Div attacking for the first time as a div. Em-
night 1314. In preparation for offensive, air opera- ploying RCTs 16 and 18, reinf by bn of RCT 26,
tions are begun against enemy landing fields, al- 1st Div moves into Gafsa, which enemy has
though weather conditions are unfavorable. evacuated, and organizes it for defense. Hamlet
SE of Gafsa, is also occupied. 1st Armd Div, de-
14 March fending left flank, is handicapped by heavy rains
N AFRICAGen Giraud restores representative but CCA moves into Zannoueh, between Gafsa and
government in French N Africa and suppresses or- Sened, without opposition.
ganizations of Vichy origin. In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, 46th Div with-
18 Army Group: Gen Alexander issues policy draws under pressure from Tamera.
directive regarding for thcoming of fensive in Br Eighth Army continues local operations in
Tunisia. preparation for assault on Mareth Line.
USSRGermans claim capture of Kharkov.
18 March
15 March I NDIA 308th Bombardment Gp (B24) ar-
PACIFIC Central Pacific Force is redesignated rives in India to reinforce U.S. Fourteenth Air
Fifth Fleet. Force.
[ 1922 MARCH 1942 ] [ 99 ]

BURMA6th Brig of Br 2d Div, assisted by 71st switch line in order to divert enemys attention
Brig of Ind 26th Div, makes final and vain effort from E end of Mareth Line; despite very difficult
to clear Donbaik. Japanese continue infiltration and terrain and enemy opposition, reaches positions a
envelopment tactics, leaving Imperial forces no few miles short of defile between Djebels Tebaga
choice but to withdraw northward. Ind 77th Brig. and Melab. 30 Corps, after very heavy arty bar-
(Chindits) completes its crossing of the Irrawaddy, rage, attacks in coastal sector at E end of Mareth
but because of increasing hardships eventually Line at 2230, employing 50th Div, which secures
abandons plan to cut MandalayLashio rail line and foothold on fortified N bank of Wadi Zigzaou, a
returns in small groups to India. formidable obstacle because of its width and depth,
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corpss 1st against intense enfilade fire. 10 Corps, containing
Div, continuing attack with attached 1st Ranger 1st and 7th Armd Divs, in army reserve, is dis-
Bn, takes El Guettar without opposition. Very heavy posed in central sector, prepared to exploit success
rains immobilize 1st Armd Div, but plans are made of either of the assault forces.
for attack on Sened Station on 19th.
In Br First Army area, Gen Anderson orders 5
Corps, which is reinf by 1st Para Brig of Corps 21 March
Franc dAfrique and one Tabor of Fr Goumiers, TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps area,
to cease withdrawal and to prepare to recover at CCC and CCA of 1st Armd Div bypass Sened
least part of lost ground as a necessary preliminary village, which surrenders to RCT 60, and continue
to launching major assault toward Tunis and Biz- E to Maknassy, placing it under arty fire in prepara-
erte. Enemy is attacking in Djebel Abiod area. tion for attack on 22d. 1st Div pushes eastward
from El Guettar. 1st Ranger Bn, circling N of El
19 March GuettarMahars road (called Gumtree), gets be-
hind enemy at Djebel el Ank defile while 26th Inf
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: Lull occurs on U.S.
drives directly along road. In this successful action,
II Corps front as road conditions force postpone-
over 700 prisoners are taken. To right, 18th Inf takes
ment of attack on Sened Station. SE Algerian Com-
Hill 336, S of Gumtree road, and presses on toward
mand, protecting S flank of II Corps, is moving
forward and has elements S of Gafsa. Djebel el Mcheltat.
Br Eighth Army completes preparations for In Br Eighth Army area, NZ Corps makes slow
attack on Mareth Line on 20th. NZ Corps (NZ progress toward El Hamma switch line. 30 Corps
2d Div, Br 8th Armd Brig, LeClercs force, and a strengthens bridgehead on bank of Wadi Zigzaou
regt each of armd cars and medium arty), formed somewhat but can get only a few tanks across.
temporarily for outflanking drive around enemys Covered by heavy arty fire, 50th Div broadens and
W flank, starts wide circling movement to S from deepens bridgehead, night 2122.
concealed positions in Foum Tatahouine area, night In Br First Army area, 5 Corps is severely men-
1920. aced on N as enemy forces defenders of important
USSREnemy takes Belgorod, N of Kharkov. lateral road between Mateur and Djebel Abiod back
to Djebel Abiod.
USSRGermans claim to have closed last re-
20 March maining gap in line of communications with Orel
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps sector. Russians take Durovo, 57 miles NE of
area, 1st Armd Div opens corps offensive with drive Smolensk. Operations on entire front are bogging
on Maknassy. While attached RCT 60, motorized, down because of spring thaw.
and CCC thrust toward Sened Station, intermediate
objective, from NW, CCA takes more direct route,
moving along road from Zannouch. Enemy is 22 March
found to have evacuated Sened Station; RCT 60 T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
occupies it; night 2021. With Sened Station in U.S. area, 1st Armd Div finds Maknassy free of enemy
hands, 1st Div begins eastward attack from El and occupies it; renewing attack, night 2223, with
Guettar, night 2021, employing attached 1st CCC on N and RCT 60 on S, seizes Djebels
Ranger Bn and 26th and 18th Regts. Dribica and Bou Douaou but is unable to clear
Br Eighth Army opens assault on Mareth posi- enemy from Djebel Naemia, which dominates pass
tion, constructed originally by French and improved E of Maknassy. 1st Div consolidates and improves
later by Germans, in effort to break through it and positions E of El Guettar, 26th Inf probing beyond
Gabs gap to open country. NZ Corps openly con- Bou Hamran, on Gumtree road, and 18th occupying
tinues enveloping movement toward El Hamma Djebel el Mcheltat and moving elements S across
[ 100 ] [ 2327 MARCH 1943 ]

El GuettarGabs road to Djebel el Kreroua and E In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, enemy is at last
tip of Djebel Berda. German armored div heads NW contained on N flank, where 46th Div holds line Cap
up GabsGafsa road, night 2223, for counter- NegroDjebel Abiod.
thrust toward Gafsa. SE Algerian Command con-
tinues forward in conjunction with and to S of U.S. 25 March
II Corps and is in contact with enemy at Djebel Bou
Jerra, SW of Djebel Berda. T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
area, 1st Armd Divs attack against Djebel Naemia
In Br Eighth Army area, offensive is severely
at first makes some progress, but gains cannot be
handicapped by heavy rainfall. Determined enemy
held. Maintaining pressure against 1st Div on hills
counterattack forces 50th Div, 30 Corps, to give
SE of El Guettar, enemy forces 18th Inf elements to
ground. Since enemy reserves are now committed in
give ground on NE part of Djebel Berda; since no
coastal sector and fighting here is proving very
costly, Gen Montgomery decides to switch main reinforcements for this position are available, 18th
weight of his attack to W flank and conduct holding Inf defense force is ordered to withdraw from
action on E. 10 Corps releases 7th Armd Div to Djebel Berda. U.S. II Corps receives new directive
30 Corps. from Gen Alexander, calling for broadened offen-
Br First Army is strengthened as 1st Div com- sive; is reinf for this purpose by 34th and 9th Divs.
pletes concentration in Tunisia. 34th Div is to conduct limited offensive for Fondouk
Gap from Sbetla. 9th Div ( RCT 60) and 1st Div
are to open gap SE of El Guettar for passage of 1st
23 March Armd Div. 1st Armd Div is to break off offensive
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps in Maknassy area and leave small holding force
area, 1st Armd Div continues futile efforts to take there in order to drive on Gabs.
Djebel Naemia, where enemy is building up
strength. 1st Div, by dint of hard fighting, contains 26 March
2 strong enemy thrusts toward El Guettar. Both
sides sustain heavy losses. SE Algerian Command B ATTLE OF K OMANDORSKI Is.Small naval task
is meeting strong opposition as it continues forward group under Adm McMorris encounters superior
to S of U.S. II Corps. enemy surface force attempting to run Allied
In Br Eighth Army area, 30 Corps withdraws blockade and reinforce Japanese positions in the
Wadi Zigzaou bridgehead under cover of arty fire Aleutians. Joining battle off Komandorski Is. in the
during night 2324. Ind 4th Div begins operations Bering Sea, enemy is forced to retire without com-
to clear MdenineHalloufBir Soltane road, night pleting his mission; his Aleutians garrisons are
2324. 10 Corps hq and 1st Armd Div move out henceforth obliged to rely on meager supplies
after dark to join NZ Corps, which is still help up brought in by submarine.
near bottleneck between Djebel Tebaga and Djebel T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Br Eighth Army,
Melab, in preparation for assault against enemys W having adopted new plan called S UPERCHARGE , and
flank. abandoned original plan, P UGILIST, renews assault
on Mareth Line in afternoon following destructive
24 March aerial bombardment that lasts for 21/2 hours. NZ
Corps, leading assault against W flank of Mareth
U.S.JCS approve plan to occupy Attu in the Line, jumps off at 1600 and penetrates enemy posi-
Aleutians. tions in defile between Djebels Tebaga and Melab.
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps 10 Corps 1st Armd Div, exploiting this success,
area, 1st Armd Div attacks Djebel Naemia in breaks through the defile and pushes toward El
greater strength but cannot dislodge enemy. Gen Hamma as operations are continued through night
Patton orders the position taken during next by moonlight. Ind 4th Div, 30 Corps, clearing
mornings attack. Maj Gen Orlando Ward, CG 1st MdenineBir Soltane road, is beyond Hallouf Pass.
Armd Div, personally commands attack, which be-
gins midnight 2425 without arty preparation.
Enemy, unable to break through positions of 1st 27 March
Div on hills SE of El Guettar, maintains pressure in T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
the area and achieves limited gains. area, 34th Div, in its first action as a div, begins
In Br Eighth Army area, 30 Corps is containing drive on Fondouk Gap, moving astride road from
enemy in coastal sector by feints coupled with air Hadjeb el Aoun with 2 regts abreast, 135th on left
attacks while preparations are made for attack and 168th on right. Frontal and enfilading fire from
against W flank of Mareth Line. heights ahead halt attack short of objective; 135th
[ 2830 MARCH 1943 ] [ 101 ]

Inf attempts to advance at night but falls back under On N flank of II Corps, 34th Div continues limited
intense fire. 133d Inf (less bn at Algiers) remains at attack toward Fondouk Gap but is unable to make
Sbetla to defend it. In SE Algerian Command area, much headway. Camel troops of SE Algerian Com-
camel troops occupy Sabria and Rhidma, about 25 mand occupy Douz, S of Chott Djerid.
and 18 miles, respectively, SW of Kebili. In Br Eighth Army area, 10 Corps continues at-
In Br Eighth Army area, Mareth Line collapses tack toward El Hamma, from which enemy with-
under blows of 10 and NZ Corps on W, but enemy draws, night 2829. NZ Corps pursues enemy north-
retains El Hamma and escape corridor through ward toward Gabs. 30 Corps moves forward along
which main body withdraws, night 2728. Axis main MarethGabs road, hampered by mines and
efforts to strengthen W flank are belated and in- demolitions.
effective. 1st Armd Div continues toward El Hamma In Br First Army area, 5 Corps begins counter-
and repels 2 counterattacks. New Zealanders com- offensive to recover northern road and relieve pres-
plete difficult task of mopping up during night sure on Medjez el Bab, a dangerously exposed sali-
2718. Ind 4th Div, 30 Corps, completes operations ent. 46th Div, employing 138th Brig, 36th Brig of
to open MdenineBir Soltane road. 78th Div, and 1st Para Brig, assisted on left flank
by Corps dAfrique and a Tabor of Moroccan
28 March Goumiers, drives steadily eastward despite heavy
U.S.JCS approve new directive for Gen Mac- rainfall, which is to continue for a week. Enemy
Arthur and Adm Halsey, altering previous directives forces in this sector have thinned out.
of 2 July 1942. Operations are to be confined to the
earlier Task Two, and bases are to be secured in the 29 March
Trobriands. Timing is left largely to the discretion TUNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps oper-
of the commanders. Gen MacArthur is to command ations in El Guettar and Fondouk areas continue to
SWPA forces and have general direction of Adm make negligible progress against firm resistance.
Halseys forces in the Solomons; have strategic con- Plan of attack toward Gabs is changed by 18 Army
trol of Pacific Fleet task forces engaged in the Group late in day: 1st Armd Div is to attack on 30th
operations. in effort to break through enemy positions barring
NEW GUINEA MacKechnie Force, named after road to Gabs.
Col Archibald R. MacKechnie, CO of 162d Inf, U.S. Br Eighth Army pursues enemy northward
41st Div, is formed, largely from 1st Bn of 162d Inf, through Gabs. NZ Corps takes Gabs and Oudref.
to secure Waria R mouth and Morobe harbor. 30 Corps 51st Div overtakes NZ Corps at Gabs.
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps opens 10 Corps 1st Armd Div advances northward from
major attack toward Gabs from positions near El El Hamma.
Guettar, employing 1st Div on left and 9th (less
RCT 60) on right, in effort to force gap in enemy
positions through which 1st Armd Div can attack.
30 March
1st Div, with RCT 18 on left, 26 in center, and 16 TUNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps con-
on right, renews efforts to advance astride Gumtree tinues efforts to break through enemy positions
road and makes limited progress on left. 9th Div, astride El GuettarGabs road. 1st Div secures most
in action as a div for the first time, attacks with of S part of Djebel el Mcheltat. After preparatory
47th Inf from positions on Djebel Berda, previously arty concentrations, 9th Div takes part of Djebel
abandoned by 18th Inf, toward Hill 369 on Djebel Lettouchi, eastern spur of Djebel Berda, but cannot
el Kreroua, an eastern spur of Djebel Berda. Attack hold it or advance elsewhere. 1st Armd Divs TF
is a costly failure because of well-organized enemy Benson attacks through infantry at noon but is soon
positions on hills and ridges and confusion arising stopped by enemy fire and mines. Lane is cleared
from inaccurate maps. 1st and 3d Bns, mistaking through mine field at pass between Djebel el
Draa Saada el Hamra ridge for Hill 369, clear it Mcheltat and Hill 369, night 3031. 34th Div, to N,
except for Hill 290 at its tip. 2d Bn and reserve bn continues futile efforts to reach Fondouk Gap. SE
(1st Bn, 39th Inf) become lost for more than a day Algerian Commands camel troops occupy Kebili.
while trying to reach Hill 369. 2d Bn, 39th Inf, is Br Eighth Armys forward elements make contact
sent after nightfall toward Hill 369 but meets such with enemys new line along Wadi Akarit. 10 Corps
heavy fire from Hill 290 that main body falls back is ordered to determine whether the Akarit defenses
to starting point and stragglers return 36 hours later. can be carried by assault with current forces. NZ
1st Armd Div, which has elements at Gafsa to meet Corps, having served its purpose, is abolished.
threat of enemy breakthrough, is ordered to concen- In Br First Army area, 5 Corps 46 Div recaptures
trate additional elements there during night 2829. Sedjenane.
[ 102 ] [ 31 MARCH4 APRIL 1943 ]

31 March Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to AAF,

NEW GUINEA MacKechnie Force of U.S. 41st had previously been responsible for Abadan.
Div moves by water to Waria R mouth and Dona T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
airstrip. area, plan of attack is changed after another fruit-
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps less attempt by TF Benson of 1st Armd Div to
area, 1st Divs RCTs 16 and 26 attempt unsuc- break through enemy positions barring Gabs road.
cessfully to clear SE tip of Djebel el Mcheltat. 9th Second phase (to secure pass between Djebel
Div makes little progress against bypassed Hill Chemsi and Djebel Ben Khir for passage of ar-
772 (on Djebel Berda) and Hill 369 (on Djebel el mor) is to begin at once, although enemy still re-
Kreroua). TF Benson, 1st Armd Div, attacks about tains Hill 772 on Djebel Berda and Hill 369 and
noon, passing through lane cleared in mine field, and pass N of it on Djebel el Kreroua. TF Benson goes
secures most of region from road to foothills at N, on the defensive. 1st Div continues efforts to clear
but loses 9 tanks. 4 more tanks are salvaged. CCA SE tip of Djebel el Mcheltat. 9th Div is concentrat-
begins diversionary attack against Djebel Djebs, hill ing on Hill 772, which must be cleared before
mass N of Maknassy, and evokes sharp enemy re- operations can be continued against Hill 369. In
action. As a diversion for 34th Divs attack on Fon- Maknassy area, CCA of 1st Armd Div continues di-
douk Gap, CO C of 751st Tank Bn, Co A of 813th versionary attack on Djebel Djebs. SE Algerian Com-
Tank Bn, and motorized co of 109th Combat Engrs mands camel troops are maintaining liaison with
attack on NW slopes of Djebel Touila, about 5 miles Br Eighth Army in Kebili area.
S of infantry. During nights of 31 March1 April
and 12 April, 34th Div assault force pulls back out 2 April
of range of enemy fire and establishes defensive T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
positions, concluding the Fondouk Gap battle. area, virtual stalemate exists as enemy checks
In Br Eighth Army area, Montgomery decides to dogged efforts of infantry of 1st and 9th Divs to clear
await reinforcements and regroup upon learning Gumtree and Gabs roads. 1st Div clears rest of
from to Corps CG that an immediate assault across Djebel el Mcheltat, but 9th is unable to take Hill
Wadi Akarit would be costly. 30 Corps, which is 772 on Djebel Berda. Gap exists between the two
reinf by NZ 2d Div, is to be responsible for securing divs. Diversionary action of CCA, 1st Armd Div, in
bridgehead. Maknassy area is suspended.
In Br First Army area, 5 Corps 46th Div gains
all its objectives on N flank of corps, recovering El
Aouana; enemy withdraws from Cap Serrat. Prepa- 3 April
rations are begun for next phase of attack: clearing NEW GUINEA Elements of MacKechnie Force
BdjaMedjez road and relieving pressure on Med- land on shore of Morobe harbor to establish defen-
jez. Fr 19th Corps makes contact with U.S. 34th Div sive position.
at El Ala, W of Fondouk. T U N I S I A 18 Army Group: Gen Alexander
alerts Gen Patton to be prepared to move U.S. II
Corps to N flank of Br First Army upon collapse
1 April of enemys Wadi Akarit position; 9th Div is to
ALEUTIAN IS .CINCPAC and WDC CG issue move first. Hard fighting continues in U.S. II
joint directive for invasion of Attu on 7 May. Adm Corps area for positions dominating Gumtree and
Kinkaid as commander of North Pacific Force (TF Gabs roads. 1st Div takes village of Sakket, but
16, formerly TF 8) will head the operation. Under 9th is still checked by enemy on Hill 772.
him, Adm Rockwell, Commander Amphibious In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, Fr naval party
Force North Pacific, is to conduct landing opera- (detachment of goumiers and elements of Corps
tions. Maj Gen Albert E. Browns 7th Div, al- Franc dAfrique) occupies Cap Serrat. Fr 19th
though trained for mechanized warfare in the desert, Corps repels limited enemy thrusts W from Pichon.
is to make the assault.
S OLOMON Is.Japanese aircraft, whose atten-
tion during the preceding month has been devoted 4 April
largely to Allied bases in New Guinea, attack Rus- T UNISIA 18 Army Group: 9 Corps, 18 Army
sell Is. Group reserve, prepares for offensive to recover
C HINA Infantry and Arty Training Centers Fondouk Gap. U.S. 34th Div, which is to partici-
for Chinese Y-Force officers open. pate, is transferred to 9 Corps. In U.S. II Corps
I RAN U.S. AAF takes responsibility for as- area, 1st and 9th Divs continue futile efforts to
sembling aircraft for USSR at Abadan Air Base. clear Gumtree and Gabs roads.
[ 59 APRIL 1943 ] [ 103 ]

Br Eighth Army, preparing for assault on Wadi Corps completes preparations for assault on Fon-
Akarit line, has nearly 500 tanks concentrated in douk, designed to block northward retreat of enemy
the region. from Akarit line. Commanding officers reach agree-
ment on final details and decide to open attack at
5 April 0300 on 8th. U.S. II Corps makes contact with Br
Eighth Army and SE Algerian Command on
BURMAJapanese gain control of Mayu Penin- GafsaGabs road. TF Benson, ordered to push for-
sula as far N as Indin and overrun hq of 6th Brig. ward relentlessly and without regard to cost, ad-
By this time, Ind 26th Div has taken over the front vances steadily SE toward Gabs and in afternoon
from Ind 14th Div. makes contact with 10 Corps of Br Eighth Army,
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps then pulls back to help mop up. 9th Div begins
area, stalemate continues as enemy halts all efforts movement to Bou Chebka area, night 78, turning
of 1st and 9th Divs to advance. II Corps takes pre- over its sector to 1st Div, which is to conduct
cautionary measures to meet enemy attack, which mopping up.
hostile concentrations are interpreted to indicate. Br Eighth Army, with 30 Corps on right and 10
When no attack materializes, it is correctly antici- Corps on left, pursues rapidly retreating enemy
pated that enemy is preparing instead to withdraw. northward to general line CekhiraSedkret en
Gen Ernest Harmon assumes command of 1st Armd Noual.
Div, replacing Gen Ward. In Br First Army area, 5 Corps opens offensive
In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, 4th Div assumes to clear BdjaMedjez el Bab road and thereby
command of sector NE of Bdja. remove enemy threat to Medjez. 78th Div, with
close air and arty support, begins attack N of Oued
6 April Zarga.
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps 8 April
area, while 1st and 9th Divs press forward toward T UNISIA 18 Army Group: 9 Corps opens at-
general line intended originally for first phase, TF tack on Fondouk before dawn, U.S. 34th Div and
Benson of 1st Armd Div follows up closely and elements of 46th Div leading off in effort to clear
reaches road junction NE of Djebel Berda. As a gap through which 6th Armd Div is to debouch for
diversion in the Maknassy area, CCB attacks Djebel drive on Kairouan. On the N, 128th Brig of 46th
Mazila, and CCC demonstrates at Djebel Naemia. Div advances through hills E of Pichon to Djebel
After nightfall enemy disengages and for the most Rhorab. S of gap, 34th Div, with 135th Inf on N
part withdraws eastward under cover of arty fire. and 133d on S, is prevented by intense ground and
II Corps is ordered to apply maximum pressure air bombardment from reaching its first objective,
on 7th. lower slopes of Djebel el Haouareb, although tanks
Br Eighth Army begins assault on Wadi Akarit are committed in support of infantry. Attack is sup-
line, from which enemy begins withdrawing, night ported by arty fire, beginning at dawn, but sched-
67. 30 Corps jumps off before dawn with 51st Div uled air attacks are canceled because of weather
on right, 50th in center, and Ind 4th on left. Prog- conditions.
ress is made, particularly on flanks, but tenacious In Br First Army area, Fr 19th Corps, ordered to
resistance and counterattacks prevent a complete seize Djebel Ousselat and Eastern Dorsal in order
breakthrough. 10 Corps, which is to drive through to assist attack of Br 9 Corps, advances to positions
30 Corps bridgehead, moves forward at noon. N and NE of Pichon. 5 Corps is methodically clear-
NZ 2d Div, which reverts to corps, leads drive. ing mountainous region N of BdjaMedjez el Bab
7 April 9 April
SOLOMON Is.Intensifying their aerial offensive T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In 9 Corps area,
against Allied shipping and aircraft, Japanese at- while infantry of 46th and U.S. 34th Divs continue
tack Guadalcanal area in force, employing 71 bomb- efforts to clear heights dominating Fondouk Pass,
ers and 117 fighters. 3 Allied vessels are sunk: NZ 6th Armd Div is committed at 1500 to speed the
corvette Moa, U.S. oiler Kanawha, and U.S. DD operation and succeeds in forcing the pass, but at
Aaron Ward. Japanese plane losses in this action far heavy cost in tanks. Meanwhile, 128th Brig of 46th
outnumber Allied losses of 7 fighters. Div clears Djebel Rhorab, U.S. 34th Div is unable to
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: All available air- clear Djebel el Haouareb during day but gains its
craft of XII Air Support Command and WDAF crest in night attack by 1st Bn, 133d Inf. 1st Armd
attack enemy, who is retreating in all sectors. 9 Div, U.S. II Corps, moves northward to positions
[ 104 ] [ 1015 APRIL 1943 ]

N of Sidi Bou Zid, leaving RCT 60 to hold 12 April

Maknassy sector. N EW G UINEA Japanese make heavy air at-
Br Eighth Army continues pursuit of enemy tack on Port Moresby but do little damage.
northward along Gabs Gulf, 30 Corps, in coastal T UNISIA 18 Army Group: It is agreed that
sector, reaching positions a few miles short of Sfax. U.S. II Corps will remain under command of 18
In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, 78th Div takes Army Group rather than Br First Army, but First
Chaouach, mountain village 4 miles NW of Medjez Army is to issue the necessary orders for U.S. II
el Bab. Corps in order to coordinate its operations with
First Armys drive on Tunis.
10 April In Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomery, in
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Gen Alexanders response to request from Gen Alexander for rein-
draft plan of 8 April for final offensive in Tunisia, forcements for Br First Army, selects 1st Armd Div
Operation VULCAN, is officially approved. Br. First and Kings Dragoon Gds for the mission. 10 Corps
Army is to make main attack on Tunis. Br Eighth captures Sousse and continues N.
Army is to exert pressure to S and cut off Cap Bon In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, U.S. 9th Div
from Tunis. U.S. II Corps, from positions on N begins relief of 46th Div. 78th Div continues clear-
flank of Br First Army, is to drive on Bizerte in con- ing region NW of Medjez el Bab.
junction with Br First Armys assault on Tunis. Fr
19th Corps is to operate on extreme S flank of Br 13 April
First Army under First Army command. SE Alger- TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br Eighth Army
ian Command, pinched out after junction of U.S. area, advance elements of 10 Corps, continuing N
II Corps with Br Eighth Army, is dissolved; its along coast, reach AT ditch guarding enemys next
components are to operate under Fr 19th Corps. delaying position at Enfidaville. Subsequent ef-
9 Corps is to be under command of Br First Army. forts, on a limited scale, to force enemy from his
9 Corps 6th Armd Div drives quickly toward Enfidaville position before it can be strengthened
Kairouan, overcoming resistance S of that town. are futile.
U.S. II Corps CCA, 1st Armd Div, advancing N
through Rebaou Pass, makes contact with 34th Div 14 April
E of Fondouk. N E W G U I N E A Japanese conclude series of
Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps takes Sfax and con- heavy air strikes on New Guinea with strong attack
tinues N to La Hencha. on Milne Bay that causes little damage.
In Br First Army area, Fr 19th Corps now con- T UNISIA 18 Army Group: 9 Corps moves to
trols Djeloula Pass, between Ousseltia and Kairouan. assembly area SW of Teboursouk.
5 Corps continues to clear heights dominating In Br First Armys 9 Corps area, U.S. 9th Div
BdjaMedjez el Bab road. assumes command of 46th Div sector. 4th Div, in its
first action, has been exerting pressure against enemy
11 April N of Hunts Gap in conjunction with 78th Divs
NEW GUINEA Two Allied merchant ships are attack and has reached hills just SW of Sidi Nsir.
lost to enemy aircraft that attack Oro Bay in 78th Div takes commanding ridges, Djebel el
strength. Ang and Djebel Tanngouche, some 8 miles N of
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: 9 Corps 6th Armd Medjez. Fr 19th Corps has driven enemy from
Div occupies Kairouan unopposed and makes con- Eastern Dorsal as far as 10 miles N of Pichon.
tacts with Br Eighth Army. In U.S. II Corps area,
9th Div moves N to Br 5 Corps zone. 1st Div, which 15 April
is to follow 9th to N flank of Br First Army, moves ALEUTIAN IS .Initial elements of 7th Div begin
to Morsott. 1st Armd Div remains in SbetlaFad embarkation for Attu operation. Reserve force
region. (RCT 32, less one bn) sails for Adak. Prov bn, con-
In Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomery holds sisting of 7th Scout Co and 7th Rcn Tr, less one
30 Corps hq and 7th Armd and 51st Inf Divs in platoon, leaves for Dutch Harbor where it is to
reserve in Sfax area; sends Ind 4th Div and 50th transfer to a DD and 2 submarines for last lap of
Div N to join 10 Corps. Some elements of 10 Corps journey.
make contact with 6th Armd Div of 9 Corps near RUSSELL Is.First of 2 airfields is completed on
Kairouan while others continue northward toward Banika I.
Sousse. 1st Armd Div remains in place in Faucon- T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Gen Bradley as-
nerie area. sumes command of U.S. II Corps, replacing Lt Gen
[ 1622 APRIL 1943 ] [ 105 ]

George S. Patton, Jr., who returns to his previous 5 miles W of Hedous. Corps Franc dAfrique is
task of preparing for invasion of Sicily. attached to 9th Div and given zone on extreme N.
In Br First Army area, 5 Corps 78th Div loses In Br First Army area, 5 Corps N boundary is
Djebels el Ang and Tanngouche to enemy counter- shifted S as U.S. II Corps takes over coastal region.
attack but recaptures former and part of latter. Fr 19th Corps, holding line KarachoumDjebel
EdjehafW of Djebel Mansour, is maintaining
16 April patrol contact with Br Eighth Army on right.
Br Eighth Army opens assault on enemys Enfi-
C HINA Japanese 11th Army is concentrating daville position af ter intensive preparator y
forces for offensive to gain control of river shipping bombardment. To Corps jumps off at 2130, with
on Upper Yangtze in W Hupeh Province. 50th Div on right, NZ 2d Div in center, and Ind
T UNISIA WDAF, including U.S. Ninth Air 4th Div reinf by L Force on left. 7th Armd Div
Force, begins operating from airfields near Kairouan guards W flank. Enemy is initially forced to give
and Sousse. ground.
18 Army Group: Issues instructions for coming
offensive to capture Tunis and Bizerte. U.S. II
Corps hq moves from Gafsa to region 2 miles NW 20 April
of Bdja. 1st Armd Div starts to Br 9 Corps zone, T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Army
arty being first unit to go. area, as 5 and 9 Corps are preparing for assault on
Br Eighth Army abandons attempts to force Tunis, German tank-infantry force counterattacks
enemy, by quick jabs, from his Enfidaville position sharply, night 2021, in region between Medjez el
and prepares to make large-scale effort on night Bab and Goubellat.
1920. In Br Eighth Army area, 10 Corps, continuing
In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, 78th Div offen- attack on Enfidaville line, takes Enfidaville and
sive has gained depth of 10 miles on 10-mile front pushes northward on right but is checked on left at
and has freed Medjez el Bab from enemy threat. Djebel Garci by stubborn opposition.
U.S. 1st Div begins relief of 4th Div NE of Bdja.
21 April
18 April A LEUTIAN I S .Adm Kinkaid issues Operation
Order I43, providing over-all plan for capture of
S OLOMON Is.Adm Yamamoto is killed when Attu.
P38s from Guadalcanal shoot down plane flying TUNISIA 18 Army Group: Completes prepara-
him from Rabaul to the Solomons for an inspection tions for main V ULCAN assault. U.S. 34th Div,
visit. having trained vigorously in vicinity of Fondouk
M EDITERRANEAN In Operation F LAX , Allied and Maktar, begins night marches, 2122, to new
planes, which have been conducting offensive to zone of U.S. II Corps.
disrupt flow of German air transport from Italy and In Br First Army area, enemy counterattack in
Sicily to Tunisia since 5 April, have a particularly Medjez el BabGoubellat area ends in costly failure.
good day, destroying 5070 of some 100 enemy trans- This action delays by a few hours jump-off of 46th
port planes and 16 of the escort for loss of 6 P40s Div, 9 Corps, on 22d.
and a Spitfire. Operation FLAX, while contributing Br Eighth Army concludes offensive operations
materially to the success of Operation VULCANfinal in Tunisia. 10 Corps is so bitterly opposed at Tak-
ground offensive to clear Tunisiahad been planned rouna that Gen Montgomery decides late in day to
originally for February, before VULCAN plans had confine offensive to coastal region. Army subse-
been formulated. In preparation for V ULCAN , other quently regroups while holding current positions;
Allied planes intensify efforts against enemy air- offensive is never renewed.
fields, beginning night 1819.
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Br Eighth Army 22 April
releases 1st Armd Div to Br First Army in prepara-
tion for VULCAN. T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Br First Army be-
gins final phase of Tunisia Campaign. 5 Corps,
making main effort astride the Medjerda, attacks
19 April enemy positions N and S of Medjez el Bab. 78th
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Plan for main as- Div attacks to seize rest of Djebel Tanngouche on
sault on Tunis and Bizerte, to begin on 22d, is left; on right begins northeastward drive along
outlined. U.S. II Corps assumes command of new Djebel el Ahmera (Longstop) ridge. To S, 1st
zone on N flank of Allied line at 1800, with front and 4th Divs attack astride Medjez el BabTunis
extending from coast E of Cap Serrat to Hill 667, highway, 1st Div clearing hamlet of Grich el Oued
[ 106 ] [ 2326 APRIL 1943 ]

