You are on page 1of 14

SECURITY ALARM

A Mini project work submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirement for the award of the degree

In
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED BY

N.SRAVANI (1210414740)
N.ESWARA TEJASWI (1214014741)
P.HARSHIT (1210414742)

Department of ECE

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

GITAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

GITAM UNIVERSITY

VISAKHAPATNAM-530045
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING
GITAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

GITAM UNIVERSITY

(Declared as deemed to be University u/s 3 of the UGC Act,


1956)
VISHAKAPATNAM-530045

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this dissertation titled SECURITY


ALARMwhich is being submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of degree B.Tech in Electronics and
Communication to Department of ECE, GITAM Institute of Technology
comprises only our original work.

Registration No Name
Signature

1210414740 N.SRAVANI

1210414741 N.ESWARA TEJASWI

1210414742 P.HARSHIT
SECURITY ALARM

CONTENTS

1. Aim
2. Apparatus
3. Circuit diagram
4. Principle
5. Working of Security Alarm
6. Theory
7. Applications
ABSTRACT:

Home security has been a major issue where crime is increasing and
everybody wants to take proper measures to prevent intrusion. In addition
there was a need to automate home so that user can take advantage of the
technological advancement in such a way that a person getting off the office
does not get melted with the hot climate.

The project is aimed at developing the security of Home against Intruders ,


Gas Leak and Fire . In any of the above three cases any one met while you are
out of your home than the device sends SMS to the emergency no provided to
it.

A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion unauthorized entry


into a building or area. Security alarms are used in residential, commercial,
industrial, and military properties for protection against burglary (theft)
orproperty damage, as well as personal protection against intruders. Car alarms
likewise protect vehicles and their contents. Prisons also use security systems
for control of inmates.

Some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglary protection; combination


systems provide both fire and intrusion protection. Intrusion alarm systems may
also be combined with closed-circuit television surveillance systems to
automatically record the activities of intruders, and may interface to access
control systems for electrically locked doors. Systems range from small, self-
contained noisemakers, to complicated, multi-area systems with computer
monitoring and control.

AIM:
To detect intrusion, that is, unauthorized entry in a region using security
alarm.

APPARATUS:
1. Resistor
2. R1, R2(100k)-2
3. R3(1.2k)-1
4. R4(47E)-1
5. T1(BC547)-1
6. T2(BC558)-1
7. D1, D2(1N4007)-2
8. C1(1uF)-1
9. S1, S2-2
Speaker-1
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
PRINCIPLE:
Home security systems work on the simple concept of securing entry points
into a home with sensors that communicate with a control panel or
command center installed in a convenient location somewhere in the home.
A typical home security system includes:

A control panel, which is the primary controller of a home's security


system
Door and window sensors
Motion sensors, both interior and exterior
Wired or wireless security cameras
A high-decibel siren or alarm
A yard sign and window stickers

WORKING OF SECURITY ALARM:

S1 and S2 are the two switches that are used in the circuit so that both can be
put in two different places i.e. one of them can put in front of the locker
while another one can be placed on the front door. When the switch S1 is
pressed diode D1 which is linked with it starts conducting as the transistor T1
and T2, which is attached with the resistor begin its conduction. For the
oscillation purpose Transistor T1 and T2 gets a positive feedback which is
provided by capacitor C1. The presence of any intruder is indicated by the low
tone frequency which is generated when switch S1 is pressed.Same kind of
condition occurs when switch S2 is pressed. Diode D2 which is linked with the
switch S2 begin its conduction and offers power supply the transistor T1 and
T2, which is in the waking state and as a result sound comes from the speaker
attached to it. But in this instance a high frequency tone comes out which is a
sign that there is some intruder present around the locker. The sound that came
from the speaker can only be stopped by cut off the power supply.

THEORY:
Security is the degree of resistance to, or protection from, harm. It applies to
any vulnerable and valuable asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, item,
nation, or organization.

