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Flexural Behaviour of RCC Beam and Post

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Tensioned Using Geopolymer Concrete
Deivabalan B* Manigandan S
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
CKCET CKCET
Tamilnadu, INDIA Tamilnadu, INDIA
balasrii.struct@gmail.com smani91.civil@gmail.com
Abstract: The aim of the research work presents the result of experimental and analytical
studies of the flexural behavior of geopolymer concrete beams. In this study the fly ash based
geopolymer mix design was obtained for M50 grade concrete. The fluid to fly ash ratio was
fixed as 0.45. The ratio of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide was 2.5 and concentration of
solution is 14 molar. The preliminary tests were carried out for the geopolymer concrete and
optimizing the mix design. A total of four beams of size 125 x 250 x 3200 were cast, of which
Two beams are geopolymer concrete and the remaining two are of conventional concrete.. All
the beams were tested under two point load conditions which were monotonically applied.
Comparison was made and the results are presented.
Key words: Geopolymer, steam curing, Fly ash, post tensioning, Flexural Behavior

1.0 INTRODUCTION form) should be, and where they are to be
stressed. After the concrete is placed and has
1.1 General reached its required strength, usually between
3000 and 3500 psi (“pounds per square inch”),
I n blended cement concrete, various industrial
by products such as fly ash, slag, silica, fume,
etc., are used as mineral admixtures to certain
the tendons are stressed and anchored. The
tendons, like rubber bands, want to return to
percentages as supplementary cementations their original length but are prevented from doing
materials to improve the strength and durability so by the anchorages. The fact the tendons are
of concrete structures. In addition to this kept in a permanently stressed (elongated) state
industrial waste product such as fly ash, rise causes a compressive force to act on the
husk ashes are particularly important resources concrete. The compression that results from the
to supplement the Portland cement. post tensioning counteracts the tensile forces
created by subsequent applied loading (cars,
On the other hand, India produces about 70 people, and the weight of the beam itself when
million tons of coal ash per year from burning the shoring is removed). This significantly
about 200 million tons of coal per year for increases the load-carrying capacity of the
electric power generation. Fly ash is one of the concrete.
promising pozzolanic materials that can be 1.2 Post-Tensioning
blended with Portland cement for the production
of durable concrete. The geopolymer mortar Post-tensioning is the system of choice for
/concrete is produce by totally replacing the parking structures since it allows a high degree
ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by fly ash. of flexibility in the column layout, span lengths
Consumption of fly ash in the manufacture of and ramp configurations. Post-tensioned parking
geopolymer is an important strategy in making garages can be either stand-alone structures or
concrete more environmental friendly. one or more floors in an office or residential
building. In areas where there are expansive
In building and slab-on-ground clays or soils with low bearing capacity, post-
construction, unbounded tendons are typically tensioned slabs-on-ground and mat foundations
prefabricated at a plant and delivered to the reduce problems with cracking and differential
construction site, ready to install. The tendons settlement. Post-tensioning allows bridges to be
are laid out in the forms in accordance with built to very demanding geometry requirements,
installation drawings that indicate how they are including complex curves, variable super
to be spaced, what their profile (height above the elevation and significant grade changes.
