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IODP Expedition 362:

Sumatra Seismogenesis
July 31
September 30, 2016

Co-Chief Scientists
Lisa McNeill (Southampton)
Brandon Dugan (Rice)
Staff Scientist
Katerina Petronotis (JRSO)
Proposal Proponents
Lisa McNeill (University of Southampton, UK) Heidrun Kopp (Geomar, Germany)
Sean Gulick (University of Texas, Austin, US) Yusuf Djajadihardja (BPPT, Indonesia)
James Austin (University of Texas, Austin, US) Satish Singh (IPGP, France)
Nathan Bangs (University of Texas, Austin, US) Jean Claude Sibuet (IFREMER, France)
Timothy Henstock (Univ. of Southampton, UK) Stefan Ladage (BGR, Germany)
Chris Goldfinger (Oregon State University, US) Christof Gaedicke (BGR, Germany)
Don Fisher (Penn State University, US) Frauke Klingelhoefer (IFREMER, France)
Brandon Dugan (Rice University, US) D.H. Natawidjaja (LIPI, Indonesia)
Julia Morgan (Rice University, US) David Mosher (GSC, Canada)
Kitty Milliken (University of Texas, Austin, US) Kerry Sieh (NTU, Singapore)
Glenn Spinelli (New Mexico Tech, US) Wonn Soh (JAMSTEC, Japan)
Peter Clift (Louisiana State University, US) Jacob Geersen (Univ. of Southampton, UK)
Ellen Thomas (Yale University, US) Nicolas Chamot-Rooke (ENS-CNRS, France)
Kevin Pickering (University College London, UK) David Tappin (British Geological Survey, UK)
Kelin Wang (Pacific Geoscience Centre, Canada)
U. Udrekh (BPPT, Indonesia)
Haryadi Permana (LIPI, Indonesia)
Grant Garven (Tufts University, US)
Maria Ask (Lulea University, Sweden)
Dieter Franke (BGR, Germany)
Kai Berglar (BGR, Germany)
Subduction zone inputs help control fault properties, including
frictional properties, fluid production, and permeability (e.g.,
Underwood, 2009)
Past drilling targeted inputs at erosional and accretionary
margins, e.g., Nankai, Cascadia, Barbados, Costa Rica
In the last decade:
A series of M9.0 earthquakes, the first since 1964 (seismological and
structural resolution many orders of magnitude greater than 1960s)
Breadth of fault slip phenomena has exploded and with it new theories
on how faults slip
Recent and future ocean drilling expeditions target margins with
unexpected slip behaviour (shallow slip, non-earthquake slip)
and explore a wider range of inputs
Primary Objectives
1) Establish initial and evolving properties of the North Sumatran
incoming sedimentary section

2) Constrain potential effects on seismogenesis, tsunamigenesis,

and forearc development for comparison with global examples

1) Core and log the complete input stratigraphic sequence to derive
primary stratigraphic, lithological, hydrogeological, chemical, physical,
thermal, biological, and structural properties

2) Assess diagenetic alteration of sequence and how diagenetic

processes will evolve with increasing burial and heating, and
ultimately on accretion
Sediment strengthening, thick input section
Smith, et al., 2013
1. Makran

Thermal modeling suggests temperatures of ~150C at the

top of oceanic basement at the deformation front
The dcollement sits at blue line, T ~100-125C
2. North Sumatra
Geersen et al., 2013
Sunda margin (Sumatra) 2004 Mw 9.2 earthquake
First Mw 9.0 earthquake since 1964
Coseismic slip models indicate significant slip and moment release
further seaward than expected
Several models suggest slip close to the trench
geodetic seismic + geodetic
Rhie et al.,

Chlieh et al., 2007 Fuji and Satake, 2007

Sunda margin,
eastern Indian Ocean

Thick sediment input

Dominated by Bengal-
Nicobar submarine
fan sediments

No previous drilling at
this margin

McNeill and Henstock, 2014, Tectonics

Evolution of Sumatra Proposal

2007 Objectives

Prism evolution

Link seismogenic
zone and prism

Forearc basin

S-CORK monitoring
post earthquake
Evolution of Sumatra Proposal
2010 Objectives

Forearc plateau

Forearc basin

Links between forearc

structure and
seismogenic zone
position and rupture
Evolution of Sumatra Proposal
April 2013 Objectives

Input material
properties (influence
on plate boundary
fault behavior and
forearc structure)

Models for forearc

plateau uplift and

Evolution of Sumatra Proposal

October 2013 Objectives

Properties and
evolution of the input
sediment section

Effects of evolving
input section on plate
boundary fault
properties and forearc
structural development

Nicobar fan history

Proposed Drilling

Unit 1: Rapidly deposited trench wedge 0 - ~4 Ma ~0.1 - 3 km thick

Unit 2: Bengal-Nicobar fan sediments ~4 - ~40 Ma ~1.0 km thick
Unit 3: Pre-fan pelagic sediments ~40 - ~65 Ma ~0.4 - 1.0 km thick

Plate boundary fault (dcollement) position and development:

Two candidates:
- Prominent lithological reflector within Unit 3 (Dean et al., 2010) at ~3.5-4.5 km
- Reflector within lower Unit 2 (Cook et al., 2014) at ~3-4 km
Site SUMA-8A/8B

Core and log lower section of input sediments on the Indian

oceanic plate (Nicobar Fan) to 1760 mbsf (water depth 4130 m)

Penetrates hypothesized pre-decollement section

Stress state in sedimentary section and oceanic basin

Site SUMA-8A/8B
Site SUMA-10A

Core and log trench wedge infill and uppermost slowly deposited
submarine Nicobar fan and hemipelagic materials to 1400 mbsf
(water depth 4490m)

Penetrates trench wedge unconformity

Stress state in sedimentary section

Site SUMA-10A
Importance of Inputs
Dcollement typically forms near
the base of incoming sediments
Composition: clays (e.g.,
smectite/illite), opal content,
calcareous ooze, diatomaceous
sediments, and non-
pelagic/hemipelagic sequences
play a role
Hydrology: pore pressure,
diagenetic fluid sources,
compaction, permeability
Thermal state of oceanic
Degree of compaction or Leg 190 Site 1173 Nankai-Muroto, Japan input
diagenetic alteration pre- section, from Underwood, 2007

Expedition 362 Beyond Coring & Logging
In situ temperature and pore Exp 308
Long et al., 2008
pressure measurements
Post-cruise experimental and
numerical analyses
evolution of hydrology and
mechanical-frictional behaviour
impacts of increased P/T as the
input thickens, accretes and the
Saffer & Tobin, 2011
plate boundary fault develops
Does the shallowest section
of allow
coseismic/earthquake slip, as
What are the primary
controlling factors?