As noted by the Institute for Security and Open Methodologies (ISECOM) in


the OSSTMM 3, security provides "a form of protection where a separation is
created between the assets and the threat." These separations are generically
called "controls," and sometimes include changes to the asset or the threat.[1]

Security is said to have two dialogues. Negative dialogue is about danger, risk,
threat etc. Positive dialogue is about opportunities, interests, profits etc.
Negative dialogue needs military equipment, armies, or police. Positive
dialogue needs social capital, education, or social interaction.[2]

Perception of security may be poorly mapped to measurable objective security.


For example, the fear of earthquakes has been reported to be more common than
the fear of slipping on the bathroom floor although the latter kills many more
people than the former.[3] Similarly, the perceived effectiveness of security
measures is sometimes different from the actual security provided by those
measures. The presence of security protections may even be taken for the safety
itself. For example, two computer security programs could be interfering with
each other and even canceling each other's effect, while the owner believes s/he
is getting double the protection.

Security theater is a critical term for deployment of measures primarily aimed at


raising subjective security without a genuine or commensurate concern for the
effects of that action on real safety. For example, some consider the screening of
airline passengers based on static databases to have been Security theater and
the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System to have created
a decrease in objective security.

Perception of security can increase objective security when it affects or deters


malicious behavior, as with visual signs of security protections, such as video
surveillance, alarm systems in a home, or an anti-theft system in a car such as
a vehicle tracking system or warning sign. Since some intruders will decide not
to attempt to break into such areas or vehicles, there can be less damage
to windows in addition to protection of valuable objects inside. Without
suchadvertisement, an intruder might, for example, approach a car, break the
window, and then flee in response to an alarm being triggered. Either way,
perhaps the car itself and the objects inside aren't stolen, but with perceived
security even the windows of the car have a lower chance of being damaged.

Home security[edit]

Home security is something applicable to all of us and involves the hardware in


place on a property, and personal security practices. The hardware would be the
doors, locks, alarm systems, lighting that is installed on your property. Personal
security practices would be ensuring doors are locked, alarms activated,
windows closed and many other routine tasks which act to prevent a burglary.

Computer security[edit]

Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, is security


applied to computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well
ascomputer networks such as private and public networks, including the
whole Internet. The field includes all five components: hardware, software,
data, people, and procedures by which digital equipment, information and
services are protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change or
destruction, and is of growing importance due to the increasing reliance of
computer systems in most societies.[5] It includes physical security to prevent
theft of equipment andinformation security to protect the data on that
equipment. Those terms generally do not refer to physical security, but a
common belief among computer security experts is that a physical security
breach is one of the worst kinds of security breaches as it generally allows full
access to both data and equipment.

Security management in organizations[edit]

In the corporate world, various aspects of security are historically addressed


separately - notably by distinct and often noncommunicating departments for IT
security, physical security, and fraud prevention. Today there is a greater
recognition of the interconnected nature of security requirements, [6] an approach
variously known as holistic security, "all hazards" management, and other
terms.
Inciting factors in the convergence of security disciplines include the
development of digital video surveillance technologies (see Professional video
over IP) and the digitization and networking of physical control systems
(see SCADA).[7][8] Greater interdisciplinary cooperation is further evidenced by
the February 2005 creation of the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk
Management, a joint venture including leading associations in security (ASIS),
information security (ISSA, the Information Systems Security Association), and
IT audit (ISACA, the Information Systems Audit and Control Association).

In 2007 the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) released ISO


28000 - Security Management Systems for the supply chain. Although the title
supply chain is included, this Standard specifies the requirements for a security
management system, including those aspects critical to security assurance for
any organisation or enterprise wishing to manage the security of the
organisation and its activities. ISO 28000 is the foremost risk based security
system and is suitable for managing both public and private regulatory security,
customs and industry based security schemes and requirements.

