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4.1. Base Assembly 1
4.2. IDMT Movement Assembly 1

5.1. Insulation Tests 1

6.1. IDMT Element 1
6.2. Auxiliary Duty Contact 2
6.3. Highset Element 2
6.4. Directional Relay 2




500V insulation resistance test set. 5.1 INSULATION TESTS

Variable secondary injection current source rated 10A or
greater. Using a 500V insulation test set:
Resistor, suitably rated for the secondary injection
circuit. Connect all relay terminals together and measure the resistance
Multi-purpose indicating instrument (e.g. Avometer). to earth.
Phase sequence indicator (directional versions)
Variable phase shifting transformer (directional versions) Connect a.c. input terminals together, connect the output
contact terminals together; measure the insulation resistance
2. PRECAUTIONS between a.c. and d.c. circuits.

Before testing commences the equipment should be isolated Connect the relay output contacts together and measure the
from the current transformers and the CT's short circuited in resistance between these terminals and all other terminals
line with local site procedures. During secondary injection connected together including earth.
tests, take care that the test circuit is earthed at one point only.
Satisfactory values for the various readings depends upon the
3. PROGRAMME OF TESTS amount of wiring concerned. Where considerable multi-core
wiring is involved, a reading of 2.5 to 3 megohms is satisfactory.
Mechanical checks. For short lengths of wiring the readings should be higher. A
Electrical checks. value of I megohm should not normally be considered
Operating tests. satisfactory.
Tripping tests.
The relays have operating time characteristics based on the
4.1. Base Assembly time-current characteristics in IEC 255-4.

The gap between the primary and secondary magnets is set by Relays are set in our works to the appropriate characteristic,
a gauge, the adjustment being made on the secondary magnet. using sinusoidal current at the rated frequency. Like all
This gap should not be altered and should be free from foreign induction relays, they are sensitive to the presence of
matter. harmonics in the current waveform, and also to frequency
variation. Either of these factors will affect test results and
For relays fitted with a directional element, gently move the cause an apparent variation from the proper characteristic.
induction segment of the ES element by hand and see that it Thus, when making electrical tests, use a test supply which
resets smoothly. maintains a sinusoidal waveform at all test currents.

Inspect contact surfaces for dirt or signs of tarnishing. When timing the operation of the relay, use an electrically
controlled time interval meter with its START control circuit
Check that the fixing and terminal screws are secure. connected to test supply switch, and its STOP control circuit
connected to the relay contacts.
4.2. IDMT Movement Assembly
6.1 IDMT Element
Check that the hair-spring turns are not touching.
Settings are applied in amps following the instructions printed
Check that there is end play on the moving contact by a gentle on the relay label which are of the form:
vertical movement.
Is=ln x MI x M2
Check that the time multiplier dial has a smooth action and
shows no sign of sticking when turned by hand. where,
Is = set current
Check that the two contact circuits make simultaneously when In = relay nominal current rating
the time multiplier is in the 'T' position. MI = plug setting
M2 = a marked multiplying factor
NB The top fixed contact blade is set "Advanced" in order to
take-up free play in bearings. For relays fitted with a high set MCAA element, turn the setting
wheel to the infinity setting (marked 'L'). This locks out the

Check that all connections to the relay are in accordance with For relays with a setting range of 50% to 200% set the relay to
the appropriate schematic diagram and that all connections are 100%, for relays with a range of 20% to 80% set the relay to