and 4th Div, Goubellat. 9 Corps attacks on Goubel- T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
lat plain, between Medjez el Bab and Bou Arada, in area, 9th Div continues to press toward Jefna posi-
effort to destroy enemys armored reserve and sup- tion. On N, RCT 60 takes Djebel Dardyss. RCT
port 5 Corps to N. 46th Div advances steadily in 39, in center, suffers heavy casualties as it battles
region N of Sebkret el Kourzia but is hampered SW determined enemy on Djebel Anchouna. 1st Div
of these salt marshes by enemy defenses and mines. places softening fire on Hill 575 (Kef el Goraa)
6th Armd Div is committed in late afternoon and throughout day and to right, in sector of RCT 16,
upon attacking through infantry is strongly opposed secures hill positions and thus removes threat of
by enemy armor. envelopment. RCT 18 seizes Hill 407 while 6th
Armd Inf fights vigorously for Hill 388. Germans
23 April begin withdrawal from 1st Div front during night
NEW GUINEA Aus Kanga Force in Mubo area 2425. At the same time RCT 168, 34th Div, takes
is dissolved and Aus 3d Div takes over. Stalemate over N flank positions of 1st Div.
exists in this sector, where Australians hold broken In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, 78th Div con-
line MuboKomiatumBobdubi. tinues to clear Djebel el Ahmera while 1st and 4th
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps be- Divs press eastward astride Medjez el BabTunis
gins drive on Bizerte early in morning, making highway. In 9 Corps area, indecisive tank and in-
main effort on right. On N flank, 9th Div, reinf fantry battles continue on Goubellat plain. Little
by Corps Franc dAfrique, which is disposed along progress is made, although 1st Armd Div is com-
coast on extreme N and directed on Kef en Nsour, mitted and follows 6th Armd Div E.
attacks toward Jefna position on highway between
Djebel Abiod and Mateur, key points of which are
Djebel Azag (Green Hill) and Djebel Ajred (Bald 25 April
Hill). While RCT 47 conducts holding action along T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
highway, RCTs 39 and 60 make outflanking attacks area, RCT 39 of 9th Div finishes clearing Djebel
in hills to N, RCT 39 attacking toward Djebel Anchouna. Enemy begins withdrawal from 9th
Anchouna and RCT 60, farther N, pushing east- Div zone night 2526. RCT 168, 34th Div, moves
ward from Djebels Mergueb and Msid. Satisfactory forward in conjunction with 1st Div units to right,
progress is made on div flanks, but RCT 39 is slowed taking over mopping-up operations. 1st Div follows
in center by stubborn opposition on Djebel up enemy withdrawal on S flank of corps. RCT 26
Anchouna. On S flank of II Corps, 1st Div, reinf occupies Hill 575 early in day and presses on to
by 6th Armd Inf of 1st Armd Div, which is dis- Djebel Touta. Advance elements of RCT 18 reach
posed on extreme S, attacks toward Djebel Sidi W end of Djebel Sidi Meftah. 6th Armd Inf takes
Meftah. On N, RCT 26 attempts to take Hill 575 previously contested hills on S side of Tine R and
(Kef el Goraa) but is halted short of it. In center, patrols eastward.
RCT 16 fights indecisively for Hill 400. On S, In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, Hedous falls to
RCT 18 begins clearing N side of the Tine, and 78th Div. 9 Corps continues tank battles in vicinity
attached 6th Armd Inf is similarly employed S of of Sebkret el Kourzia without appreciable success
the river; enemy is driven from Hill ago but retains within its own zone, but forcing enemy to withdraw
Hill 407, to NW. exposed salient to right. Fr 19th Corps makes sub-
In Br First Army area, 5 Corps 78th Div clears stantial progress as enemy withdraws salient S of
enemy remnants from Djebel Tanngouche and con- Bou AradaPontdu Fahs road.
tinues along Djebel el Ahmera ridge, clearing all but
NE slopes. In 9 Corps area, tank battles continue 26 April
on Goubellat plain, where enemy is bringing mobile
reserves forward. A LEUTIAN I S .U.S. surface force bombards
U.K.CCS issue directive for establishment of enemy installations at Chichagof Harbor and Holtz
an Anglo-American staff to plan for invasion of Bay, Attu. This is the second naval bombardment
western Europe. Lt Gen Sir Frederick E. Morgan, of Attu.
as Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander SWPAGHQ issues E LKTON III, superseding
(designate), is to head the new headquarters. The two previous E LKTON plans, calling for mutually
initial letters of his title, COSSAC, come to stand supporting advances in S Pacific and SWPA toward
for his office. Rabaul, the whole operation being under the code
24 April T UNISIA 18 Army Group: On U.S. II Corps
U.S.Main body of Attu invasion force sails 9th Div front, RCT 60 swings NE toward Kef en
from San Francisco for Cold Harbor, Alaska. Nsour, previous objective of Corps Franc dAfrique,
[ 27 APRIL1 MAY 1943 ] [ 107 ]

rather than SE toward Jefna position as planned, Divs. While 34th Divs RCT 168 clears Djebel el
since French are unable to advance in region N of Hara, RCT 135 occupies Hill 490 and withstands
Djebel Dardyss. RCT 39, now solely responsible for counterattacks against it. In conjunction with 34th
outflanking the Jefna position, takes Hill Sri, SE of Div, RCT 16 of 1st Div secures foothold on Hill
Djebel Anchouna. Continuing holding action along 531, S of 609. RCT 26 reaches Djebel el Anz against
highway, RCT 47 finds enemy disposed in force on strong resistance. RCT 18, to S, clears part of Djebel
Hill 598, SW of Djebel Aired. 34th Div takes over Sidi Meftah. On corps S flank, CCA of 1st Armd
zone in Djebel GrembilHill 575 region, between Div takes Hill 315 and part of Hill 299, where
9th and 1st Divs, and prepares for drive on Hill 609 enemy is resisting strongly.
(Djebel Tahent). Enemy positions on hills in this In Br First Army area, 5 Corps is largely suc-
area are being softened by arty fire. On S flank, 1st cessful in containing enemy counterattacks along its
Div gains its initial objectives, permitting 1st Armd front.
Div to take over Tine valley zone at 2200 in prepa-
ration for armored drive through enemys second 29 April
line of defense to Mateur. TUNISIA 18 Army Group: Gen Alexander de-
In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, 78th Div fin- cides to reinforce Br First Army for final push to
ishes clearing Djebel el Ahmera. 1st Div reaches clear rest of Tunisia.
Djebel Bou Aoukaz, 4 miles from Djebel el Ahmera. In U.S. II Corps area, RCT 60 of 9th Div reaches
On main road to Tunis, 4th Div reaches positions 7 Djebel Hazemat, N of Sedjenane R; pushes closer
miles E of Medjez el Bab. 9 Corps is now opposed to Kef en Nsour, S of river. RCT 39 continues out-
on Goubellat plain by 3 enemy armd divs that con- flanking action toward Jefna on N while RCT 47
tain further efforts to advance. 6th Armd Div is patrols actively toward Djebels Azag and Aired,
withdrawn into reserve. Fr 19th Corps continues to reaching W slope of Azag. 34th Div makes limited
pursue enemy northward toward Pont-du-Fahs, progress against Hill 609, getting elements on S
reaching Djebel Fkirine. slopes. RCT 16 of 1st Div begins attack on Hill
523, strongpoint E of Hill 609, but makes little
27 April headway. Rest of 1st Div front is relatively quiet
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps con- as positions on Djebel el Anz and Djebel Sidi Mef-
tinues offensive with 4 divs in assault, its major tah are consolidated. CCA, 1st Armd Div, continues
objective now being the Jefna position, Hill 609 to clear Hill 299 against determined opposition.
(Djebel Tahent), and Mateur. Column of 39th Inf,
9th Div, reaches Hill 382, NW of Djebel Azag, 30 April
where it is stalled for 4 days by firmly entrenched
enemy. 34th Div begins drive on Hill 609: RCT A LEUTIAN I S .Attu assault convoy arrives at
168, on N, reaches slopes of Djebel el Hara; RCT Cold Harbor, where final attack plan is adopted.
135, to right, drives to Hill 490, just W of 609, T U N I S I A 18 Army Group: Gen Alexander
but is forced to withdraw. 1st Div patrols reach calls on Br Eighth Army to supply reinforcements
Djebel el Ang. 1st Armd Div begins attack on S for Br First Army in preparation for final assault.
flank of corps, CCA (6th Armd Inf, reinf) making Gen Montgomery agrees to release 7th Armd Div,
main effort. Attack fails to gain immediate ob- Ind 4th Div, and 201st Gds Brig, all veteran units.
jectivesHills 299 and 315, NE of Djebel el Ang U.S. II Corps makes substantial gains: On N,
and elements are forced back from Hill 312, from RCT 60 of 9th Div takes Djebel Guermach, a short
which attack on Hill 315 was made. distance from Kef en Nsour; RCT 39 seizes the
In Br First Army area, 5 Corps advance is strongly contested Hill 382 and other heights N of
checked by series of determined enemy counter- the Jefna position. 34th Div drives to summit of Hill
attacks. 4th Div is forced to withdraw its left flank 609 in tank-supported assault but is subjected to in-
at Ksar Tyr. tense fire there. RCT 16, 1st Div, takes a hills E of
Hill 609 but loses both to persistent counterattacks;
28 April 1st Armd Div provides tank assistance in the area.
On S flank, 1st Armd Div retains Hill 299 under
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
enemy fire, but the hill is not yet entirely free of
area, 9th Div continues E astride the Sedjenane,
reaching Kraim Lerhmed on N and Kef Saban on
S. RCT 39 clears hills generally N of Hill 382, but
enemy retains 382. In center of II Corps area, main 1 May
effort is made to clear approaches to Hill 609, which T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Begins regrouping
is hampering forward movement of 34th and 1st for final offensive.
[ 108 ] [ 26 MAY 1943 ]

In U.S. II Corps area, enemy finds positions fac- T U N I S I A 18 Army Group: U.S. II Cor ps
ing corps untenable and begins withdrawal, night pushes forward in preparation for full-scale drive
12. 9th Div suspends offensive on N flank of corps. on Bizerte on 6th. On N flank, 9th Div and Corps
In center, Germans make vain efforts to regain Hill Franc dAfrique get into position for advance on
609. On S, enemy remnants are cleared from Hill Bizerte over hills N of Garaet Achkel. Corps
299, and 1st Armd Div is ready for drive on Mateur. dAfrique improves positions W of Djebel Cheniti,
In Br First Army area, Fr 19th Corps reorganizes commanding ridge just N of Garaet Achkel. To
for final push with 3 divs: from left to right, right, 1st Armd Div, whose next objective is Ferry-
Algerian, Moroccan, and Oran. ville, patrols actively from Mateur. Enemy is sub-
jecting Mateur to heavy air attacks. 91st Rcn Sq
2 May begins limited offensive for Djebel Achkel, a pre-
cipitous hill just S of Garaet Achkel commanding
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps Mateur-Ferryville area, and meets strong opposition.
area, 9th Divs RCT 60 occupies Kef en Nsour as On S flank of II Corps, 34th Div patrols unevent-
enemy withdraws speedily toward Bizerte. fully to Eddekhila in preparation for attack on
Chougui Pass.
3 May
U.S.Gen Marshall transmits to Gen Stilwell 5 May
President Roosevelts decision to make major U.S. T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps
air effort in China and to continue preparation for area, RCT 47 of 9th Div paves way for direct as-
a modified ANAKIM (recapture of Burma). sault on Djebel Cheniti by clearing hilly region NW
MEDITERRANEAN Gen Eisenhower decides that of it. 81st Rcn Sq, 1st Armd Div, gains control of
Br and U.S. forces to be employed in Operation Djebel Achkel, but enemy remains on its E slopes
HUSKY shall land abreast on SE coast of Sicily. A until 11th. 1st Div moves forward to W bank of the
period of indecision by H USKY planners (Force Tine facing Djebel Douimiss. 34th Div reconnoiters
141) as to landing sites thus ends. toward Eddekhila in force against strong opposition.
T U N I S I A 18 Army Group: Gen Alexander In Br First Armys 5 Corps area, 1st Div, with
outlines to Gen K. A. N. Anderson his plan for effective air and arty support, attacks Djebel Bou
final attack. 9 Corps, with 2 infantry and 2 armd Aoukaz, on E bank of Medjerda R between Medjez
divs in assault, is to make main effort, thrusting el Bab and Tebourba, in order to cover left flank of
directly toward Tunis along road from Medjez el 9 Corps as it drives on Tunis on 6th. The position
Bab. Lightning attack is planned in order to split is secured during bitter and costly fighting.
and destroy enemy rather than compress his bridge-
head, since schedule for invasion of Sicily requires 6 May
quick conclusion of N African operations.
In U.S. II Corps area, 81st Armd Rcn Bn, fol- SWPAGHQ issues Warning Instructions for
lowed by other elements of 1st Armd Div, ad- Operation C ARTWHEEL , drive on Rabaul.
vances to Mateur as enemy is withdrawing from it T UNISIA 18 Army Group opens final assault,
and quickly secures the town. 34th Div moves east- V ULCAN , before dawn. Offensive is supported by
ward toward Chougui, making no contact with massed arty fire, which at dawn is supplemented
enemy. with the most intensive air bombardment yet em-
ETOGen Andrews, CG ETOUSA, is killed ployed in N Africa.
in plane crash in Iceland. Lt Gen Jacob L. Devers In U.S. II Corps area, while 47th Inf of 9th Div
is subsequently chosen to replace him. continues to clear hills N of Djebel Cheniti, 60th
Inf passes through Corps Franc dAfrique for
frontal assault on Djebel Cheniti and clears most of
4 May it. CCA (6th Armd Inf, reinf) of 1st Armd begins
A LEUTIAN I S .Attu invasion convoy leaves attack on hills E of MateurFerryville road; takes
Cold Harbor for target, a day behind schedule be- first ridge (Djebel el Messeftine), but loses it in
cause of poor weather conditions. D Day is conse- counterattack. CCB ( 13th Armd Inf, reinf), to
quently postponed to 8 May. As the convoy later right, protects flank of CCA and starts E along
approaches Attu, strong winds force a further post- MateurDjededa road. 1st Div, employing 18th
ponement of D Day to 11 May. and 26th Regts and with Co H of 1st Armd Regt
B URMA Continuing infiltration tactics, Japa- in support, attacks across the Tine to clear Djebel
nese are now established on ButhidaungMaungdaw Douimiss hills but is forced to withdraw to W bank,
road and resisting efforts of Br Imperial forces to during night 67, where it conducts holding action.
oust them. 3d Div ( RCT 7), upon arrival from Morocco,
[ 711 MAY 1943 ] [ 109 ]

assembles behind 1st Div for possible commitment. Goubellat area. 5 Corps 1st Div and Ind 4th Div
34th Divs 168th and 133d Regts drive beyond Ed- press eastward in conjunction with Fr 19th Corps.
dekhila. Fr 19th Corps is meeting firm resistance in hilly
In Br First Army area, 9 Corps opens attack Zaghouan area.
toward Tunis with Br 4th and Ind 4th Divs abreast,
latter on left, on narrow front. After enemy line is 9 May
breached, 6th and 7th Armd Divs pass through in- CBIGen Wheeler, CG SOS, is directed to
fantry and push on to Massicault, about half way to take charge of U.S. portion of Assam airfield project.
Tunis. Enemy attempts unsuccessfully to establish T UNISIA 18 Army Group: U.S. II Corps re-
new line from Djededa to St. Cyprien. ceives unconditional surrender of enemy within its
zone. Thousands of prisoners, including 6 generals,
7 May are taken. 1st Armd Div drives to coast on left
B URMA Ind 26th Div withdraws NW from and makes contact with Br 7th Armd Div on right.
Buthidaung under pressure. Br First Army continues to meet resistance in
T U N I S I A 18 Army Group: Overruns both region S of U.S. II Corps zone. 9 Corps 6th Armd
Tunis and Bizerte, splitting enemy forces. Div is still held up at Hamman Lif defile. Fr 19th
In U.S. II Corps area, 9th Div finishes clearing Corps battles enemy in Zaghouan area.
Djebel Cheniti and adjacent hills to N; reconnoiters M EDITERRANEAN Preparations are begun for
toward Bizerte as enemy resistance on N front conquest of Pantelleria (Operation C ORKSCREW ),
collapses. Rcn elements of 894th TD Bn, followed largely by air and sea bombardment, before invasion
closely by elements of 751st Tank Bn, enter Bizerte, of Sicily (Operation Husky) in order to remove
where they find few enemy but many mines and this threat to H USKY and gain an airfield from
booby traps. Ferryville falls to 1st Armd Div; ele- which to support HUSKY. NAAF is directed to make
ments driving E to cut TunisBizerte road reach its full strength available for the operation. Fleet
Oued ben Hassine and take bridge intact. 34th Div Adm A. B. Cunningham is to provide surface strik-
ing force and naval protection for movement of
drives toward Chougui defile but is stopped a
assault troopsBr 1st Inf Divand maintain close
little short of it by enemy on Hill 242; enemy
naval blockade about the island. D Day is tentatively
abandons the pass before dawn of 8th.
set as 11 June.
In Br First Armys 9 Corps area, 7th and 6th
Armd Divs continue NE from Massicault, overrun- 10 May
ning St. Cyprien and Le Bardo; Derbyshire Yeomanry
and 11th Hussars enter Tunis in afternoon. Fr 19th A LEUTIAN I S .Japanese, alerted to expect as-
Corps occupies Pont-du-Fahs. sault on Attu during past week, decide that it will
not be forthcoming and slacken their defenses.
TUNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys
8 May 9 Corps area, 6th Armd Div forces Hamman Lif de-
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In U.S. II Corps file in morning and thrusts rapidly to Hammamet,
area, Corps Franc dAfrique makes official entry cutting off Cap Bon Peninsula. Advance is con-
into Bizerte. RCT 47 of 9th Div also enters, but tinued toward Bou Ficha.
withdraws while French mop up. 1st Armd Div
pushes E in region S of Lac de Bizerte, clearing 11 May
Djebel Sidi Mansour. Left flank elements, upon A LEUTIAN I S .U.S. 7th Div lands at widely
reaching TunisBizerte road, drive N to Menzel separated points on Attu. Dense fog limits naval
Djemil. Column on right flank moves toward Prot- gunfire and air support, but helps infantry achieve
ville to establish contact with British moving NE complete tactical surprise. 17th Inf (less BLT 1),
from Tunis and reaches Hill III, about midway with 2d Bn of 32d Inf attached as reserve, makes
between Mateur and Protville. main landing of Southern Landing Force on coast of
In Br First Armys 9 Corps area, while 7th Armd Massacre Bay (Beaches Blue and Yellow) in after-
Div pushes northward toward U.S. II Corps zone noon; 2d and 3d Bns of 17th Inf push rapidly north-
from Tunis, 6th Armd Div, followed by 4th Div, ward up Massacre Valley toward Jarmin (Massacre
drives SE toward Hammamet in effort to prevent Holtz Bay) Pass until pinned down about 1900 by
enemy from making final stand on Cap Bon Pen- intense enfilading fire from heights surrounding the
insula and is halted abruptly at narrow Hamman valley. Platoon of 7th Rcn Tr makes subsidiary land-
Lif defile by enemy rear guards bent on keeping ing at Alexai Pt and joins main body at Massacre
this line of retreat open. 1st Armd Div, released to Bay without opposition. BLT 1, 17th Infthe main
9 Corps from army reserve, is pushing NE from assault group of Northern Landing Forcegoes
[ 110 ] [ 1215 MAY 1943 ]

ashore at end of W arm of Holtz Bay (Beach Red) 13 May

in afternoon; pushes southward toward Jarmin Pass U.S.CCS, at T RIDENT Conference, approve
to within 800 yards of its first objective, hill mass final outline plan for invasion of Sicily (Husky).
called Hill X, virtually unopposed. Prov Bn (7th Br and U.S. forces are to land abreast between Syra-
Scout Co and 7th Rcn Tr, less one platoon) makes cuse on SE coast and Palma on S coast on 10 July.
subsidiary landing on N coast W of Holtz Bay A L E U T I A N I S .On Attu, further efforts of
(Beach Scarlet) before dawn and moves inland un- Massacre Bay force to break into Jarmin Pass are
opposed toward Jarmin Pass. Gen Brown, 7th Div repelled by enemy. Positions remain about the same
CG, arrives on Massacre beach and orders assault as those gained on D Day, although 2d Bn of 32d
on Jarmin Pass for 12th. Mud of Attu immobilizes Inf is committed. Vicious and costly fighting occurs
trucks and tractors. to N as enemy attempts to drive 7th Div troops from
CBIMonsoon brings work on Ledo Road to Hill X, but crest is firmly in American hands by
a halt about 47 miles from Ledo. nightfall. 3d Bn, 32d Inf, lands on Beach Red to rein-
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: In Br First Armys force the Holtz Bay force. Naval gunfire and air
9 Corps area, uneventful sweep around Cap Bon support of troops continues insofar as weather con-
Peninsula by 4th Div reveals that no important ditions permit.
enemy forces are there. 6th Armd Div reaches Bou N EW G UINEA Japanese begin new series of
Ficha. In Fr 19th Corps area, Axis resistance is heavy air attacks.
weakening in Zaghouan sector.
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: With surrender of
Gen Messe, Rommels successor, who is notified of
12 May his promotion to marshal on this date, Tunisia
ferencePresident Roosevelt, Prime Minister
Churchill, and Combined Chiefs of Staffopens in
Washington to reconsider strategy in the light of 14 May
recent events in Tunisia, the Aleutians, and the A LEUTIAN I S .On Attu, Massacre Bay force,
USSR. employing 2d Bn of 32d Inf on left and 3d Bn of
A LEUTIAN I S .On Attu, 7th Div, with naval 17th on right, continues fruitless and costly efforts
gunfire and air support, continues 2-pronged thrusts to break into Jarmin Pass. Holtz Bay force prepares
toward Jarmin Pass. Frontal attacks from Massacre for strong southward attack but postpones it since
Bay beachhead fail to gain ground. Patrols are prob- 3d Bn of 32d Inf is unable to reach attack positions
ing to develop enemy positions. 2d Bn, 32d Inf, in time. Adverse weather conditions limit air sup-
goes ashore at Massacre Bay. Northern Force, find- port of troops, but surface vessels continue to bom-
ing enemy in prepared positions on Hill X, makes bard enemy positions.
double envelopment attack and gains foothold on P ANTELLERIA Mediterranean Air Command
crest. orders sea and air blockade of the island.
S OLOMON Is.Allied surface vessels bombard
Vila and Munda, night 1213.
CBIFirst Arakan campaign ends where it 15 May
started as Ind 26th Div evacuates Maungdaw for U.S.CCS decide to give first priority to con-
defensive positions to N. Cost in casualties has been struction of Assam airfields; set goal of 7,000 tons a
heavy. Factors contributing to the failure of this month to China, to be reached by 1 July.
campaign have been the cancellation of Chinese A LEUTIAN I S .3d Bn, 17th Inf, is withdrawn
drive into Burma from Yunnan plus unexpectedly from Massacre Bay line on Attu, leaving 2d Bn,
limited action of 4 Corps from Assam. 32d, to continue attack. No progress is made, de-
T UNISIA 18 Army Group: Collapse of enemy spite close arty support before and after jump-off.
resistance in the S is all but complete by nightfall. Dense fog postpones attack of Holtz Bay force until
Enemy is surrendering en masse, among them Gen 1100. As fog is lifting it is discovered that enemy
von Arnim, General Officer CinC, Army Group has withdrawn to ridge in center of valley, abandon-
Africa. ing prepared positions and quantities of food and
In Br First Armys g Corps area, organized resist- ammunition. Pursuit of enemy across open valley
ance collapses as 6th Armd Div drives S from Bou is slowed by enemy fire from commanding heights
Ficha. Br Eighth Armys 56 Div co-operates by and is further handicapped by an Allied air strike
shelling from S. Isolated pockets of enemy remain that hits 7th Div forces by mistake. Prov bn that
NW of Enfidaville. Resistance in Fr 19th Corps landed on Beach Scarlet on D Day joins main north-
zone ceases. ern force.
[ 1622 MAY 1943 ] [ 111 ]

CHINABecause of Japanese action in central 19 May

China, Chiang Kai-shek orders Gen Chen to return A LEUTIAN I S .On Attu, 2d Bn of 17th Inf,
to defend Ichang area. assisted by Co C of 32d Inf, begins attack before
dawn to capture pass (later called Clevesy Pass after
Lt Samuel H. Clevesy of Co H) into Sarana Valley.
16 May After heavy fighting in which 2d Bn of 32d Inf is
ALEUTIAN IS.In an effort to speed operations committed, the pass is cleared by nightfall, but
on Attu, Maj Gen Eugene M. Landrum assumes enemy remains on crests of 2 peaks overlooking it.
command of assault force, relieving Gen Brown. On N front, Co L of 32d Inf begins operations to
Holtz Bay force secures foothold on N end of Holtz clear the high HoltzChichagof Pass at base of Fish
Valley ridge, thereby gaining control of entire ridge. Hook Ridge, moving from Holtz Bay up steep slope
Japanese, greatly outnumbered by Americans and in of the valley against enemy fire.
danger of being taken from the rear, withdraw dur-
ing night 1617 toward Chichagof Harbor for final 20 May
stand. Most of Adm Rockwells naval force retires U.S.CCS accept T RIDENT recommendations
northward to safer waters. Gen Landrum directs for CBI.
Capt H. B. Knowles, USN, to assume control of the A LEUTIAN I S .On S front, Co G of 17th Inf
remaining vessels; takes over air-ground control. clears one of the 2 peaks dominating Clevesy Pass
G ERMANY RAF Lancasters, in highly success- in morning, but efforts of 2d Bn and CO C of 32d
ful night operation, 1617, attack and breach Inf to take the other fail. Co E of 32d Inf then
Moehne and Eder dams, flooding large portions of moves forward for night enveloping attack, scaling
the Ruhr and disrupting electric and transportation the steep slopes cautiously in effort to take enemy
systems. by surprise. Meanwhile, 1st Bn of 4th Inf moves
through Clevesy Pass to attack heights across upper
part of Sarana Valley and makes substantial prog-
17 May ress. 3d Bn, 17th Inf, patrols along Sarana Valley
A LEUTIAN I S .On Attu, Holtz Bay forces 3d and fires upon enemy located by 1st Bn, 4th Inf.
Bn, 32d Inf, moves forward well before dawn and Northern Force continues to clear preliminary hill
by daylight finds that enemy has withdrawn. Patrols line of Fish Hook Ridge.
report E arm of Holtz Bay free of enemy. Massacre BURMAGen Sir George Giffard replaces Gen
Bay force also finds positions previously defended Irwin as Commander of Eastern Army. Completion
by enemy abandoned and occupies Jarmin Pass. of 3-months mission of Brig Wingates Chindits is
Patrol moves forward in effort to establish contact announced. About a third of the original force has
with Northern Force. been lost. Withdrawal of Chindits into India is com-
pleted early in June. The Wingate expedition, sup-
plied wholly by air, becomes a pattern for future
18 May operations behind enemy lines.
A LEUTIAN I S .Patrol from Massacre Bay front
makes contact with Holtz Bay force before dawn. 21 May
Holtz Bay is put into use by Americans as landing ALEUTIAN IS.On southern front on Attu, Co
phase ends. This improves the supply situation of E of 32d Inf reduces last enemy strongpoint on peak
Northern Force somewhat. Co K of 32d Inf sweeps dominating Clevesy Pass. 1st Bn, 4th Inf, pushes
entire Holtz Bay Valley, making no contact with forward to ridge overlooking SaranaChichagof
enemy. Preparations are made for next phase of Pass and facing Fish Hook Ridge; patrols to mouth
battle-attack on Chichagof Harbor. Northern Force of the pass. After prolonged bombardment by all
patrol attempts unsuccessfully to locate an easier available weapons, Co L of Sad Inf, Northern
route to Chichagof than the HoltzChichagof Pass, Force, takes hill that has been barring its progress
which is commanded by steep Fish Hook Ridge. toward Fish Hook Ridge. Remaining 2 cos of 1st
1st Bn of 4th Inf arrives. Bn, 32d Inf, land on Attu.
P ANTELLERIA Allied planes begin strong air CHINAFinal phase of Japanese expedition in
offensive against Pantelleria that is to continue central China opens.
through 5 June. Porto di Pantelleria and Marghana
airdrome are chief targets. In conjunction with air 22 May
attacks, naval blockade is being maintained about ALEUTIAN IS.Southern Force, in morning at-
the island, virtually isolating it. tack by 3d Bn of 17th Inf, takes rest of high ground
[ 112 ] [ 23 MAY1 JUNE 1943 ]

surrounding entrance to Chichagof Valley. Exploit- 26 May

ing this success, 2d Bn of 32d Inf attacks in after- A LEUTIAN I S .Northern and Southern Forces
noon and drives wedge into entrance of Chichagof are slowly expanding positions on Fish Hook Ridge,
Valley, the easiest approach to Chichagof. Patrol former moving elements to crest via route previously
contact is made with Northern Force, which re- cleared by 2d Bn, 17th Inf. 1st Bn, 4th Inf, joins in
mains in place, consolidating positions. fight for the ridge.
I NDIAGen Wheeler receives directive calling
for expedited program of airfield construction in
Assam. 27 May
USSRMoscow announces dissolution of U.S.Joint Staff Planners direct Joint War
Comintern. Plans Committee to determine troop needs and sug-
gest target dates for invasion of the Marshalls, POA.
23 May A LEUTIAN I S .7th Div. finishes clearing Fish
A LEUTIAN I S .Southern Force, employing 2d Hook Ridge. Fighter strip is being constructed at
Bn of 17th Inf, begins attack on Fish Hook Ridge Alexai Pt.
but is soon pinned down by enemy fire. Strong
patrols of Northern Force attempt unsuccessfully to 28 May
force HoltzSarana Pass. Direct communication be- A LEUTIAN I S .7th Div maintains pressure on
tween Northern and Southern Forces is possible for enemy, who by end of day is compressed into small
first time as wire is laid between the two. Co- part of Chichagof Harbor. Messages requesting Japa-
ordinated attack for the Fish Hook is then planned. nese to surrender are dropped from the air.
T UNISIA 18 Army Group staff is disbanded,
having served its purpose.
29 May
24 May A LEUTIAN I S .Japanese make strong counter-
attack from Chichagof Harbor before dawn, push-
U.S.JCS authorize planning and training for ing rapidly toward Clevesy Pass in effort to break
invasion of Kiska. out into Massacre Valley. Main force of attack is
ALEUTIAN IS.On Attu, efforts of 3d Bn, 32d spent by dawn when enemy, dispersed into small
Inf, and 2d Bn, 17th, to gain Fish Hook Ridge meet groups, is forced to go into hiding.
intense fire and make little headway.

25 May 30 May
I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES T RIDENT Con- ALEUTIAN IS.After a last weak counterattack,
ference in Washington ends. The conferees have organized enemy resistance collapses on Attu. 7th
selected 1 May 1944 as target date for cross-Channel Div reaches shore of Chichagof Harbor without in-
invasion of northwestern Europe (O VERLORD ). cident. U.S. Army force under Brig Gen John E.
Large-scale air offensive from United Kingdom will Copeland occupies Shemya I. without opposition.
precede OVERLORD. In the Mediterranean, operations
following capture of Sicily (H USKY ) are to be de- 31 May
signed to knock Italy out of the war. Ploesti oil fields A LEUTIAN I S . 7th Div is rounding up strag-
are to be bombed from Mediterranean bases. glers of the defeated Japanese garrison of Attu, orig-
Material to China is to be increased and communi- inally numbering about 2,500.
cations with it opened. General approval is given
U.S. Strategic Plan for the Defeat of Japan, calling
for drive on Japan through Central Pacific. 1 June
A LEUTIAN I S .On Attu, Southern Forces 2d A LEUTIAN I S .Plan is formulated for occupa-
Bn, 17th Inf, gains toehold on crest of Fish Hook tion of Kiska. U.S. Eleventh Air Force is to continue
Ridge, breaking through elaborate tunnel system be- to take advantage of every break in the weather to
low summit. Northern Force, attacking with 3d Bn hit Kiska while assault troops are being assembled
of 32d Inf and supported by Cos A and C of 17th, and trained intensively at Fort Ord, California, and
clears trench system on its side of the Fish Hook in the Aleutians. Surface vessels are to assist in the
but is unable to reach crest. softening up program and cover landings.
TUNISIA Combined hq is established at Sousse P ANTELLERIA All-out air offensive against the
by representatives of forces participating in Opera- island continues and is being supplemented with
tion CORKSCREW (conquest of Pantelleria). naval gunfire from small groups of Br vessels.
[ 314 JUNE 1943 ] [ 113 ]

3 June Marshalls are concluded. This arouses unfavorable

S OLOMON Is.Adm Halsey issues basic opera- reaction in some quarters and the suggestion is soon
tions plan for assault on New Georgia Is., in cen- rejected.
tral Solomons, in order to secure Munda airfield, ETOCCS issue directive that officially in-
from which to support subsequent offensive against augurates Combined Bomber Offensive (later des-
N Solomons. Adm Turner is to head amphibious ignated Operation POINTBLANK ) against Germany.
forces. New Georgia Occupation Force (43d Div re-
inf and 1st and 4th Marine Raider bns) is to be un-
11 June
der command of Gen Hester, CG 43d Div. P ANTELLERIA After preparatory naval and air
CHINAJapanese attain their objective of cap- bombardment, Br 1st Div lands on Pantelleria vir-
turing shipping on Upper Yangtze in W Hupeh tually unopposed. Island surrenders unconditionally
and begin withdrawing. at 1735. This is the first occasion on which airpower
ALGERIAFrench announce formation in Algiers has overwhelmed an objective of this type. NAAF,
of French Committee of National Liberation, a during period 8 May to date, has flown 5,285 sorties
provisional government for the French Empire. against the island and dropped 6,200 tons of bombs.
Fall of Pantelleria permits Allied aircraft in Mediter-
ranean to concentrate efforts in direct preparation
5 June for invasion of Sicily (HUSKY).
MEDITERRANEAN Gen Eisenhower orders head L AMPEDUSAAllied planes begin air assault on
of Force 141 (planning staff that is later to become island that continues through night 1112. Br naval
Headquarters, 15th Army Group, under Gen Alex- TF from Pantelleria accompanying an LCI with co
ander) to draw up plans for invasion of Italy. Gen of Coldstream Gds embarked joins aircraft in
Alexander is given command of Br 10 and 5 Corps. bombarding island, night 1112.
G E R M A N Y Attack by Eighth Air Force on
Wilhelmshaven demonstrates the difficulty of day-
6 June light strikes on targets beyond range of fighter escort.
P ANTELLERIA Air action against the island is Although B17 losses are light, intercepting enemy
intensified as second phase of air offensive opens. planes prevent accurate bombing of the submarine-
Main weight of attacks is against coastal batteries building yards.
and gun emplacements.
12 June
7 June SOLOMON Is.Allied planes intercept large force
of attacking enemy planes in Guadalcanal area and
SOLOMON Is.Japanese begin another series of
destroy 31 for loss of 6.
air attacks on Guadalcanal in effort to cut commu-
L AMPEDUSA Surrenders unconditionally after
nications lines. Allied fighters intercept and destroy
further bombardment. Coldstream Gds go ashore
23 planes for loss of 9.
and take charge.

8 June 13 June
ALEUTIAN IS.Fighter strip at Alexai Pt, Attu, CHINA Japanese expedition in central China
is completed. Japanese order Kiska abandoned. U.S. ends.
DD blockade is established about the island and L INOSA Landing party from Br DD accepts
aircraft continue to pound it whenever possible. surrender of island.
P ANTELLERIA Air offensive against the island G ERMANY 60 B17s of Eighth Air Force at-
becomes increasingly intense as invasion date ap- tack Kiel submarine yards and harbor against heav-
proaches. Br naval forces of 8 DDs, 5 CLs, and iest German Air Force opposition yet encountered.
3 torpedo boats bombard shore batteries and harbor 22 B17s are lost in air battle. Main Eighth Air
area. Surrender requests, dropped by aircraft, are Force attack of the day, by 102 B17s on Bremen, is
ignored. lightly opposed.
14 June
10 June NEW GUINEA On or near this date, U.S. 41st
U.S.In preliminary report, Joint War Plans Div forms Coane Force, consisting of 2d and 3d
Committee recommends Marshalls be invaded near Bn, 162d Inf, plus elements of 205th and 218th FA
end of October and Gen MacArthur and Adm Hal- Bns, under Div Arty Commander, Brig Gen Ralph
sey conduct holding actions until operations in the W. Coane.
[ 114 ] [ 1526 JUNE 1943 ]

C HINA For ward echelon hq of U.S. Four- L AMPEDUSAAirfield becomes serviceable.

teenth Air Force is established at Kweilin. GERMANY RAF Lancasters, on first RAF shut-
L AMPIONEBr naval party occupies island with- tle-bombing raid between U.K. and Africa, attack
out opposition. Allies now control all islands in Friedrichshafen, concentrating on industrial targets,
Sicily Strait. and land safely in N Africa. On return trip to
Britain, the planes bomb naval base at Spezia, Italy,
15 June night 2324.
M EDITERRANEAN Gen Giraud is directed by
Gen Eisenhower to name ground forces commander
21 June
and staff to prepare plan for invasion of Corsica A LEUTIAN IS .Airfield on Shemya I. becomes
(F IREBRAND ). Gen Giraud subsequently suggests operational.
Gen Juin as commander. SOLOMON Is.To forestall enemy occupation of
Segi Pt on S tip of New Georgia I., 4th Mar Raider
16 June Bn ( ) sails there from Guadalcanal and lands un-
S OLOMON Is.FO No. I, Hq, New Georgia
Occupation Force, directs seizure of preliminary ob- 22 June
jectives in central Solomons in preparation for cap-
ture of Munda airfield on New Georgia I. D Day is SOLOMON Is.Cos A and D of 103d Inf, 43d
to be 30 June. Some 120 Japanese planes attack Div, and airfield survey force join Mar Raiders on
Guadalcanal, damaging 3 ships, 2 of which must Segi Pt, New Georgia I.
be beached. Intercepting Allied planes, 104 strong, T RO B R I A N D Is.Woodlark TF (112th Cav
exact heavy price, claiming almost 100 enemy air- RCT, reinf) lands advance party on Woodlark I.
craft destroyed. 6 Allied planes are lost. without opposition, night 2223.
G ERMANY Eighth Air Force bombers attack
synthetic rubber plant at Huels in force with par-
17 June ticularly good results. Plant is temporarily put out of
CHINAGen Stilwell presents TRIDENT propos- operation. This is the first large-scale daylight attack
als to Chiang Kai-shek. to be made on the Ruhr.