* Corresponding Author

compressive strength for that transfer. post-tensioning allows long clear spans and very creative architecture. used as it negatively affects the characteristics . of permanent tendons are cut off using an the strands are released and their force is abrasive disc saw. the concept is easy to explain.3 Principle of Prestressing Compressive forces are induced in a The function of prestressing is to place the concrete structure by tensioning steel tendons of concrete structure under compression in those strands or bars placed in ducts embedded in the regions where load causes tensile stress. Flame cutting should not be transferred to the concrete member. The tendons are installed after the Tension caused by the load will first have to concrete has been placed and sufficiently cured cancel the compression induced by the to a prescribed initial compressive strength. Prestressing can be applied to concrete Bar tendons are usually threaded and anchor by members in two ways.2(c) shows the two prestressed beams after by steel wedges that grip each strand and seat loads have been applied. by pretensioning or post. means of spherical nuts that bear against a tensioning. hardened and attained a minimum avoids disruption to water or road traffic below. restraining bulkheads before the concrete is cast. By placing the prestressing full. Figure 1. with two or three concentric bearing surfaces that transfer the tendon force to the concrete. cantilever beam. After the concrete has been placed. A prestressing before it can crack the concrete. creating upward camber. creating tensile stresses in the anchorage.4 Post-Tensioning Operation 1. This bar tendons only after the concrete has been minimizes the impact on the environment and placed. The loads cause both firmly in a wedge plate. Post-tensioning applications include office and apartment buildings. After stressing. The wedge plate itself the simple-span beam and cantilever beam to carries all the strands and bears on a steel deflect down. protruding strands or bars allowed to harden and attain sufficient strength. rock and soil anchors. compression is induced in the tension zones. the force in the tendon is low in the simple-span beam and high in the transferred from the jack to the end anchorage. In pretensioned members the square or rectangular bearing plate cast into the prestressing strands are tensioned against concrete.1: Comparison of Reinforced and rubber band so that the blocks are pushed tightly Prestressed Concrete Beams together 1. The anchorage may be a simple bottom of the simple-span beam and top of the steel bearing plate or may be a special casting cantilever beam. If one holds the ends of the rubber band. required force. concrete. typically referred to as tendons. Post-tensioning is a method of reinforcing (strengthening) concrete or other materials with high-strength steel strands or bars. Although post-tensioning systems require specialized knowledge and expertise to fabricate assemble and install. parking structures. into which a rubber band is threaded. the blocks will sag. Post-tensioning also allows extremely long Prestressing by post-tensioning involves span bridges to be constructed without the use installing and stressing prestressing strand or of temporary intermediate supports. hydraulic jack is attached to one or both ends of Figure 1. After jacking to the strength tendons. This induces a predetermined shows the same unloaded beams with force in the tendon and the tendon elongates prestressing forces applied by stressing high elastically under this force. Post-tensioning can be demonstrated by placing wing nuts on either end of the rubber band and winding the Fig. slabs-on-ground. Imagine a series of wooden blocks with holes drilled through them. In stadiums.2(b) concrete beam. and water-tanks. sports stadiums.2 (a) shows a plainly reinforced the tendon and pressurized to a predetermined concrete simple-span beam and fixed cantilever value while bearing against the end of the beam cracked under applied load. bridges. Figure Tendons made up of strands are secured 1.

Grouting is done carefully under controlled conditions using grout outlets to ensure that the duct anchorage and grout caps are completely filled.3 and 1. a single beam can run continuously from one end of the building to the other. Thinner slabs mean less concrete is required. A lower building height can also translate to considerable savings in mechanical systems and façade costs.e. Another advantage of post- tensioning is that beams and slabs can be continuous. Several suppliers produce systems for tendons made of wires. Refer to manufacturers' and suppliers' literature for details of available systems. Structurally.2: Typical Post-Tensioning Anchorage building. Tendons are then grouted using a cementitious based grout. Post-tensioning can thus allow a significant reduction in building weight versus a conventional concrete building with the same number of floors. thinner slabs. In building construction.4 1. post- . This grout is pumped through a grout inlet into the duct by means of a grout pump. it means a lower overall building height for the same floor- to-floor height. strands or bars. 1. span lengths and ramp configurations. In addition. The most common systems found in bridge construction are multiple strand systems for permanent post-tensioning tendons and bar systems for both temporary and permanent situations.5 Post-Tensioning Systems Many proprietary post-tensioning systems are available. This reduces the foundation load and can be a major advantage in seismic areas. i. this is much more efficient than having a beam that just goes from one column to the next. fewer beams and more slender. Post-tensioned parking garages can be either stand-alone structures or one or more floors in an office or residential Fig. dramatic elements. Post-tensioning is the system of choice for parking structures since it allows a high degree of flexibility in the column layout. For final protection. Key Fig. (Courtesy of Dywidag Systems strand and bar tendons) are illustrated in Figures International) 1. after grouting.3: Typical Post-Tensioning Bar System features of three common systems (multiple. post-tensioning allows longer clear spans.of the prestressing steel. Approximately 20mm (¾ in) of strand is left to protrude from wedges or a certain minimum bar length is left beyond the nut of a bar anchor. Hardware.6 Advantages/Applications of Post- Tensioning There are post-tensioning applications in almost all facets of construction. In areas where there are expansive Hardware for Strand Tendons clays or soils with low bearing capacity. an anchorage may be covered by a cap of high quality grout contained in a permanent non-metallic and/or concrete pour-back with a durable seal-coat.