40%, set all other relays to their reference setting. Switch on the test supply with the resistor set to give a current
as near as possible to the setting of the high-set element
The nominal operating times at the various current multiples (compatible with non- operation of the element) and raise the
are shown by the characteristics given in the performance current to the operating value. This procedure will reduce the
specification chapter. Operating times are permitted the possibility of overheating the 2TJM and high-set elements. See
following tolerance: Fig.2. for the test circuit. When making electrical tests, use a
test supply which maintains a sinusoidal waveform at all test
Multiple of setting 2 to 20 times currents.
Tolerance 7.5%
Time multiplier I .0 Check that the operating value is within l0% of the nominal
setting. This check should be carried out at maximum and
Operating times should be checked at two, five, ten and twenty minimum settings and at both plug bridge settings. Apply a
times setting, the operating times for these multiples is given on current just below the operating value and check that, although
the relay label. At higher multiples of setting the test currents the armature may vibrate, the flag does not fall.
may exceed the relay thermal rating. To prevent damage to the
relay ensure these are switched off via a circuit breaker contact 6.4 Directional Relay
or trip relay operated from the relay.
6.4.1 Check of Operate Angle of the Directional Element
Check that the relay operates correctly and is within the
permitted tolerance by injecting into the relevant input The maximum torque angle of a directional relay is defined as
terminals. Fig. l shows the basic test circuit. the phase angle between the current and the voltage applied to
the voltage coil at which the relay develops maximum torque.
6.2 Auxiliary Duty Contact
The standard maximum torque angles are:-
The main contact is rated for trip duty and are of the bridging
type. Two methods are available of providing the additional Directional overcurrent: 45 lead
normally open contact, either a current operated reed relay or Directional earth fault: 12.5 lag
a voltage operated repeat relay.
Energise the voltage coil with rated voltage, and the current coil
The series operated reed relay is energised by the circuit with rated current (include a suitable series resistor for this
breaker trip coil current and requires a minimum current of 0.8 purpose). Set the phase shifting transformer at the phase angle
amperes for reliable operation. for maximum torque. Set the indicator on the phase shifting
transformer to zero; then adjust the control to give lagging and
The voltage operated repeat relay, a type MCAA2, is supplied leading phase angles until the ES element resets. The angle at
suitable for one of the following the rated voltages: which this occurs should be within 3 of the nominal 'cut-off
angle' of 81.5 lagging or leading.
24V, 30V, 50V, 125V, or 250V d.c.
6.4.2 Check of Polarity of Directional Element
Refer to the relay label to determine the auxiliary voltage to be
used. The following is based on the busbars being energised and a
load current being available.
6.3 High-set Element
Using the phase sequence indicator, first check that the phase
Settings for the high set element are applied in amps following sequence of the voltages at the relay are correct and see by
the instructions printed on the label which are of the form: inspection that the phasing of the connections to individual
relays is correct. Check the magnitudes of the voltage
Is=ln x M3 x M4 x M5 transformer voltages.

where, Pass a three phase load current of about 25% or more of the
Is = set current current transformer rating and see that the directional
In = relay nominal current rating elements operate or restrain depending upon the flow of the
M3 = plug setting primary current. Restraining of the induction segment can be
M4 = overcurrent setting usually observed by the increased pressure on the back stop.
M5 = a marked multiplying factor
If the flow of current is such that the relay should operate, see
The high-set element is high speed in operation and is therefore that in fact it does operate, then reverse the connections to the
sensitive to switching surges in testing. Since it is generally more current coils and see that the relay restrain. If the flow of
convenient to check the setting of the element by switching on current is such that the relay should restrain, see that in fact it
the test current at or near the desired value, it is preferable to does restrain, then reverse the connections to the current coils
connect a swamping resistor in series with the relay. This and see that the relay operates.
resistor should have a high resistance value compared to the
total impedance of the 2TJM and MCAA elements. This test is based on the assumption that the load current has a

normal power factor. If however, the power factor should be
very low, leading or lagging, difficulties may be encountered. A
very low leading power factor with the power in the forward
direction may cause a 90 connected relay to restrain. A low
leading or lagging power factor may cause the test results on a
30 connected relay to be indeterminate. If the power factor is
known to be low and there is reason for doubt about the test
results, then vector diagrams should be drawn and
arrangements made to check individual relays with current
from other than the normal phase. When the test is done, the
connections must, of course, be restored to normal.

The procedure for checking the polarity of earth fault

directional elements should be as follows:

Disconnect the red phase primary input to the voltage

transformer. Where primary fuses exist this can be done simply
by removing the red phase fuse.

Short circuit the red phase main secondary winding. This should
be done on the load side of the secondary fuse.

Short circuit and disconnect the current transformers on the

yellow and blue phases.

Energise the circuit and arrange for a primary load current of

25% or more of the current transformer rating.

If the load power is flowing away from the busbars, the

directional earth fault relay should operate. See that it does so,
then reverse the connections to the current coil or to the
voltage coil and see that the relay restrains. If both results are
correct then the return the connections to normal.

If the load power flow is toward the busbars, the results

obtained should be opposite to those given above.

Finally, de-energise the circuit, replace the red phase primary

fuse and reconnect the yellow phase and blue phase current


Check the operation of trip circuits and of alarm and indicating

devices by operation of the appropriate relays. Ensure that
tripping is not possible with either the d.c. Iinks or the trip link


To timing device
start circuit


Test To timing device

Transformer stop circuit

Figure 1 Timing Test Circuit, IDMT Element

To timing device
start circuit


To timing device
stop circuit


Figure 2 Timing Test Circuit, Highset Element