18 June 23 June
SOLOMON Is.43d Div issues orders for move- T RO B R I A N D Is.Kiriwina TF (RCT 158, a
ment to New Georgia Is. COMAIRSOPAC assigns separate regt, reinf) lands advance elements on
duties for New Georgia operation to his air units. Kiriwina I, night 2324, without opposition.
CHINAGen Chennault reports to the President NEW GUINEAEnemy pressure on 17th Brig of
on operations of Fourteenth Air Force. Gen Stil- Aus 3d Div, in MuboLababia Ridge area, eases as
well, now commanding Y OKE -Force staff (all U.S. Japanese withdraw a little.
organizations working with Y-Force), outlines to
Col Dorn, his chief of staff, his mission in the 25 June
program. S ICILY Preinvasion bombardment by Allied
S ICILY Allied planes begin powerful attacks planes continues. NAAF delivers heaviest single at-
on Messina. Other targets on and in vicinity of tack of the month on Messina, dropping more than
Sicily are being pounded in preparation for HUSKY . 300 tons of bombs.
U.K.Prime Minister Churchill announces
that Gen Auchinleck is to replace Gen Wavell as 26 June
CinC India and that Wavell will be Viceroy of N E W G U I N E A MacKechnie Force, now as-
India. sembled at Morobe where supplies have been
amassed, starts movement by water to staging area
20 June at Mageri Pt, 15 miles N W of Morobe, in prepara-
N E W G U I N E A Gen Krueger opens A L A M O tion for amphibious assault on Nassau Bay.
(U.S. Sixth Army) hq at Milne Bay. 17th Brig, PANTELLERIA 33d Fighter Gp (P40) is estab-
Aus 3d Div, is holding positions in MuboLababia lished on island.
Ridge area against sharp enemy counterattacks that U.K.COSSAC planners select Air Marshal Sir
continue for next few days. Trafford Leigh-Mallory, air officer commanding in
CBIGen Auchinleck succeeds Gen Wavell as chief, RAF Fighter Command, to prepare air
CinC India. plans for OVERLORD .
[ 27 JUNE2 JULY 1943 ] [ 115 ]

27 June toward Wickham Anchorage. Japanese aircraft are

S O LO M O N Is.From Segi, New Georgia I., active against shipping, damaging flag ship McCaw-
marines of 4th Raider Bn move by sea to vicinity of ley, which friendly PTs later sink by mistake.
Lambeti Plantation in preparation for overland TROBRIAND Is.Main bodies of Woodlark and
march to Viru Harbor. Kiriwina TFs make unopposed landings on their
respective islands, where airfields are to be con-
structed. These are the first operations to be directed
28 June by U.S. Sixth Army, operating as ALAMO Force.
N EW G EORGIA I.Marines of 4th Raider Bn N EW G UINEA MacKechnie Force (Col Mac-
begin overland journey to Viru Harbor. Kechnie, commander of 162d Inf, 41st Div), con-
sisting now of 1st Bn, 162d Inf, and supporting U.S.
29 June and Aus forces, begins unopposed landing at Nassau
Bay shortly after midnight 2930, aided by lights of
S OLOMON Is.While U.S. assault forces are
Aus forces ashore. Final wave, Co B, does not land
sailing to central Solomons, surface force bombards
until later. MacKechnie Force pushes N toward
Munda, Vila, and the Shortlands, night 2930.
Bitoi R and S toward Tabali R, soon meeting enemy
M E D I T E R R A N E A N Gen Eisenhower recom-
opposition. Papuan Inf Bn (PIB) scouts blocking
mends to CCS that projected landing on heel of
enemy movement in Cape Dinga area, S of Nassau
Italy near Taranto (Operation MUSKET ) be deferred Bay, force enemy back toward American positions.
by Fifth Army. 3 other actions are under consider- Aus 3d Divs 15th Brig opens attack on Bobdubi
ation: (I) invasion of toe (B UTTRESS ) and instep Ridge, and 17th Brig maintains pressure against
(GOBLET ); (2) landing on toe from which overland enemy positions in Mubo salient. All operations are
drives would be made to heel, Naples, and Rome commanded by New Guinea Force (Gen Herring,
with seaborne reinforcements moved in at Naples; commander, pending arrival of Gen Blarney).
(3) invasion of Sardinia (BRIMSTONE). M E D I T E R R A N E A N As preinvasion bombard-
ment continues, NAAF planes, in period 1830 June,
30 June fly 883 bomber sorties and IX BC, 107 sorties, against
P ACIFIC Operation C ART WHEEL , converging Sicily and Italy, concentrating on supply points,
drives on Rabaul by forces of S Pacific and SWPA, ports, and marshaling yards.
opens with amphibious operations against central
Solomons, Trobriands, and New Guinea. 1 July
S OLOMON Is.Ships and landing craft from S Solomon Is.43d Div troops on Rendova con-
Pacific Amphib Force (organized as TF 31 under solidate beachhead and continue search for enemy.
command of Adm Turner) land New Georgia Oc- On New Georgia I., marines of 4th Raider Bn seize
cupation Force (commanded by Gen Hester, 43d Viru Harbor in double envelopment maneuver.
Div CG) on central Solomons. New Georgia Oc- NEW GUINEA Allied troops are consolidating
cupation Force is divided into Western Force (TG positions along S arm of Bitoi R in Nassau Bay area.
31.1), which is to make main landing on Rendova I. C HINA Gen Chennault designates shipping
and later take Munda airfield on New Georgia I., and port installations as primary targets for Four-
and Eastern Force (TG 31.2), which is to make teenth Air Force.
subsidiary landings. Preceding main landing, Onaia-
visi Occupation Unit (COs A and B, 169th Inf) 2 July
secures Onaiavisi Entrance in uncontested landings SOLOMON IS . 43d Div is ordered to proceed
on Sasavele and Baraulu Is.; establishes outposts on with next task in central Solomonscapture of
Roviana I. 172d Inf, 43d Div, of Western Force Munda airfieldand begins movement of assault
lands on Rendova I. without opposition and pushes force from Rendova to New Georgia. Enemy
inland 1,000 yards to search for scattered Japanese bombers make destructive raid on Rendova; subse-
forces. Failing to receive signal to land from marines quent air attacks are much less effective. Japanese
of 4th Raider Bn ashore, Viru Occupation Force warships shell Rendova, night 23.
(reinf Co B, 103d Inf) of Eastern Force lands in- T ROBRIAND I S .Work is begun on airfield at
stead at Segi Pt. The Mar Raiders, moving overland, Woodlark I.
reach Viru Harbor in evening. To secure Wickham N EW G UINEA MacKechnie Force holds firm
Anchorage on Vangunu I., Eastern Force lands reinf beachhead at Nassau Bay. Contact is made with Aus
2d Bn, 103d Inf, and elements of 4th Mar Raider 3d Div.
Bn on Vangunu at Oleana. Although landing is un- MEDITERRANEAN Sicilian and Italian ports con-
opposed, Japanese resist movement of assault force tinue to receive full attention of NAAF, which, dur-
[ 116 ] [ 37 JULY 1943 ]

ing period 12 June2 July, drops 2,276 tons of 3d Bn, 145th Inf, to defend landing site, Col Liver-
bombs. Malta-based and Gozobased fighters con- sedges force starts S toward Dragons Peninsula, be-
tribute cover and escort. Final phase of preHUSKY tween Enogai Inlet and Bairoko Harbor, forward
air offensive, beginning at this time, is directed elements reaching Giza Giza R. Patrol of Southern
toward knocking out enemy planes and wrecking Landing Group finds Japanese force blocking
airfields. Munda Trail between Zanana and Barike R.
U.K.Air Marshal LeighMallory establishes B AT T L E O F K U L A G U L F U.S. naval surface
air staff at Norfolk House. force engages enemy vessels bringing second echelon
of reinforcements to Kolombangara, night 56.
3 July Japanese lose 2 DDs and sink USS Helena. Force
Solomon Is.Southern Landing Group (Brig of 850 Japanese succeeds in landing at Vila.
Gen Leonard F. Wing) of Gen Hesters Munda- USSRGermans launch offensive on limited
Bairoko Occupation Force lands 1st Bn of 172d front to reduce Soviet salient at Kursk, 9th Army
Inf, 43d Div, on Zanana beach, about 5 air miles E pushing S from Orel and 4th Pz Army and Army
of Munda, New Georgia I., without opposition. Kempf working northward from Belgorod. Limited
Small defense perimeter of 1st Bn is gradually progress is made at heavy cost in tanks. By this time,
strengthened during next few days. Wickham Axis and Soviet forces have both taken advantage of
Anchorage on Vangunu I, which is to become stag- spring thaw to reorganize and refit troops. Red
ing point for landing craft, falls into American Army is greatly superior in strength.

4 July 6 July
Solomon Is.Co B, 103d Inf, arrives at Viru A LEUTIAN I S .U.S. naval vessels, for the first
Harbor and relieves marines of 4th Raider Bn. From time in 11 months, bombard Kiska, supplementing
Zanana, 1st Bn of 172d Inf and Co A of 169th intermittent efforts of aircraft to neutralize the
virtually unopposed move W to Barike R, line of island. Cruiser-DD TF (Rear Adm Robert C.
departure for assault on Munda. As transports carry- Giffen) conducts the action and retires safely.
ing Northern Landing Group (Lt Col Harry B. Solomon Is.Heavy bombers begin series of
Liversedge, USMC) of Gen Hesters Munda- strikes against enemy airfields on Bougainville, the
Bairoko Occupation Force proceed toward Rice next objective. Attacks are gradually increased in
Anchorage, night 45, accompanying warships bom- strength and frequency and are supplemented by
bard Vila and Bairoko Harbor and intercept Japa- medium bomber strikes on enemy shipping in the
nese DDs bringing reinforcements to Kolom- area. By this time, 43d Divs 172d and 169th Regts
bangara from the Shortlands. In the ensuing action, are on New Georgia I. 172d closes along the Barike
USS Strong is lost to enemy torpedo, but Japanese R and 3d Bn, 169th, starts toward the river from
effort to land troops is blocked. Zanana. Japanese repulse attacks against their road-
CRETE Br commandos successfully raid enemy block on Munda Trail. Col Liversedges force
airfields during night and withdraw safely. reaches and crosses Tamakau R.
M E D I T E R R A N E A N Gen Wladislaw Sikorski, NEW GUINEA 3d Bn of 162d Inf, part of U.S.
CinC of Polish forces, is killed in plane crash near first Divs Coane Force, goes ashore at Nassau beach-
Gibraltar. head and begins period of active patrolling. 2d Bn,
162d Inf, takes over positions vacated by 3d Bn at
5 July Morobe.
U.S.President Roosevelt proposes to Chiang C H I N A Four teenth Air Force begins
Kai-shek that Maj Gen George E. Stratemeyer co- antishipping operations off West R estuary.
ordinate air forces matters in IndiaBurma sector.
Solomon Is.Gen Harmon recommends to
Adm Halsey that XIV Corps staff prepare to take 7 July
over on New Georgia and free Gen Hester for oper- U.S.Gen Giraud arrives in Washington to
ations against Kolombangara. Almost all the New confer with President Roosevelt and military leaders.
Georgia Occupation Force is now ashore in central Solomon Is.First echelon of 145th Inf ( 3d
Solomons, main body at Rendova. Northern Land- Bn), 37th Div, sails from Guadalcanal for Rendova.
ing Groupconsisting of 1st Raider Bn of 1st Mar On New Georgia I, 43d Div continues futile efforts
Raider Regt, reinf by 3d Bns of 148th and 145th to eliminate roadblock on Munda Trail between
Regts, 37th Divlands without opposition at Rice Zanana and the Barike. Continuing S, main body
Anchorage, beginning at 0130. Leaving elements of of Col Liversedges force reaches Enogai Inlet and
[ 810 JULY 1943 ] [ 117 ]

encounters enemy resistance at Triri; 3d Bn of 148th land wide of drop zone and nearly 50 fall into the
Inf reaches MundaBairoko Trail. sea, but group of 8 officers and 65 men reaches and
NEW GUINEA Allied planes, in direct support holds objectivePonte Grande bridge. U.S. para-
of ground operations, attack Mubo area in force, chute task force under Col J. M. Gavin, consisting of
dropping over 100 tons of bombs. MacKechnie Force, 82d A/B Divs RCT 505 and 3d Bn of 504th Para
having pushed inland from beach to Napier, begins Regt, is dropped from 226 C47s to take high
assault on Bitoi Ridge. Aus 2/6th Bn captures Ob- ground near Ponte Olivo airfield, NE of Gela, and
servation Hill, an important terrain feature a mile assist seaborne forces of U.S. II Corps, Seventh
W of Mubo. Army, in capture of the airfield. Although drops are
USSRSlow enemy advance in Orel sector N very widely scattered over S Sicily, objective is taken.
of Kursk is brought to a halt as Red Army opens This is the first major airborne operation to be un-
counterattacks. Limited progress is being made by dertaken by Allied forces in World War II and
S prong of Axis offensive in Belgorod area. consequently becomes subject of intensive study.
USSRRed Army opens counterattacks in
8 July Obojan region, S of Kursk. Although vigorous fight-
ing continues N and S of Kursk for some time, Axis
N EW G EORGIA I.43d Div completes reduc- forces are unable to advance.
tion of enemy strongpoint astride Munda Trail;
169th Inf closes along the Barike, from which 10 July
Munda will be attacked on 9th. Col Liversedges 3d
Bn, 148th Inf, establishes roadblock on Munda K URILE Is.Paramushiro is bombed for first
Bairoko Trail and remains there. 1st Raider Bn, time, by B25s from Attu.
turning over positions at Triri to troops of 145th Inf, N EW G EORGIA Is.Maj Gen Oscar W. Gris-
tries in vain to reach Enogai. wold, CG XIV Corps, is ordered to New Georgia.
Momentum of 43d Divs westward drive on Munda
slows, particularly on right, where 169th Inf is
9 July brought to a halt at junction of Munda Trail with
Solomon Is.On New Georgia I, 43d Div, trail leading to coast at Laiana. Jungle terrain makes
with close air, arty, and naval gunfire support, at- close air support increasingly difficult as attack pro-
tacks W across Barike R toward Munda with 172d gresses and is also slowing road construction. Liver-
Inf on left and 169th on right. 172d gains about sedges force clears most of Enogai area but by now
1,100 yards but 169th makes little headway beyond is dependent upon airdrops for food and water.
the Barike and still has elements E of the river. 1st N EW G UINEA U.S. forces from Nassau Bay
Raider Bn of Col Liversedges force again attacks effect junction with Aus 3d Div troops at Buigap
toward Enogai from Triri, using another route, but Creek, cutting Japanese communications between
is halted by enemy fire near Enogai Pt. Both sides Mubo and Salamaua.
are moving reinforcements to central Solomons. S I C I LY 15th Army Group: Main invasion
Second echelon of 145th Inf ( 3d Bn), 37th Div, forces of U.S. Seventh and Br Eighth Armies, with
sails for Rendova. Japanese land 1,200 reinforce- close support of Royal and U.S. Navies and Allied
ments from the Shortlands on Kolombangara. aircraft, land on SE coast of Sicily on broad front
S ICILY Tremendous preinvasion air offensive from point W of Licata on W to point S of Syracuse
against island results in Allied air superiority, over on E between 0245 and 0600; establish bridgeheads
enemy. As convoys of Western (U.S., under Vice without serious difficulty.
Adm Henry K. Hewitt) and Eastern (Br, under U.S. Seventh Army, which Gen Patton activates
Adm Sir Bertram H. Ramsay) Naval Task Forces, at sea at 0001, puts 3 assault forces ashore between
with ground assault forces of Gen Alexanders 15th Licata and Capo Scaramia. Gen Truscott commands
Army Group embarked, approach Sicily in prepara- westernmost TF (3d Div, CCA of 2d Armd Div,
tion for early morning invasion on 10th, Br and U.S. and 3d Ranger Bn), which lands in Licata area and
airborne contingents take off from Tunisia and are takes Licata and its small port. Gen Bradley, U.S.
dropped on the island during night 910. High II Corps commander, commands the other two U.S.
winds prevailing in assault area handicap both sea assault force. 1st Div ( RCT 18) and 1st and 4th
and airborne forces, but latter surprise enemy and Ranger Bns land at Gela. To E, 45th Div goes
take assigned objectives, facilitating forward move- ashore near Scoglitti. Both Gela and Scoglitti, as well
ment of seaborne forces when they arrive. 1st Air as Vittoria, are taken as troops push inland and
Landing Brig Gp of 1st A/B Div, 13 Corps, Br along coast against light resistance. U.S. 82d A/B
Eighth Army, is dropped near Syracuse to hasten Div parachutists, upon making contact with 1st Div,
capture of that port. Most of the 130odd gliders come under II Corps command; elements take
[ 118 ] [ 1113 JULY 1943 ]

Marina di Ragusa. Floating reserve (RCT 18 of 1st firmly entrenched in vicinity of Ilangana. 169th Inf,
Div, and 2d Armd Div less CCA) is landed during up against outer defenses of Munda position, at-
day in region E of Gela. tempts to advance behind rolling arty barrage but
Br Eighth Army (Gen Montgomery) lands to E makes little headway.
of U.S. II Corps between Pozzallo and Syracuse. 30 B ATTLE OF K OLOMBANGARA (Second Battle of
Corps, with 231st Brig on right, 51st Div in center, Kula Gulf)Allied surface force under Rear Adm
and Cdn 1st Div on left, lands on Pachino penin- Walden L. Ainsworth engages enemy force bringing
sula and clears town of Pachino and airfield. 13 reinforcements to central Solomons, night 1213;
Corps, on E flank, employs 5th Div on right and sinks Japanese cruiser but loses DD Gwin and
50th on left. While 50th takes Avola, 5th makes suffers damage to other vessels. Despite this action,
contact with airborne forces of Br 1st A/B Div at Japanese land 1,200 men on Kolombangara.
Ponte Grande and crosses bridge to capture Syra- N E W G U I N E A Allied troops advancing on
cuse, night 1011. Mubo reduce several enemy strongpoints.
CBIGeneralissimo Chiang Kai-shek consents
11 July to T RIDENT recommendations concerning limited
Solomon Is.Adm Halsey selects Gen Vande- offensive, now called SAUCY, to reopen land route
grift, commander of I Mar Amphib Corps, to head from Burma to China.
ground forces that are to invade Bougainville, which S ICILY 15th Army Group: Bridgeheads are
lies between S Pacific forces and Rabaul. Gen Gris- firmly established by end of day. Br and U.S. forces
wold arrives at Rendova by air. On New Georgia I, make contact at Ragusa.
supply problem is growing so acute as 43d Divs at- Advance U.S. Seventh Army CP moves ashore
tack progresses toward Munda that 172d Inf starts from USS Monrovia. Gen Truscotts force takes Cani-
quietly S to anchor left flank on coast at Laiana and catti, important road junction. II Corps, despite
shorten supply line. Enemy soon discovers the move. further determined efforts of enemy to push it back
Command of 169th Inf, which is still held up by to the sea, expands bridgehead. 1st Div takes Ponte
opposition from heights dominating Munda Olivo airport and pushes inland toward Niscemi.
Lambeti trail junction, passes to Col Temple G. Units of 45th Div in Ragusa make contact with
Holland, former commander of 145th Inf. Cdn 1st Div of Br Eighth Army.
Liversedges force is mopping up in Enogai area. In Br Eighth Army area, 30 Corps, overrunning
Airfield at Segi Pt is ready for limited use by fight- Modica and Palazzolo, reaches general line Sortini
ers. PalazzoloRagusaScicli. 13 Corps, though assisted
SICILY15th Army Group: U.S. Seventh Army by air and naval gunfire, is stalled by stubborn
reaches beachhead line Yellow (Palma di opposition at Priolo Gargallo, about half way
MontechiaroCampobelloMazzarinoCaltagirone between Syracuse and Augusta.
Grammichele) on W flank, where Gen Truscotts USSRRed Army opens strong offensive, sup-
force expands Licata bridgehead to include Palma ported by concentrated arty fire, to reduce Axis
di Montechiaro, Naro, Campobello, and Riesi. II salient at Orel, concentrating on N and E flanks.
Corps withstands determined, tanksupported The operation is well timed, coming after enemy
counterattacks, main force of which hits 1st Div in reserves have been committed to the unsuccessful
Gela area. 45th Div helps repel enemy and takes offensive toward Kursk, which has sharply reduced
town of Comiso and airport and Ragusa. Airdrop tank strength. During fierce battle S of Kursk, in
of another contingent of 82d A/B Div (RCT 504) Prochorovka area, Axis loses over 400 tanks in vain
in Gela area proves costly; drops are scattered and effort to advance.
come under both enemy and friendly fire. In Br
Eighth Army area, 30 Corps expands bridgehead to 13 July
AvolaPozzallo road, seizing Pozzallo. 13 Corps NEW GEORGIA Adm Halsey directs Gen Har-
makes main effort northward along coast toward mon to take command of New Georgia operation,
Augusta. which is falling behind schedule. 169th Inf of 43d
USSRIn region S of Kursk, Axis 4th Pz Army Div, with air and arty support, drives salient into
and Army Kempf join forces in drive toward
enemy positions E of Munda with capture by 3d Bn
Prochorovka and make limited progress.
of hill commanding Munda Trail. Inability of 1st
and 2d Bns to advance, however, leaves 3d Bn in
12 July exposed position. 172d Inf reaches coast at Laiana.
NEW GEORGIA172d Inf of 43d Div, now with- NEW GUINEA Mubo area is cleared of enemy.
out food and water, pushes to within 500 yards of Aus 3d Div, assisted by fire of Americans, finishes
Laiana and learns from scouts that Japanese are clearing Lababia Ridge.
[ 1416 JULY 1943 ] [ 119 ]

S ICILY First Allied fighters f ly to Sicily to is stoutly opposed near Lentini but succeeds in push-
operate from Pachino field. Enemy planes are no ing through that town toward Primasole bridge.
longer able to offer effective resistance over the is- Parachute force defending the bridge withstands
land and are reducing their efforts. strong enemy pressure throughout day and at night
15th Army Group: Gen Alexander establishes falls back to ridge overlooking the bridge.
new boundary between Br and U.S. forces, giving I TALY Air offensive against Italy to interdict
Eighth Army road VizziniCaltagironePiazza Arm- movement of supplies and reinforcements to Sicily is
erinaEnnaS. Stefano. intensified by NAAF, Naples being a primar y
U.S. Seventh Army orders Canicatti held while target.
rcn is pushed W to Agrigento on W, where Gen
Truscotts assault force has attained its immediate 15 July
objective. In II Corps area, RCT 18 is released to 1st Solomon Is.Gen Griswold, CG XIV Corps,
Div, from which 1st and 4th Ranger Bns are de- takes command of New Georgia Occupation Force
tached. 2d Armd Div ( CCA) and 1st and 4th at midnight 1516, relieving Gen Hester, who re-
Ranger Bns are placed in army reserve. II Corps con- tains command of 43d Div. Adm Turner is relieved
tinues efforts to close along line Yellow. 45th Div of posts of Commander, S Pacific Amphib Force
pushes N, taking Licodia and Monterosso. (III Amphib Force and TF 32), and Commander,
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, 51st Div is New Georgia Attack Force (TF 32), and leaves for
slowed by enemy near Vizzini. 13 Corps begins of- Hawaii. 1st Bn of 145th Inf, 37th Div, lands at
fensive, night 1314, in effort to break out into Zanana and is attached to 43d Div to relieve elements
Catania plain. Parachutists of 1st Para Brig are of 69th Inf. Co of 103d Inf is committed on left
dropped to seize Primasole bridge over Simeto R, flank to plug gap in line of 172d Inf. In air battle
the most suitable exit to Catania plain, and do so. over central Solomons, Japanese lose 45 of about 75
The operation, however, is costly, since planes come aircraft as against 3 U.S. planes lost. As a result, Japa-
under enemy and friendly fire. Seaborne comman- nese virtually stop daylight attacks.
dos are landed and take another bridge in the area. S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
5th Div, followed by 50th, makes ground assault Army area, Gen Patton forms Provisional Corps,
from vicinity of Lentini and is firmly opposed. comprising 3d Div, reinf by 3d Ranger Bn and sup-
porting troops, and 82d A/B Div, reinf by newly
14 July arrived RCT 39 of 9th Div and supporting troops,
Solomon Is.On New Georgia, 43d Divs left all under command of Maj Gen Geoffrey Keyes, to
flank is reinf as 3d Bn of road Inf, with engineers operate en W flank of U.S. Seventh Army as it
and tanks attached, lands at Laiana. The bn is not swings NW. 2d Armd Div, to which CCA reverts,
committed to action at once, however. 3d Bn, 169th assembles in Campobello area under army control.
Inf, holds its exposed hill position under enemy 3d Div continues to patrol actively. II Corps reaches
fire. On Guadalcanal, 25th Divs RCT 161 is alerted line Yellow all along its front, 45th Div on right
for movement to New Georgia. flank cooperating with 30 Corps in vicinity of
TROBRIAND Is.Airfield on Woodlark I. is ready Caltagirone.
for use by C47s. In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Cdn 1st Div,
S ICILY Messina, a primary target for Allied taking the lead from 51st Div, captures Gram-
bombers, is particularly hard hit. 212 heavy and michele and Caltagirone. In 13 Corps area, main
medium bombers drop about 800 tons of bombs. assault force makes contact with paratroopers com-
15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh Army area, manding Primasole bridge; both forces continue
82d A/B Div, in army reserve, is being assembled efforts to establish bridgehead over the Simeto.
and reinf in Gela area for operations on W flank of
U.S. sector. 4th Tabor of goums of Fr N African 16 July
Army lands at Licata and is attached to 3d Div. In NEW GEORGIAAs 172d Inf of 43d Div, assisted
II Corps area, 1st Div makes substantial progress, by Marine tanks, slowly expands Laiana beach-
taking Mazzarino and Niscemi. CCB, 2d Armd Div, head, 1st Bn of 169th Inf attacks through 3d Bn,
mops up in Niscemi area. Rangers, assisted by naval taking hilllater called Kelley Hill for 1st Lt John
gunfire, seize Butera. On II Corps right flank, 45th R. Kelleywhere it is exposed to strong enemy
Div takes Biscari airfield and to right reaches line pressure.
Yellow near Vizzini. T ROBRIAND I S .First Allied plane lands on
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, 51st Div, Woodlark airstrip.
assisted by U.S. 45th Div, overcomes strong opposi- S ICILY Enemy air attacks during daylight vir-
tion at Vizzini. In 13 Corps area, main assault force tually cease, but night attacks are increasing.
[ 120 ] [ 1719 JULY 1943 ]

15th Army Group: Axis troops are withdraw- Going into action on W flank of II Corps, 45th takes
ing to Messing peninsula, at base of which lofty M. Pietraperzia and secures crossings of Salso R, S of
Etna commands entire island. Gen Alexander issues Caltanissetta, while 1st Div seizes crossings 6 miles
directive calling for Br Eighth Army to drive enemy E of Caltanissetta.
NE along 3 routes into Messing peninsula while In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, 51st Div
U.S. Seventh Army, protecting rear of Br Eighth drives to within to miles of Paterno, crossing
Army, seizes road net at Enna and cuts EW road Simeto R. 13 Corps expands bridgehead over the
at Petralia. Simeto in coastal sector and during night 1718
In U.S. Seventh Armys Prov Corps area, 3d Div begins northward drive on Catania with 2 brigs of
begins assault on Agrigento while 3d Ranger Bn 50th Div.
takes its port, Porto Empedocle. In II Corps area, USSRWhile continuing reduction of Orel
1st Div seizes Barrafranca. 45th Div begins move- salient, Red Army begins local attacks in region S
ment to left flank of corps. of Izyum and SW of Voroshilovgrad. Moscow an-
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Cdn 1st Div nounces that positions in Orel sector held before
pushes northward from Caltagirone, taking Piazza German offensive of 5 July have been recovered.
Armerina, night 1617. To ease pressure on 13 Corps
to right, 91st Div is ordered to drive on Paterno, NW 18 July
of Catania. 13 Corps establishes small bridgehead N EW G EORGIA XIV Corps, while preparing
across the Simeto before dawn. for final push on Munda, repels Japanese counter-
ITALYPrime Minister Churchill and President attacks at several points. 1st and 2d Bns of 148th
Roosevelt make joint appeal to Italian people to Inf, 37th Div, which have landed at Zanana, try un-
decide whether Italians shall die for Mussolini and successfully to reach and relieve 169th Inf, 43d
Hitleror live for Italy and for civilization. Div.
USSRAxis forces go on the defensive, having TROBRIAND Is.Airfield on Kiriwina I. becomes
lost heavily in futile attempts to reduce Kursk salient operational.
and being under strong pressure in Orel area. Red NEW GUINEA Coane Force secures S headland
Army is mounting secondary attacks on southern of Tambu Bay for supply base.
front against enemys Kuban bridgehead. Main SICILY15th Army Group: U.S. Seventh Army
Soviet offensive against Orel salient is gaining is directed to cut N coastal road after capture of
ground. Petralia; upon gaining line across island from
17 July Campofelice on N to Agrigento on S, is to mop up
NEW GEORGIA 43d Div withstands the only or- W part of island. Army advances rapidly all along
ganized offensive attempted by Japanese during line as enemy continues withdrawal to NE part of
Munda operation, beginning night 1718. The island. Prov Corps pushes NW toward Palermo, 3d
counterattacks at various points are generally un- Div, in the lead, reaching line RaffadaliS. Cataldo.
successful. 82d A/B Div, reinf by RCT 39 of 9th Div, begins
NEW GUINEA From Nassau Bay, Coane Force operations on W flank of corps; attacking through
(2d and 3d Bns of 162d Inf, U.S. 41st Div, and sup- 3d Div near Agrigento, seizes crossings of Fiume
porting units) moves out to join Aus 3d Div in drive delle Canno, about 8 miles W of Porto Empedocle.
toward Salamaua. The attack on Salamaua, under II Corps drives NW to attack Palermo from E.
Aus command, is a secondary effort designed to 45th Div takes Caltanissetta and pushes on through
divert enemy from next main effort, which is to S Catering. 1st Div reaches M. Capadarso area, NE
secure Markham Valley and Huon Peninsula and of Caltanissetta.
thus gain control of Vitiaz and Dampier Straits. In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, 51st Div
M EDITERRANEAN CCS accept Gen Eisenhow- continues toward Paterno while Cdn 1st Div thrusts
ers recommendations of 29 June. At a meeting toward Leonforte and Adrano. In 13 Corps area,
between Gen Eisenhower and his commanders at 5th Div drives toward Misterbianco, W of Catania,
Carthage to consider postHUSKY operations, it is while 50th, on coast, continues efforts to reach
decided that the dual mission of knocking Italy out Catania.
of the war and drawing off maximum German
forces from other areas can best be accomplished by 19 July
invasion of Italian mainland. ALEUTIAN IS.Adm Kinkaid approves plans for
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh invasion of Kiska.
Armys Prov Corps area, 3d Div, assisted by naval I TALYRome undergoes damaging air attack.
gunfire, completes reduction of Agrigento. 82d A/B More than 500 bombers of USAAF attack military
Div is being moved forward to W flank by motor. objectivesLorenzo and Littoria marshaling yards
[ 2022 JULY 1943 ] [ 121 ]

and Ciampino airfieldswith about 1,000 tons of 4th Ranger Bns, RCT 39 of 9th Div, and supporting
bombs. units. In II Corps area, 45th Div clashes with Italian
SICILY15th Army Group: U.S. Seventh Army delaying forces in Vallelunga area. 1st Div, in con-
makes rapid progress against light resistance. In junction with Br units to right, takes Enna, im-portant
Prov Corps area, 82d A/B Div, driving NW along supply center, and drives on to Villapriola.
coastal highway, reaches positions beyond Ribera. In Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomery or-
Casteltermini and Mussomeli fall to 3d Div. 2d ders reserve, 78th Div, to Sicily from Africa. In 30
Armd Div is following in order to exploit possible Corps area, Cdn 1st Div pushes to within a few miles
breakthrough. In II Corps area, 45th Div patrols of Leonforte. 51st Div, from Sferro area, attacks Ger-
actively in S. Caterina area. 1st Div, advancing on bini airfield. 13 Corps is virtually stopped by firm
Enna, clears enemy pocket S of objective. resistance on Catania plain.
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Cdn 1st MEDITERRANEAN Planning for invasion of Sar-
Div continues toward Leonforte, bypassing Enna dinia (BRIMSTONE ) is dropped because of successes
and reaching positions N of Valguarnera. 51st Div in Sicilian campaign. Attention of planners becomes
crosses Dittaino R at Sferro, SW of Paterno. 231st focused next on Naples because of its harbor and its
Brig, bridging gap between Cdn 1st Div and 51st proximity to Rome.
Div, thrusts to within 3 miles of Agira, where it USSRMitsensk falls to Red Army, whose as-
halts to await clearance of Leonforte. 13 Corps con- sault against Orel salient continues.
tinues to meet firm resistance near Catania. 5th
Div crosses the Simeto to W of 50th Div, but its sup- 21 July
porting weapons remain S of the river.
Solomon Is.Small U.S. rcn party lands on
20 July Vella Lavella at Barakoma, night 2122, in prepa-
ration for fullscale invasion. U.S. control of Vella
U.S.JCS direct Adm Nimitz to seize bases in Lavella would isolate Japanese at Vila, Kolomban-
the Gilbert Is. and on Nauru. gara. On New Georgia, 148th Inf of 37th Div re-
N EW G EORGIA Elements of 145th Inf, 37th lieves 145th Inf E of Munda.
Div, relieve hardpressed 169th Inf of 43d Div E of S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
Munda. 148th breaks through enemy positions that Armys Prov Corps area, TF X seizes Castelvetrano
have been checking it and prepares to relieve 145th. and airport, and 2d Armd Div assembles NE of
Trail from Laiana to Munda Trail is completed, Castelvetrano prepared to exploit breakthrough,
easing supply situation. Liversedge Force, after which appears imminent. 82d A/B Div takes S.
futile attempt to take Bairoko, falls back to Enogai. Margherita and 3d Div seizes Corleone. In II Corps
NEW GUINEAU.S. forces begin lengthy strug- area, 45th Div continues NW, taking Valledolmo.
gle for heights (Roosevelt Ridge, Scout Ridge, and 1st Div clears delaying opposition in Alimena.
Mt Tambu) commanding Tambu Bay and Dot In Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomery de-
Inlet. cides to make main effort on left, where assault
CBIGen Bissell is recalled to U.S. to become forces will push around N side of M. Etna to take
Assistant Chief of Air Staff, A2, and is replaced as enemy from rear, major assault to begin on 1 August.
head of Tenth Air Force by Brig Gen Howard C. 13 Corps and 51st Div of 30 Corps are to go on the
Davidson. defensive. In 30 Corps area, Leonforte falls to Cdn
S ICILY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander 1st Div, night 2122. 51st Div falls back under
orders U.S. Seventh Army, upon reaching coastal enemy pressure to positions S of Gerbini airfield.
road (Highway 113) N of Petralia, to reconnoiter
eastward along it and Highway 120 (Petralia
NicosiaCesar), which parallels it to S; to drive on 22 July
Palermo, which is to be a major supply base; and to ALEUTIAN IS.In effort to soften Japanese de-
secure left f lank on general line S. Giuseppe fenses on Kiska, U.S. warships and aircraft attack
CorleoneSciacca. the island in force.
In U.S. Seventh Armys Prov Corps area, 82d A/ N EW G EORGIA Gen Griswold orders general
B Div, continuing W along S coast, takes Sciacca and attack on Munda by 37th and 43d Divs on 25th. 37th
Menfi. 3d Div clears S. Stefano and heights N of Div commander takes charge of his forces on the
Mussomeli. 2d Armd Div, assembled in Ribera area, island. RCT 161, 25th Div, arrives and is attached
is attached to Prov Corps. TF X is formed to capture to 37th Div.
Castelvetrano and airfield W of it; protect left and SICILY15th Army Group: U.S. Seventh Army
rear of corps drive on Palermo. Lt Col William O. takes Palermo, on N coast, virtually completing
Darby heads the TF, which is composed of 1st and second phase of operations. Limited mopping up
[ 122 ] [ 2326 JULY 1943 ]