Balamuralikrishnan geopolymers. M. total ten beams were cast and in light of the ongoing emphasis on tested over an effective span of 3000 mm up to sustainability.H. elevation and significant grade changes. post-tensioning allows long clear the deflection characteristics.A. Utilising OPS in concrete production not only tensioning also allows extremely long span solves the problem of disposing this solid waste bridges to be constructed without the use of but also helps conserve natural resources.Japan Concrete Institute settlement. stiffness. there is growing ratio. failure under monotonic and cyclic loads. Consequently. Post. Data presented include stadiums. 2. tested until failure. Hossain4 Palm Shell (OPS) Delsye C. A temporary intermediate supports. The results. M. Saifullah. Uddin. 3. the remaining two beams mixed concrete (Marceau et al.tensioned slabs-on-ground and mat foundations Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. alkaline condition on Si-Al minerals. Md.7 Geopolymer Concrete behaviour of reinforced OPS concrete beams The geopolymer technology was developed was comparable to that of other lightweight by Davidoits in 1980’s.8 Polymerisation Process theoretical moment-curvature relationship and the load-displacement response of the The polymerization process involves a strengthened beams and control beams were substantially fast chemical reaction under predicted by using FEA software ANSYS. Since strengthened with bonded CFRP fabric in single portland cement is responsible for upward of 85 layer and two layers which are parallel to beam percent of the energy and 90 percent of the axis at the bottom under virgin condition and carbon dioxide attributed to a typical ready. Static and potential energy and carbon dioxide savings cyclic responses of all the beams were through the use of geopolymers can be evaluated in terms of strength. Eight beams were products to provide the binding agents. 1- reduce problems with cracking and differential 10. 2006. energy absorption capacity factor. behaviour. This minimizes total of 6 under-reinforced beams with varying the impact on the environment and avoids reinforcement ratios (0. the flexural behavior of carbon fiber reinforced Geopolymer materials represent an innovative polymer (CFRP) strengthened reinforced technology that is generating considerable concrete (RC) beams. 2007). interest in geopolymer applications in compositeness between CFRP fabric and transportation infrastructure concrete. ductility indices and end-rotations. Antony Jeyasehar. Post-tensioning allows bridges to be This paper presents an investigation on the built to very demanding geometry requirements. The most geopolymer systems rely on minimally beams were designed as under-reinforced processed natural materials or industrial by concrete beams.90%) were disruption to water or road traffic below.52%to 3. October 2006. Davidoits (1999) proposed that binders Practice. Kurian3 Journal of has been widely used as a means to find out the . that results Comparison has been made between the in a three dimensional polymeric chain a ring numerical (ANSYS) and the experimental structure consisting of Si-O-Al bonds. flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams including complex curves. Rashid5 Experimental based analysis Mannan2 and John V. The results show that the strengthened schematic formation of geopolymer material can beams exhibit increased flexural strength. and composite equations action until failure. This paper explores reduce the carbon dioxide emission. cracking spans and very creative architecture.K. Davidoits original concretes and the experimental results compare concept of geopolymer is to make fly ash based reasonably well with the current Codes of concrete. 4. the were used as control specimens.. The investigation revealed that the flexural 1. In fabricated and tested. In contrast to portland cement. It was observed that beams with low could be produced by a polymeric reaction of reinforcement ratios satisfied all the alkaline liquids with the silicon and the serviceability requirements. S. The 1. the geopolymer technology could and C. Lightweight Concrete Beams Made with Oil Nasir-uz-zaman. Abdul and M.M. For flexural strengthening interest in the construction industry. be shown as described by the following enhanced flexural stiffness. L.0 LITERATURE REVIEW Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Flexural Behavior of Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Reinforced Concrete Beam I. he termed these binders as Polymer (CFRP) Fabrics R. and the associated failure modes. Teo1. ductility considerable. No. particularly of RC beams. variable super produced from oil palmshell (OPS) aggregates. aluminium source materials of geological origin Flexural Behavior of RC Beams product materials such as fly ash and rice husk Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced ash etc.

