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CONTENT PAGE STUDENTS NAME

NO
1. Title 1 Ahmad Aiman Ashraf
2. Introduction 1 Ahmad Aiman Ashraf
3. Objective 1 Wan Muhammad Aiman
4. Theoretical Background 2 Zairi Azizi
5. Problem Statement 2 Zairi Azizi
6. Apparatus 2 Wan Muhammad Aiman
7. Procedure 3 Nabilah & Amirah Syakirah
8. Result & Analysis 4-7 Wan Muhammad Aiman & Ahmad Aiman
Ashraf
9. Discussion 8 Zairi Azizi & Ahmad Aiman Ashraf
10. Conclusion 8 Nabilah & Amirah Syakirah
11. References 8 Nabilah
12. Appendix 9-12 Amirah Syakirah

TITLE : PARTICLE DENSITY TEST

1.1 Introduction
Level 2 laboratory activities refer to the condition where only the problem is guided and
given. Students are required to find the ways & means and provide the answers to the given
assignment using the group creativity and innovativeness. The activity will enable the
students to appreciate independent learning and prepare them for a much harder task of open
ended laboratory activities.

In this laboratory session, students will be introduced on how to determine the particle density
and specific gravity of soil.

1.2 Objective

The objective of the test is:

To determine the specific gravity of soil using density bottle.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activity, students would be able to:

1. Conduct the laboratory experiment and being exposed theoretically to other alternative
methods of particle density testing.

2. Analyse data correctly and present in typical format

3. Work in a group to produce technical report.

1.4 Theoretical Background

There are three tests for the measurement of particle density. These have different
applications, which may be summarized as follows:

1. Density bottle method for fine-grained soils


2. Gas jar method for most soils including those containing gravel-sized particles

3. Pycnometer method for use in a site laboratory on medium and coarse grained soils

The first two are the usual laboratory methods. The third is useful as a simple on-site
procedure where full laboratory facilities are not available and when a result of lower
accuracy is acceptable.

2.0 Problem Statement

Specific gravity Gs is defined as the ratio of the weight of a certain volume of soil solids to
the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at a constant temperature. As a group you are
given a set of samples to determine the particle density of the soil.

The group must carry out the test following the procedures outline and subsequently analyse
the data and present it in a proper technical format.

3.1 Apparatus

Density bottle with stopper having capillary hole at its centre


Distilled water
Electronic balance
Pan
Dessicator
Spatula
Sample of soil

3.2 Procedures

1. The density bottle and stopper were cleaned and dried properly.
2. The dried bottle with stopper was weighed and the mass (m_1) was recorded.
3. About 10-15 gm of oven-dried soil sample was taken and carefully poured into the
density bottle. The bottle with soil and stopper was weighed and the mass (m_2) was
recorded.
4. The distilled water was poured half of the bottle to soak the soil. The bottle was leave
for a period 5 to 15 minutes and was shaken.
5. The bottle was put in the dessicator to remove the entrapped air and was leave for
about 15 minutes.
6. After 15 minutes, more distilled water was poured into the bottle until full and filled
without any entrapped bubble. The stopper was put on and the mass (m_3) was
recorded.
7. The bottle was emptied and cleaned properly. The bottle was filled entirely with
distilled water and was make sure there was no entrapped bubble.
8. The stopper was put on and the bottle was wiped dry from outside. The mass (m_4)
was weighed and recorded.

3.3 Data Acquisition

Table 1.1 : Specific Gravity Data Sheet

S. NO. DESCRIPTION DETERMINATION NO.


I II III
1. Temperature in C 27 27 27
2. Weight of bottle ( W 1 ) in g 34.83 34.75 31.22
3. Weight of bottle + Dry soil ( W 2 ) in g 49.48 47.81 45.56
4. Weight of bottle + Soil + Water ( W 3 ) in 146.83 144.06 143.50
g
5. Weight of bottle + Water ( W 4 ) in g 137.92 136.02 134.70
6. Specific Gravity, G 2.55 2.60 2.59
7. Average G ( at 31 C ) 2.58
8. Corrected G (at 27 C ) 2.55 2.60 2.59

CALCULATIONS

1 Specific gravity of soil,

( W 1W 2 )
G s=
[ ( W 4 W 1 ) ( W 3W 2 ) ]

2 Corrected specific gravity,


G s ' =kG s

Value of k taken from table of relative density of water


k at 27 C = 0.996542
k at 31 C = 0.995369

Determination no. I
Specific gravity of soil,Gs
( 49.4834.83 )
G s=
[ (137.9234.83 )( 146.8349.48 ) ]

= 2.55

Gs at 31

' 0.995369
Gs = 2.55
0.996542

= 2.55


Corrected Gs at 27

0.996542
G s' = 2.55
0.996542

= 2.55

Determination no. II
Specific gravity of soil, Gs
( 47.8134.75 )
G s=
[ (136.0234.75 )( 144.0647.81 ) ]

= 2.60


Gs at 31

0.995369
G s' = 2.60
0.996542

= 2.60


Corrected Gs at 27

0.996542
G s' = 2.60
0.996542

= 2.60

Determination no. III


Specific gravity of soil,Gs
( 45.5631.22 )
G s=
[ (134.7031.22 )( 143.5045.56 ) ]

= 2.59

Gs at 31

0.995369
G s' = 2.59
0.996542

= 2.59


Corrected Gs at 27

0.996542
G s' = 2.59
0.996542

= 2.59


Average of specific gravity Gs at 31 ,

2.55+ 2.60+2.59
G s=
3

= 2.58
3.4 Discussion

Based on the data, the experiment was carried out in a constant temperature that is 27C. The
experiment was repeated 3 times to determine the specific gravity,Gs which were 2.55, 2.60,
and 2.59 thus, the average of specific gravity,Gs was 2.58 at the temperature of 31C.

The general range of specific gravity is 2.60 - 2.72. The recorded range from the experiment
is lowe r from the general range because the experiment was carried out in unsuitable place as
the wind might blow sometimes and the density bottle was put inside the Dessicator for only
10 minutes as it should be 7 hours in general. The corrected specific gravity were 2.55 ,2.60
and 2.59 because the temperature used was the same as the early stage of experiment which
was 27C.

3.5 Conclusion

Based on the experiment, we have determined the specific gravity of soil,Gs by using the
density bottle. We determined the specific gravity,Gs by using the formula given in a constant
tempeature. We also calculated the corrected specific gravity,Gs by referring to the table of

specific gravity of water to determine the value of k at 27 C to make sure both result were

nearly or same. The average of specific gravity,Gs we got is 2.58.

4.1 References

Laboratory Manual Basic Soil Mechanics.


agronomy.lsu.edu
www.elu.com
4.2 Appendix

Figure 1: empty bottle with stopper was weighed and ( m1 ) was recorded.

Figure 2: dry soil was put into the bottle

Figure 3: the bottle and soil was weighed and ( m2 ) was recorded.
Figure 4: distilled water was put into the bottle until half full.

Figure 5: the bottle was leave for about 5 to 15 minutes

Figure 6: the bottle was shaken.


Figure 7: the bottle was put in the dessicator for 15 minutes.

Figure 8: distilled water was added until full.

Figure 9: the bottle was weighed and ( m3 ) was recorded.


Figure 10: the bottle was cleaned

Figure 11: distilled water was added until full.

Figure 12: the bottle was weighed and ( m4 ) was recorded.