must be carried out in W part of island before final Cefalu and Castelbuono. 1st Div overruns Gangi and
phasedrive to Ecan start. Prov Corps takes attacks toward Nicosia.
Palermo without a fight: While TF X thrusts W USSRRed Army has recovered positions in
along coast protecting left and rear, 2d Armd Div is Belgorod area, which was held by the Russians at
committed to action and drives rapidly NE to out- start of German offensive on 5 July.
skirts of Palermo. At the same time, 3d Div con- NORWAYU.S. Eighth Air Force makes its first
tinues NW to positions SE of the city. Since there is attack on Norway. 167 B17s drop 414 tons of
no show of resistance, planned attack on Palermo is bombs on industrial targets at Heroya while 41 re-
withheld and 2d Armd Div enters without opposi- lease 79 tons on naval installations at Trondheim.
tion. City surrenders at 2000. In II Corps area, left Only 1 plane fails to return. This is the longest
flank elements of 45th Div make contact with 3d Div flight yet undertaken by U.S. planes based in Eng-
in outskirts of Palermo while others push on toward land.
N coast. 1st Div continues N toward coast on right
flank of corps, taking Bompietro. 25 July
USSRBolkhov, NW of Mitsensk, falls to Red
Solomon Is.Gen Twining replaces Rear Adm
Army. Soviet troops begin local offensive on north-
Marc A. Mitscher as COMAIRSOLS. Air strength
ern front S of Lake Ladoga.
of this command has increased from 235 to 539
planes since 2 April. Since invasion of Rendova on
23 July 30 June, Fighter Command alone has destroyed 316
TROBRIAND Is.6th Fighter Sq arrives on Wood- planes for loss of 71. Enemy discontinues daylight
lark to begin operations from airfield there. air attacks on Rendova.
S ICILY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander NEW GEORGIAXIV Corps opens final offensive
orders U.S. Seventh Army to exert maximum pres- for Munda airfield. Although supported by naval
sure eastward along Highways 113 and 120 as soon gunfire and powerful air bombardment, assault
as possible, leaving elements behind to complete troops can make only slow progress against strongly
mopup of W part of island. As a result of this entrenched enemy. 43d Div, with 103d Inf on left
order, preparations are made to reinforce II Corps and 172d on right, attacks on left (S) and gets ele-
with 3d and 9th Divs and arty units. ments to coast near Terere but withdraws the salient
U.S. Seventh Army mops up in W Sicily, taking since it is exposed. 37th Div, with 145th, 161st, and
many prisoners. Engineers begin to repair badly 148th Regts in line from left to right, cannot begin
damaged port of Palermo. In Prov Corps area, while general advance until opposition on ridge (called
3d Div polices Palermo, 82d A/B Div, to which Bartley Ridge in honor of 2d Lt Martin E. Bartley)
control of TF X components passes, clears Marsala- in front of 161st Inf is cleared and then starts to en-
Trapani area of W coast. In II Corps area, 157th Inf velop enemy there. 148th advances without serious
of 45th Div cuts Highway 113, N coastal road, 6 opposition but is out of contact with 161st.
miles E of Termini Imerese; while elements push I TALY King Victor Emmanuel proclaims fall
W from there to Termini Imerese, rest of regt drives of Mussolini, whose offices are taken over by Mar-
E along highway to positions beyond Campofelice. shal Pietro Badoglio; takes command of Italian
179th Inf, 45th Div, takes Collesano and advances Army.
toward Castelbuono. 1st Div overcomes resistance S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
at Petralia, cutting Highway 120, and patrols east- Armys II Corps area, 45th Div makes limited
ward. progress along N coastal road (Highway 113). 1st
In Br Eighth Army area, 30 Corps is meeting Div, on Highway 120, repels counterattack E of
strong resistance as it attempts to drive E from Le- Gangi.
onforte. In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, hard fight-
ing is in progress in Agira sector.
24 July
NEW GEORGIA XIV Corps prepares for assault 26 July
on Munda on 25th. 161st Inf, attached to 37th Div, U.S.CCS request Gen Eisenhower to plan at
runs into tenacious opposition as it tries in vain to once for AVALANCHE , invasion of Italy at Salerno, in
reach line of departure. order to gain Naples and nearby airfields.
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh ALEUTIAN IS.Eleventh Air Force makes heavi-
Army area, Prov Corps continues to mop up W est attack to date on Kiska, dropping 104 tons of
part of island, taking record number of prisoners. bombs.
II Corps pursues enemy eastward, 45th Div in Solomon Is.Adm Halsey proposes to Gen
coastal sector and 1st Div on S flank. 45th Div takes MacArthur that plans for invasion of S Bougainville
[ 2730 JULY 1943 ] [ 123 ]

mainland be dropped and that the Shortlands and NEW GEORGIA Gen Griswold calls for replace-
Ballale, in Bougainville Strait, be secured as planned ments. 43d Div is creeping forward in smallscale
in order to provide airfields and anchorages to actions. 145th Inf, 37th Div, continues to clear
support future operations. Gen MacArthur later Horseshoe Hill. 3d Bn, 161st, occupies some aban-
approves. doned enemy positions on Bartley Ridge.
NEW GEORGIA43d and 37th Divs are assisted S ICILY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander
by tanks and flame throwers as they continue at- moves his hq to Sicily.
tack on Munda after preparatory fire. 103d Inf, 43d In U.S. Seventh Army area, coastal cargo vessels
Div, takes Ilangana and reaches coast at Kia, but begin arriving at Palermo. In II Corps area, 45th
161st Inf, in 37th Div zone, makes little headway Div, recrossing Tusa R, pushes a little closer to S.
against Bartley Ridge. Stefano in coastal sector. 1st Div takes Nicosia.
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Agira falls
Army area, Prov Corps releases RCT 39, 9th Div, to left flank elements of corps.
3d Chemical Weapons Bn, and 4th Tabor of goums
to II Corps to strengthen it for eastward drive. II 29 July
Corps makes limited progress astride Highways 113 N EW G EORGIA XIV Corps continues to ad-
and 120. On Highway 113, 45th Div reaches road vance slowly toward Munda airfield, methodically
junction N of S. Mauro. destroying enemy pillboxes with assistance of tanks
and flame throwers. Maj Gen John R. Hodge takes
27 July command of 43d Div, relieving Gen Hester, and
NEW GEORGIA 37th Div temporarily suspends commits 1st and 3d Bns, 169th Inf, between 172d
attack on Bartley Ridge in center and begins assault and 103d Regts. In 37th Div zone, 145th Inf reaches
on feature to left called Horseshoe Hill, reducing crest of Horseshoe Hill but pulls back a little to more
several pillboxes. 148th Inf gains tenuous contact tenable positions; 161st Inf forces on Bartley Ridge
with 161st, but gap remains between the 2 regts. continue to advance cautiously; 148th pulls back to
establish contact with 161st and protect supply route,
CBIChinese-American Composite Wing
but does not quite succeed in closing the gap and is
(CACW) is activated in Fourteenth Air Force at
precariously situated.
Karachi, India. The wing consists of Ch aircraft
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
and pilots trained under lend-lease. Army area, trains begin using RR line between
M E D I T E R R A N E A N AFHQ directs CG, Fifth Palermo and Cefalu. Prov Corps nearly completes
Army, to prepare plans for capture of Naples and its mopup task in W Sicily. 3 small islands off
nearby airfields from which future operations in Trapani (Favignana, Marettimo, and Levango) sur-
Italy could be supported. D Day, which is to depend render to 82d A/B Div. In II Corps area, 45th Div
upon phase of the moon and availability of landing meets increasing rearguard resistance as it ap-
craft, is tentatively set as 7 September. Br planners proaches S. Stefano, on N coast road, and moves ele-
are already working on plans for Operation B UT- ments SE in effort to outflank enemy; other ele-
TRESS , invasion of toe of Italy by 10 Corps. ments advance to Mistretta, which enemy retains.
S I C I LY 15th Army Group: In the coastal From Nicosia, 1st Div probes to outskirts of Mis-
sector of the U.S. Seventh Armys II Corps area, tretta and eastward along Highway 120 toward
45th Divs RCT 180 reaches Tusa, a few miles W Cerami without incident; goumiers clear pocket
of S. Stefano, and elements cross Tusa R but are about 3 miles W of Capizzi. RCT 39 is attached to
driven back; RCT 179 reaches S. Mauro. 1st Div 1st Div.
clears several strongpoints while pushing toward In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, recently ar-
Nicosia along Highway 120; its left flank is pro- rived 78th Div, now in position to attack and reinf by
tected by 4th Tabor of goums and its right by 91st Cdn 3d Brig, opens assault along axis Catenanuova-
Rcn Sq, which also maintains contact with British. Adrano, night 2930. In 13 Corps area, 5th Div
is reinf by 2 bns of infantry and regt of tanks.
28 July
A LEUTIAN I S .Japanese garrison of Kiska is 30 July
withdrawn by sea without detection by Allied forces, NEW GEORGIAAlteration of boundaries gives
who are continuing preparations to invade the island. 43d Div a wider front and places S half of Bartley
Solomon Is.U.S. rcn party returns from Vella Ridge within zone of 145th Inf, 37th Div. 145th
Lavella and recommends that an advance detach- Inf repels counterattack on Horseshoe Hill and
ment be moved to Barakoma in preparation for main shells enemy positions. 161st is reinf by 2d Bn of
landings. 145th and continues to clear Bartley Ridge. Ele-
[ 124 ] [ 31 JULY3 AUGUST 1943 ]

ments of 148th gain physical contact with 161st, N coast in S. Stefano area; continues eastward drive
but main body of 148th is isolated. along coastal highway, gaining several miles. On
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh Highway 120, 1st Div continues to press toward
Army area, enemy continues withdrawal eastward Troina, forward elements reaching outskirts, and
across army front. In II Corps area, 45th Div is begins move to outflank enemy, who is resisting
strongly opposed by enemy rear guards in S. Stefano strongly. 9th Div (less RCT 39 in action with 1st
area during day, but enemy withdraws from the Div) arrives at Palermo.
town and from Reitano, to S, night 3031. On High- In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Cdn 1st Div
way 120, 1st Div advances toward Troina, its joins 231st Brig in assault on Regalbuto and suc-
patrols reaching Cerami. ceeds in penetrating into the town. Enemy continues
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, 78th Div vigorous defense of Centuripe.
takes Catenanuova in morning; renews attack, night RUMANIA Ploesti oil refineries are targets for
3031, securing heights to N and NE from which to first low-level, mass assault by AAF heavy bombers
attack Centuripe. 231st Brig, leading eastward drive based in Libya. 177 B24s, some drawn from
on Regalbuto, is meeting severe resistance near this NAAF and others on loan from Eighth Air Force,
objective. all under control of Gen Brereton, CG Ninth Air
USSREnemy attempts to recover ground lost Force, conduct the attack for which pilots and
on Mius front but is unable to retain the initiative. crews have been intensively trained in N Africa.
Oil objectives, although heavily defended, are se-
31 July verely damaged. Cost of this operation (T IDALWAVE)
NEW GEORGIA2d Bns of 161st and 145th Regts is high: 54 planes are lost, 41 of them in action. 7 of
finish clearing Bartley Ridge. Enemy continues to the B24s land in Turkey.
resist on Horseshoe Hill. 148th Inf tries to
return to main body. 2 August
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
A LEUTIAN I S .In preparation for invasion of
Army area, Gen Patton issues directive far major
Kiska, surface vessels of 2 naval TFs and aircraft
attack eastward toward Messina, beginning 1 Au-
of Eleventh Air Force bombard the island.
gust. II Corps, which is to contain 1st, 3d, and 9th
Divs, and supporting units, will make main effort Solomon Is.RCT 27 of 25th Div and div hq
along Highways 113 and 120 from line S. Stefano arrive on New Georgia I, where RCT 27 is given
MistrettaNicosia. Prov Corps is to organize W part mission of defending N Hank of XIV Corps and
of Sicily and protect rear of II Corps; be prepared to maintaining contact with 2d Bn of 148th Inf, 37th
furnish reinforcements to II Corps. Aircraft and Div. XIV Corps is steadily clearing Munda airfield
naval TF 88 are to support offensive. In Corps area, area.
45th Div is being relieved in S. Stefano sector by 3d S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
Div. On S flank, 1st Div advances to within 5 miles Army area, mines and demolitions are slowing ad-
of Troina, capturing Cerami; 4th Tabor of goums, vance of II Corps 3d Div along coastal road. 1st
on div left flank, takes Capizzi. Div continues efforts to envelop and reduce Troina,
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, 231st Brig which enemy is defending tenaciously.
is still fiercely opposed just W of Regalbuto. 78th In Br Eighth Army area, left flank elements of
Div attacks strong enemy position at Centuripe. 30 Corps gain firm control of Regalbuto and con-
tinue E while 78th Div fights indecisively in streets
of Centuripe throughout day.
1 August ITALYAllied warning to Italian people of im-
N E W G E O RG I A 43d Divs road and 169th minent invasion of Italy is broadcast from Algiers.
Regts172d Inf now being pinched outreach
outer taxiways of Munda airfield without serious
difficulty since main body of enemy has withdrawn. 3 August
In 37th Div zone, Japanese are found to have aban- NEW GEORGIA XIV Corps continues battle for
doned Horseshoe Hill; 148th Inf succeeds in break- Munda airfield and is progressing steadily. Bibolo
ing through to main body. Hq of 25th Div and 27th Hill mass, just N of airfield, is cleared of enemy.
Inf arrive on Sasavele; 35th Inf is alerted for move- 3d Bn of 148th Inf, Liversedge Force, is moving
ment to Munda. forward from Bairoko area to block northward
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh withdrawal of enemy from Munda. S Pacific Scouts
Armys II Corps area, 3d Div completes relief of (Fijian and Solomons natives) are attached to 25th
45th Divwhich is transferred to Prov Corpson Div.
[ 47 AUGUST 1943 ] [ 125 ]

S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh attack on S. Fratello Ridge. 1st Div, with direct air
Armys II Corps area, 3d Div, supported by naval support, continues battle for Troina, gaining posi-
gunfire, continues E along N coast road toward tions overlooking the town. Enemy withdraws from
Furiano R. 1st Div makes limited progress in Troina Troina, night 56.
area, where enemy is still offering firm resistance. In Br Eighth Army area, 30 Corps continues to-
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, enemys ward Adrano; 13 Corps overruns Paterno, Mister-
Catania position, which is being thinned out, be- bianco, and Catania.
comes untenable as 78th Div takes Centuripe, forc- USSRRed Army captures Orel and Belgorod,
ing enemy back across Salso R. In 13 Corps coastal both valuable prizes, 2d Pz Army is virtually de-
sector, 5th Div opens attack on 2-brig front, night stroyed during the Orel battle, remnants being
34. absorbed by 9th Army. Fall of Belgorod, key enemy
USSRSoviet offensive broadens as troops of position on N face of Kharkov salient, greatly
Voronezh and Steppes Fronts open powerful drive weakens enemys Kharkov position.
on Kharkov, in N Ukraine. 3 Soviet fronts
(West, Bryansk, and Center) are closing in on Orel. 6 August
B ATTLE OF V ELLA G ULF Japanese naval force
4 August taking reinforcements to central Solomons is inter-
A LEUTIAN I S .Eleventh Air Force offensive cepted in Vella Gulf, between Vella Lavella and
against Kiska reaches its peak as 152 tons of bombs Kolombangara, by U.S. naval TF under Cmdr
are dropped during 134 sorties. Frederick Moosbrugger. In the ensuing night action,
NEW GEORGIA XIV Corps continues to clear 3 enemy DDs are sunk but another vessel escapes.
Munda area. 43d Div sector is clear except for About 300 Japanese succeed in reaching Vella
Kokengolo Hill, N of the runway on airfield. Most Lavella but over 1,500 are lost. This ends enemy
of 37th Divs assault force reaches the sea. plans for counterattack on New Georgia.
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh N EW G UINEA Japanese order air reinforce-
ments to Wewak.
Armys II Corps area, 15th Inf of 3d Div, although
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
assisted by naval gunfire, is unable to force crossing
Armys II Corps area, 3d Div continues to attack
of Furiano R. RCT 7 moves by water to positions
enemy positions along Furiano R on N coast but is
on coast behind RCT 15. After strong arty and air unable to advance. RCT 16 of 1st Div enters Troina,
preparation, 1st Div makes allout effort to take from which enemy has withdrawn, and pushes E
Troina but cannot break through enemy positions. until halted by opposition about a mile from the
In support of assault on Troina, 60th Inf of 9th Div, town. RCT 60, 9th Div, takes heights 7 miles N
reinf by arty and engineer units, moves against of Troina. 9th Div is reinf by 91st Rcn Sq and 4th
positions N and NW of Cesaro. 9th Div ( ) com- Tabor of goums.
pletes assembly at Nicosia and is attached to II In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Adrano falls
Corps. to 78th Div as enemy pulls out, night 67. 1st Div
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Cdn 1st and takes Biancavilla.
Br 78th Divs pursue enemy northward across Salso
R. 13 Corps 50th Div is alerted for drive on Cata- 7 August
nia. 5th Div continues toward Misterbianco.
N EW G EORGIA Munda airfield is ready for
5 August emergency use.
INDIA Gen Stratemeyer arrives in India.
NEW GEORGIA Munda airfield, main objective CHINACol Dorn reports that Gen Chen will
of central Solomons campaign, falls to XIV Corps not return to Yunnan from Enshih to command Y-
after 12 days of fighting in well-fortified jungle. Force until more troops and supplies are provided.
25th Div has task of driving on Bairoko and Zieta At this time only 2 Ch armies have begun to re-
in order to clear final resistance and make contact organize.
with Liversedge Force. S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
NEW GUINEA Lt Col Malcolm A. Moore takes Armys II Corps area, 3d Div improves positions on
command of newly formed Second Air Task Force N coast in S. Fratello region against continued
based at advanced airfield recently constructed at strong resistance. Night 78, small amphibious force
Tsili Tsili, in Watut R Valley W of Lae, in order (2d Bn of 30th Inf, reinf) makes landing on coast 2
to facilitate operations against Lae. miles E of S. Agata, greatly facilitating progress in
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh that area. 9th Div replaces 1st Div and begins drive
Army area, on N flank of II Corps, 3d Div opens on Randazzo, enemy strongpoint that on this date is
[ 126 ] [ 812 AUGUST 1943 ]

target for peak air effort. 9th Div pushes E in 2 gunfire support, lands 2 miles E of Capo dOrlando
columns, one from M. Pelato, 8 miles N of Troina, and establishes positions astride main highway and
and the other along Highway 120. RR. 9th Div elements driving along Highway 120
toward Randazzo reach road junction N of Bronte.
8 August
N E W G E O RG I A RCT 161, 25th Div, starts 11 August
northward behind 1st Bn of 27th Inf to clear region POALt Gen Robert C. Richardson, Jr., or-
W of Bairoko Harbor in conjunction with Liver- ganizes small TF (804th Aviation Engr Bn, prov
sedge Force, which is to clear area E of the harbor. AAA bn, prov air service support sq, fighter sq, and
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh service units) to develop Baker I. as a base from
Armys II Corps area, enemy is forced to fall back which to support coming offensive in Central
on N coast road and 3d Div takes S. Agata. 9th Divs Pacific.
47th Inf reaches Cesaro, on road to Randazzo; 60th S OLOMON Is.Adm Halsey issues orders for
Inf captures M. Camolato, 6 miles NW of Cesaro. further operations in central Solomons. Northern
In Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps area, Bronte falls Force (TF 30 under Rear Adm Theodore S. Wil-
to 78th Div. kinson is to land troops (RCT 35, 25th Div, and
supporting units) under Brig Gen Robert B. Mc-
9 August Clure on Vella Lavella to seize air and naval bases.
N EW G EORGIA 25th Div column (1st Bn of Strong Japanese forces at Vila on Kolombangara
27th Inf) makes contact with Liversedge Force. will thus be bypassed. New Georgia Occupation
35th Inf is ordered to prepare to land on Vella Force is to extend its positions to Arundel and shell
Lavella. enemy on Kolombangara. 43d Div amphibious
M EDITERRANEAN Gen Alexander directs Gen patrol finds evidence that Japanese are holding
Montgomery to seize bridgehead on Calabrian coast Baanga I.
of Italy with current resources. N E W G U I N E A Fif th Air Force completes
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh movement of Second Task Force to Tsili Tsili field.
Army area, II Corps advances steadily eastward S ICILY Allied aircraft supporting the 15th
against rear-guard opposition. In coastal sector, for- Army Group are concentrating on enemy move-
ward elements of 3d Div reach Torrenuovo; enemy ments and evacuation points with good effect as
falls back to Zappulla R. 9th Divs 47th Inf advances enemy withdraws at a rapid rate from Sicily to
along CesaroRandazzo highway, and 60th ad- Italian mainland.
vances in difficult terrain to N. Enemy pulls back to 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh Armys II
Simeto R line, between Cesaro and Randazzo. Corps area, as a result of the successful amphibious
Since enemy is delaying advance on Messing via operation on coast, night 1011, 3d Div overruns
Randazzo in Br Eighth Armys 30 Corps sector, Gen Naso with little difficulty and enemy retires east-
Montgomery decides to make a greater effort along ward beyond Patti. 9th Div presses closer to Ran-
E coast with 13 Corps and commits 5th Div there dazzo, passing 39th Inf through 4th on Highway
to drive N in region E of M. Etna in conjunction 120; 60th Inf continues toward Floresta on 9th Div
with 50th Div. N flank.
In Br Eighth Army area, Gen Montgomery, anx-
10 August ious to prepare for imminent invasion of Italy, orders
91st Div to relieve 5th Div and 30 Corps hq to take
NEW GEORGIA1st Bn of 27th Inf, 25th Div, is
over duties of 13 Corps hq on 13 August.
attached to Liversedge Force to assist in clearing
USSRClosing in on Kharkov, some Red
region between Bairoko Harbor and Enogai Inlet.
Army units reach Akhtyrka and others cut Kharkov
3d Bn of 148th Inf, 37th Div, is detached from Liver-
Poltava RR.
sedge Force and attached to 27th Inf of 25th Div
with mission of intercepting northward withdrawal
of enemy from Munda. 12 August
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh A LEUTIAN I S .In a final preinvasion naval
Army area, II Corps continues to pursue enemy east- bombardment of Kiska, 5 cruisers and 5 DDs ex-
ward. In coastal sector, enemy retires to heights W pend 60 tons of shells.
of Naso and is followed by 3d Div. During night Solomon Is.Advance landing party from
1011, 3d Div makes another highly successful land- Rendova goes ashore at Barakoma on Vella Lavella,
ing on coast, outflanking enemy in Capo dOrlando night 1213, to pave way for main landing on 15th
region. The amphibious force (2d Bn of 30th Inf, and finds only stragglers. Co L of 169th Inf, 43d Div,
reinf by arty and tanks), with close air and naval begins landing on Baanga to establish beachhead but
[ 1315 AUGUST 1943 ] [ 127 ]

runs into heavy opposition and is forced to with- POAU.S. Army Forces in Central Pacific
draw, leaving 34 men ashore. Area (USAFICPA) is activated under Gen Richard-
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh son, who is to have charge of administration and
Armys II Corps area, 3d Div continues pursuit of training of ground and air forces in Central Pacific.
enemy in coastal sector. 9th Divs 60th Inf reaches Solomon Is.Brig Gen Francis P. Mulcahy,
Floresta, N of Randazzo; 39th continues E along USMC, COMAIR New Georgia, opens command
Highway 120, gaining favorable position for assault post at Munda airfield, New Georgia. Two sqs of
on Randazzo, but enemy withdraws, night 1213. Marine aircraft (F4U) arrive to begin operations.
In Br Eighth Army area, 30 Corps 78th Div, 3d Bn of 169th Inf, 43d Div, establishes beachhead
which has been held up for several days S of Maletto, on SE Baanga with 3 cos. Co L tries to rescue
seizes that town. the force stranded there earlier but is encircled by
USSRChuguev, SE of Kharkov, falls to Red enemy and suffers heavy casualties.
Army as investment of Kharkov continues. NEW GUINEA With close air and arty support,
2d Bn of 162d Inf, U.S. 41st Div, pushes to crest
of Roosevelt Ridge, but enemy retains series of
13 August ridges on Dot Inlet.
ALEUTIAN IS.Kiska invasion force leaves Adak S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh
for target. Armys II Corps area, 3d Div speeds eastward along
Solomon Is.Elements of 169th Inf, 43d Div, coast to vicinity of Barcellona. Some 9th Div ele-
land on Vela Cela, small island between New ments make contact with 3d Div in Montalbano
Georgia and Baanga, and reconnoiter without inci- area; those on Highway 120 are passed through by
dent. Aircraft search for the American party on RCT 18 of 1st Div, which continues pursuit E of
Baanga. First Allied plane lands on Munda airfield, Randazzo.
New Georgia. Br Eighth Army is out of contact with enemy.
NEIB24s of 380th Heavy Bombardment ITALYItalian Government proclaims Rome an
Group, which has recently arrived in Australia as open city.
part of air reinforcements promised SWPA at M EDITERRANEAN Naval plan Western Naval
Pacific Military Conference in March, attack oil Task Force Operation Plan No. 7-43 for Operation
center at Balikpapan, (Borneo) in force. The round AVALANCHE , invasion of Italy at Salerno, is issued.
trip covers 1,200 miles. Elements of the naval force are to make diversionary
S ICILY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh feint against beaches NW of Naples.
Armys II Corps coastal sector, RCT 30 of 3d Div
continues E toward Patti despite formidable road-
block at Capo Calava that requires movement about 15 August
it by water. RCT 15 and 3d Ranger Bn are clearing ALEUTIAN IS.Allied invasion force arrives off
pockets SW of Patti. In 9th Div sector, RCT 39 Kiska and begins landing without opposition.
enters Randazzo without opposition and is passed Weather conditions prevent air support of the oper-
through by RCT 47, which continues E, as does ation (C OTTAGE ), but Eleventh Air Force, during
RCT 60 to N. final phase of preinvasion bombardment from 10
ITALYTwelfth Air Force makes second large- August to date, has dropped 355 tons of bombs.
scale attack on marshaling yards at Rome, employ- Under command of Vice Adm Thomas C. Kinkaid,
ing 106 B17s, 102 B26s, and 66 B25s with Adm Rockwell commands the amphibious force of
fighter escort. Some 500 tons of bombs are dropped, nearly 100 ships, and Maj Gen Charles H. Corlett,
causing heavy damage. Fighter opposition is strong USA, is in charge of landing force of over 34,000
but only 2 B26s are lost. troops. Troops employed are: 17th Inf of 7th Div,
USSRSoviet forces continue to improve posi- which participated in the Attu operation; 53d Inf;
tions in Kharkov area against determined opposi- 87th Inf, trained in mountain fighting; 184th Inf;
tion. Other Red Army troops driving on Smolensk 1st Special Service Force; Cdn 13th Brig Gp; hq
take Spas Demensk. troops. 159th Inf of 7th Div, originally earmarked
for the Kiska operation, is garrisoning Attu so that
17th Inf, with battle experience in the Aleutians, can
14 August be employed.
INTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES QUADRANT Con- Solomon Is.Wilkinsons Northern Landing
ference, attended by President Roosevelt, Prime Force puts Gen McClures Landing ForceRCT
Minister Churchill, and CCS, opens in Quebec, 35 of 25th Div and supporting unitsashore on SE
Canada. coast of Vella Lavella in Barakoma area, where
[ 128 ] [ 1618 AUGUST 1943 ]

beachhead is established without ground opposition. S ICILY Enemy continues withdrawal of rear
Japanese aircraft are very active against shipping guards to Italy as rapidly as possible and offers no
but do little damage. Zieta, New Georgia, falls to organized opposition.
27th Inf, 25th Div. On Baanga, the small American 15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh Armys II
beachhead is strengthened by 2d Bn of 169th Inf, Corps area, RCT 7 of 3d Div, speeding toward Mes-
43d Div, which attacks through Co I after the lat- sina, reaches Divieto in coastal sector. Strong 3d
ter tries in vain to reach Co L. Elements of Co L Div patrols enter Messina, which is under fire from
succeed in joining main body, but the co is so de- Italian coast, before midnight.
pleted in strength that it is sent back to Munda.
N EW G UINEA Japanese make first air attack
on new air base at Tsili Tsili. 17 August
B URMA Work on Ledo Road is progressing A LEUTIAN I S .Main enemy camp on Kiska is
very slowly. From end of March to date, only 3 found to be deserted. Search of the island continues.
miles have been constructed. Solomon Is.Second echelon of Northern
M EDITERRANEAN U.S. Fifth Army issues Out- Landing Force arrives at Vella Lavella and unloads
line Plan for Operation AVALANCHE . Gen G. Castel- despite enemy air attacks. 43d Div troops on Baanga
lano of Italian Commando Supremo begins negotia- are assisted by dive bombers as well as arty but make
tions for armistice at British Embassy in Madrid. little headway.
S ICILY Withdrawing enemy forces are being N EW G UINEA Fifth Air Force begins series
subjected to round-the-clock air attacks. of heavy air attacks on Wewak and satellite fields
15th Army Group: In U.S. Seventh Army area, at But, Dagua, and Boram in order to neutralize
157th Inf of 45th Div, under Seventh Army control, them in preparation for offensive against Lae.
lands on N coast NW of Barcellona, night 1516, S ICILY 15th Army Group: Sicily Campaign
behind forward elements of II Corps 3d Div in ends with official entry of RCT 7, 3d Div, into
order to block enemy withdrawal. In II Corps area, Messina at 1000. Americans are joined there a
3d Div continues rapidly along N coast to Spadafora. little later by Br force from All. Fall of Sicily per-
9th Div remains in Randazzo area. 1st Div halts mits steppedup air operations against the next
advance. objective, Italy.
Br Eighth Army completes drive around M. Etna G E R M A N Y 315 Eighth Air Force bombers
as 78th Div clears RandazzoLinguaglossa road and make destructive daylight attacks on aircraft plants
51st Div overruns Linguaglossa. 50th Div seizes at Schweinfurt and Regensburg, dropping 724 tons
Taormina, on road to Messina. Commandos with of bombs. In air battles over targets, 60 U.S. bombers
tanks land, night 1516, on E coast at Ali in effort are shot down, but enemy plane losses are far
to cut off retreating enemy, but are too late to ac- heavier. RAF begins massive attacks (Operation
complish the mission; start inland toward Messina. C ROSSBOW ) on German Vweapons experimental
USSRSoviet forces driving W astride Orel bases with night strike (1718) against Peene-
Bryansk RR overrun Karachev. Hard fighting con- muende, on Baltic Sea coast, by about 570 aircraft
tinues in Kharkov sector. dropping almost 2,000 tons of bombs.

