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- The management action of giving employees reasons and

incentives to work to achieve organizational objectives.
Motivation the process of activating behavior, sustaining it and directing it
towards a particular goal.
1. 1. Willingness to do a job

2. Self-confidence in carrying out a task

3. Needs satisfaction
Abraham Maslow theorized that human being have five basic needs;
physiological, security, social, esteem and self actualization. These
and hierarchical, which means, one need will have to be satisfied first
before the other need.
The Five Basic Needs
a) Physiological Needs are concerned with biological needs like
food, drink, rest and sex. Take priority over needs.
b) Security Needs include freedom from harm coming from the
elements or from other people, financial security which may be
affected by loss of job or the breadwinner in the family etc.
c) Social Needs strive to secure love, affection, and the need to be
accepted by peers.
d) Esteem Needs refer to the need for a positive self-image and
self-respect and the need to be respected by others.
e) Self-Actualization Needs involve realizing our full potential as
human beings and becoming all what we are able to be.


Frederick Herzberg a satisfied employee is motivated from within to work
harder and that a dissatisfied employee is not motivated.

Two Classes of Factors Associated with Employee Satisfaction and

Dissatisfiers / Hygiene
Satisfiers / Motivation o Company Policy and
Factors: Administration
o Achievement o Supervision
o Recognition o Relationship with
o Work Itself Supervisor, Peers and
o Responsibility Subordinates
o Advancement o Work Conditions
o Growth o Salary
o Personal Life
o Status
o Security


A motivation model based on the assumption that an individual will

work depending on his perception of the probability of his expectations
to happen.

It poses the idea that motivation is determined by expectancy and


Expectancy a belief about the likelihood or probability that a

particular behavioral act will lead to a particular outcome.

Valence the value an individual place on the expected outcomes or


Expectancy theory is based on the following assumptions:

1. A combination of forces within the individual an in the environment
determine behavior.
2. People make decisions about their own behavior and that of
3. People have different types of needs, goals and desires.
4. People make choices among alternative behaviors based on the extent
to which they think a certain behavior will lead to a desired outcome.


Refers to process of improving performance and objectives, deadline or

quality standard.

How Goals Motivate and Facilitate Performance. By Erwin A. Locke:

a) Goal Content goals must be challenging, attainable, specific and
measurable, time limited, and relevant.
b) Goal Commitment when individual or groups are committed to the
goals they are supposed to achieve, there is a chance that they will be
able to achieve them.
c) Work Behavior goals influence behavior in terms of direction, effort,
persistence, and planning.
d) Feedback Aspects provide the individuals with a way of knowing how
far they have gone in achieving objectives.


Specifying the tasks that constitute a job for an individual or a group.

Two Approaches in Job Design that can be Use in Motivating:
Fitting People to Jobs.

To avoid chronic dissatisfaction of workers, the following

remedies can be adapted.
1. Realistic job previews where management provides honest
explanations of what a job actually entails.
2. Job Rotation where people are moved periodically from one
specialized job to another.
3. Limited Exposure where a workers exposure to a highly
fragmented and tedious job is limited.
Fitting Jobs to People

Instead of changing the person, management may consider

changing the job. This may be achieved with the used of:
1. Job Enlargement where two or more specialized tasks in a work
flow sequence is combined into a single job.
2. Job Enrichment where efforts are made to make jobs more
interesting, challenging and rewarding.


Consist of material and psychological benefits to employees for

performing tasks in the workplace.
Rewards may be Classified into two Categories:
1. Extrinsic refer to pay offs granted to the individual by another
2. Intrinsic Reward those which are internally experienced pay offs
which are self-granted.

Management of Extrinsic Rewards:

To motivate job performance effectively, extrinsic reward must be

properly managed in line with the following:
It must satisfy individual needs
The employees must believe effort will lead to reward.
Rewards must be equitable
Rewards must be linked to performance

When employees participate in deciding various aspects of their jobs,

the personal involvement, oftentimes, is carried up to the point where
the task is completed.
The specific activities identified where employees may participate are
as follows:
1. Setting goals
2. Making decisions
3. Solving problems
4. Designing and implementing organizational changes.
Popular Approaches in Participation:
1. Quality Control Systems a method of direct employee
participation. Its objective is to increase productivity and quality of
2. Self-managed Teams may form when workers reached a certain
degree of discipline. Also known as autonomous work groups or high
performance teams. They take on traditional managerial task as
part of their normal work routine.
Requisites to Successful Employee Participation Program:
1. A profit sharing or gain sharing plan.
2. A long term employment relationship with good job security.
3. A concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness.
4. Protection of the individual employees right.


The advent of theories on individual differences and the biological

clock of human beings put pressure on the engineer manager to adapt
other motivation techniques whenever applicable. These refer to the
1. Flexible Work Schedules there is an arrangement called flextime,
which allows employees to determine their own arrival and departure
times within specified limits.
2. Family Support Services
3. Sabbaticals a sabbatical leave is one given to an employee after a
certain number of years of service.

Leading- is that management function which involves influencing
others to engage in the work behaviors necessary to reach
organizational goals.

Leading refers to the function, while leadership refers to the process.

Power- refers to the ability of a leader to exert force on another.