For all the samples the rest that geopolymer concrete is well-suited to period was kept as 5 days. The compressive strength test was paper also includes brief details of some recent conducted for each sample and the results applications of geopolymer concrete. the influence of concrete beams was recorded. excellent alternative of destructive laboratory instead of the Portland cement. the sustainable development have also outlined. liquid. In ambient curing.4. The paper the present study. The paper showed that there is an increase in compressive presented brief details of fly ash-based strength with the increase in age for ambient geopolymer concrete. The experiments were conducted on data of various short-term and long-term fly ash based geopolymer concrete by varying properties of the geopolymer concrete and the the types of curing namely ambient curing and results of the tests conducted on large-scale hot curing. The salient different reinforcement ratio (under.vijaya rangan.vijai. to make test with an acceptable variation of results. This paper influence the properties of the geopolymer presents results of an experimental study on the concrete and to propose a simple method for the density and compressive strength of geopolymer design of geopolymer concrete mixtures. Geopolymer concrete standards and codes can be used to design results from the reaction of a source material reinforced fly ash-based geopolymer concrete that is rich in silica and alumina with alkaline structural members. The within the concrete industry. very less as compared to that of specimens Geopolymer concrete has excellent properties subjected to ambient curing. The compressive strength of hot cured disaster. supported beam was performed in the laboratory the manufacturing process. For hot curing. factors that influence the properties of the fresh over). research is needed compressive strength of hot cured fly ash based in the critical area of durability. N. This paper presents test data on fly modern engineering tools for the researcher. To compressive strength increases as the age of ensure further uptake of geopolymer technology concrete increases from 7 days to 28 days. destructive test on simply covers the material and the mixture proportions.vishnuram concrete is presented.response of individual elements of structure. To B. After that finite various parameters on the fresh and hardened element analysis was carried out by ANSYS.Kumutha and B. For hot cured samples the design geopolymer concrete mixtures has been increase in compressive strength with age was described and illustrated by an example. djwantoro hardjito has study these components finite element analyses Studies on Fly Ash Based Geopolymer are now widely used & become the choice of Concrete. . balanced. The observation was mainly focused on concrete and the hardened concrete have been reinforced concrete beam behavior at different identified. Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete addition. The hot air oven. The elastic properties of hardened points of interest which were then tabulated and concrete and the behaviour and strength of compared. SAS 2005 with suitable for structural applications. A simple method to cured specimens. The economic benefits and concrete is much higher than that of ambient contributions of geopolymer concrete to cured concrete. Test data are used to studied the effect of types of curing on identify the effects of salient factors that strength of geopolymer concrete. Current research geopolymer concrete does not increase is focusing on the durability of geopolymer in substantially after 7 days. aggressive soil conditions and marine environments. R. Finally results from both the behaviour.G. In concrete. In ash-based geopolymer concrete. the utilisation of the material in SAS 2005 by using the same material structural members. the fresh and & load-deflection data of that under-reinforced hardened state characteristics. state concrete. The ratio of alkaline liquid to fly ash reinforced geopolymer concrete member show was fixed as 0. The density of and is well-suited to manufacture precast geopolymer concrete was around 2400 kg/m3 concrete products that are needed in which is equivalent to that of conventional rehabilitation and retrofitting of structures after a concrete. A summary of the extensive studies conducted on fly ash-based geopolymer K. Therefore. The paper presented a summary of computer modeling and experimental data were the extensive studies carried out by the authors compared. Low- that computer based modeling is can be an calcium fly ash is used as the source material.V Rangan geopolymer the design provisions contained in the current concrete with fly ash. From this comparison it was found on the fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. the manufacture precast concrete products that can temperature was maintained at 60oC for 24 h in be used in infrastructure developments.A Lloyd and B. Test concrete. an analytical investigation was carried has excellent compressive strength and is out for a beam with ANSYS. reinforced structural members are similar to those of Portland cement concrete. and the long-term properties.