16 August 18 August
SOLOMON IS. 43d Div commander personally I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES CCS, at Q UAD -
directs operations on Baanga and commits 172d RANT Conference in Quebec, direct Gen Eisenhower
Regt ( ) as well as 169th ( ). Arty supports at- to send representatives to Lisbon to negotiate with
tack but progress is still slow. Enemy guns on Italians for armistice.
Baanga begin shelling Munda. ELLICE Is.Implementing directive of 20 July
M EDITERRANEAN At conference of command- to establish bases from which assault on the Mar-
ers at Carthage, final decisions are made for invasion shalls can be supported, advance party lands on
of Italy. 13 Corps of Br Eighth Army, employing Nanomea to reconnoiter and choose airfield site.
Cdn 1st and Br 5th Divs, which have been with- Solomon Is.Japanese naval force bound for
drawn from Sicilian battle, is to cross Strait of Mes- Horaniu, at Kokolope Bay on NE Vella Lavella, for
sina to Calabrian coast between 1 and 4 September. purpose of establishing barge base there, is inter-
This operation (B AY TOWN ) is to be followed on cepted early in morning by U.S. naval force, which
9 September, or not more than 48 hours later, by sinks 2 submarine chasers, 2 torpedo boats, and 1
main assault of U.S. Fifth Army in Salerno area barge. 43d Div commits another bn of 172d Inf to
(A VALANCHE ). assault on Baanga.
[ 1925 AUGUST 1943 ] [ 129 ]

M E D I T E R R A N E A N Air plan for suppor t of USSREnemy abandons Kharkov, having ex-

Operation A VALANCHE is issued. hausted reserves in a losing battle for the city. Hard
USSRRed Army troops fur ther improve fighting is developing S of Izyum and on Mius front
positions about Kharkov with capture of Zmiev; S as powerful Soviet forces attempt to breach enemy
of the city. defenses. On Mius front, Red Army troops cut Tag-
anrogStalino RR.
19 August
24 August
Solomon Is.Japanese troop-laden barges that
escaped U.S. naval force on 18th succeed in un- INTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES QUADRANT Con-
loading at Horaniu, Vella Lavella. On Baanga I., ference at Quebec ends. O VERLORD , invasion of
Japanese naval guns that have been shelling Munda northwestern Europe, target date 1 May 1944, and
are captured. P OINTBLANK , Combined Bomber Offensive to de-
NEW GUINEA Japanese abandon positions on stroy economic and military power of Germany as
Mt Tambu and Komiatum Ridge, last major ob- a prelude to OVERLORD , shall constitute the primary
stacles before Salamaua, and fall back to final effort against Germany. Plans for invasion of Italy
defensive positions. are approved, but the forces to be employed are con-
fined to those already allotted at T RIDENT . Advances
against Japan are to be made along both the Central
20 August Pacific and the SWPA route. Action in the Central
SOLOMON Is. 43d Div troops complete offensive Pacific is to begin with invasion of Gilberts and
on Baanga, sealing off S peninsula. Action on the Marshalls. In SWPA, Rabaul will be neutralized
island has cost the div 52 killed and 110 wounded. but not captured; New Guinea will be neutralized
A search of rest of island and of islands leading N as far W as Wewak; Manus and Kavieng are to be
to Diamond Narrows is uneventful. Japanese with- secured as bases from which further advances can
draw from S Baanga. be supported. A new Allied command, Southeast
NEW GUINEAGen Blarney takes command of Asia Command (SEAC), is authorized to simplify
New Guinea Force, releasing Gen Herring, who command structure in Asia; Adm Lord Louis
proceeds to Dobodura to command Aus I Corps. Mountbatten is to be Supreme Commander and
Gen Stilwell will be his deputy. China theater is
not included in SEAC; as China is an area of U.S.
21 August strategic responsibility, Gen Stilwell is responsible
Solomon Is.Enemy planes intermittently at- to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. North Burma
tack vessels taking third echelon of Northern Land- offensive is scheduled to begin in February 1944.
ing Force to Vella Lavella, but cause little damage. POAFifth Amphibious Force is established
under command of Adm Turner.
N EW G UINEA Aus 5th Div relieves Aus 3d
22 August Div of final operations against Salamaua; primary
ALEUTIAN IS.Uneventful search for enemy on objective is to divert enemy attention from Lae.
Kiska is completed. Light casualties have been suf- While Aus 5th Div is clearing heights S of Fran-
fered by Allied forces during the operation as a cisco R on lea, Americans of 162d Inf, 41st Div,
result of mistaken identity. continue operations against ridges in Dot Inlet.
ELLICE Is.Advance party of 2d Mar Airdrome
Bn lands at Nukufetau, where air base is to be
established. 25 August
N EW G UINEA Air offensive against Wewak Solomon Is.Action on New Georgia I. comes
has neutralized enemy airpower on New Guinea to a close as Americans seize Bairoko Harbor with-
sufficiently for Allied warships (4 DDs under Capt out opposition. Japanese remnants have withdrawn
Jesse H. Carter) to risk voyage along coast from to Kolombangara and Arundel. 172d Inf, 43d Div,
Milne Bay to Finschhafen. After bombarding is to secure that part of Arundel I. commanding
Finschhafen, night 2223, the DDs return safely. Diamond Narrows.
MEDITERRANEAN 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth
Army issues Field Order No. 1, putting outline plan
23 August for invasion of Italy into effect. Under 15th Army
Solomon Is.On New Georgia, 27th Inf of Group, U.S. Fifth Army is to conduct Operation
25th Div reaches Piru Plantation after difficult A VALANCHE In Naples area and Br Eighth Army,
march through swampland. Operation BAYTOWN on toe of Italy.
[ 130 ] [ 26 AUGUST3 SEPTEMBER 1943 ]

26 August Bay. U.S. patrol on Arundel encounters light oppo-

I NTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS U.S. and several sition on E coast.
other Allied nations extend recognition to French
Committee of National Liberation. 1 September
M E D I T E R R A N E A N 15th Army Group: A VA - POAAllied TF arrives on Baker I. to develop
LANCHE Operation Plan of 15 August is modified it as a base from which future operations in the
somewhat to meet changes in situation. Br and U.S. Central Pacific can be supported. Airstrip is con-
arty is in position on Sicily to support BAYTOWN. structed within a week. This brings number of
Central Pacific bases within bombing range of the
Gilberts up to 5: Funafuti, Nukufetau, and
27 August Nanomea in Ellice Is.; Canton; Baker. U.S. carrier-
ELLICE I S .Rest of 2d Mar Airdrome Bn and based planes make surprise attack on Marcus I.,
elements of naval construction bn arrive at Nuku- heavily damaging installations.
fetau. Solomon Is.In preparation for offensive
S OLOMON Is.172d Inf ( 3d Bn), 43d Div, against N Solomons, Air Command North Solo-
lands on SE Arundel at S tip of Nauro Peninsula mons is formed at Espiritu Santo under Brig Gen
without opposition. While Co A holds beachhead, Field Harris, USMC. On Vella Lavella, forward ele-
rest of the force drives N to base of the peninsula. ments of 1st Bn, 35th Inf, 25th Div, driving on
I TALY 15th Army Group: Br rcn party lands Kokolope Bay, reach Orete Cove area, about 14 miles
at Bova Marina, on toe, and finds the area NE of Barakoma.
undefended. NEW GUINEA Allied air operations are intensi-
USSRSevsk, S of Bryansk, falls to Red Army. fied in preparation for offensive against Lae. Fifth
F RANCE U.S. Eighth Air Force f lies its first Air Force is concentrating on airfields, supply points,
CROSSBOW mission, 187 B17s bombing Watten. and shipping in New GuineaNew Britain area.
I TALY Units of Royal Navy join aircraft and
arty in bombardment of Calabrian coast in prepara-
28 August tion for BAYTOWN.
E LLICE I S .Forward echelon of 7th Mar De-
fense Bn and detachments from 2 naval construc- 2 September
tion bns land on Nanomea. Solomon Is.On Arundel, final elements of
172d Inf, 43d Divthe 3d Bnland at Nauro
29 August Peninsula.
I TALY As NAAF completes preinvasion at-
Solomon Is.Patrols of 172d Inf, 43d Div,
tacks in preparation for BAYTOWN, having intensified
start up E and W coasts of Arundel without opposi-
them against Calabrian Peninsula during past week,
tion. RCT 35 of 25th Div is ordered to secure radar
virtually all airfields in S Italy except Foggia and its
site on NE Vella Lavella in Kokolope Bay region, satellites have been neutralized. U.S. bombers, dur-
where patrols have observed considerable enemy ing period 18 August to date, have flown almost
activity. 3,000 sorties against communication targets. Small
B17 attack on Brenner Pass temporarily interdicts
30 August the pass, the shortest route between Germany and
Solomon Is.Elements of 1st Bn, 35th Inf, 25th Italy. Allied planes open intensive preinvasion at-
Div, start N up E coast of Vella Lavella toward tacks in support of AVALANCHE , pounding airfields
Kokolope Bay. within range of Salerno day and night.
USSRRed Army surges forward in several USSRRed Army is moving steadily westward
sectors. Forces driving on Smolensk take Yelnya. toward the Dnieper on broad front from Smolensk
Others, in region W of Kursk, overrun Gluchov. area on N to Sea of Azov on S. Some elements cut
Breaking through to Sea of Azov on Mius front, So- BryanskKonotop RR; others take Sumy, between
viet troops take Taganrog. Konotop and Kharkov; still others are pressing
toward Stalino.
31 August 3 September
Solomon Is.1st Bn of 145th Inf, 37th Div, Solomon Is.172d Inf patrol, moving up W
arrives on Vella Lavella from New Georgia and re- coast of Arundel, reaches Bustling Point without
lieves 1st Bn of 35th Inf, 25th Div, of perimeter enemy interference. With beachhead defenses of
defense mission so that it can move N to Kokolope Barakoma area on Vella Lavella now firmly estab-
[ 46 SEPTEMBER 1943 ] [ 131 ]

lished, Adm Wilkinson, CG TF 31, relinquishes Aus 2/13th Bn drives E from Bulu Plantation, 18
command of operations. miles E of Lae, to Hopoi to secure E flank.
NEW GUINEAAllied planners meeting at Port I TA LY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander
Moresby decide to seize line DumpuSaidor to pro- orders 1st A/B Div to be prepared to land elements
tect movement to Cape Gloucester. As air prepara- at Taranto (SLAPSTICK ) on 9th in order to secure the
tion for landing at Lae continues, the assault force port, airfields, and installations and establish con-
assembles off Buna. tact with Italians in Brindisi area; cancels projected
SICILYAt 1715, after units of Br Eighth Army invasion of Crotone area (G OBLET ) by Br 5 Corps
have landed on mainland of Italy, Gen Castellano, from N Africa, thereby releasing 5 Corps hq, which
on behalf of the Italian Government of Marshal is to take command of forces in heel of Italy and
Badoglio, signs short-term armistice at Cassibile, be prepared to advance upon order.
near Syracuse, Sicily, to became effective on 8 Sep- In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps moves steadily
tember, when news of it is to be made public. Be- northward up Calabrian Peninsula, hampered only
cause of the Italian armistice, U.S. 82d A/B Div, by skillful demolitions.
scheduled to drop in Capua area of Volturno Valley USSRRed Army blocks last rail exit from
to block southward movement of enemy reinforce- Kharkov with capture of rail junction of Merefa, S
ments, is to be dropped instead in vicinity of Rome of the city.
where, with assistance of Italians, it will prevent
German occupation of Rome. 5 September
I TALY 15th Army Group: Under Gen Alex- SOLOMON IS.172d Inf, 43d Div, unsuccessfully
ander, invades European continent. In Br Eighth attacks Japanese positions some 600 yards SE of
Army area, 13 Corps, under cover of air, naval, and base of Bomboe Peninsula on Arundel and strength-
arty bombardment, is ferried across Strait of Mes- ens block at base of Stima Peninsula after enemy
sina and lands on Calabrian coast between Reggio counterattacks there.
and Villa S. Giovanni at 0430; against token re- NEW GUINEA U.S. 503d Para Regt and detach-
sistance from Italians, quickly seizes Reggio, its air- ment of Aus 2/4th Field Regt, transported across
drome, and S. Giovanni and pushes northward in Owen Stanley Range from Port Moresby by Fifth
2 columns, 5th Div along coastal road to Schilla and Air Force, drop unopposed at Nadzab, on Markham
Cdn 1st Div on parallel inland route to S. Stefano. R NW of Lae, after aircraft bomb and strafe landing
During night 34, commandos land at Bagnara to zone. Paratroopers are soon joined by Aus force
outflank enemy positions and speed advance. (2/2d Pioneer Bn and 2/6th Field Co) that has
moved to Nadzab area from Tsili Tsili. Co of Pap-
4 September uan Inf Bn (FIB), which has also moved forward,
POAV Amphibious Corps (VAC), under covers W approaches to Nadzab. Nadzab airfield
command of Maj Gen Holland M. Smith, USMC, is quickly prepared to receive Aus 7th Div and
is created to train and control troops for amphibious eventually becomes a major Allied air base.
landings in Central Pacific. MIDDLE EASTGen Brereton relinquishes com-
Solomon Is.On Arundel, 2d Bn of 172d Inf, mand of USAFIME.
43d Div, moves by sea to Stima Peninsula; leaving I TALY A VALANCHE assault forces begin move-
Co G to contain enemy pocket at its base, advances ment from N Africa to Gulf of Salerno.
NW. After amphibious move from Nauro to Bus- 15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Army area,
tling Point, 1st Bn begins advance to secure control 13 Corps has cleared Calabrian Peninsula as far N
of entrance to Wana Wana Lagoon. as Bagnara on W and Bova Marina on E. 5th Div
NEW GUINEAWhile diversionary action by Aus is meeting rear-guard resistance N of Bagnara.
5th Div and 162d Inf of U.S. 41st Div toward
Salamaua is drawing to a close, offensive operations 6 September
are begun against Lae, the main objective. After Solomon Is.On Arundel, 1st Bn of 172d Inf,
brief naval gunfire preparation, 26th and 20th Brigs, 43d Div, secures Grant I. and W half of Bomboe
Aus 9th Div, and U.S. scouts of 2d Engr Special Peninsula; 3d Bn holds the block at base of Stima
Brig land at points 14 and 18 miles E of Lae without Peninsula; 2d Bn works slowly toward base of
opposition. The Americans are placed under com- Bomboe Peninsula.
mand of Aus 9th Div upon landing. Fifth Air Force N EW G UINEA 26th Brig of Aus 9th Div, fol-
cooperates by bombing Hopoi and driving off lowed by 24th Brig, which landed night 56, con-
enemy planes that damage several LSTs and LCIs tinues W toward Lae, meeting opposition for the
of TF 76. From positions 14 miles from Lae, 26th first time at Bunga R. Advance elements of U.S.
Brig and Aus 2/17th Bn start W toward Lae. 871st A/B Engr Bn are, flown in to Nabzab.
[ 132 ] [ 79 SEPTEMBER 1943 ]

C HINA Gen Stilwell proposes that Ch divs AVALANCHE convoys, divided into 2 forces (South-
under Chiang Kai-shek, both Nationalist and Com- ern Assault Force under Rear Adm Hall, USN, from
munist, be employed in China to forestall Japanese Oran and Northern Assault Force under Com-
reaction to U.S. Fourteenth Air Force attacks. modore G. N. Oliver, RN, from Tripoli and
ITALYStrait of Messina is now open to Allied Bizerte), pass from command of CinC Mediter-
shipping. ranean to that of Adm Hewitt, USN, Naval Com-
15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Army area, 13 mander Western Task Force, upon reaching pre-
Corps continues to make steady progress northward. scribed area. Learning that Germans are in Rome
5th Div takes Gioia and is ordered to drive on Nicas- area in considerable strength and that Italians can-
tro with 231st Brig attached. not assist operations as planned, Gen Eisenhower
USSRSoviet forces take Konotop by storm. cancels scheduled drop of elements of U.S. 82d A/B
G ERMANY U.S. Eighth Air Force dispatches Div there, too late to give them another mission
407 heavy bombers, a record number, 338 of them during initial phase of Salerno operation.
against factories in Stuttgart area. Weather con- USSRRed Army recovers entire industrial
ditions prevent attack on target, but 262 bombers region of the Donbas with occupation of Stalino.
attack targets of opportunity. Price of operating
over Germany is again high45 aircraft are lost. 9 September
Solomon Is.Adm Halsey proposes that
7 September Treasury Is. and Choiseul Bay be secured as bases
U.S.JCS discuss possibility of mounting in- from which S BougainvilleShortlands area can be
vasion of Paramushiro from the Aleutians. neutralized, a suggestion that is not accepted by
POAIn Central Pacific, 5,000-foot airstrip is Gen MacArthur. 37th Div returns to Guadalcanal
completed at Nanomea, Ellice Is.; sq of aircraft is from New Georgia and subsequently trains there for
operating from there by end of month. Bougainville operation. On Arundel, 172d Inf of
NEW GUINEA C47s begin flying Aus 7th Div 43d Div suspends attack while arty is employed
in to Nadzab. against enemy.
ITALY15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Army N EW G UINEA Aus 9th Div begins to cross
area, in effort to get behind retreating enemy on Busu R and holds bridgehead against counter-
W coast, 231st Brig of 13 Corps, supported by attacks. 162d Inf of U.S. 41st Div, assisted by Aus-
commandos, lands, night 78, near Pizzo, but be- tralians, takes Scout Ridge in Dot Inlet.
cause of speed of enemy retreat is engaged by rear I TALY 15th Army Group: Br 1st A/B Div,
guards. Main body of 13 Corps continues N to- moving by sea from Bizerte, mounts Operation
ward line NicastroCatanzaro. SLAPSTICK , landing on heel of Italy without opposi-
USSRGermans announce evacuation of tion and taking port of Taranto.
Stalino. U.S. Fifth Army, under Gen Mark Clark, in-
vades Italy, landing at H Hour (0330) S of Salerno
8 September with U.S. VI Corps (Southern Assault Force) S of
BAKER IS.Airstrip suitable for fighters is put Sele R and Br 10 Corps (Northern Assault Force)
into use. N of the river. Landings and operations ashore
Solomon Is.Since 172d Inf of 43d Div is are closely supported by aircraft and naval gunfire.
making little headway on Arundel, 1st Bn of 169th By end of day, VI and 10 Corps each hold a bridge-
is attached to it. Japanese move a bn of infantry head on shallow Salerno plain but gap exists be-
from Kolombangara to Arundel in preparation for tween them. 82d A/B Div is released by U.S. Fifth
counterattack against New Georgia. Army to AFHQ. Ventotene I. surrenders. VI Corps
NEW GUINEA Australians of 9th Div moving (Maj Gen Ernest J. Dawley) goes ashore in Paes-
W on Lae reach flooded Busu R and find Japanese tum area. 36th Divs RCTs 141 and 142, making
holding W bank. Japanese at Salamaua are ordered initial assault, secure beachhead and withstand at
to fall back to Lae. Aus 5th Div, continuing toward least 4 strong tank counterattacks as enemy makes
Salamaua, is now at Francisco R, near the airfield. futile attempts to push the RCTs back into the
I TALY As A VALANCHE convoys are approach- sea. RCT 141, on right, is particularly hard pressed
ing Salerno and aircraft are completing a week of but retains shallow beachhead. ReserveRCT 143
intensive, preinvasion attacks, Gen Eisenhower is committed in center upon landing. By end of day,
broadcasts news of Italian armistice at 1830 and initial objectives, except on right flank, are secured.
Marshal Badoglio makes similar broadcast at 1945. Beachhead extends from heights just W of La Cosa
This is the cue for Italian fleet and aircraft to head Creek to Hill 386 (spur of lofty M. Soprano), Ca-
for prearranged points to surrender to Allied forces. paccio, and M. Soltane. Br to Corps (Lt Gen Sir
[ 1011 SEPTEMBER 1943 ] [ 133 ]

Richard I. McCreery), making main effort of Fifth head across Desna R in vicinity of Novgorod Sever-
Army, is opposed in greater force than VI Corps. ski.
56th Div, on 10 Corps right flank, reaches its first
major objective, Montecorvino airfield, but is unable 11 September
to take it; patrols push to Battipaglia, which enemy A LEUTIAN I S .Gen Butler, CG Eleventh Air
also retains. 46th Div drives northward along coast Force, is transferred to ETO. Gen Butler is suc-
toward Salerno. On left flank of corps, BrU.S. ceeded as head of Eleventh Air Force by Maj Gen
force (Br 2d and 41st Commandos; U.S. 1st, 3d, Davenport Johnson. Eleventh Air Force sustains
and 4th Ranger Bns) under command of Col Darby, heavy losses during raid on Kuriles.
USA, lands on Sorrento Peninsula W of Salerno. Solomon Is.27th Inf ( ) of 25th Div lands
Commandos take Vietri Sul Mare and push E to- on W end of Bomboe Peninsula on Arundel, and 2d
ward Salerno. Rangers make unopposed landing Bn starts E at once toward 172d Inf at base of the
at Maiori, on extreme left; while 4th Ranger Bn peninsula. Arty and, for the first time in the S Pacific,
secures beachhead, others push N to M. Chiunzi, 4.2inch mortars support the attack.
which overlooks NoceraPagani Valley passes lead- NEW GUINEAAus 5th Div crosses Francisco R
ing to Naples. near Salamaua airfield as Japanese begin withdrawal
USSRSoviet forces W of Konotop take Bakh- from Salamaua to Lae.
mach on rail line to Kiev. Others to N reach Desna ITALY15th Army Group: Brindisi falls to Br
R line S of Bryansk. 1st A/B Div, which continues clearing heel without
10 September U.S. Fifth Army expands beachhead on Salerno
SOLOMON IS. 2d and 3d Bns of 27th Inf, 25th plain. Since gap still exists between U.S. VI and
Div, are attached to 43d Div and ordered to Arundel Br 10 Corps, boundary is moved N from Sele R line,
to help 172d Inf. 27th Inf commander is to be re- and 45th Div assumes command of new left flank
sponsible for future operations there. positions of VI Corps. In VI Corps area, RCT 142
NEW GUINEAAus 7th Div relieves U.S. 503d of 36th Div takes Altavilla and Hill 424. On N
Para Inf at Nadzab and begins drive E toward Lae flank of corps, Germans counterattack RCT 179
with 25th Brig Gp. Japanese at Lae are thus threat- of 45th Div on bluffs overlooking Ponte Sele and
ened from both E and W. force Americans back; RCT 157 is ordered to ease
M IDDLE E AS T Maj Gen Ralph Royce takes pressure on RCT 179 by attacking on W side of
command of USAFIME, replacing Gen Brereton. Sele R and, with 191st Tank Bn spearheading,
I TALY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander di- pushes forward until halted at tobacco factory strong-
rects Gen Montgomery to maintain pressure against point on commanding ground across the Sele from
Germans on Eighth Army front in order to prevent Persano. During night 1112, enemy withdraws
their concentration against Fifth Army. from Persano but begins infiltration around Hill
On U.S. Fifth Armys VI Corps right flank, RCT 424. Br 10 Corps takes Montecorvino airfield, but
141 of 36th Div, after reorganizing, turns S to enemy is keeping it under heavy fire. 10 Corps is
block routes leading to beachhead; RCT 143, also still unable to clear Battipaglia on right flank. Left
protecting right flank, patrols E and SE unevent- flank is strengthened by elements of VI Corps (1st
fully; RCT 142 moves against Hill 424 and Alta- Bn of 143d Inf; AA battery; arty battery; co each
villa, on its slopes, taking Albanella and reaching of paratroopers, tanks, TDs, and chemical mortars;
positions on ridgeline to Roccadaspide. RCT 179, 2 engr cos), that help Rangers holding positions
45th Div, lands and starts northward toward Ponte overlooking NoceraPagani Valley.
Sele. Br 10 Corps continues to receive main weight In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, light forces
of enemy opposition and fights indecisively for Batti- move rapidly northward in effort to pin down
paglia and Montecorvino airfield on right flank. In enemy, taking port of Crotone on right and reach-
center, 46th Div takes Salerno. On left, 3d Ranger ing general line CastrovillariBelvedere on left.
Bn withstands probing jabs against M. Chiunzi M ALTA Italian f leet formally surrenders to
and 4th Bn patrols W along coast of Sorrento Adm Cunningham. Germans sink BB Roma while
Peninsula. it is en route to surrender.
In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps is at neck of CORSICAFr submarine sails from Algiers for
Calabrian Peninsula on line CatanzaroNicastro. Corsica with small Fr force embarked to help
Enemy is accelerating withdrawal in order to rein- patriots clear island of Germans. Additional Fr
force Salerno area. forces are later moved to Corsica from time to time
USSRSoviet forces driving along edge of Sea as shipping becomes available. Enemy garrison of
of Azov take Mariupol. Other units establish bridge- Sardinia is being evacuated via Corsica.
[ 134 ] [ 1215 SEPTEMBER 1943 ]

U.K.Since U.S. Ninth Air Force is soon to be operations cannot be continued with current forces,
transferred to United Kingdom, Gen Devers names troops dig in and prepare to hold on best defensive
Gen Eaker, CG U.S. Eighth Air Force, as com- line possible until situation improves. Two bns of
manding general of all U.S. Army Air Forces in 141st Inf move N from quiet southern sector. 504th
United Kingdom. Para Inf ( ), 82d A/B Div, is dropped S of Sele
R to strengthen bridgehead. Br to Corps contains
12 September strong tankinfantry attacks from Battipaglia. 167th
NEW GUINEA As Aus 9th and 7th Divs push Inf is committed on right flank of 45th Div and
toward Lae from E and W, Aus 5th Div occupies makes contact with VI Corps.
Salamaua, Salamaua airfield, and the isthmus. A EGEAN Br units occupy Kos I, where RAF
Japanese begin withdrawing from Lae. aircraft are soon established.
I TALY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander or-
ders Br Eighth Army to advance as quickly as 14 September
possible, despite administrative risks. Solomon Is.On Vella Lavella, 1st Bn of 35th
In U.S. Fifth Army area, critical period begins as Inf, 25th Div, opens attack in Kokolope Bay area
enemy renews strong efforts to reduce beachhead. after preparatory fire and finds Horaniu vacated by
Airstrip is completed in Paestum area. Capri, in enemy. 1st and 3d Bns, latter having moved for-
Gulf of Naples, is occupied by Allied forces. In VI ward, then organize defensive positions in this
Corps area, Germans counterattack, recovering Hill region. While 3d Bn of 27th Inf holds off enemy
424 and Altavilla from 142d Inf, 36th Div. Situation counterattacking on Sagekarasa, 1st Bn of 172d Inf,
of 45th Div on N flank of VI Corps improves: 179th on Arundel, bypasses enemy positions on Bomboe
Inf occupies Persano; 157th, after seesaw battle, Peninsula in order to come in behind 2d Bn, 27th
seizes tobacco factory barring its advance in region Inf. Reinforcements are sent to Sagekarasa. Japa-
W of the Sele. 36th Combat Engrs takes up positions nese begin moving rest of a regt from Kolombangara
on left flank of 157th Inf. Corps begins regrouping to Arundel. 8th Brig Gp, NZ 3d Div, arrives on
after nightfall to strengthen exposed left flank. 179th Guadalcanal from New Caledonia, having rehearsed
Inf moves from SeleCalore corridor, which 2d Bn en route (in New Hebrides) for invasion of
of 143d Inf comes N to defend, to left flank of 157th Treasury Is. in the Solomons.
Inf. Strong German counterattack forces Br 10 N EW G UINEA Crossing the Busu by newly
Corps to yield toehold on Battipaglia. 167th Brig, completed bridge, 26th Brig of Aus 9th Div joins
56th Div, suffers heavy casualties in this action 24th Brig on W bank. 25th Brig, Aus 7th Div,
and is relieved by 201st Gds Brig. U.S. Ranger continues E toward Lae, seizing Heaths Plantation.
force on left flank of 10 Corps withstands enemy I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army,
attacks. committing reserves and service troops, contains
further enemy onslaughts with assistance of naval
13 September gunfire and aircraft. RCT 180, 45th Div, lands and
Solomon Is.On Arundel, 3d Bn of 27th Inf is held in Fifth Army reserve. In VI Corps area,
begins struggle for Sagekarasa I., NE of Bomboe RCT 505 of 82d A/B Div is dropped S of Sele R
Peninsula, while elements of 169th Inf outpost islets and advances at once to strengthen beachhead. In
W of Sagekarasa. On Bomboe Peninsula, 2d Bn of behalf of Br 10 Corps, 2d Bn of U.S. 509th Para
27th makes radio contact with 172d Inf. Inf is dropped behind enemy lines in Avellino area,
ITALY15th Army Group: Gen Alexander directs night 1415, to disrupt enemy communications;
Gen Montgomer y, CG Eighth Army, to take drop is widely scattered and paratroopers retire to
command of Taranto bridgehead forces (Br 1st A/B hills, where they wage guerrilla warfare for the
Div, which 78th Div is soon to reinforce) as soon next week. Br 7th Armd Div arrives and begins
as possible. Gen Montgomery agrees to do so at once. unloading.
U.S. Fifth Armys Salerno bridgehead is still seri- In Br Eighth . Army area, elements of Taranto
ously threatened as enemy counterattacks strongly bridgehead force (Br 1st A/B Div) enter Bari.
astride Sele R. VI Corps barely succeeds in contain- 13 Corps continues northward in light strength.
ing major enemy thrusts. 36th Div units begin at- 5th Div is concentrating in Belvedere area.
tack to regain Altavilla but meet strong counter- AEGEAN Br force occupies Leros.
attacks that isolate some elements there and force
rest back to La Cosa Creek. On N flank of VI Corps,
Germans overwhelm 2d Bn of 143d Inf in Sele 15 September
Calore corridor and force 157th Inf of 45th Div to U.S.T. V. Soong presents President Roosevelt
give ground in region W of the Sele. Since offensive a plan for reorganization of China theater in such
[ 1618 SEPTEMBER 1943 ] [ 135 ]

a way as to eliminate Gen Stilwell; subsequently USSRRed Army makes substantial gains,
seeks in other ways to have Stilwell recalled. taking Novgorod Severski, SW of Bryansk; Romni,
POA2d Mar Div is formally attached to V in region E of Kiev; Lozovaya, S of Kharkov; and
Amphibious Corps as preparations for offensive in Novorossisk, on Kuban Peninsula.
Central Pacific continue. G ERMANY Berlin announces evacuation of
Solomon Is.Maj Gen Charles D. Barrett is Bryansk by German troops.
named CG I Marine Amphibious Corps (I MAC),
but his sudden death soon afterwards forces Gen 17 September
Vandegrift to resume command of I MAC before Solomon Is.At planning conference at Port
operations against N Solomons are begun. Moresby, Gen MacArthur urges that a base on
N EW G UINEA Australians continue toward mainland of Bougainville be established. On Arun-
Lae from W and E, 7th Div clearing Edwards del, 27th Inf ( ), assisted by tanks, begins co-ordi-
Plantation and 9th Div taking Malahang airdrome. nated drive SE toward 172d Infs block at base of
Gen MacArthur orders New Guinea Force to seize Stima Peninsula. 3d Bn, 27th, suspends attack on
Kaiapit and Dumpu with assistance of U.S. planes. Sagekarasa while fire is placed on enemy positions.
I TA LY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander NEW GUINEA GHQ SWPA decides to employ
orders U.S. Fifth Army to continue attack across Aus 9th Div force in landing on 22d at Finschhafen,
Volturno R. which will serve as an advanced air and light naval
U.S. Fifth Army front is relatively quiet as Ger- base. U.S. 503d Para Inf, having completed its
man activity subsides. Minor enemy thrusts are re- mission in Nadzab area is withdrawn. Aus 2/6th
pelled. III VI Corps area, 325th Gli Inf of 82d A/B Independent Co is flown to burned off site a few
Div arrives by sea. miles from Kaiapit, NW of Lae, for drive on Kaiapit,
In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, forward ele- which will be used as an advanced air base from
ments of 5th Div, attempting to make contact with which to neutralize Wewak.
VI Corps, reach Sapri. Enemy is threatened with ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
entrapment between Eighth and Fifth Armies. VI Corps area, 504th Inf of 82d A/B Div continues
USSRContinuing toward Kiev, Soviet forces attack toward Altavilla but is pinned down by enemy
overrun Nezhin. To N, Red Army opens strong fire before reaching objective. Enemy is retiring
offensive against Smolensk. northward, however, and completes withdrawal
from 45th Div front after nightfall.
16 September In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps begins general
Solomon Is.Reinforcements are sent to Arun- advance northward with main forces toward line
del in preparation for stronger U.S. effort on 17th. PotenzaAuletta.
Rest of 27th Inf (1st Bn and AT Co), platoon of USSRRed Army troops occupy Bryansk.
43d Cav Rcn Tr, and Marine tanks move to Bomboe
Peninsula. 2d Bn, 169th Inf, reinforces 172d Infs
block at base of Stima Peninsula. 18 September
N EW G UINEA Aus columns coverage on Lae, U.S.Joint War Plans Committee recommends
from which Japanese have withdrawn. 25th Brig, retrenchment of North Pacific Force. Eleventh Air
7th Div, enters first and is joined there by 24th Force has already been cut to 1 heavy and 1 medium
Brig, 9th Div. sq, a fighter gp of 4 sqs, and 1 troop carrier sq.
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth and Br Solomon Is.On Vella Lavella, Maj Gen
Eighth Armies make patrol contact near Vallo. H. E. Barrowclough, CG NZ 3d Div, takes com-
Fifth Army makes contact with Taranto bridgehead mand, replacing Gen McClure. NZ 14th Brig Gp
force to form Allied line across S Italy. lands to round up retreating enemy, but Japanese
U.S. Fifth Armys FO No. 2 directs RCT 180, eventually succeed in withdrawing from the island.
reinf, under army command, to drive on Benevento. On Arundel, Co G, reinf, of 103d Inf arrives to
In VI Corps area, 504th Para Inf, 82d A/B Div, reinforce 172d Infs block at base of Stima Pen-
begins attack to recover Altavilla, night 1617. insula. Additional reinforcements are sent from
Patrols of 505th Para Inf find Roccadaspide free of mainland to 3d Bn, 27th Inf, on Sagekarasa.
enemy. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, 5th Div pa- VI Corps area, paratroopers of 504th Inf, 82d A/B
trol makes contact with patrol of VI Corps and rcn Div, accompanied by tanks of 191st Tank Bn, enter
elements of Cdn 1st Div make contact with Br 1st Altavilla without opposition. 45th Div, discovering
A/B Div units from Taranto bridgehead. that enemy has withdrawn, patrols northward to
AEGEAN Br force occupies Samos. regain contact, reaching heights between Battipaglia
[ 136 ] [ 1922 SEPTEMBER 1943 ]

and Eboli and entering Persano without opposition. is ordered to concentrate in Crotone area and be
3d Div, which is to relieve battle-weary 36th Div, prepared to assist advance of VI Corps on army
begins landing. In Br to Corps area, 131st Brig of order. 3d and 45th Divs start northward into moun-
7th Armd Div occupies Battipaglia without tains, 3d driving through Battipaglia toward Acerno
resistance. and 45th on right along Highway 91.
Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps hq lands at Taranto to USSRVelizh, NW of Smolensk, falls to
take command of forces holding Taranto bridge- Soviet troops.
S ARDINIA Surrenders without a shot to small 21 September
Allied party embarked on 2 Br MTBs, enemy hav- Solomon Is.On Arundel, 27th Inf, upon re-
ing completed withdrawal from this and neighbor- newing assault, finds that Japanese have withdrawn
ing islands. from mainland of Arundel as well as islands nearby.
USSRRail junction of Pavlograd, S of Enemy is estimated to have lost 600 dead on Arundel.
Lozovaya, falls to Red Army. By this time Japanese have decided to abandon the
central Solomons entirely and want only to escape
19 September northward.
NEW GUINEAAmphibious assault force (20th
POAVAC estimates that the capture of Brig Gp, Aus 9th Div) sails from Lae for Finsch-
Nauru with forces available will be difficult. hafen. Aus 22d Brig starts overland drive from Lae
GILBERT Is.Carrier and AAF planes make co- toward Langemak Bay. 21st and 25th Brigs, Aus
ordinated attacks on Tarawa, during which com- 7th Div, are flown to Kaiapit from Nadzab to pursue
plete photographic coverage is obtained. The carrier enemy up Markham Valley to Dumpu.
force, TF 15 under Rear Adm Charles A. Pownall, ITALY15th Army Group: Gen Alexander out-
includes carriers Belleau Wood, Princeton, and lines plans for future operations in 4 phases: (1)
Le xington. 11th Bombardment Gp (Seventh consolidation of current positions on line Salerno
Air Force) supplies the B24s, which operate from Bari; (2) capture of Naples and Foggia; (3) seizure
Canton and Funafuti. of Rome and neighboring airfields as well as com-
N E W G U I N E A Aus 2/6th Independent Co munications center of Terni; (4) eventual capture
takes Kaiapit in lively fighting and repels repeated of Leghorn, Florence, and Arezzo.
counterattacks. In U.S. Fifth Armys VI Corps area, 3d and 45th
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army Divs continue N over mountains toward EW High-
gains firm control of Salerno plain. In VI Corps way 7, meeting delaying opposition just S of Acerno
area, 45th Div occupies high ground overlooking and W of Oliveto, respectively. 34th Div, whose
Eboli; 36th Div units take Serre and Ponte Sele. 133d Inf is to reinforce VI Corps for drive on Avel-
In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps reaches line lino, begins landing at Paestum.
AulettaPotenza, 5th Div occupying former and Cdn USSRSoviet forces take Chernigov, between
1st Div latter. From there, light forces are to clear Gomel and Kiev.
to line AltamuraPotenza, then continue to Spinaz-
zola and Melfi. 22 September
USSRSoviet troops on Smolensk front over- POAAdm Halsey issues warning order for
run Yartsevo and Dukhovshchina. Enemy is forced invasion of N Solomons and directs Adm Wilkin-
to retire toward the Dnieper all along lower front son, who is to head landing forces, to make detailed
as Priluki, Piryatin, Lubni, Khorol, and Krasnograd plans. It is later decided to invade Treasury Is. and
fall to troops fighting E and SE of Kiev. Empress Augusta Bay area of Bougainville.
SWPAGHQ issues orders for D EXTERIT Y
landing on Cape Gloucester, New Britain. A LAMO
20 September Force is to make airborne and amphibious assault
Solomon Is.27th Inf forces on Sagekarasa find on Cape Gloucester; neutralize Gasmata, and then
that Japanese have withdrawn from the island. On take it in shore-to-shore operation. D Day, at first
the mainland of Arundel, rest of 27th Inf suspends set for 20 November, is finally postponed to 26
attack while patrols try in vain to locate 172d Inf December.
position. N EW G UINEA After preparatory naval bom-
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Armys bardment, 20th Brig Gp of Aus 9th Div lands at
VI Corps is placed under command of Maj Gen Song R mouth, 6 miles N of Finschhafen, early in
John P. Lucas. 36th Div, upon turning its sector over morning; establishes beachhead with little difficulty
to 3d Div, is withdrawn into reserve. 82d A/B Div and pushes S toward Finschhafen. Fifth Air Force
[ 2327 SEPTEMBER 1943 ] [ 137 ]