Bases of Power
1. Legitimate power- a person who occupies a higher position over
persons in lower positions within an organization belong to this power
2. Reward power- when a person has the ability to give rewards to
anybody who follows order or request, he is said to have reward
Two Forms of Reward Power:
1. Material reward- Ex. Money or other tangible benefits like cars
2. Psychic reward- Ex. recognition, praises, etc.
3. Coercive power- when a person compels another to comply with
orders through threats or punishment
4. Referent power- when a person can get compliance from another
because the latter would want to be identified with the former.
5. Expert power is possessed by people with great skills in technology.

Leadership- may be referred to as the process of influencing and

supporting others to work enthusiastically toward achieving

Traits of Effective Leaders

1. A high level of personal drive are those identified as willing to
accept responsibility, possess vigor, initiative, persistence and health.
2. The desire to lead will always have a reservoir of extra efforts which
can be used whenever needed.
3. Personal integrity a person who is well-regarded by others as one
who has integrity possesses one trait of a leader
According to V.K. Saraf, integrity means and includes honesty,
honour, incorruptibility, rectitude, righteousness, uprightness and
similar virtues.
4. Self- confidence -
5. Analytical ability or judgment the ability to analyze is one desirable
trait that a leader can use to tide him over many challenging aspects
of leadership.
6. Knowledge of the company, industry or technology a leader who is
well informed about his company, the industry where the company
belongs, and the technology utilized by the industry, will be in a
better position to provide directions to his unit.
7. Charisma a person that has personal magnetism that leads people
to follow his directives.
8. Creativity Ronnie Millevo defines it as the ability to combine
existing data, experience, and preconditions from various sources in
such way that the results will be subjectively regarded as new,
valuable and innovative, and as a direct solution to an identified
problem situation.
9. Flexibility one will adapt a different method from another persons
method to produced required outputs.
Leadership Skills
1. Technical skills are skills a leader must possess to enable him to
understand and make decisions about work processes, activities
and technology.
2. Human skills refer to the ability of a leader to deal with people,
both inside and outside the organizations.
3. Conceptual skills refer to the ability to think in abstract terms, to
see how parts fit together to form the whole.


I. Ways Leaders Approach People:

1. Positive leadership when the leaders approach emphasizes
2. Negative leadership when punishment is emphasizing by the
II. Ways Leaders uses Power:
1. Autocratic
Autocratic Leader make decisions themselves, without
consulting subordinates
Advantage effective in emergencies and when absolute
followership is needed.
Disadvantages leader receives little, if any, information
and ideas from his people as inputs into hid decision
2. Participative
Participative Leaders openly invites his subordinates to
participate or share in decisions, policy making and
operation methods.
Advantage it generates a lot of good ideas, it increases
support for decisions, and the reduction of the chance that
they will be unexpectedly undermined.
Disadvantages time-consuming and frustrating to people
who prefer to see a quick decision reached.
3. Free-rein
Free-rein Leader who set objectives and allow employees
or subordinates relative freedom to do whatever it takes to
accomplish these objectives.
Advantages there is a full managerial delegation resulting
to optimum utilization of time resources.
Disadvantages there is very little managerial control and a
high degree of risk.
III. Leaders Orientation Toward Tasks and People:
1. Employee oriented when he considers employees as human
beings of intrinsic importance and with individual and personal
need to satisfy.
2. Task oriented when he places stress on production and the
technical aspects of the job and the employees are viewed as the
means of getting the work done.


Contingency approach- is an effort to determine through research

which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific
1. Fiedlers Contingency Model
Fred Fiedler leadership is effective when the leaders style is
appropriate to the situation.
Three Principal Factors:
The relations between leaders and followers
The structure of the task, and
The power inherent in the leaders position

To be effective, the situation must fit the leader. If this is not so,
the following may be tried:

Change the leaders trait or behaviors.

Select leaders who have traits or behaviors fitting the situation.
Move leaders around in the organization until they are in positions
that fit them.
Change the situation.
2. Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Model
- This suggests that the most important factor affecting the selection of a
leaders style is the development (or maturity).
Maturity has Two Components:
1) Job skills and knowledge
2) Psychological maturity

Blanchard and others elaborated on the leadership styles appropriate

for the various maturity levels of subordinates. They are as follows:

Style 1: Directing for people who lack competence but are

enthusiastic and committed.
Style 2: Coaching for people who have some competence but lack
Style 3: Supporting for people who have competence but lack of
confidence or motivation.
Style4: Delegating for people who have both competence and
3. Path- Goal Model; Leadership
Espoused by Robert J. House and Terence R. Mitchell, stipulates that a
leadership can be made effective because leaders can influence
subordinates perception of their work goals, personal goals and paths to
goal attainment.
By using the path-goal model, it is assumed that effective leaders
can enhance subordinate motivation by:
1) Clarifying the subordinates perception of work goals,
2) Linking meaningful rewards with goal attainment and,
3) Explaining how goals and desired rewards can be achieved
Leadership Styles
a. Directive leadership where the leaders focuses on clear task
assignments, standards of successful performance, and work
b. Supportive leadership where subordinates are treated as equals
in a friendly manner while striving to improve their well-being.
c. Participative leadership where leader consults with subordinates
to seek their suggestions and then seriously consider those
suggestions when making decisions.
d. Achievement-oriented leadership where leader set challenging
goals, emphasize excellence and seek continuous improvement
while maintaining a high degree of confidence that subordinates
will meet difficult challenges in a responsible manner.
4. Vrooms Decision Making Model
One that prescribes the proper leadership style for various
situations, focusing on the appropriate degrees of delegation of decision
making authority.
Decision Making Styles:
1) Autocratic Leader
2) Consultative Leader
3) Group Directed