as well as the concrete: reinforced beams and columns by performance of the filed specimens during the M. Manufacture and test twelve simply supported reinforced geopolymer concrete rectangular On the Development of Fly Ash-Based beams under monotonically increasing load with Geopolymer Concrete by Djwantoro Hardjito. Allouche. Applications of geopolymer concrete in after one year for heat-cured geopolymer the rehabilitation of wastewater concrete concrete with compressive strength of 40. followed concrete. of the columns occurred in the region plus or product materials. that are rich in silicon and aluminum. The test results presented in this concrete beams and columns. Portland cement columns reported in the calcium fly ash (ASTM Class F) from a local literature. Vernon The paper describes the concrete with compressive strength of 67 MPa developed and testing of geopolymer concrete. The creep coefficient. failure was flexural. diameter by 200 mm high or 150 mm diameter by 300 mm high depending on the type of test. These values are novel coating material consisting of inorganic about 50% of those experienced by Portland alumino-silicate polymer produced from cement concreteFly ash-based geopolymer chemical reactions under highly alkaline concrete cured in the laboratory ambient conditions between an active pozzolanic conditions gains compressive strength with age. the longitudinal tensile reinforcement ratio and Steenie E. Analytical methods design provisions contained in the Australian available for Portland cement concrete were Standard for Concrete Structures AS3600 and used to predict the test results. The paper describes the application procedure of geopolymer concrete including Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer mixing.* . such as low-calcium (Class F) minus 250 mm from the mid-height. only one source of dry low. and demonstrate the to form a paste that binds the loose coarse and application of heat-cured low-calcium fly ash- fine aggregates. Flexural behaviour of reinforced Test specimens for the creep test were 150x300 concrete beams strengthened with mm cylinders. For each series the American Concrete Institute Building Code of tests. The crack paper show the effects of various parameters on patterns and failure modes observed for the properties of geopolymer concrete.. is formed by activating by.5.N. wallah The longitudinal bars in the compression zone and b. J. a set of standard size cylinders were ACI318-02 are applicable to reinforced made. e. This paper presents the variables Perform calculations to predict the development of fly ash-based geopolymer strength and the deflection of geopolymer concrete. V. Neale a. Flexural presented the development of geopolymer cracks initiated at column mid-height. v. Sumajouw. Yang a. fly ash) and an activator solution. a by-product concrete test beams and columns using the material rich in silicon and aluminum. Diaz and 57 MPa is around 0. rangan (research report gc 2).. D. the by cracks along the length of the column. Failure geopolymer paste. The mode of fly ash. defined as prestressed carbon composites Dong-Suk the ratio of creep strain-to-instantaneous strain. Montes.e. compressive and tensile casting. Sumajouw and B. and the concrete compressive strength as test B. Sun-Kyu Park b.g. The binder in this concrete. such as methods currently available for Portland cement low-calcium (ASTM C 618 Class F) fly ash. material (i. Wallah. The size of cylinders was either 100 mm geopolymer concrete columns. The study demonstrated that the power station was used. The behaviour of geopolymer test Portland cement concrete were used. Kenneth W. In the columns was similar to that of reinforced experimental work. C.4 to 0.I.Vijaya Rangan. 47 structures E.e. placement and curing.J. is concrete members Study the correlation of test chemically activated by a high-alkaline solution and calculated results. higher the average ambient temperature strengths. A The 7th day compressive strength of ambient- comprehensive parametric experimental testing cured specimens depends on the average program was performed. and other unreacted materials based geopolymer concrete in reinforced in the mixture. Dody M. a this value is around 0. In geopolymer concrete. The geopolymer concrete columns were similar to application of geopolymer concrete and future those reported in the literature for reinforced research needs are also identified. The tests currently available for decreased. for geopolymer and G. The buckled especially when the load-eccentricity experimental work involved conduct of long-term was low The mid-height deflection of test tests on low-calcium fly ashbased geopolymer columns decreased as the load-eccentricity concrete. concrete: long-term properties by s. as indicated by opening of the cracks and the crushing of the concrete in Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer the compression zone in the mid-height region.7. elastic modulus) and chemical higher is the compressive strength. evaluating the ambient temperature during the first week after mechanical (e. properties. This paper Portland cement concrete columns.6 to 0. Rangan initial phase of the monitoring program.