provides air support and intercepts enemy aircraft 25 September

making ineffective attacks on the convoy. NEW GUINEA162d Inf of U.S. 41st Div, hav-
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army ing successfully completed its mission, begins return
directs Br 10 Corps to seize Naples and VI Corps to trip to Australia. 20th Brig, Aus 9th Div, continues
secure line AvellinoTeora. VI Corps is to be pre- battle for Finschhafen.
pared to continue to Benevento. In VI Corps area, I TALY 15th Army Group: Gen Montgomery
3d and 45th Divs overcome opposition barring their begins regrouping Br Eighth Army to strengthen
advance: 3d occupies Acerno and 45th Oliveto. E flank. 5 Corps, which is to include 5th, 1st A/B,
In Br Eighth Army area, Ind 8th Div arrives and Ind 8th Divs, is initially to remain in Taranto
from Africa. In 5 Corps area, special force (elements area while 13 Corps, with 78th Div on right and
of 8th Div and of 4th Armd Brig), under 78th Cdn 1st Div on left, continues advance. 5 Corps is
Div command, lands at Bari, night 2223, to drive later to move forward behind 13 Corps and secure
to Foggia. its left flank.
USSRGermans announce evacuation of Pol- USSRSoviet forces t ake Smolensk and
tava, which is untenable. This is the last strongpoint Roslavl on central front; to S, hold E bank of the
E of the middle Dnieper. In Kuban area, Soviet Dnieper from Kremenchug to Dniepropetrovsk.
forces take Anapa. German 4th Army falls back to positions W of
Smolensk and holds.
23 September
N EW G UINEA Continuing S toward Finsch-
26 September
hafen, Aus 20th Brig takes airfield and reaches NEW GUINEA Japanese try in vain to destroy
Bumi R, where Japanese are firmly established. Aus beachhead in Finschhafen area.
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army CORFU Surrenders to German force that has
begins general advance. Br 10 Corps, making main recently landed there.
effort, attacks toward NoceraPagani Pass on left ITALY 15th Army Group: Is directed by Gen
with 46th Div; 56th drives northward on Salerno Eisenhower to secure air bases in Rome area.
S. Severino road. Firm enemy opposition makes U.S. Fifth Armys Br 10 Corps continues efforts
progress slow. In VI Corps area, 3d and 45th Divs to break out into Neapolitan plain; enemy positions
continue northward, hampered more by extensive are beginning to weaken under its blows. To rein-
demolitions than by enemy. Engineers are playing force W flank, U.S. 82d A/B Div is transferred to
Maiori by sea and, under 10 Corps control, takes
important role in keeping routes of advance open.
command of Rangers. VI Corps is handicapped by
Br Eighth Army drives enemy from Altamura.
autumn rains as well as demolitions, but 45th Div
USSRRed Army troops push through Poltava
takes Teora and junction of Highways 7 and 91.
toward Kremenchug. In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps patrols reach
24 September
POAVice Adm Raymond A. Spruance rec- 27 September
ommends to Adm Nimitz that an amphibious Solomon Is.I MAC issues letter of instruc-
operation against Makin be substituted for projected tions to 3d Mar Div for N Solomons offensive.
invasion of Nauru. This plan is subsequently I TALY Marshal Badoglio receives terms of
accepted. complete instrument of surrender.
Solomon Is.First Allied plane lands at Vella 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys VI Corps
Lavella airfield. area, 3d Div reaches Highway 7 and is threatening
NEW G UINEA 20th Brig, Aus 9th Div, forces Avellino.
Bumi R, N of Finschhafen. Enemy planes again In Br Eighth Army area, enemy abandons Foggia
attack shipping. and its airfields, major objective of Eighth Army.
NEW BRITAIN ALAMO Scouts begin rcn of Cape USSRSoviet troops reduce enemys bridge-
Gloucester area in preparation for invasion. head to narrow strip on Taman Peninsula when they
ITALY15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Armys capture Temryuk and occupy N bank of Kuban R.
5 Corps area, 78th Div patrols reach Ofanto R. G ERMANY U.S. Eighth Air Force attacks Em-
USSRHeavy fighting is in progress in vicinity den por t area through overcast, using H 2 S-
of Smolensk and Roslavl. equipped aircraft as Pathfinders for the first time.
G ERMANY Berlin announces evacuation of Of 305 bombers dispatched, 244 attack target or
Smolensk and Roslavl. targets of opportunity. P47s, with belly tanks, es-
[ 138 ] [ 28 SEPTEMBER3 OCTOBER 1943 ]

cort bombers all the way to target in Germany for port, although damaged by bombing, can be quickly
first time. restored to use.
In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps occupies Fog-
28 September gia airfields and drives northward toward line Termol
i Vinchiaturo in order to safeguard the fields, 78th
Solomon Is.Japanese begin withdrawing Div along main coastal road and Cdn 1st Div along
from Kolombangara after nightfall. inland route leading into mountains. Gargano
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army is Peninsula is clear of enemy.
now ready for assault on Naples by Br 10 Corps and USSRDuring first week of the month, 3
on Avellino by VI Corps. Br 10 Corps forces enemy Soviet army groups apply strong pressure against
back through passes leading to Naples. 23d Armd enemys line along Dnieper bend and succeed in
Brig advances to Castellammare. Rangers seize Sala. establishing small bridgeheads in vicinity of Kiev,
131st Brig, 7th Armd Div, overruns Nocera. Kremenchug, and Dniepropetrovsk.
A USTRIA In third attack from the Mediter-
29 September ranean in behalf of Combined Bomber Offensive,
C H I N A Gen Stilwell issues Program for heavy bombers of XII BC and 3 on loan from
China, in which he recommends that 60 Nationalist Eighth Air Force drop 187 tons of bombs on Wiener
divs be reformed. Neustadt. Others are prevented from attacking
ITALYMarshal Badoglio and Gen Eisenhower Augsburg (Bavaria) by overcast but hit alternate
sign complete instrument of Italian surrender on targets in Germany and Italy. The Eighth Air Force
board HMS Nelson, off Malta. B24s return to England after this attack.
15th Army Group: Gen Alexander issues instruc-
tions for future operations, to be conducted in 2 2 October
phases: (1) capture of Naples and airfields to N POA27th Div, previously authorized to plan
and Foggia airfields, while advancing to general line for invasion of Nauru, is notified that its mission
Sessa AuruncaVenafroIserniaCastropignanoBi- will be to capture Makin Atoll in the Gilberts.
ferno RTermoli; (2) advance to general line Civi- Solomon Is.Japanese complete withdrawal
tavecchiaTerniVissoS. Benedetto del Tronto. from Kolombangara, night 23. Efforts of U.S.
U.S. Fifth Army directs VI Corps, upon capture naval forces to interfere are largely ineffective and
of Avellino, to shift to left along general line Avel- some 9,400 Japanese escape safely.
linoMontemaranoTeora. Br 10 Corps units seize N EW G UINEA Troops of Aus 9th Div seize
bridge at Scafati. This is the only bridge now stand- village and harbor of Finschhafen and make contact
ing across the Sarno. Rcn units are pursuing retreat- with Aus 22d Brig, which has moved forward from
ing enemy. In VI Corps area, 3d Div units converge Lae. Japanese retain Sattelberg and Wareo, both of
on Avellino and open attack on it, night 2930. which command Finschhafen area and must be
USSRSoviet troops occupy Kremenchug and cleared.
E bank of the Dnieper in that area; continue to close ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
in on Kiev to NW. Br to Corps area, U.S. 82d A/B Div move, into
Naples to police it while advance is being continued
30 September to the Volturno, a natural barrier covering Naples.
In VI Corps area, while 3d Div drives northward
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army toward the Volturno on left flank of corps, 34th and
area, Br 10 Corps has surrounded M. Vesuvius. In 45th Divs, 45th on right, are moving along separate
VI Corps area, Avellino falls to 3d Div during routes toward Benevento, important road junction.
morning. To hasten advance along Adriatic coast in Br
Eighth Army area, 2d Special Service Brig (com-
1 October mandos) of 13 Corps lands, night 23, near Termoli
Solomon Is.Adm Halsey informs Gen Mac- and secures the town and port; soon joins 78th Div,
Arthur of his decision to invade Bougainville at which, moving N along coast, secures bridgehead
Empress Augusta Bay on 1 November and is prom- across the Biferno.
ised maximum air assistance from SWPA.
N EW G UINEA Aus 9th Div commits another 3 October
bn to assault on Finschhafen, making 3 in all. AEGEAN Axis forces invade Kos I.
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
Br 10 Corps area, Kings Dragoon Gds enter Naples VI Corps area, 133d Inf of 34th Div takes Benevento
during morning without opposition. This excellent and establishes bridgehead across Calore R. 34th
[ 49 OCTOBER 1943 ] [ 139 ]

Div is then withdrawn to reserve, leaving 45th Div from Vella Lavella. Japanese succeed in rescuing
to expand bridgehead. their forces but lose a DD. U.S. losses are 1 DD sunk
In Br Eighth Army area, Germans rush reinforce- and 2 others damaged.
ments forward in attempt to hurl back bridgehead NEW GUINEA Elements of Aus 7th Div takes
across the Biferno at Termoli, and hard fighting Dumpu with unexpected ease. This is to become a
ensues. Brig of 8th Div is landed in the bridgehead, staging field for fighters.
night 34. Cdn 1st Div, hampered by terrain, is N EW B RITAIN A LAMO Scouts begin reconnoi-
within 15 miles of Vinchiaturo. tering Gasmata area in preparation for invasion.
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
4 October reaches S bank of Volturno 1, successfully conclud-
AEGEAN Germans overrun Kos I. Loss of this ing another phase of the Italian campaign. In Br
island, site of only Allied air base in the Aegean, en- 10 Corps area, 56th Div takes Capua.
dangers Samos and Leros. In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, 78th Div
CORSICAAllied forces gain complete control of gains firm control of Biferno bridgehead at Termoli.
Corsica as enemy withdraws from Bastia area. Par-
ticipating in explusion of Germans were patriots, 7 October
Bn du Choc, goums of 4th Moroccan Mtn Div, and I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
small U.S. OSS party. begins preparations for assault across the Volturno.
Crossing date is set tentatively at night 910 and
5 October later postponed to night 1213. VI and Br 10 Corps
U.S.JCS approve gradual strengthening of improve positions along S bank of the river.
W Aleutians. In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, another brig
POACINCPACCINCPOA issues plan for of 8th Div, the last to arrive in Italy, lands in
offensive in Central Pacific. Adm Spruance is to Biferno bridgehead as enemy retires across Trigno
seize Makin, Tarawa, and Apamama in the Gilberts, R.
cover amphibious landings on each with air and USSRSoviet forces on central front overrun
naval surface forces, and deny enemy use of land Nevel, rail center N of Vitebsk. Enemy resistance is
bases in the Marshalls and at Nauru during the stiffening all along the line and progress of Red
operation. D Day for landings is set for 19 Novem- Army is becoming less spectacular.
ber (WLT) and later postponed to 20 November
(WLT). 8 October
W AKE U.S. TF 14 begins 2day operation
against Wake in which carrier-based and land- NEW GUINEAAus II Corps, under Lt Gen Sir
based planes participate. Leslie Morshead, relieves Aus I Corps.
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
area, Br 10 Corps gets forward elements to the Armys VI Corps area, 30th Inf of 3d Div forces
Volturno. enemy remnants to withdraw across the Volturno.
In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, indecisive 34th Div is to take over zone of 30th Inf and join
fighting for Biferno bridgehead at Termoli con- 3d Div in assault across the river.
tinues, with Germans penetrating into Termoli GERMANY U.S. Eighth Air Force, for the first
itself. time, uses radio countermeasure called CARPET in
powerful attack on Bremen and Vegesack by 357
bombers. Despite this, the attack is costly.
6 October
Solomon Is.Action in central Solomons comes
to a close. Elements of 27th Inf, 25th Div, make un- 9 October
opposed landing on Kolombangara during morning. U.S.Gen Arnold recommends to JCS that
U.S. casualties during the central Solomons cam- Twelfth Air Force be divided into two air forces to
paign total 1,094 killed and 3,83 wounded. increase power of Combined Bomber Offensive. It
Counted enemy dead, except on Vella Lavella, total has already been decided that Italy-based planes will
2,483. The campaign yields Allied forces 4 airfields assist in offensive to knock out Germany.
(Munda, Barakoma, Ondonga, and Segi) within ELLICE IS.Nukufetau airstrip is ready for use.
range of Bougainville, the next objective. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
B ATTLE OF V ELLA L AVELLA Although outnum- VI Corps area, 45th Div finishes clearing right flank
bered 3 to 1, U.S. DDs engage enemy naval force of army. 179th Inf replaces 157th, which is with-
during night 67 as it is withdrawing 600 Japanese drawn to reserve.
[ 140 ] [ 1115 OCTOBER 1943 ]

In Br Eighth Army area, 5th Div is transferred 3d Div seizes M. Majulo, M. Caruso, and Piana di
from 5 to 13 Corps. Caiazzo. 34th Div gains bridgehead from Piana
USSRRed Army eliminates final resistance di Caiazzo to junction of Calore and Volturno
on Taman Peninsula. Rivers. On right flank of VI Corps, 45th Div is
clearing M. Acero area with 179th and 180th Regts.
11 October In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, 5th Div,
advancing along Route 87, reaches Casacalenda.
ITALY15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Army
area, gap is developing between 78th Div on Adriatic
coast and Cdn 1st Div, and Gen Montgomery re- 14 October
groups units: 5 Corps, with 78th Div and Ind 8th Solomon Is.8th Brig Gp, NZ 3d Div, begins
Div under command, is given responsibility for right rehearsal for the Treasuries at Florida, concluding
flank; 13 Corps is to advance on 2-div front, employ- on 17th.
ing Cdn 1st and Br 5th Divs; NZ 2d Div, which is I TALY 15th Army Group: Unloading of sup-
to concentrate in Taranto area by midNovember, plies is transferred from Salerno to Naples.
is to be held in army reserve. In U.S. Fifth Army area, Gen Clark, CG, alters
USSRSoviet forces closing in on Gomel take boundary between corps and changes plan of at-
suburb of Novo Belitsa. tack. Since 56th Div, on right flank of Br to Corps,
is unable to cross the Volturno at Capua, boundary
is moved E to permit it to use bridge within the Tri-
12 October flisco Gap, formerly 3d Div zone. 3d Div of VI Corps
POAAdm Halsey issues basic plan for in- is to take over mission of 34th and latter is
vasion of N Solomons. to move to right to make contact with 45th Div.
N EW B RITAIN U.S. Fifth Air Force begins 45th Div, upon reaching Piedimonte dAlife, is to
strong air offensive against Rabaul in effort to iso- be relieved. VI Corps is to advance astride the Vol-
late and neutralize Bismarck Archipelago. 349 air- turno to VenafroIsernia area, clearing upper Vol-
craft participate in the surprise attack and consider- turno Valley. 3d and 34th Divs are to make converg-
ably damage Japanese shipping and aircraft at cost ing attacks toward Dragoni, but 34th is forced to
of only 4 planes lost. await improvement of its supply situation. Army
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army bridgeheads across the Volturno are being expanded.
begins assault crossing of the Volturno on 40mile In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, Cdn 1st Div
front during night 1213. Operations in VI Corps takes Campobasso.
sector start at midnight with feint on left flank by USSROn the Dnieper bend, Soviet forces suc-
1st Bn of 15th Inf, 3d Div. cessfully conclude struggle for Zaporodzhe, indus-
trial center of the Ukraine; others are fighting in
13 October streets of Melitopol.
G ERMANY Of 291 B17s of U.S. Eighth Air
M AKIN Photographic coverage of the atoll is
Force attempting to bomb ball-bearing plants at
Schweinfurt, 228 reach target and drop 483 tons of
I TALY Formally declares war on Germany,
bombs accurately. Although severe damage is done,
thereby becoming a cobelligerent of the Allies.
cost is heavy60 B17s lost and others damaged.
15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army establishes
As a result of these losses, daylight bombing attacks
bridgeheads on N bank of the Volturno against
against strategic targets deep in Germany are not
sharp resistance. Engineers play an important part
resumed for some time.
since enemy has destroyed bridges while making
planned withdrawal. Fall rains and mountainous
terrain make forward movement difficult. Weather 15 October
conditions curtail NAAF support of the operation. POAI MAC issues final orders for invasion
Br 10 Corps, on W flank of army, makes main effort of N Solomons. The attack force (TF 31 under
with 46th Div at Cancello while 7th Armd Div, in Adm Wilkinson), with ground forces of Gen Van-
center, and 56th Div, on right, make diversionary degrifts I MAC, will seize Treasury Is. bases on 27
attacks at Grazzanise and Capua, respectively. 46th October in preparation for main invasion of Bou-
Div establishes bridgehead in coastal sector, and gainville on 1 November. In support will be carrier-
7th Armd Div gains toehold on N bank, but 56th based and land-based aircraft, surface forces, and
Div is unable to cross at Capua. VI Corps, to right submarines.
of to Corps, crosses river on 2-div front. On left, I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
3d Div crosses E of Capua with 34th Div to its right. Armys Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div crosses the
[ 1622 OCTOBER 1943 ] [ 141 ]

Volturno, using bridges in former VI Corps sector. Dragoni, 3d clearing Roccaromana, and prepare to
VI Corps 3d Div takes Cisterna, but elements are make concerted effort to take Dragoni and bridges
being strongly opposed near Villa and Liberi. Ele- beyond. To block enemy escape route from Dragoni,
ments of 34th Div (2d Bn, 135th Inf) take Ruviano. 133d Inf of 34th Div begins second crossing of the
Enemy withdraws from this area, night 1516. On Volturno and takes railway-highway bridge there.
right flank of VI Corps, 45th Div finishes clearing to
Titerno Creek and makes contact with 34th Div 19 October
across the Volturno to left. I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES Conference be-
Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps pauses as Cdn 1st tween Soviet, Br, and U.S. foreign ministers opens
Div takes Vinchiaturo. in Moscow.
U.K.Gen Brereton activates U.S. Army Air U.S.Third (London) Protocol, extending
Forces in the U.K. (USAAFUK), which includes through 30 June 1944, is signed. It promises
Eighth and Ninth Air Forces. 2,700,000 tons to USSR via the Pacific route and
2,400,000 by either the N Soviet ports or the Persian
16 October Gulf.
U.S.JCS, accepting Gen Arnolds plan to di- N EW G UINEA Aus 9th Div, assisted by arty,
vide Twelfth Air Force into two forces, propose to contains further enemy attacks in Finschhafen area.
Gen Eisenhower that Fifteenth Air Force be formed ITALYNAAF begins offensive against bridges,
from XII BC with primary mission of increasing thus, during next 5 days, forcing enemy to make
weight of Combined Bomber Offensive. greater use of motor transport and coastal shipping.
POA3d Mar Div, having framed at Guadal- 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th Armys VI
canal for operations against Bougainville, conducts Corps area, 168th Inf of 34th Div opens attack on
rehearsals in New Hebrides, concluding them on Dragoni before dawn and finds that enemy has
20th. withdrawn. 133d Inf finishes crossing the Volturno
N EW G UINEA Aus 9th Div, forewarned by a NE of Dragoni. 135th crosses to SE and heads
captured document of imminent attack, repels the toward Alife.
first of a series of sharp counterattacks from
Sattelberg. 20 October
C HINA Adm Mountbatten arrives in Chung- GILBERT I S.Photographic coverage of Tarawa
king. is obtained.
U.K.Gen Brereton assumes command of re- NEW GUINEA Aus 26th Brig arrives by sea to
constituted Ninth Air Force. reinforce Aus 9th Div at Finschhafen, where enemy
attacks continue.
17 October J APAN Japanese order strong force of carrier
planes to Rabaul to augment land-based air strength
N EW G UINEA Japanese continue vigorous at-
and delay Allied progress while main perimeter de-
tacks from Sattelberg after attempting to land 4
fenses of Japan are being strengthened. This plan is
barge loads of troops, of which only one reaches
called Operation RO.
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
VI Corps area, Alife falls to 34th Div and Piedi-
VI Corps area, 3d Div finds that enemy has with-
monte dAlife to 45th Div. This concludes current
drawn from Liberi and Villa. Elements of 34th
mission of 45th Div, which is withdrawn into corps
occupy Alvignano after patrols report it clear.
reserve. While 3d Div continues northward toward
USSRRed Army breaks through enemy line
Mignano in region W of the Volturno, 34th Div is
below Kremenchug and pushes toward Krivoi Rog.
to drive on Capriati al Volturno in region E of the
Red Army forces of Center Front, attempting to
river. 133d Inf opens drive on S. Angelo dAlife.
complete investment of Gomel, seize Loyev after
crossing the Dnieper S of Gomel.
21 October
18 October SWPAA LAMO Force hq moves from Milne
Bay (New Guinea) to Goodenough I.
Solomon Is.Air Command, Solomons, begins
intensive attacks on Bougainville airfields in prepa-
ration for invasion. 22 October
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys U.S.CCS agree to establishment of Fifteenth
VI Corps area, 3d and 34th Divs continue toward Air Force in the Mediterranean.
[ 142 ] [ 2329 OCTOBER 1943 ]

POAI MAC directs 2d Para Bn of 1st Mar German delaying positions in mountains from M.
Para Regt, FMF, to land at Voza (Choiseul I), Massico on W coast to Matese mountains on right
night of 27 October, to conduct diversionary raid boundary. In VI Corps area, 135th Inf of 34th Div
and, if feasible, establish permanent base there. moves forward to take up pursuit toward Ailano,
M EDITERRANEAN Gen Eisenhower is notified passing through 133d Inf.
that the Fifteenth Air Force will be established un- USSROn the Dnieper bend, Red Army
der his command, effective 1 November. forces overrun Dniepropetrovsk and Dnieprodzer-
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th zhinsk.
Armys VI Corps area, 133d Inf of 34th Div takes
road junction S of S. Angelo dAlife, from which 26 October
enemy rear guards have withdrawn, and prepares POATreasury Is. assault force (Rear Adm
to attack the town. George H. Forts Southern Force of Adm Wilkin-
In preparation for general advance on Rome (line sons TF 31) sails for target.
PescaraAvezzanoRome), 78th Div of Br Eighth
Armys 5 Corps crosses bn over the Trigno, night
2223. 27 October
POAIn preparation for invasion of Bougain-
23 October ville, 8th Brig Gp of NZ 3d Div, under Brig R. A.
Row, lands on 2 islands of Treasury group, Stirling
POA27th Div issues field order for invasion and Mono. The small Japanese force on Mono is
of the Gilberts. quickly put to flight and must be rounded up. Stir-
CBIGen Stilwell, Acting Deputy Supreme ling is undefended. New Georgia-based planes sup-
Allied Commander, SEAC, has by now decided that port the operation. Japanese planes attack shipping
he can do little more toward improving the Chinese with little success. 2d Mar Para Bn (Lt Col Victor
Army, his basic mission. H. Krulak) begins diversionary raid on Choiseul I,
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th Solomons, landing night 2728, and subsequently
Armys VI Corps area, 133d Inf of 34th Div opens patrols actively to feign strength that is not present.
assault on S. Angelo dAlife but is unable to take it. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
USSRHard fighting for Melitopol ends in VI Corps area, 168th Inf of 34th Div is ordered to
victory for Soviet forces. attack on 28th since elements of 135th Inf are being
U.K.Prime Minister Churchill issues direc- held up by enemy rear guards on hill S of Ailano.
tive outlining mission of Adm Mountbatten as Su- In Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps area, 78th Div makes
preme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia. futile attempt to expand bridgehead across Trigno
R. Failure is largely due to heavy rainfall.
24 October USSRSoviet forces break through enemy de-
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th fenses beyond Melitopol, but by this time Germans
Armys VI Corps area, 133d Inf of 34th Div takes have succeeded in stabilizing positions before Niko-
S. Angelo and commanding ground beyond without pol and at Krivoi Rog.
28 October
25 October I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
Armys Br 10 Corps area, 46th Inf and 7th Armd
POAAdm Spruance issues operation plan, Divs begin attack on M. Massico and M. S. Croce.
which is subsequently modified somewhat, outlin- In VI Corps area, 168th Inf of 34th Div finds that
ing organization and tasks of Operation GALVANIC, enemy has abandoned the hill S of Ailano.
invasion of the Gilberts. In Br Eighth Army area, heavy rainfall forces Gen
NEW GUINEAJapanese begin withdrawing to- Montgomery to postpone planned attack by 13 Corps
ward Sattelberg in coastal sector N of Finschhafen, along axis VinchiaturoIsernia. 5 Corps continues
suspending attacks on Aus 9th Div. unsuccessful efforts to expand Trigno bridgehead
ITALY15th Army Group: Allied commanders in coastal sector.
decide that the initiative must be retained in Italy
in order to pin down enemy forces there and prevent
them from massing for counteroffensive before 29 October
spring 1944. I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
U.S. Fifth Army, with positions N of the Vol- Armys VI Corps area, 34th Div continues to pur-
turno firmly established, is ready for drive against sue enemy northward, 135th Inf taking Pratella and
[ 30 OCTOBER2 NOVEMBER 1943 ] [ 143 ]

Prata. Elements of 504th Para Inf, 82d A/B Div, opposition from small but determined defense force.
protecting right flank of VI Corps, reach Gallo. 3d Elements of 2d Mar Raider Regt (Prov) land on
Div continues N on left flank of corps in region W Puruata I, off Cape Torokina, and begin to clear it.
of the Volturno. Maj Gen A. H. Turnage, 3d Mar Div CG, takes
In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps begins attack command ashore. Japanese air attacks delay unload-
toward Isernia, 5th Div leading off in downpour of ing of cargo and surf damages many landing craft,
rain, night 2930. but the operation is otherwise very successful. In
support of the landings, naval vessels of TF 39
30 October (Rear Adm A. Stanton Merrill) and carrier aircraft
I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES Moscow Con- of TF 38 (Rear Adm Frederick C. Sherman)
ference of Foreign Ministers ends after considering neutralize enemy airfields in S BougainvilleShort-
certain politico-military issues. Although a tripartite lands area.
conference (Br-U.S.-Soviet), Ch representatives B AT T L E O F E M P R E S S A U G U S TA B AY During
have participated in some phases. Conferees agree to night 12, TF 39 engages enemy force of cruisers
demand unconditional surrender of Germany and and DDs proceeding toward Bougainville and f
establish a world organization for peace. Discus- orces enemy to retire after losing a cruiser and a
sions lead to establishment later in London of Euro- DD.
pean Advisory Commission to study and make rec- M EDITERRANEAN U.S. Fifteenth Air Force is
ommendations on problems relating to termination activated pursuant to CCS directive of as October.
of the war in Europe. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army
area, Br 10 Corps continues to clear M. Massico
31 October M. S. Croce hill mass on W flank of Fifth Army.
POAAdm Turners Northern Attack Force 56th Div takes Roccamonfina. In VI Corps area,
(TF 52) begins rehearsals for G ALVANIC invasion 168th Inf of 34th Div reaches Capriati al Volturno.
of the Gilbertsoff Hawaii. TF 31 units rendezvous USSRIn the Crimea, Red Army troops seal
W of Guadalcanal, then sail for Bougainville. off Perekop Isthmus with capture of Armyansk;
Enemy airfields on S Bougainville are now un- make landings on E end of Kerch Peninsula.
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
takes control of Italian 1st Motorized Gp. In Br 10 2 November
Corps area, while 7th Armd and 46th Inf Divs con- B OUGAINVILLE 3d Mar Div is slowly expand-
tinue attacks on M. Massico and M. S. Croce, 56th ing beachhead and organizing defenses. 3d Marines,
Div, on to Corps right flank, takes Teano. In VI which has had hard fighting on right flank, is ex-
Corps area, some elements of 34th Div reach Fonte- changing places with 9th Marines. Puruata I. is
greca while others occupy Ciorlano, on slopes of La cleared by noon. Carrier planes of TF 38 make 2
Croce Hill. strikes against Bonis, continuing neutralization of
In Br Eighth Armys 13 Corps area, Cantalupo airfields; before departing to refuel.
falls to 5th Div. NEW BRITAIN 75 B25s, with P38 escort, at-
tack Rabaul with good effect but meet the strongest
1 November opposition to be encountered by Fifth Air Force
U.S.Alaska is made a separate theater of during the entire war.
operations. Alaska Defense Command, separated B URMA Japanese along Tarung R are with-
from Western Defense Command, is renamed standing efforts of 112th Rgt, Ch 38th Div, to
Alaskan Department and comes under direct control advance; wipe out co of 1st Bn.
of the War Department. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
U.S. Military Mission to USSR is organized un- Br 10 Corps area, patrols of 7th Armd and 46th Inf
der Maj Gen John R. Deane to establish American Divs reach the Garigliano. VI Corps prepares to
airfields in USSR for shuttle bombing of enemy cross 2 divs, 45th and 34th, over the Volturno. Ad-
territory. vance elements of 45th DivCo F of 180th Inf
Solomon Is.After preparatory naval gunfire cross below Sesto Campano, night 23.
and aerial bombardment, Northern Force of Adm In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps begins main
Wilkinsons TF 31 starts landing 3d Mar Div, reinf, assault across the Trigno, night 23. Firm resistance
of Gen Vandegrifts I MAC on Bougainville about is being overcome with help of arty and naval
0730 9th and 3d Marines, 9th on left, land abreast gunfire.
on N shore of Empress Augusta Bay in Cape Toro- A USTRIA U.S. Fifteenth Air Force joins in
kina area and establish shallow beachhead despite Combined Bomber Offensive against Germany with
[ 144 ] [ 35 NOVEMBER 1943 ]

damaging attack on aircraft works at Wiener Neus- in an ridge to NW; makes contact with 4th Ranger
tadt by 112 heavy bombers. Enemy puts up strong Bn at Cannavinelle. 3d Bn of 179th Inf, upon cross-
fighter and AA opposition. ing the Volturno S of Venafro, attacks and captures
Venafro. 1st Bn follows 3d across the river. 34th
Divs 133d Inf seizes S. Maria Oliveto; 168th takes
3 November Roccaravindola.
POANorthern Attack Force (TF 52) com- In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps troops enter
pletes rehearsal for GALVANIC at Hawaii. Isernia without opposition. 5 Corps takes S. Salvo
Solomon Is.3d Mar Div continues to im- ridge, enemy having made general withdrawal in
prove beachhead positions on Bougainville. At 1800, the area.
3d Marines takes responsibility for left flank and USSRGermans are forced to yield additional
9th Marines for right flank. 3d Raider Bn patrol ground along the Dnieper as Soviet troops press for-
moves to Torokina I. and makes search for enemy, ward to its mouth opposite Kherson. Red Army
but finds none. units open major offensive in Kiev area, pushing S
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th from Dnieper bridgehead and threatening the city
Armys VI Corps area, 4th Ranger Bn crosses the with encirclement.
Volturno in 45th Div zone at 1800 to block High-
way 6 NW of Mignano, but is stopped short of
objective. 45th Div continues crossing the Volturno. 5 November
Rest of 2d Bn, 180th Inf, upon crossing SE of B OUGAINVILLE In zone of 9th Marines, 3d
Presenzano at 2000, drives NW toward Rocca Pipi- Ranger Bn repels Japanese attack against block on
rozzi. After strong arty preparation, 34th Div be- local trail, called Mission Trail. Later the Rangers
gins to cross the Volturno, night 34. and 3d Bn of 9th Marines drive up Mission Trail to-
In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps is strongly op- ward its junction with Numa Numa Trail. The
posed as it attacks S. Salvo ridge. Numa Numa and EastWest Trails are the two
G ERMANY In largest daylight raid to date by main trails on Cape Torokina.
U.S. Eighth Air Force, over 500 planes, led by Path- N EW B RITAIN Almost 100 carrier aircraft of
finders, attack Wilhelmshaven port area through TF 38 attack new enemy naval forces concentrated
cloud. at Rabaul, taking enemy by surprise; despite intense
AA fire, severely damage 5 cruisers and 2 DDs at
cost of 10 planes lost. Later, Fifth Air Force planes
4 November bomb wharf area as enemy aircraft are searching
U.S.War Department Operations Division in vain for TF 38. Enemy naval forces are severely
recommends that current commitments to China be crippled and threat to Bougainville beachhead from
fulfilled; that limited bomber offensive from China this source ends.
be mounted; and that only 30 Ch divs be trained CBIGen Stilwell submits report to Chiang
and equipped, plus equipment for 3 additional divs Kai-shek on SEAC planning and progress of prepa-
in order to start training of ZEBRA Force. rations for attack from Yunnan by YForce.
SOLOMON IS.2d Mar Para Bn withdraws. from I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
Choiseul in LCIs. Bougainville beachhead is seri- begins 10day period of gruelling action against
ously threatened as Japanese naval force, including lofty hills and mountains that form enemys Winter
heavy cruisers, arrives at Rabaul from Truk. TF Line. Designed as a delaying position, this line is
38, with landbased air cover, is ordered to strike at disposed in front of main defense belt known as
Rabaul. the Gustav Line. Fifth Armys efforts to breach the
B URMA 112th Regt, Ch 38th Div, digs in in line during next 10 days are fruitless. In addition to
current positions in N Burma, since all efforts to a tenacious enemy, Fifth Army is adversely affected
advance have been futile and costly. 2d Bn is still by terrain, rainy weather, and lack of reserves. In
short of Sharaw Ga. By this time, 1st Bn, directed Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div, in conjunction with
against Yupbang Ga, is isolated by enemy road- left flank elements of U.S. VI Corps, begins battle
block and must be supplied by air; 3d Bn is pinned for M. CaminoM. la DifensaM. Maggiore hill
down at Ngajatzup, 30 miles SW of Ningbyen. mass, concentrating on M. Camino. In VI Corps area,
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Armys 3d Div begins outflanking attacks against positions
Br ro Corps, with M. Massico and M. S. Croce hill commanding Mignano Gap: as 7th Inf columns
masses under its control, prepares for assault on M. press toward German M. la Difensa positions, which
Camino by 56th Div. In VI Corps area, 2d Bn of hold out for next 10 days, elements of 15th are sent
180th Inf, 45th Div, clears Rocca Pipirozzi and digs northward over M. Cesima toward Cannavinelle
[ 610 NOVEMBER 1943 ] [ 145 ]

Hill; 30th Inf, upon passing through 45th Divs F. Caffey, consisting of 135th Inf and supporting
zone, night 56, presses W toward M. Rotondo. units, for drive on Montaquila.
In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps pursues enemy USSRExploiting German withdrawal from
northward, 78th Div, on coast, pushing through Kiev, Soviet forces push on to Fastov, rail junction
Vasto. Ind 8th Div takes Tufillo. to SW, where they are halted by strong opposition.