The most basic alarm consists of one or more sensors to detect intruders, and an
alerting device to indicate the intrusion. However, a typical premises security
alarm employs the following components:

Premises control unit (PCU), Alarm Control Panel (ACP), or


simply panel: The "brain" of the system, it reads sensor inputs, tracks
arm/disarm status, and signals intrusions. In modern systems, this is
typically one or more computer circuit boards inside a metal enclosure,
along with a power supply.

Sensors: Devices which detect intrusions. Sensors may be placed at the


perimeter of the protected area, within it, or both. Sensors can detect
intruders by a variety of methods, such as monitoring doors and windows for
opening, or by monitoring unoccupied interiors for motions, sound,
vibration, or other disturbances.

Alerting devices: These indicate an alarm condition. Most commonly,


these are bells, sirens, and/or flashing lights. Alerting devices serve the dual
purposes of warning occupants of intrusion, and potentially scaring off
burglars. These devices may also be used to warn occupants of a fire or
smoke condition.
Keypads: Small devices, typically wall-mounted, which function as
the human-machine interface to the system. In addition to buttons, keypads
typically feature indicator lights, a small multi-character display, or both.

Interconnections between components. This may consist of direct wiring


to the control unit, or wireless links with local power supplies.

Security devices: Devices to detect thieves such as spotlights, cameras &


lasers.
In addition to the system itself, security alarms are often coupled with a
monitoring service. In the event of an alarm, the premises control unit contacts a
central monitoring station. Operators at the station see the signal and take
appropriate

action, such as contacting property owners, notifying police, or dispatching


private security forces. Such signals may be transmitted via dedicated alarm
circuits, telephone lines, or Internet.

Home security is something applicable to all of us and involves the security


hardware in place on a property, and personal security practices. The hardware
would be the doors, locks, alarm systems, lighting, motion detectors, and
security cameras systems that is installed on your property.[1] Personal security
practices would be ensuring doors are locked, alarms activated, windows
closed, extra keys not hidden outside and many other routine tasks which act to
prevent a burglary. According to an FBI report 58.3 percent of burglaries
involved forcible entry.[2] A typical burglary lasts for about 8 to 12 minutes and
on average a burglar will break into a home within 60 seconds. [3] Home security
can be strengthened by adding a first line of defence like a thorny shrub or bush
to give the burglar a hard time. A motion activated bright light can play a
psychological role in deterring a burglar,[4] also acting as a second line of
defence along with outdoor security cameras. In order to protect the entry
points, we need to have window and door sensors. Once a burglar gets passed
the second line of defence, motion detectors kick in. A motion detector can raise
an alarm or send a security footage to the homeowner if it's linked to a camera
system. Investing in a small safe for storing valuables like passports, jewelry,
important documents, is a good word of advice. Common security methods
include never hiding extra keys outside, never turning off all the lights, applying
small CCTV stickers on doors, and keeping good tabs with neighbours.
APPLICATIONS:
A burglar alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion unauthorized entry
into a building or area. They are also called security alarms, security systems,
alarm systems, intrusion detection systems, perimeter detection systems, and
similar terms.

Burglar alarms are used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military


properties for protection against burglary (theft) or property damage, as well as
personal protection against intruders. Car alarms likewise protect vehicles and
their contents. Prisons also use security systems for control of inmates.

Some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglary protection; combination


systems provide both fire and intrusion protection. Intrusion alarm systems may
also be combined with closed-circuit television surveillance systems to
automatically record the activities of intruders, and may interface to access
control systems for electrically locked doors. Systems range from small, self-
contained noisemakers, to complicated, multi-area systems with computer
monitoring and control.

Some alarms are "silent" alarms, and will indeed send a signal to the police if
they go off. Most high-security installations use these, whereas domestic alarms
are of the traditional variety. The usual aim of the alarms that make noise is
twofold: * To let everyone else know that a burglar has attempted to break in
(this is for the homeowner's safety more than anything else). * To scare the
burglar off.