The research was funded jointly by both FHWA thallium. four prestressed FRP-unbonded beams. mixed The various variables included bonding or no reinforcement. including drip exposure in the anchorage polymerization process and alter the . flexural tests and a finite element method tensioned geopolymer concrete beams analysis. 2. bridge structures in aggressive environments has been of concern in recent years. For reinforced concrete members strengthened 1. the presence of approximately 8 years of aggressive exposure calcium in high amounts may interfere with the testing. and the F). lead. Aggregates After the debonding of the CFRP plates in the 3. Low calcium fly ash with externally bonded prestressed CFRP plates.2 Low Calcium Fly Ash unbonded CFRP-plated beams due to the effect of the anchorage system. deflection control. but FRP rupture. copper. scale post-tensioned beam specimens after calcium. consists of beams was not debonding. cobalt. using the DIANA program. also known as “mixed amount of prestressing. nearly 8 years of aggressive exposure testing. the Partial prestressing. the anchorage system. chromium. B. four 3. strontium.these types of fly ash has silicon and soundness of anchorage zones To evaluate the aluminium oxides about 80% by mass. the tensioned conventional concrete beams.0 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES prestressed FRP-bonded beams. the splicing of ducts.1. whether bonded or not. the ultimate load of the beams strengthened with 4. were performed for reinforced concrete beams  Compare the behaviour of geopolymer strengthened by prestressed CFRP plates For and conventional concrete beams. beryllium.S. The carbon reinforcement in non-prestressed. resulting in Concrete Beam Specimens After Long-Term reduced thermal cracking when fly ash is used to Aggressive Exposure Testing by Gregory replace Portland cement. including arsenic. To evaluate the effect of mixed reinforced concrete beams were tested in flexure reinforcement on corrosion protection with a and analyzed using the finite element method. bonding of the FRP. two non-prestressed FRP-bonded beams. this analysis accounted for the  To obtain the flexural behavior of post nonlinear concrete material behaviour. A nonlinear finite element analysis of the concrete. selenium. reinforcement” offered no real durability The experiments consisted of one control beam. barium.In this study. tested beams was also performed using the DIANA software. The pozzolanic reaction between fly Durability Evaluation of Post-Tensioned ash and lime generates less heat. the flexural tests performed on reinforced concrete beams strengthened with prestressed 4. vanadium and zinc. The prestressed and partially prestressed (mixed particle size distribution reveals that 80% of the reinforcement) beam specimens after fly ash was smaller than 50 µm. reinforcement. and an interfacial bond-slip model between the concrete and CFRP plates In this  To obtain the flexural behavior of post paper.1 Materials of Geopolymer Concrete CFRP was reasonably constant. fluorine. manganese. two stages of FRP debonding occurred. The extent of corrosion found in all types of calcium content is less than 5%. Activator solution bonded system. Major Geopolymer concrete can be manufactured concerns include the effectiveness of grouting by using low calcium fly ash (ASTM class materials. the behaviour of the bonded CFRP-plated beams changed to that of 4. comparison of fully prestressed. All the beams were subjected to geopolymer concrete and conventional three-point and four-point bending tests under concrete. and two prestressed FRP unbonded beams with different  To study a mix design for an M 50 grade span lengths. the forensic analysis and evaluation of large. Fly ash also contains Paul Turco. and non-prestressed specimens. The durability of post-tensioned of fly ash particles is shown in fig 4. advantage over not prestressing at all. with the loading. and the span length. Fly ash particles are almost totally spherical in shape. a total of 13 FRP-strengthened zone.0 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS CFRP plates. deflection  To study the mechanical properties and failure modes recorded to the point of geopolymer concrete and conventional failure. The observed The materials of geopolymer concrete failure mode of the prestressed CFRP plated. Thesis This thesis focuses on environmental toxins in significant amounts. nickel. boron. The SEM analysis and TxDOT. fully content of the fly ash is less than 2%.