6 November 8 November
U.S.CCS accede to request of Gen Eisen- B OUGAINVILLE Gen Vandegrift (CG I MAC,
hower for retention of landing craft. 12 U.S. and pending arrival of Maj Gen Roy S. Geiger) reaches
56 Br LSTs due to depart from Mediterranean are Bougainville and takes command of operations there
to remain until 15 December. A further extension, and on the Treasuries. Advance elements of 37th
until 15 January 1944, is subsequently granted. Div, RCT 148, also arrive to take over left flank of
E LLICE I S .Advance Hq, Seventh Air Force, beachhead and are attached to 3d Mar Div. Battle
opens at Funafuti. of Koromokina Lagoon ends as 1st Bn of 21st Ma-
Solomon Is.1st Bn, 21st Marines, arrives on rines, after extremely effective preparatory fire, at-
Bougainville to reinforce 3d Mar Divs beachhead. tacks and eliminates subdued remnants of the
I NDIA Government of India accepts offer of counterlanding force.
U.S. troops to help operate Bengal and Assam RR. CBIGen Stilwell directs Col Thomas S.
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys Arms, of YForce Infantry Training Center, to acti-
Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div continues attack toward vate Z EBRA Force Infantr y Training Center at
M. Camino, elements taking Calabritto. In VI Corps Kweilin.
3d Div sector, 7th Inf is still fighting for M. la Di- I TA LY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander
fensa; efforts of 15th Inf to take Hill 253, SE nose orders Fifth Army to plan for amphibious opera-
of M. Lungo, are unsuccessful, as are those of 30th Inf tion on W coast.
to take M. Rotondo. To E, 45th and 34th Divs bat- In U.S. Fifth Armys Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div
ter at hills and mountains with little success. withstands strong counterattacks at Calabritto and
USSRGermans withdraw from Kiev to avoid seizes hill to NE. In VI Corps area, 7th Inf of 3d
envelopment. Div is still unable to scale M. la Difensa, but 3d Bn
of 15th Inf takes Hill 253 and 3d Bn of 30th reaches
top of M. Rotondo45th Div continues to fight for
7 November mountains north of Venafro and Pozzilli. 3d Bn,
POASouthern Attack Force (TF 53) begins 179th Inf, opens assault on hills between Pozzilli
rehearsal for G ALVANIC at Efate, New Hebrides. and Filignano. 34th Divs TF A takes Montaquila.
A Fifth Fleet carrier force, under command of Rear In Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps area, 78th Div gains
Adm Alfred I. Montgomery, reaches S Pacific. heights overlooking the Sangro from its mouth to
B OUGAINVILLE Beachhead undergoes its first Paglieta.
major counterattack. Japanese DDs from Rabaul
land 475 troops between Laruma and Koromokina 9 November
Rivers early in morning. The troops attack at once
BOUGAINVILLE Gen Geiger arrives on Bougain-
in vicinity of Koromokina lagoon and are held off
ville by air: Allied dive bombers raid Koromokina
by 3d Marines, although small outpost is cut off
Lagoon-Laruma R area.
and must be rescued by sea.
CBISEAC adopts TARZAN , Indiabased por-
tion of general offensive in Burma, now called 10 November
C HAMPION . T ARZAN calls for limited offensive on POAMain body of Northern Attack Force
Arakan coast for Akyab; drive from Imphal to for GALVANIC leaves Pearl Harbor.
Chindwin. R.; establishment of a div on RR to Solomon Is.Gen Geiger takes command of
Myitkyina; amphibious operation against the Allied forces on Bougainville and Treasury Is.
Andamans. N EW B RITAIN Gen MacArthur cancels pro-
11 Army Group: In Br Fourteenth Armys 4 jected offensive against Gasmata. Fifth Air Force
Corps area, Japanese are becoming aggressive in strongly attacks Rabaul.
Chin Hills and occupy Falam. I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army Armys VI Corps area, elements of 45th Div take
continues to battle enemy in mountains of Winter hills between Pozzilli and Filignano without opposi-
Line but makes little headway. In VI Corps sector, tion. 1st Ranger Bn relieves other elements of 45th
34th Div organizes TF A under Brig Gen Benjamin Div on M. Corno.
[ 146 ] [ 1115 NOVEMBER 1943 ]

11 November 13 November
B OUGAINVILLE Additional elements of 21st POASouthern Attack Force for G ALVANIC
Marines arrive. Marines now hold junction of Mis- departs from New Hebrides. Preinvasion air opera-
sion and Numa Numa Trails, having killed an tions against Gilberts are begun. B24s from
estimated 550 Japanese during drive up Mission Funafuti bomb Tarawa without interception but
Trail. In order to secure airfield site, Gen Geiger meet unusually heavy AA fire.
orders 3d Mar Div to drive E and 37th Div, W. B OUGAINVILLE Gen Geiger becomes respon-
N EW B RITAIN Powerful air offensive against sible to Adm Halsey as Adm Wilkinson relinquishes
Rabaul continues. Carrier planes of TF 38 and command. 21st Marines begins attack for junction
others of Adm Montgomerys force, as well as land- of Numa Numa Trail with EastWest Trail to
based RAAF and Fifth Air Force planes, attack with ensure safety of airfield site. 129th Inf of 37th Div
good effect. Japanese planes locate Adm Montgom- arrives.
erys group and attack it vigorously but ineffectively. NEW BRITAIN U.S. Fifth Air Force begins pre-
CBIGeneralissimo Chiang Kai-shek replies invasion bombardment of targets in W New Britain.
to Gen Stilwells memo of 5 November at confer- CBICol Francis G. Brink is given responsi-
ence of Chinese National Military Council at bility for training of G ALAHAD forces, a task pre-
Chungking. While agreeing to Br and Ch attack on viously held by Lt Col Charles N. Hunter. In late
Burma, he wants to hold Chinese back until British December the GALAHAD Force is activated as 5307th
are attacking Kalewa. Replacements and supplies Regt (Prov).
for Y-Force are to be provided. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
11 Army Group: In Br Fourteenth Armys 4 VI Corps area, 157th Inf of 45th Div scales Hill 640
Corps area, Japanese seize Haka. but is forced off. Hills 640 and 769 must be cleared
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th before advance on Acquafondata can be continued.
Armys VI Corps area, 45th Div commits 157th Inf USSRRed Army intensifies pressure against
between 180th and 179th for drive on Acquafondata. enemy in Dnieper bend.
2d Bn, 509th Para Inf, to which 1st Ranger Bn is
attached, clears saddle of M. S. Croce. 14 November
USSRRussians improve positions W of Kiev,
seizing foothold across Teterev R, but are under B OUGAINVILLE After delay to await air strike,
pressure in Fastov area, SW of Kiev, where Ger- replenishment of water supply, and repair of com-
mans are taking the initiative. Soviet Center Front munications; 21st Marines, supported by 5 tanks,
forces attack northward toward Rechitsa, W of renews battle for trail junction and takes it. Perim-
Gomel. eter defense is established. 148th Inf reverts to
37th Div from attachment to 3d Mar Div.
12 November CBIMovement orders are issued to aviation
POASouthern Attack Force for G ALVANIC engineers and dump truck companies required to
completes rehearsal off New Hebrides. build airfields in India in preparation for arrival
T REASURY I S .8th Brig Gp, NZ 3d Div, com- of B29s.
pletes elimination of small enemy garrison on Mono. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
For 205 Japanese dead counted, 40 New Zealanders Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div withdraws as planned
and 12 Americans have lost their lives. from slopes of M. Camino, night 1415.
NEW BRITAIN Japanese withdraw their carrier USSRGermans launch counteroffensive
aircraft from Rabaul. Rabaul no longer presents a aimed at recapture of Zhitomir.
serious threat to Allied forces.
L EROS Axis force invades Leros by air and sea.
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys 15 November
Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div, exhausted by prolonged B OUGAINVILLE Beachhead perimeter is ex-
fighting, is to be withdrawn from M. Camino. In panded to inland defense line Dog.
VI Corps area, 157th Inf of 45th Div makes limited CBIGen Wheeler is made principal admin-
progress toward Acquafondata but is threatened by istrative officer of SEAC. Similar post for Gen
enemy on Hills 769 and 640. 133d Inf, 34th Div, Auchinlecks India Command is given to Gen Sir
is pinched out by 135th Inf on right and 179th Inf Alan Brooke. Maj Gen William E. R. Covell suc-
on left; 135th Inf makes contact with 504th Para ceeds Gen Wheeler as commander of SOS CBI.
Inf, which has pushed past Fornelli to Colli and is B URMA On N Burma front, Ch 38th Div is
maintaining contact with Br Eighth Army. moving reinforcements forward for 112th Regt.
USSRContinuing to advance W of Kiev, 114th Regt arrives at front and is followed in early
Soviet forces take Zhitomir, important rail center. December by 113th. In 11 Army Groups Four-
[ 1620 NOVEMBER 1943 ] [ 147 ]

teenth Army sector, Japanese take Fort White in 4 USSRSome Red Army units in Kiev sector
Corps area, having forced British to abandon it. overrun Korosten, endangering enemys supply sys-
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army tem, but others are threatened with encirclement in
halts advance in order to reorganize in preparation Zhitomir as German counteroffensive for Zhitomir
for another assault on the Winter Line. 7th Armd gains ground. To N, Soviet forces overrun Rechitsa
Div is withdrawn from left flank of Br 10 Corps and close in on Gomel.
to 15th Army Group reserve in preparation for
movement to England. 46th Div takes over 7th 18 November
Armd Div sector. 82d A/B Div, largely engaged ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army
in policing Naples, is also to be withdrawn to Eng- area, II Corps (Gen Keyes) is given zone of opera-
land before next offensive. 1st Armd Div begins tions in center and takes command of 3d and 36th
arriving at Naples about this time. Divs. VI Corps contains 34th and 45th Divs.
USSRContinuing offensive toward Rechitsa, USSRSoviet troops force the Dnieper near
Soviet forces cut rail line between Gomel and Pinsk. Cherkassy, SE of Kiev, and take Ovruch, NW of
Kiev, but continue to fall back under enemy pres-
16 November sure in Zhitomir area. To N, enemy forces in Gomel
B O U G A I N V I L L E Continuous road through are imperiled by rapid expansion of Rechitsa salient.
beachhead is completed, vastly improving supply
situation. 19 November
CBIAdm Mountbatten activates his new com- C ENTRAL P ACIFIC Landbased and carrier-
mand, SEAC, and takes over operational control based aircraft join in final bombardment of Gil-
from CinC India. Movement orders are issued to berts, Marshalls, and Nauru in preparation for in-
U.S. forces who are to help operate the Bengal and vasion of Gilberts.
Assam RR. Gen Stratemeyers Hq, AAF, India- B OUGAINVILLE 145th Inf of 37th Div arrives.
Burma Sector, virtually rejects Gen Chennaults pro- N EW B RITAIN Fifth Air Force intensifies ac-
posals for 1944 for logistical reasons. Hump ton- tion against the island.
nage requested cannot be supplied. Since the T WI- I TA LY 15th Army Group: In Br Eighth
LIGHT plan for B29S to be brought to CBI is
Armys 5 Corps area, enemy completes withdrawal
approved, priority of Fourteenth Air Force must be across the Sangro in Ind 8th Div sector.
lowered. USSRRed Army forces abandon Zhitomir to
L E RO S I.Enemy completes occupation of avoid being trapped there.
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
VI Corps area, 36th Div moves forward to relieve 20 November
3d Div in Mignano Gap. G ILBERT I S .U.S. forces invade Makin and
In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps is ordered to Tarawa Atolls (Operation G ALVANIC ), opening
attack toward general line OrtonaLanciano on 20 series of amphibious operations in Central Pacific
November. Adverse weather conditions subse- aimed ultimately at invasion of Japan. Air and naval
quently force Gen Montgomery to postpone the date. gunfire bombardment precede and closely support
8th Div has secured small bridgehead on N bank assault teams. Aerial supremacy over enemy has al-
of the Sangro and is gradually expanding it. ready been achieved. At both atolls, landing forces
are beset with supply difficulties and communication
17 November M AKIN A TOLL TF 52s landing force (27th
G ILBERT S -M ARSHALLS During period 1317 Divs 165th Inf reinf by 3d Bn of 105th, tanks of
November, heavy bombers of Seventh Air Force 193d Tank Bn, and other supporting units), under
have flown 141 sorties against Gilberts and Marshalls Maj Gen Ralph C. Smith, invades Makin. As a
and have dropped some 173 tons of bombs. preliminary to main invasion of Butaritari I., largest
BOUGAINVILLE Final elements of 21st Marines of the Makin group, special landing detachment
arrive, but APD McKean is lost to enemy plane en sails for Kotabu at 0645 and secures the island with-
route. out opposition. Invasion of Butaritari is begun on
N EW G UINEA Australians of 9th Div open schedule at 0830, when BLTs 1 and 3 of 165th Inf
assault against Sattelberg, which is suited by nature start landing on Red Beaches 1 and 2 on W coast.
for defense. 26th, 24th, 20th, and 4th Brigs, assisted At 1041, about 10 minutes behind schedule, BLT
by tanks, aircraft, and arty, participate in the battle. 2 begins landing on Yellow Beaches, located on N
[ 148 ] [ 2122 NOVEMBER 1943 ]

(lagoon) shore between On Chongs Wharf and overruns fortified area between West and East Tank
Kings Wharf. Both assault forces secure beachheads Barriers as it pushes eastward to Stone Pier. BLT 1
and with tank support push rapidly forward against mops up in W part of island and eliminates pocket
light resistance, converging along West Tank Bar- near West Tank Barrier. Rcn detail lands on Kuma
rier, where enemy opposition is overcome, although I. early in day, reconnoiters, and withdraws.
small pocket remains to NW. Arty is emplaced on TARAWA ATOLLMarines on Betio continue to
Ukiangong Pt. meet grim opposition but strengthen their hold on
T ARAWA A TOLL TF 53s landing force (2d the island with assistance of aircraft, arty, and naval
Marines of 2d Mar Div, reinf by 2d Bn of 8th gunfire. Further reinforcements are landed, bring-
Marines and supporting units), under Maj Gen ing total bns ashore to 7. RCT 6 is released from
Julian C. Smith, USMC, invades Betio I., at SW tip V Amphibious Corps reserve to 2d Mar Div and its
of the atoll, where airfield and main enemy forces 1st Bn lands on Green beach, on W end of island.
are located. Landings are made with great difficulty Rest of 8th Marines lands on Beach Red 2. 3d Bn
and very heavy casualties. Transports arrive S of as- of RCT a secures entire W end of Betio (Green
signed area and at 0507 come under fire of previ- Beach), while 1st and 2d Bns of RCT 2, from
ously alerted enemy on Betio. While transports are Red 2 and 3, push across airfield to S coast, splitting
moving northward out of range of enemy guns, war- enemy forces. 2d Bn of RCT 8, on Red 3, makes
ships attempt, with some success, to neutralize little progress during day. Meanwhile, arty and
enemy positions. Aircraft deliver brief strikes before naval gunfire are directed against E end of Betio
forces land. Although H Hour is postponed from to prevent enemy from escaping to next island
0830 to 0900, first troops do not reach shore until (Bairiki), and 2d Bn of 6th Marines lands on Bairiki
0910. Marines land under direct fire, many wading after preliminary bombardment that kills the few
from partly exposed reef that fringes coast; upon enemy there. While fighting is in progress on Betio,
reaching shore, landing teams become intermingled Co D of 2d Tank Bn starts reconnoitering other
and disorganized. Landings are made on 3 adjacent islands of Tarawa Atoll.
beaches (Red 1, 2, and 3, from W to E) on NW A PA M A M A A T O L L VAC Rcn CO. ( ) lands
coast. 3d Bn of 2d Marines, the Red 1 assault force, from submarine Nautilus and begins reconnoitering
gains beachhead on NW tip of island but is iso- the atoll under naval gunfire cover.
lated there. In center, 2d Bn of 2d Marines is pinned
down by enemy fire on Red 2. 2d Bn of 8th Marines, 22 November
favored by more protracted naval gunfire prepara-
tion, meets less opposition on Red 3 and gains beach- I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES S EXTANT Con-
head extending inland to airfield. To strengthen ference, attended by President Roosevelt, Prime
precarious hold on the island, 1st Bn of 2d Marines, Minister Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-
from regt reserve, and 3d Bn of 8th Marines, from shek, opens at Cairo, Egypt, to consider war issues.
div reserve, are committed. Fortunately, counter- M AKIN A TOLL After preparator y bombard-
attacks, expected after nightfall, fail to materialize, ment, BLT 3 of 165th Inf takes over attack from
and meager gains are held. Shortly before invasion BLT 2 and drives E on Butaritari well beyond East
of Betio, a scoutsniper platoon clears enemy posi- Tank Barrier, which enemy has abandoned. Though
tions from main pier, partly burning it in the E tip of island remains to be explored, Adm Turner
process. declares the island captured. Gen Ralph Smith as-
Solomon Is.Maj Gen Ralph J. Mitchell, sumes command ashore. Night 2223, Japanese are
USMC, relieves Gen Twining as head of Solomons virtually wiped out when they make an unsuccessful
Air Command. Gen Twining later takes command counterattack. Steps are taken to cut off enemys
of Fifteenth Air Force. On Bougainville, 3d Mar Div escape from Butaritari: elements of Co A, BLT 1,
is extending its positions in vicinity of Piva R make waterborne move to narrow neck of island
forks against lively opposition. 37th Div is un- to intercept enemy; special detail moves to Kuma I.
opposed. to halt enemy withdrawal there.
B URMA II Army Group: In Br Fourteenth T ARAWA A TOLL Japanese on Betio undergo
Armys 15 Corps area, Ind 7th Div starts across heavy air, naval, and arty bombardment as battle for
Mayu Range along two crude trails in preparation the island continues. Enemy is brought under cross
for offensive. fire as arty is emplaced on Bairiki. Passing through
3d Bn of 2d Marines, 1st Bn of 6th Marines drives
E along S coast on narrow front, making contact
21 November with 2d Marines force and continuing advance to
M AKIN A TOLL BLT 2, 165th Inf, attacks on E end of airfield. 2d Bn of 8th Marines, with ele-
Butaritari I, after air and arty preparation, and ments of 3d Bn attached, presses E along N coast
[ 2325 NOVEMBER 1943 ] [ 149 ]

to E end of airfield. 1st Bn of 8th Marines, attached escort carrier USS Liscome Bay off Makin; 644 per-
to 2d Marines, attacks strongpoint between Red sons aboard are lost.
Beaches 2 and 1 and succeeds in containing it. TARAWA ATOLL 2 Marine RCTs (8th and 2d)
Thus by end of day enemy is compressed into E part leave for Hawaii. Embarking from Betio, 2d Bn of
of Betio beyond airfield and retains pocket between 6th Marines, guided by scouts of 2d Tank Bn,
Red Beaches 1 and 2. 3d Bn, 6th Marines, lands on begins uneventful search for enemy on islands up
Green Beach and moves forward along S coast be- the long east side of Tarawa Atoll.
hind 1st Bn, 6th Marines. Gen Julian Smith estab- B OUGAINVILLE 3d Mar Div makes substantial
lishes CP ashore. During night 2223, Japanese progress, gaining commanding ground in Piva
counterattacks are repelled by 1st Bn, 6th Marines. forks area. Marine SBD makes successful forced
SWPAAs planning for invasion of New landing on Torokina fighter strip, although strip
Britain continues, Gen MacArthur decides to make has not yet been completed.
subsidiary effort at Arawe. INDIA Airfield construction personnel for Ind
NEW G UINEAAus 9th Div continues to struggle air bases begin arriving.
for Sattelberg, 26th Brig reaching S slopes. I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
ITALY15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Army outlines final plan of attack to begin about 2 Decem-
area, 5 Corps now has 5 bns on N bank of the ber. First phase calls for capture of M. CaminoM.
Sangro. la DifensaM. Maggiore area, to be preceded on 1
December by capture of Calabritto. In second phase,
23 November M. Sammucro is to be cleared in conjunction with
drive W along ColliAtina road. Third phase is to
MAKIN A TOLL Organized resistance on Buta-
be attack into Liri Valley.
ritari I. ends at 1030 when advance elements of
3d Bn, 165th Inf, reach tip of island. Reembarka- In Br Eighth Army area, 13 Corps captures Cas-
tel Alfedena. 5 Corps bridgehead N of the Sangro
tion of assault forces begins.
is now firmly established.
T ARAWA A TOLL 3d Bn of 6th Marines, at-
tacking through 1st Bn, reaches the end of Betio G E R M A N Y Berlin reports progress toward
shortly after 1300, and Gen Julian Smith reports Korosten, USSR.
the end of organized resistance on Betio at 1330. 25 November
8th Marines, less 1st Bn, moves to Bairiki. 2d Bn,
TARAWA ATOLLAfter scouting about half way
6th Marines, moves from Bairiki to Betio and is
up E side of atoll, Co D of 2d Tank Bn is recalled to
given task of securing rest of islands in Tarawa
village of Eita to prepare to reconnoiter other atolls.
Atoll. 3d Bn, 10th Marines, moves to village of
2d Bn, 6th Marines, continues uneventful trek up
Eita, where 3d Platoon of Co D, 2d Tank Bn, is
Tarawa Atoll.
attached to it.
A PA M A M A A T O L L Apamama Occupation
B OUGAINVILLE 3d Mar Div, still strongly op-
Force, based on 3d Bn of 6th Marines, is en route to
posed in Piva forks area, begins regrouping. 1st
Mar Para Bn arrives.
BURMAIn N Burma, Japanese overrun CP of
bound for Buka with reinforcements are turned
112th Regt, Ch 38th Div.
back to vicinity of Cape St George (New Ireland)
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
and engaged, night 2526, by Allied DDs, which
Armys II Corps area, 1st Special Service Force
destroy 3 Japanese DDs without suffering any
(SSF), a highly trained group of Canadians and
damage. This concludes series of night naval en-
Americans under Col Robert T. Frederick, is at-
gagements of the Solomon campaigns.
tached to 36th Div.
NEW GUINEA Sattelberg falls to troops of Aus
9th Div.
24 November F ORMOSA U.S. Fourteenth Air Force, in its
MAKIN ATOLL RCT 165, less 3d Bn, leaves for first attack on Formosa, destroys 42 enemy planes
Hawaii. 3d Bn and miscellaneous units are left while attacking Shinchiku airdrome.
behind to conduct minor mopping up operations B URMA AAF and RAF begin series of co-
and to support construction forces. Command is ordinated strikes against installations in Rangoon
turned over to Col Clesen H. Tenney, Garrison area, despite unfavorable weather conditions.
Force commander. 27th Div casualties for Makin I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Armys
total 218, of whom 58 are killed and 8 die of wounds. plan for amphibious operations at Anzio (Opera-
Enemy casualties, aside from those subsequently tion S HINGLE ) is approved. A single infantry div,
inflicted during the mopup, are estimated at 550, reinf, is to establish beachhead and attempt to join
including 105 prisoners. Japanese submarine sinks main body within a week. Fr increment of Fifth
[ 150 ] [ 2630 NOVEMBER 1943 ]

Army general staff arrives from N Africa by air to borne assault on Mandalay (T OREADOR ) and 10,000
prepare for arrival of French Expeditionary Corps tons a month over the Hump.
(FEC) under Gen Juin. ITALY15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Army
USSRAtt acking in Propoisk area, N of area, 5 Corps prepares to attack in Adriatic coastal
Gomel, Soviet forces achieve breakthrough on sector, weather conditions at last permitting close air
broad front and cut highway between Gomel and support. Tanks of 4th Armd Brig and transport
Mogilev, greatly increasing peril to Germans in are brought across the Sangro.
ETOAir Chief Marshal Leigh-Mallor y, 28 November
heading Allied Expeditionary Air Force (AEAF),
activates his headquarters. Second Tactical Air INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES President Roose-
Force, RAF, and later Gen Breretons U.S. Ninth velt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Marshal Stalin
Air Force come under AEAF. begin conference, coded E UREKA , at Tehran, Iran.
T ARAWA A TOLL Atoll is completely secured.
No Japanese are found on Naa. Marine casualties
26 November on Tarawa total 3,301. Japanese losses are estimated
I NTERN ATIONAL C ONFERENCES First part of to be 4,690 killed, 17 captured, and 129 Koreans
SEXTANT ends at Cairo after inconclusive discussions taken prisoner.
concerning O VERLORD and possible expansion of ITALY15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Army
operations in the Mediterranean. After considering area, 5 Corps begins battle of the Sangro at 2130,
C HAMPION plan for offensive in Burmathe con- Ind 8th Div, in the lead, takes Mozzagrogna, night
ferees have agreed that an amphibious operation 2829. New Zealanders follow across the Sangro.
will be undertaken and have received Chiang Kai- USSRGermans report encirclement and de-
sheks promise to commit Yunnan force. Upper struction of Soviet forces in Korosten area.
Burma is to be cleared in spring of 1944 to open land
route to China. Also approved is TWILIGHT plan to
base B29s in CBI. Br and U.S. conferees leave for
29 November
Tehran, Iran, for further discussions. B OUGAINVILLE Work is begun on an airstrip,
TARAWA ATOLL2d Bn of 6th Marines reaches called Piva Uncle, near Piva R.
Buariki, last relatively large island of atoll, and N E W G U I N E A Pursuing enemy nor thward
prepares to attack enemy forces believed to be there. along Huon Peninsula coast, Australians seize
A PAMAMA A TOLL VAC scouts are recalled as Bonga, former enemy supply base, and Gusika;
Apamama landing force arrives and begins or- press toward Wareo.
ganizing defenses of the atoll. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army
B OUGAINVILLE I MAC continues to expand area, VI Corps begins limited operations on right
perimeter of beachhead. 3d Div is now at S shore flank of army to divert enemy from the coming
of Lake Kathleen. main assault against M. Camino. 45th Div begins
CBIBrig Gen Haydon I. Boatner, Chief of clearing region N of FilignanoS. Elia road in effort
Staff and Deputy Commander, CAI, reports to Maj to open the road: 1st Bn of 178th Inf leads off against
Gen Thomas G. Hearn, Chief of Staff, U.S. Forces La Bandita (Hill 855) but cannot take it; 157th Inf,
CBI, that situation of Ch 38th Div is critical. making diversionary thrusts, secures Hill 460.
USSRGermans abandon Gomel, key position 34th Div, to right of 45th, begins operations to
of central front. clear heights overlooking ColliAtina road: 1st Bn
G ERMANY U.S. VIII BC surpasses its 3 No- of 168th Inf moves against M. Pantano, taking the
vember record for aircraft dispatched, sending out first of 4 knobs; 133d Inf moves against hills between
633 bombers, Bremen their primary target. Results Castelnuovo and Cerasuolo.
are largely obscured by overcast. In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps breaches Win-
ter Line in its sector. Driving through Mozzagrogna,
27 November 4th Armd Brig, with excellent air support, begins
to clear Sangro ridge.
T ARAWA A TOLL 2d Bn, 6th Marines, clears
enemy from Buariki. Small islet of Naa, at N tip,
remains to be explored. 30 November
CBIAt meeting of SEAC delegation to Cairo I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCES E UREKA Con-
Conference, Gen Stilwell reveals that the General- ference at Tehran ends. Acceding to Soviet desires
issimo is unwilling to fulfill commitments agreed to make OVERLORD the main effort, OVERLORD and
to at Cairo and wants Stilwell to hold out for air- A NVIL (southern France) have been given priority
[ 13 DECEMBER 1943 ] [ 151 ]

over all other operations. Premier Stalin has agreed 2 December

to commit Soviet forces against Japan after Germany ITALYAbout 30 aircraft of German Air Force
is defeated. From Tehran, Br and U.S. delegates attack Bari, night 23, with spectacular results.
go back to Cairo, where the SEXTANT talks will be Bombs blow up 2 ammunition ships in the crowded
renewed. harbor, and as a result 17 other ships are lost. Dam-
G ILBERT I S .2d Tank Bn scouts reconnoiter age to the port reduces its capacity for 3 weeks.
Abaiang and Marakei Atolls, N of Tarawa, finding 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army area,
but 5 Japanese, on former. Allied aircraft and arty pound enemy positions in
SWPAGen Krueger forms TF D I R E C T O R , preparation for Operation RAINCOAT. Arty concentra-
under Brig Gen Julian W. Cunningham, for the tions are the heaviest thus far in the Italian campaign.
invasion of Arawe, New Britain, on 15 December, Br 10 Corps continues attack toward Calabritto but
called 2 Day to distinguish it from main D Day does not take it. Despite this failure, 56th Div begins
invasion at Cape Gloucester later. The TF is based attack on M. Camino from S after nightfall. II
upon 112th Cav. Corps opens attack on Camino hill mass from NE,
CBIChiang Kai-shek again agrees to C HAM - night 23. 1st SSF moves against M. la Difensa, 2d
PION while inspecting Chinese troops at Ramgarh. Regt spearheading, and clears it before dawn. In
I TALY 15th Army Group: In preparation for VI Corps 45th Div sector, enemy continues stout
Operation R AINCOAT U.S. Fifth Armys first phase defense of La Bandita and positions on Hill 769.
of assault against Winter Line aimed at capture of 34th Div commits additional elements against M.
Camino hill massdiversions are begun to deceive Pantano and with great difficulty takes the second
enemy. 3d Ranger Bn feints toward S. Pietro and knob; Co L of 133d Inf gains Hill 1180, on S slopes
23d Armd Brig feints on lower Garigliano. In VI of M. Marrone, in night attack, 23, but the regt is
Corps 45th Div sector, 1st Bn of 179th Inf con- unable to gain further ground in the area after this.
tinues fruitless attempts to clear La Bandits. On M. In Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps area, Castelfren-
Pantano, 1st Bn of 168th Inf, 34th Div, retains posi- tano falls to NZ troops.
tions against strong counterattacks and tries unsuc- USSRContinuing offensive in Dnieper bend,
cessfully to gain second knob; patrols of 1st Bn, 133d Soviet forces break through along Ingulets R and
Inf, move into Castelnuovo while 3d Bn advances to push to within 6 miles of Znamenka.
M. la Rocca and elements of 200th Bn move onto
Croce Hill. 3 December
In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps finishes clear-
ing ridge above the Sangro. 4th Armd Brig and 78th I N T E R N AT I O N A L C O N F E R E N C E S Br and U.S.
Div push toward coast, taking Fossacesia. Ind 8th delegates, returning from Tehran, reopen SEXTANT
Div, moving NW along ridge, reaches heights over- discussions at Cairo.
looking Castelfrentano. To W, New Zealanders, SWPADates for invasion of New Britain at
having crossed the Sangro with difficulty, join their Arawe and Cape Gloucester are finally set for 15 and
bridgehead with that of corps. 26 December, respectively.
USSRMoscow announces withdrawal of So- I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
viet forces from Korosten. Armys Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div makes substan-
tial progress, taking M. Camino (819) and Monas-
tery Hill (963) but is forced back from latter. In II
1 December Corps area, 1st SSF units, continuing attack from
G ILBERT I S .2d Tank Bn scouts find Maiana M. la Difensa before dawn, reach M. la Remetanea.
Atoll free of enemy, concluding their mission. 142d Inf, 36th Div, begins drive on M. Maggiore
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army and takes it. In VI Corps area, 45th Div is unable to
area, air operations are sharply increased in prepa- make further progress against La Bandits or Hill
ration for main assault against Winter Line. Br 10 769. Elements of 3d Bn, 168th Inf, 34th Div, upon
Corps begins diversionary attack toward Calabritto relief by elements of 135th Inf, move to first knob of
at dusk, employing 139th Brig, 46th Div. Numerous M. Pantano and relieve 1st Bn, 168th Inf; 3d Bn
obstacles and strong opposition slow advance. In VI then attacks toward third knob but is driven back.
Corps area, 45th Div continues to meet firm resist- In Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps area, Ind 8th Div
ance that prevents 1st Bn, 179th Inf, from scaling and 78th Div reach Moro R, overrunning Lanciano
La Bandits and 2d Bn from clearing crest and re- and S. Vito. 78th Div is later relieved there by Cdn
verse slope of Hill 769 to S. In 34th Div sector, 1st 1st Div, which has been transferred to 5 Corps from
Bn of 168th Inf remains on first knob of M. Pantano 13 Corps.
but is isolated from main body; no further progress USSRNW of Gomel, Soviet troops improve
is made by 133d Inf. positions and take highway center of Dovsk.
[ 152 ] [ 47 DECEMBER 1943 ]