The sodium silicate is in the form of a gel. The following arrangements are shown in fig 4.microstructure.3 Aggregates anchorage. It gives the shear capacity to take care of end 4. As per is 383-1970 the fine aggregate of specific gravity is 2.5.64. Fig 4: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): Fly ash particles Fig 6: Mixed Alkaline solution for M40 is shown in fig 4. The sodium Fig7: Arrangement of ducts before casting . in this project fly ash from Mettur silicate and sodium hydroxide are taken in the dam the weighed materials are shown in fig 4. confined zone II is been used. For attaining more strength to concrete 12 mm sieved coarse aggregate are used in this project the details of sieve analysis and specific gravity of fine and coarse aggregates of used materials. All beams are post tensioned beams.2 ratio of 2. The concentration of sodium hydroxide may vary in the range 8M to 14M. workability of concrete.5 Specimen Details In this study 4 beam of size 3200 x 250 x 125 mm was cast conventional concrete and geopolymer concrete beams.4. The ducts are placed at an constant eccentricity of 40 mm. at both ends of the beam. At the time of casting hollow ducts 60 mm are with grouting provisions. spiral rings of Fig 5: Weighed materials 6mm dia at a length of 600mm is placed.3 4.5. and closer view are shown in The shape of the aggregate affects the fig 4. The pallet formed sodium hydroxide is diluted and mixed with sodium silicate is the activator solution for this project. however 8 molar solution is adequate for most applications. 4.4 Activator Solution The combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution can be used as the alkaline liquid.

7. Both curing time and curing temperature influence the compressive strength Fig 11: End blocks and barrel & wedges of of the concrete. The end blocks are rigid steel plates of size 125 × 250 mm and thickness of 20 mm.7 Curing of Geopolymer Concrete Steam curing substantially assists the chemical reaction that occurs in the geopolymer concrete. are shown in fig 4.8 Post Tensioning of Beams The workability of the fresh concrete was Compressive forces are induced in a measured by conducting slump test and is about concrete structure by tensioning steel tendons of 5 mm. Before steam curing the concrete specimens are wrapped with polythene papers The beams were tested under two point for the affection hot water into the specimens. Fig 9: Casting of post tensioned beam 4. Then the alkaline liquid mixed with chamber super plasticizer (conplast SP 430) was the added with the dry mixers in the pan mixer itself. the strands were properly anchored by end blocks. All the specimens was casted using strands placed in ducts embedded in the geopolymer concrete and conventional of grade concrete.5 concrete was placed. The casting process is shown in fig 4.9 Experimental setup 24 hours.6 Fig.8: Closer view arrangement of ducts before casting 4. The tendons are installed after the M50.6 Mixing. Casting and Compaction of Geopolymer Concrete The fly ash and the aggregates were first mixed together in the pan mixer for about 3 Fig 10: Specimens under steam curing minutes. The specimen placed inside the steam chamber is shown in fig 4. The . The geopolymer concrete post tensioned beam specimens undergoes a steam curing (60ºC) of 4. loading which was monotonically increased. 4.