ETOC ROSSBOW operations against German 6 December

secret weapon sitesis given top priority for Allied U.S.On the basis of Adm Mountbattens esti-
tactical air forces. mate to CCS that no major amphibious operations
can be undertaken if B UCCANEER is canceled, Presi-
4 December dent Roosevelt informs Chiang Kai-shek that there
can be no amphibious operation simultaneously with
T ARAWA A TOLL Capt Jackson R. Tote, USN, T ARZAN ; inquires whether Chiang will go ahead
Commander, Advanced Base, Tarawa, takes com- under the circumstances or wait until November
mand, relieving Gen Julian Smith. During Decem- 1944, when a major amphibious assault might be
ber and January, air bases are constructed in the undertaken.
Gilberts. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army
B OUGAINVILLE 1st Mar Para Regt arrives and area, Br 10 Corps seizes crest of M. Camino and
is soon committed to help advance the outpost line. for the next 3 days mops up W slopes as far as the
CHINAChang-te, in Tung-ting Lake area, falls Garigliano. In VI Corps area, elements of 179th Inf,
to Japanese, climaxing local offensive by 11th Army 45th Div, reach top of Hill 769, but enemy retains
designed to disrupt Ch troop concentrations and positions on reverse slope.
divert Chinese from Yunnan. Having accomplished In Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps area, Cdn 1st Div
their mission and taken the rice center of Chang-te, crosses Moro R.
Japanese soon begin withdrawal. USSRRussians cut SmelaZnamenka RR line
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th SW of Kremenchug.
Armys Br 10 Corps area, 56th Div is unable to re-
gain Monastery Hill but seizes Hills 683 and 615. 7 December
In II Corps area, German counterattack forces 1st I N T E R N AT I O N A L C O N F E R E N C E S U.S. and Br
SSF from M. la Remetanea to M. la Difensa. 1st delegates conclude SEXTANT Conference at Cairo. To
Regt moves up to assist 2d in clearing M, la gain landing craft for ANVIL , plans for amphibious
RemetaneaM. la Difensa ridge. 142d Inf, 36th Div, operations against Bay of Bengal are canceled. Plans
maintains positions on M. Maggiore. In VI Corps for north Burma campaign are unsettled. CCS set
area, 135th Inf of 34th Div relieves all elements of up tentative timetable for offensive against Japan
168th Inf on M. Pantano. 168th has suffered heavy as follows: seizure of Marshalls and New Britain,
casualties. January 1944; Manus, Admiralties, April 1944; Hol-
ETOIntensive aerial rcn is begun to locate landia, New Guinea, June 1944; and Marianas,
German secret weapon sites. October 1944. CCS issue directive establishing uni-
fied command in the Mediterranean, effective 10
December. Gen Eisenhower, whom President Roose-
5 December velt has already decided to make commander of
U.S.President Roosevelt accedes to Br wishes OVERLORD , is to be responsible for all operations in
that BUCCANEER be canceled. CCS ask Adm Mount- the Mediterranean except strategic bombing.
batten to suggest action to be taken in the event he CBISince Adm Mountbatten is ordered to
loses most of his landing craft. release a large portion of his amphibious resources
I NDIA Japanese make strategic air attack on for use elsewhere, planning is begun for limited
Calcutta, damaging dock area. operation (P IGSTICK ) on S Mayu Peninsula as a
substitute for B UCCANEER , subject to approval of
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
Chiang Kai-shek.
Armys Br 10 Corps area, enemy withdraws from
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
Monastery Hill (963) since the position is threatened begins second phase of assault on Winter Line.
by 56th Div units, which move up toward Colle, W II Corps begins envelopment movements against
of the hill. II Corps retains current positions on M. enemy positions in S. Pietro area astride Highway 6.
la Difensa and M. Maggiore, but they are being sup- In preparation for assault on M. Lungo, Italian 1st
plied only with great difficulty. VI Corps remains Motorized Gp relieves 1st Bn of 141st Inf, 36th Div,
in place, consolidating and patrolling. on SE nose (Hill 253); 2d and 3d Bns, 143d Inf,
In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps pushes toward prepare for drive on S. Pietro, moving forward to
Ortona, whose harbor can be used for supply, Ind line of departure on Cannavinelle Hill; 1st Bn of
8th Div crossing Moro R. 143d Inf jumps off toward M. Sammucro (Hill
ETOU.S. Ninth Air Force begins CROSSBOW 1205) at 1700 and gains crest before dawn of 8th.
operations. Its P51s start escorting strategic bomb- On N flank, 3d Ranger Bn attacks at dusk toward
ers of U.S. Eighth Air Force. Hill 950, a mile N of M. Sammucro.
[ 912 DECEMBER 1943 ] [ 153 ]

In Br Eighth Army area, 5 Corps makes unsuc- directed to further the objective of the United
cessful attack on Orsogna. States in the prosecution of the war. Gen Connolly,
CG PGC, is to coordinate U.S. activities in the area
8 December with those of other Allied nations.
N EW G UINEA Wareo falls to Aus 9th Div, MEDITERRANEAN CCS directive calling for uni-
clearing way for drive on Sio. fied commandMediterranean Theater of Opera-
INDIAIn preparation for offensive, 18 Japanese tions (Allied)in the Mediterranean becomes effec-
bombers and about 50 fighters attack Tinsukia tive, although Mediterranean Allied Air Forces has
airfield in Assam. not yet been activated.
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army
area, II Corps continues battle for positions about area, Allied air attacks are stepped up in preparation
S. Pietro. Italian 1st Motorized Gp begins attack for next phase of offensive, which is to begin on
on M. Lungo but makes little headway against 15th. Br 10 Corps takes responsibility for M. la
determined resistance. 143d Inf ( ) of 36th Div Difensa from 142d Inf of 36th Div, VI Corps. In
attacks toward S. Pietro and is soon pinned down II Corps area, 3d Ranger Bn, with arty support,
by enemy fire; 1st Bn of 143d withstands strong renews attack on Hill 950 on N flank of II Corps
counterattack on M. Sammucro. On left flank of and takes it. Activity in S. Pietro area and on
II Corps, 1st SSF finishes clearing M. la Remetanea M. Sammucro is on a limited scale. Current U.S.
(907). In VI Corps area, 2d Moroccan Inf Div, first positions are being consolidated. In VI Corps area,
of the FEC units to arrive in Italy, begins relief of 2d Moroccan Div takes command of zone previously
34th Div. held by 34th Div.
USSRRed Army, continuing offensive SW Br Eighth Army has regrouped to increase weight
of Kremenchug, cuts ZnamenkaKrivoi Rog and of attack in coastal sector, where opposition is heavy.
ZnamenkaNikolayev RRs. 13 Corps, with 5th Div and NZ Div under its
ETOGen Arnold informs Gen Spaatz that command, is to move N on left of 5 Corps, leaving
he (Spaatz) will command U.S. Strategic Air Forces 78th Div in previous positions under Eighth Army
in Europe. command. 5 Corps continues northward along coast
with Cdn 1st and Ind 8th Divs. Cdn 1st Div now
9 December has bridgehead across Moro R and is pressing to-
B OUGAINVILLE Torokina airstrip becomes op- ward Ortona, assisted by air and naval bombard-
erational. 3d Mar Div begins struggle for hills ment of coastal targets.
around beachhead that is to last until late in the USSRTroops of Second Ukrainian Front
month. resume attack, one force investing Cherkassy and
CBIReplying to President Roosevelts mes- another pushing toward Kirovo.
sage, Chiang Kai-shek asks for financial assistance
and increased air strength. 11 December
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
Br 10 Corps area, Rocca dEvandro falls, concluding SWPAGHQ draws up outline plan for
action against Camino hill mass. In II Corps area, seizure of Saidor (New Guinea).
2d and 3d Bns of 143d Inf continue to be held up CBIAdm Mountbatten issues directive order-
in S. Pietro area and pull back after dark to line ing integration of U.S. Tenth Air Force and RAF
of departure while arty concentration is placed on Bengal Command into Eastern Air Command
enemy. Germans counterattack on M. Sammucro is (EAC). All Allied air forces in SE Asia are under
repulsed. In VI Corps 45th Div zone, Hill 769 is command of Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Peirse
completely cleared, but Germans retain Lagone and as Allied Air CinC.
La Bandita. I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
USSRRail junction of Znamenka falls to maintains current positions against counterattacks
Soviet forces. while preparing for full-scale offensive.

10 December 12 December
B OUGAINVILLE Marine fighter sq f lies in to ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army
operate from Torokina airstrip, which is within 220 area, Br 10 Corps extends farther eastward to relieve
miles of Rabaul. final elements of VI Corps on M. Maggiore, and
M IDDLE E AST PGSC is redesignated Persian boundary is adjusted accordingly. In II Corps area,
Gulf Command (PGC); detached from USAFIME 142d Inf of 36th Div begins preliminary operations
and made responsible to the War Department; and in preparation for assault on M. Lungo on 15th:
[ 154 ] [ 1317 DECEMBER 1943 ]

occupies S. Giacomo Hill, between Lungo and Mag- N EW G UINEA Road from Lae to Nadzab is
giore, and after nightfall takes Hills 141 and 72. completed.
CBIGen Stratemeyer takes command of
13 December EAC. Troop Carrier Command is activated. First
infantry class completes 6-weeks course at Kweilin
SWPATF DIRECTOR sails from Goodenough Infantry Training Center for Z EBRA Force.
I. for Buna, en route to Arawe, New Britain. B URMA In N, 1st Bn of 114th Inf, Ch 38th
G ERMANY 710 bombers of U.S. Eighth Air Div, tries unsuccessfully to relieve isolated 1st Bn,
Force with P51 escort are sent against Kiel, estab- 112th Regt. After the attack, Japanese return to
lishing another record for bombers dispatched. previous positions, which they proceed to strengthen.
Good results are reported although bombing is by I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army
radar. renews offensive against Winter Line before dawn.
On II Corps S flank, 142d Inf of 36th Div opens at-
14 December tack on M. Lungo from S at dusk and advances
rapidly. Second battle for S. Pietro opens about
SWPAFinal plans for operation against Cape noon, with 143d Inf ( ) attacking from slopes of
Gloucester, New Britain, are made. It is decided M. Sammucro and 2d Bn of 141st advancing from
not to use airborne troops as planned. M. Rotondo area. Progress is slow and costly. 1st Bn
I TALY 15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army of 143d Inf, with 2d Bn of 504th Para Inf to its right,
completes preparations for offensive by II and VI begins attack on W slopes of M. Sammucro shortly
Corps on 15th and begins forward movement, night after midnight, 1415. Paratroopers suffer heavy
1415. casualties during fruitless attempt to take Hill 687;
USSRRussians begin first phase of winter 1st Bn is pinned down short of Hill 730. In VI Corps
offensive. From Nevel salient, which has gradually area, 45th Div, on S flank of corps, begins attack to-
been improved, Soviet forces push toward Vitebsk ward heights dominating La Rava Creek on left and
and reach outskirts. Soviet troops of Second toward Lagone on right: 157th Inf gains positions on
Ukrainian Front overrun Cherkassy. Enemy re- Hills 640 and 470, N of La Rava Creek, and makes
covers Radomyshl, S of Malin. futile attempt to clear Fialla Hill and Hill 770, S of
the creek; 179th Inf is stopped short of Lagone; pla-
15 December toon of 45th Rcn Tr fails in attempt to clear hill just
N of Lagone, but elements of 1st Bn, 179th Inf, oc-
Solomon Is.Gen Griswold, XIV Corps CG,
cupy La Bandita, farther N, without opposition after
relieves Gen Geiger, I MAC CG, of responsibility for
nightfall. On N flank of VI Corps, 8th Rifle Regt of
Bougainville beachhead, where final defensive 2d Moroccan Div seizes M. Castelnuovo and S.
perimeter is virtually secure, although 21st Marines, Michele Pass.
3d Mar Div, is still clearing heights near the beach- ETOAEAF takes operational control of U.S.
head. Ninth Air Force.
N E W B R I TA I N Operation D E X T E R I T Y opens
when, as a preliminary to main invasion of New
Britain, TF 76 (Rear Adm Daniel E. Barbey) lands
16 December
TF DIRECTOR (112th Cav, reinf) under command I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
of Brig Gen Julian W. Cunningham, USA, on W Armys II Corps area, 142d Inf of 36th Div finishes
coast of Arawe Peninsula about 0700, after naval clearing M. Lungo by 1000. Italian 1st Motorized
gunfire and aerial bombardment. Scattered opposi- Gp secures ridge between Hills 253 and 343 in after-
tion on the peninsula is overcome without difficulty. noon. Further attacks on S. Pietro fail to gain ground
Before the main landing, cavalrymen try in vain to but the position becomes untenable for enemy after
make surprise landings at Umtingalu, on mainland fall of M. Lungo. To cover withdrawal, Germans
E of the peninsula, and on Pilelo islet. Despite launch strong counterattack that continues into the
alerted enemy, Tr B succeeds in landing on Pilelo night 1617. 1st Bn, 143d Inf, repels counterattack
and quickly clears it. Japanese planes are active on W slopes of M. Sammucro. In VI Corps area,
against troops and shipping, attacking at frequent patrols of 179th Inf, 45th Div, find that enemy has
intervals during this and the next few days. Plans to withdrawn from Lagone. Fr troops clear hill just
use Arawe as a base for light naval forces never ma- N of Lagone and second knob of M. Pantano.
terialize, nor is the site used as an air base. Plan for
Cape Gloucester landing is amended to increase 17 December
size of initial assault force and limit objective of BOUGAINVILLE Torokina strip is put into use as
secondary landing. staging base for Rabaul-bound fighters.
[ 1821 DECEMBER 1943 ] [ 155 ]

SWPAGen MacArthur orders Gen Krueger to SWPA, it is decided that S Pacific will plan to
prepare plans for next phase of D EXTERIT Y seiz- invade Green Is. as next step in isolation of Rabaul,
ure of Saidor, New Guinea, as advanced air and since no immediate action can be taken against
naval base. To perform this task, Gen Krueger Kavieng, New Ireland, the next objective of ELKTON
forms TF MICHAELMAS under Brig Gen Clarence A. III.
Martin, 32d Div ADC, consisting of RCT 126, reinf, TREASURY IS.Army planes fly from New Cale-
32d Div. The TF is largely that originally scheduled donia to Stirling I. to begin operations from there.
to invade Gasmata, New Ireland. R USSELL I S .Army bombers move from New
CBIGeneralissimo Chiang Kai-shek, in an- Caledonia to Russell Is.
other message to President Roosevelt, again calls for N EW B RITAIN Japanese force moving against
financial aid and increased air strength. Arawe beachhead reaches Pulie R, east of Arawe.
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th CBIIn reply to Chiang Kai-sheks message
Armys II Corps area, 36th Div pursues enemy be- of 17th, President Roosevelt suggests that China
yond S. Pietro; 1st Bn of 141st Inf relieves 1st Bn of carry out her part in offensive to regain Burma;
143d on M. Sammucro; 2d Bn of 504th Para Inf is promises U.S. help in reopening land route to China,
being relieved in same area by 1st Bn. In VI Corps which would afford greater protection to Hump
area, Germans are making limited withdrawal in air route; says the requested loan is under con-
center of corps front. After nightfall, 180th Inf of sideration. Chiang Kai-shek replies that Y-Force
45th Div, passing through 179th, takes M. la Posta will move only if Andaman Is., Rangoon, or Moul-
without opposition. Germans begin withdrawal mein are seized by Allies; that Ch troops will move
from M. Pantano positions, leaving a small number into Burma without an amphibious operation if
of rear-guard forces to delay pursuit. Mandalay or Lashio can be recovered.
M EDITERRANEAN Mediterranean Allied Air
18 December Forces is activated in accordance with CCS direc-
tive of 5 December, as of to December. Under it are
N E W B R I TA I N Preinvasion air operations placed all air units in the Mediterranean: USAAF/
against Cape Gloucester area are intensified. NATO, all RAF elements including RAF Malta
CBIChiang Kai-shek gives Gen Stilwell full and RAF ME, and Fr and Italian units operating
command of Ch troops in India and in the within the area. Air Chief Marshal Tedder is made
Hukawng Valley of Burma. Air CinC, with Gen Spaatz as his operational
C H I N A Enemy planes attack Kunming in deputy. Spaatz also takes over duties of CG USAAF/
preparation for offensive against India. NATO.
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th I TALY 15th Army Group: Plans for an am-
Armys II Corps area, patrols find enemy still cling- phibious operation by U.S. Fifth Army on W coast
ing to W slopes of M. Sammucro. VI Corps advances are canceled because of slow progress against the
in center along S. Elia road as enemy withdraws. Winter Line and lack of sufficient landing craft.
Fr troops occupy rest of M. Pantano hill mass; on In U.S. Fifth Army area, II Corps continues ef-
road to Atina, clear Cerasuolo area. forts to clear W slopes of M. Sammucro and reaches
next objective, S. Vittore. 36th Div, in night attack 20
19 December 21, fails in attempt to clear Hill 730 and Morello Hill.
CBIChiang Kai-shek rejects Adm Mount- In Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps area, Cdn 1st Div
battens proposal for a major attack. pushes into outskirts of Ortona, where violent fight-
S I C I LY AFHQ asks Seventh Army hq at ing ensues.
Palermo to estimate requirements for planning staff
to plan for an operation on scale of HUSKY. 21 December
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
BOUGAINVILLE Relief of 3d Mar Div in beach-
II Corps area, 36th Divs 143d and 141st Regts at-
head line begins.
tempt to clear S and W slopes of M. Sammucro
from which enemy is barring access to Highway 6
H. Rupertus, USMC) conducts final rehearsal for
and Mignano Gap, but make little headway. 15th
invasion of Cape Gloucester, New Britain, at Cape
Inf of 3d Div relieves 142d Inf on M. Lungo.
Sudest, New Guinea.
CBIGen Stilwell arrives at Ledo to take per-
20 December sonal charge of N Burma campaign.
P ACIFIC At a planning conference at Port USSRSoviet salient beyond Zhlobin is under
Moresby, attended by representatives of S Pacific and strong enemy attack.
[ 156 ] [ 2226 DECEMBER 1943 ]

22 December flank Orsogna, reaches heights commanding that

CHINAContinuing preparations for offensive town on NE.
against India, Japanese planes attack Kunming. MIDDLE EASTGen Connolly is relieved as CG
MTOETOGen Spaatz is ordered to take PGC by Brig Gen Donald P. Booth.
command of U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe at USSRIn Vitebsk sector, Russians overrun
once. Gen Eaker is to command Allied air forces in Gorodok in 2-pronged attack, bringing about col-
the Mediterranean upon relief by Air Chief Marshal lapse of whole series of defense points that depend
Tedder, who is to become Deputy CinC for O VER- upon it. At dawn, Soviet forces open new offensive;
LORD . Gen Eaker is subsequently given permission
driving along axis of KievZhitomir highway, they
to remain in ETO until he can advise Generals breach enemy lines and soon recover ground lost to
Spaatz and Doolittle in England and does not reach German counteroffensive and more.
MTO until mid-January. NATOUSA directive re- ETOU.S. Eighth Air Force makes major
sults in reorganization of AAF elements in MTO. effort against C ROSSBOW targetsGerman secret
ITALY15th Army Group: In Br Eighth Armys weapon sitesexceeding previous records in num-
S Corps area, Villa Grandi falls to Ind 8th Div. ber of aircraft dispatched. Of more than 1,300 air-
Cdn 1st Div continues battle for Ortona. craft sent out, 722 are heavy bombers.

23 December 25 December
B OUGAINVILLE First echelon of Americal Div
Solomon Is.Army bombers begin operations
(RCT 164) arrives to relieve 3d Mar Div.
from Munda airfield, New Georgia.
T REASURY I S .U.S. Navy Seabees complete
B URMA In Hukawng Valley, 3d Bn of 114th
fighter strip on Stirling.
Regt, Ch 38th Div, having crossed the Tanai at
NEW I RELAND After surface bombardment of
Kantau earlier in the month, skirmishes with enemy
Buka to entice enemy aircraft from Kavieng, car-
9 miles from Kantau.
rier TF under Adm Frederick Sherman strikes at
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In Br Eighth
Kavieng harbor with 86 planes but finds few
Armys 13 Corps area, 5th Div takes Arielli. 5 Corps shipping targets there.
continues to fight for Ortona. N EW B RITAIN TF B ACKHANDER sails for Cape
Gloucester from New Guinea. Japanese attack
24 December Arawe beachhead, forcing outposts and observation
BOUGAINVILLE With elimination of enemy on posts back.
heights about beachhead perimeter, airfields are I NDIA About 50 Japanese aircraft raid Chit-
secure. tagong.
SWPAA LAMO Force hq moves from Good- T UNISIA 15th Army Group: Military leaders
enough to Cape Cretin, New Guinea. meeting at Tunis revive plan for amphibious land-
N E W B R I TA I N Preinvasion bomber ef for t ing below Rome; draft plan for 2 divs plus airborne
reaches its peak in number of sorties flown, 280. troops and some armor to land as near 20 January
B URMA In Hukawng Valley, 1st Bn of 114th as possible in conjunction with drive from S.
Regt, Ch 38th Div, after arty preparation, attacks to I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
relieve beleaguered 1st Bn of 112th in Yupbang Ga Armys II Corps area, 1st Regt of 1st SSF, jumping
area and succeeds in joining it, although Japanese off night 2425, captures Hill 730 early in morning.
retain positions W of the river blocking crossing at 504th Para Inf clears several hills to N.
Yupbang Ga. USSRSoviet forces cut VitebskPolotsk high-
MTO-ETOPresident Roosevelt and Prime way.
Minister Churchill announce appointment of Gen
Eisenhower to post of Supreme Commander, Al- 26 December
lied Expeditionary Force, to head OVERLORD . Gen NEW BRITAIN After preparatory naval gunfire
Wilson will command Allied forces in the Medi- and aerial bombardment, during which enemy ob-
terranean under title of Supreme Allied Com- servation from Target Hill, commanding landing
mander, Mediterranean Theater (SACMED). beach, is masked by smoke, TF BACKHANDER , com-
Churchill also announces appointment of Gen Mont- manded by Gen Rupertus, 1st Mar Div CG, and
gomery as commander of 21 Army Group, suc- consisting of 1st Mar Div ( ), reinf, begins main
ceeding Gen Sir Bernard Paget. Gen Sir Oliver invasion of New Britain at Cape Gloucester at 0746.
Leese is to succeed Gen Montgomery. Forested, swampy terrain is more formidable than
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In Br Eighth the surprised enemy, who offers only light opposi-
Armys 13 Corps area, NZ 2d Div, moving to out- tion. 7th Marines establishes beachhead, clearing
[ 2730 DECEMBER 1943 ] [ 157 ]

Target Hill, and is passed through by 1st Marines. USSRSoviet forces take Korostyshev, im-
Gen Rupertus establishes CP ashore. Successful portant position E of Zhitomir.
secondary landings are made by reinf 2d Bn, 1st
Marines, at Tauali, SW of the airdrome, and by
elements of 2d Engr Special Brig on Long I. Night 29 December
counterattacks are repulsed. Japanese aircraft attack N EW B RITAIN 1st Marines secures main ob-
the landing force, sinking 1 DD and damaging jective, the airfield, at Cape Gloucester with singu-
other vessels. Japanese force reaches positions NW lar ease. 5th Marines arrives to reinforce beachhead
of Arawe MLR. and make wide sweep inland toward airfield to
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th block enemy withdrawal. Enemy makes another
Armys II Corps area, some elements of 36th Div unsuccessful counterattack on Arawe beachhead.
clear Morello Hill; others take responsibility for N EW G UINEA TF M ICHAELMAS issues formal
Hill 730. Sammucro hills are now completely cleared orders for invasion of Saidor. D Day is tentatively
of enemy. In VI Corps area, 8th Rifle Regt of 2d set for 2 January.
Moroccan Div attacks Mainarde ridge, N of Atina BURMA Continuing attack to clear Tarung R
road, unsuccessfully. line, Ch 38th Div eliminates another Japanese
strongpoint and forces enemy to break into small
27 December groups.
NEW BRITAIN1st Mar Div expands Cape Glouc- N ORTH AFRICA AFHQ informs U.S. Seventh
ester beachhead despite torrential monsoon rainfall Army planners of general objectives of ANVIL , pro-
and difficult terrain. 1st Marines drives 3 miles W jected invasion of S France.
toward air field without enemy inter fer- ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
ence. Co G of 158th Inf arrives at Arawe, where Br 10 Corps area, 9th Commando makes seaborne
Japanese are becoming aggressive, in response to raid just N of Garigliano R mouth to secure in-
Gen Cunninghams request for reinforcements. formation for future operations. In II Corps area,
B URMA Brig Gen Lewis A. Pick opens mili- combat patrols of 36th Div enter S. Vittore but are
tary road to Shingbwiyang, in Hukawng Valley. forced out. In VI Corps sector S of Atina road, Fr
Commander of 3d Bn, 112th Inf, Ch 38th Div, is forces seize 3 hills on E end of M. Monna Casale and
killed and the bn is later withdrawn to main body. dig in.
65th Regt of Ch 22d Div, reinf, is given mission, USSRSoviet forces over whelm enemy at
previously held by 3d Bn of 112th, of clearing Taro Korosten and, to S, gain control of long stretch of
Plain plus task of pushing back into Hukawng RR to point below Chernyakhov. Red Army troops
Valley to threaten enemys flank. drive W along RR toward Sarny.
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
Armys VI Corps area, Fr troops gain positions on
slopes of Mainarde ridge. 30 December
USSRIn Vitebsk sector, Soviet forces cut BOUGAINVILLE First Piva airstrip is completed.
PolotskVitebsk RR. Fiji patrol, having advanced along Numa Numa
trail, establishes outposts near coast at Ibu village,
28 December where it can observe enemy movements. Airstrip
B OUGAINVILLE Americal Div takes command for use of Piper Cubs is cleared there.
of E sector of beachhead, relieving 3d Mar Div. NEW BRITAIN Cape Gloucester airdrome is de-
N EW B RITAIN Gen Krueger releases reserve clared secure; has been taken by Marines at very
5th Marines, reinfto Gen Rupertus. 1st Marines light cost.
reduces prepared enemy trail block about 1,000 NEW GUINEAGen Martin learns officially that
yards E of the airfield. Japanese attack on Arawe D Day for invasion of Saidor will be 2 January.
beachhead is repulsed. ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys
B URMA Ch 38th Div, attacking with 1st and II Corps area, 34th Div relieves battle-worn 36th
2d Bns of 114th Regt and 1st Bn of 112th, clears Div. RCT 142 is attached to 34th Div to garrison
several enemy strongpoints along Tarung R. positions on M. Sammucro. In VI Corps area, 180th
I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th Inf of 45th Div attempts to clear hills astride S. Elia
Armys VI Corps area, French continue attack on road in region E of Acquafondata and succeeds in
Mainarde ridge and overrun Hill 1190. getting elements on one, M. Rotondo.
In Br Eighth Armys 5 Corps area, Germans are USSRKazatin is over whelmed by Soviet
finally cleared from Ortona. forces.
[ 158 ] [ 31 DECEMBER 1943 ]

31 December II Corps area, 6th Armd Inf of 1st Armd Div re-
lieves 15th Inf of 3d Div on M. Lungo. In VI Corps
NEW GUINEATF MICHAELMAS sails from Good- area, 180th Inf of 45th Div attempts in vain to clear
enough I. for Saidor. more hills E of Acquafondata.
BURMAIn Hukawng Valley, elements of 113th USSRSoviet forces recover Zhitomir as Ger-
Regt, Ch 38th Div, relieve 2d Bn of 112th in region man garrison evacuates it. Vitebsk is almost en-
4 miles N of Yupbang Ga. circled, but subsequent efforts of Red Army to take
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys it fail.
[ 159 ]

1 January CBIMaj Gen Daniel I. Sultan arrives at New
NEW BRITAINBrig Gen Lemuel C. Shepherd, Delhi to act as Gen Stilwells deputy, freeing Stilwell
ADC 1st Mar Div, issues first order to ADC Group, of administrative burdens.
calling for attack SW toward Borgen Bay on 2d. I TA LY 15th Army Group: Gen Alexander
ADC Group, as strengthened for the attack, consists orders U.S. Fifth Army to mount amphibious opera-
of 7th Marines, reinf by bn of 5th Marines, and tion below Rome (S HINGLE ) between 20 and 31
supporting units. January; shortly before the assault landing at Anzio,
NEW IRELAND U.S. carrier-based planes under Fifth Army is to thrust sharply toward Cassino and
command of Adm Frederick C. Sherman attack Frosinone; Eighth Army is to keep enemy pinned
enemy shipping in Kavieng harbor. down in its sector by exerting pressure and employ-
N EW G UINEA As Saidor assault force joins ing deceptive measures. Air preparation for Anzio
DD escort in Oro Bay, Allied planes pound coastline landing begins.
in Saidor area with over 200 tons of bombs. 3 January
CBIGen Stilwell creates an operations staff
for ZEBRA Force. POAU.S. Joint Expeditionary Force (TF 51
MTOGen Patton turns over command of under Adm Turner) issues Operation Plan A6-43
U.S. Seventh Army to Gen Clark. Gen Clark, who for assault on the Marshalls, specifying shipping to
also retains command of U.S. Fifth Army, is to be involved and giving pre-DDay bombardment
plan for Operation A NVIL . In accordance with plan.
NATOUSA directive of 22 December, AAF units NEW BRITAIN 1913th Aviation Engr Bn begins
are reorganized, effective this date: USAAF/NATO work on Cape Gloucester airdrome. Japanese attack
becomes Army Air Forces, Mediterranean Theater Target Hill in early morning and are beaten back.
of Operations (AAF/MTO); XII Air Force Serv- Attack of ADC Group halts at small stream, dubbed
ice Command becomes Army Air Forces Service Suicide Creek, NW of Target Hill. Efforts to bridge
Command, MTO (AAFSC/MTO); II Air Service the creek so that tanks can cross are unsuccessful.
Area Command becomes XV Air Force Service CBITo hasten clearing of Tanai R line, Gen
Command; III Air Service Area Command becomes Stilwell promises commander of Ch 38th Div the
XII Air Force Service Command; XII Air Force use of 3d Bn, 112th Regt, from reserve, provided
Engineer Command (Prov) becomes AAFEC/ he takes Taihpa Gain 2 days.
MTO. The new organization is approved in behalf ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Army
of Gen Eisenhower by Maj Gen Walter Bedell area, II Corps prepares for final phase of assault
Smith. on Winter Line, to begin on 5th. During night
2 January 34, 1st SSF, as preliminary for attack on M. Majo,
begins clearing ridge SE of this feature. French
BOUGAINVILLE 182d Inf, Americal Div, relieves Expeditionary Corps (FEC), under Gen Juin, takes
21st Marines in line. command of zone on N flank of Fifth Army as
NEW BRITAIN In Cape Gloucester area, Co E U.S. VI Corps withdraws from line to participate
of 5th Marines establishes physical contact with Mar in amphibious assault on Anzio. 3d Algerian Div
patrol from Green Beach at Dorf Pt. ADC Group begins relief of 45th Div.
attacks toward Borgen Bay with 3 bns abreast, mov- USSRSoviet forces take Olevsk, NW of Kiev;
ing around 2d Bn, 7th Marines; is halted by enemy press beyond there to achieve first crossing of prewar
strongpoint, which it partly envelops. frontier of Poland. Novograd Volyinsk falls, giving
N EW G UINEA U.S. Sixth Armys TF M ICH - Russians control of another rail line from Korosten.
AELMAS (RCT 126, 32d Div, reinf) makes surprise
landing at Saidor under cover of smoke screen, and
captures harbor and airfield. Weather conditions 4 January
prevent aircraft from joining DDs in preliminary N EW B RITAIN After arty preparation, ADC
bombardment, but effective air strikes are made in Group continues attack. Tanks cross improvised
co-ordination with the landing. Aus troops driving ramp over Suicide Creek and support marines by
along Huon coast from Finschhafen occupy Sialum. destroying enemy positions at point-blank range.
[ 160 ] [ 57 JANUARY 1944 ]

Assault force, now expanded to 4 bns, pushes south- der command of Gen Spaatz to co-ordinate opera-
ward without opposition to next phase lineN of tions of Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces. Official
Hill 150 and Aogiri Ridge. abbreviation of this headquarters is changed on 4
N EW I RELAND Carrier-based aircraft of Adm February 1944 to USSTAF.
Frederick Sherman again attack Kavieng but find no
ships there.
NEW GUINEAExtensive patrolling of Saidor area
6 January
is uneventful. Australians reach Cape King William, POACOMCENPAC issues Operation Plan
16 miles SE of Sio. No. Cen 1-44 for invasion of Marshall Is. 7th Div
ITALY15th Army Group: In U.S. Fifth Armys FO 1 calls for occupation of Kwajalein in several
Br 10 Corps area, in preparation for attack on Cedro phases. Maj Gen Hubert R. Harmon takes command
Hill, 138th Brig of 46th Div establishes bridgehead of U. S. Thirteenth Air Force.
across Peccia R, night 45, against strong opposition. B OUGAINVILLE Logistical situation improves
In II Corps area, 1st SSF gains positions on ridge as Prov Service Command, activated on 15 Decem-
SE of M. Majo, overrunning Hill 775 and M. ber at New Caledonia, begins operations on
Arcalone. Other elements of II Corps move forward Bougainville.
to line of departure for main offensive, overcoming N EW B RITAIN ADC Group, renewing south-
some opposition en route. ward attack, clears Hill 150, S of Target Hill. Gen
USSRBelaya Tserkov, another enemy strong- Cunningham reports to Gen Krueger the presence
point SW of Kiev, falls to Red Army. Advance of enemy positions near Arawe beachhead.
continues toward Uman. NEW GUINEA 808th Aviation Engr Bn arrives
W ES TERN E UROPE U.S. planes begin f lying at Saidor.
supplies, under code name C ARPETBAGGER , from CBISince remaining landing craft are re-
United Kingdom to underground patriot forces in called to the Mediterranean, Adm Mountbatten can-
Western Europe. Full-scale supply missions will cels PIGSTICK. Gen Sultan warns Gen Stilwell that
come to an end in September 1944 SEAC planners want to bypass Burma until Ger-
many is defeated, then mount a major offensive
5 January beginning with invasion of Sumatra. Gen Stilwell in
N EW B RITAIN ADC Group remains in place his capacity of Chief of Staff, China Theater, later
in Cape Gloucester area, patrolling and regrouping. decides to seed a mission (Gen Boatner, Brig Gen
N E W G U I N E A Gap between U.S. and Aus Benjamin G. Ferris, Col Francis Hill, and Col
troops is narrowed to about 60 miles as Australians Brink) to Washington to present his views.
reach Kelanoa. U.S. patrols meet opposition at Cape BURMABrig Gen Frank D. Merrill is assigned
Iris, W of Saidor. command of the GALAHAD force, whose designation
B URMA Ch 38th Div makes vain attempt to is made unit. Chinese make another unsuccessful
clear last strongpoint remaining between it and attempt to reduce enemy strongpoint on Tarung R.
Tarung R. I TA LY 15th Army Group: In U.S. Fif th
ITALY15th Army Group: U.S. Fifth Army be- Armys II Corps area, TF A of 1st Armd Div reaches
gins final assault on Winter Line. Br 10 Corps with- crest on N end of M. Porchia and holds firm against
draws Peccia R bridgehead, since tanks are un-able counterattack. 135th Inf completes clearing S. Vittore
to cross river. M. Porchia, which dominates Cedro by 1700 and drives closer to La Chiaia. 168th Inf
Hill, is still held by enemy. In II Corps area, TF A continues outflanking movement to N, making slow
(6th Armd Inf, reinf) of 1st Armd Div progress. 1st SSF is reinf by 2 bns of 133d Inf, 34th
pushes toward M. Porchia, reaching NS road in Div, to temporarily continue operations as TF B.
front of it. 3d Bn, 135th Inf, jumping off night 45, TF B attacks toward M. Majo from M. Arcalone,
clears part of village strongpoints of S. Vittore. 1st night 67. RCT 142 is detached from II Corps and
Bn, 135th, attacks toward La Chiaia, NW of S. Vit- returns to 36th Div as reserve.
tore, beginning night 45, but is stopped by fire ETOGen Order No. I of USSAFE names
from S. Giusta. In conjunction with assault of 135th Maj Gen Frederick L. Anderson and Brig Gen
Inf, 168th Inf begins move to outflank La Chiaia Hugh J. Knerr as deputy commanders for opera-
and takes Hill 425. 1st SSF confines its activity to tions and administration, respectively.
probing M. Majo with patrols.
USSRRed Army forces overrun Berdichev, rail
junction SW of Kiev. 7 January
U.K.U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe J APAN Japanese Imperial General Headquar-
(USSAFE) is established in United Kingdom, un- ters authorizes Southern Army to secure positions in
[ 813 DECEMBER 1944 ] [ 161 ]

Imphal area of India when the opportunity presents and 114th is active in jungle S of the Tanai. 3d Bn,
itself. 114th, beg