14: Load vs deflection curve for GPC 2.4.schematic view of test setup and the experimental setup are shown in fig 4.9 30000 20000 10000 0 0 50 100 Deflection in mm Fig.5 5.5 Stress 1 0.9 RCC 70000 60000 50000 40000 Load in N 30000 20000 10000 0 -10000 0 20 40 60 80 Deflection in mm Fig. The results are shown in the fig 5.13 Load vs deflection curve for RCC GPC 60000 50000 Fig 12: Schematic view of test setup 40000 Load in N The beams are placed in 50 ton frame. Strain Vs stress 2 1.3 and 5.2.0 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION 0 0 5 10 15 20 5. Fig.1 Results Strain 1. The beams are subjected to two point load testing.15: Stress vs strain curve for RCC beam . The experimental is shown in the fig 4.8 and 4. strain details of conventional concrete and post tensioned beam concrete are shown in fig 5. The stress vs.1 and 5.

8 0.0 CONCLUSION Fig.19: Failure of beam at the load Fig.6 0. b) The initial cracks were obtained by visual examination only. c) The flexural behaviour of post tensioned conventional concrete beam and geopolymer concrete beams are similar. nearly Fig.4 1. d) The geopolymer concrete beam deflects more than the ordinary concrete. where as the geopolymer initiates the first crack at 20 kN.20: Crack patterns in the beam 6. .18: Deflected shape of the beam 18% more deflection at given load level.2 1 Stress 0. Strain Vs stress 1.2 0 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Strain Fig.4 0.17: Deflectometer and LVDT placed in the specimen From this experimental work the following conclusions are drawn. The initial cracks was obtained at 15 kN for conventional concrete. The maximum ultimate load from experimental work for both geopolymer and conventional concrete was 80kN.16: Stress vs strain curve for geopolymer beam Fig. a) As the age of geopolymer concrete increases the strength of concrete increases.

October 2006 [5] Flexural Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Fabrics R. Abdul Mannan2 and John V. The Open Civil Engineering Journal. L. research report. From the report was identified several economic benefits of using e Eccentricity distance geopolymer concrete. S.2008.M.A.(2005 Development) and properties of Low calcium fly ash. Faculty of Engineering. 2009. Md. 102-109 [6] Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beam I. Antony Jeyasehar.e) From the experimental work it is been List of Symbols & Abbreviations conclude that the geopolymer concrete behaves as similar to conventional be Effective width of dispersion concrete. Curtin University of Technology. No. 1-10.Wallah and B. Saifullah. M. D and Rangan.2009.K. Kurian3 Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 4. Hossain and M. curtain university. 3. Mq Bending moment due to live load Mu Ultimate moment Xu Neutral axis depth Zt Section modulus τc Ultimate shear stress in concrete References [1] Harjito. Malaysian Construction Research Journal. [2] Rangan Vijaya B. Nasir-uz-zaman.No- 2.Rangan. Australia.B.Vol-3.V. Research Report GC 1. Balamuralikrishnan and C. Teo1. 2006. perth. 2006. Geopolymer concrete is 25% economically beneficial Mg Bending moment due to dead load than ordinary concrete.V.based Geopolymer Concrete. Australia. [3] S. perth. [4] Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams Madewith Oil Palm Shell (OPS) Delsye C. Rashid International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 188 .H. 3.. M. Uddin. “Low calcium fly based geopolymer conctere: long term properties. Studies on Fly Ash- Based Geopolymer Concrete.E.

Member of Indian Concrete Institute. like Member if Indian Society of Technical Education. He has Published International Journals & 03 01 research papers in papers in international conferences. He has Published specialization is Structural 02 research papers in Engineering. S. Author’s Biography He is life member of various professional bodies. Deivabalan B obtained PG degree from Annamalai Mr. His area of Engineering. Mr.Manigandan obtained his university. guided more than 2 UG Projects. . He has completed in UGC funded project year of 2012. His area of PG degree from Annamalai specialization is Structural University. He has papers in international conferences. He has International Journals & 01 guided more than 12 UG Projects.