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THETEN

PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS

Put into English by


Shree P u r o h i t S w a m i
and
W.B.Yeats

FABER A N D FABER L I M I T E D
24 Russell Square
London
First published in April Mcmxxxvii
by Faber and Faber Limited
24 Russell Square London W.C. 1
Second edition March Mcmxxxviii
Reprinted Mcmlii
Printed in Great Britain by
Bradford and Dickens London W.C. 1
6 All rights reserved
Preface
I n c o m p e t e n t to expound I n d i a n philosophy, I shall
illustrate some few t h i n g s t h a t have to be said f r o m
m y o w n daily thoughts and contemporary poetry.
Shree P u r o h i t S w a m i has asked me to introduce
w h a t is twice as m u c h his as m i n e , for he knows San-
s k r i t and E n g l i s h , I b u t E n g l i s h . Before, after and d u r -
i n g his n i n e years' p i l g r i m a g e r o u n d I n d i a he has sung
i n Sanskrit every m o r n i n g t h e Awadhoota Geeta, at-
t r i b u t e d to Dattatreya, an ancient Sage to w h o m he
pays particular devotion, and t w o Upanishads, t h e Sad-
g u r u , his o w n composition, and t h e M a n d o o k y a ; and
perhaps at n i g h t to e n t e r t a i n or edify his hosts, songs of
his o w n composition ; those i n M a r a t h i o r H i n d i a m o n g
the unlearned, those in Sanskrit a m o n g the learned.
Sanskrit has been a f a m i l i a r speech, not c h a n g i n g f r o m
place to place, b u t always on his tongue.
For some f o r t y years my f r i e n d George Russell ( A . E . )
has quoted me passages f r o m some Upanishad, and for
those f o r t y years I have said to myselfsome day I w i l l
f i n d out i f h e knows w h a t h e i s t a l k i n g about. Between
us existed f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e antagonism t h a t
unites dear friends. M o r e t h a n once I asked h i m t h e
name of some translator a n d even b o u g h t t h e book, b u t
t h e most e m i n e n t scholars l e f t me incredulous. C o u l d
7
latinised words, hyphenated words ; could polyglot
phrases, sedentary distortions of unnatural English:
'However many Gods in Thee, All-Knower, adversely
slay desires of a person'could muddles, muddied
by 'Lo! Verily' and 'Forsooth', represent what grass
farmers sang thousands of years ago, what their de-
scendants sing today? So when I met Shree Purohit
Swami I proposed that we should go to India and
make a translation that would read as though the
original had been written in common English: 'To
write well,' said Aristotle, 'express yourself like the
common people, but think like a wise man', a favour-
ite quotation of Lady Gregory'sI quote her diary
from memory. Then when lack of health and money
made India impossible we chose Majorca to escape tele-
phones and foul weather, and there the work was done,
not, as I had planned, in ease and leisure, but in the i n -
terstices left me by a long illness. Yet I am satisfied; I
have escaped that polyglot, hyphenated, latinised,
muddied muddle of distortion that froze belief. Can we
believe or disbelieve u n t i l we have put our thought
into a language wherein we are accustomed to express
love and hate and all the shades between? When belief
comes we stand up, walk up and down, laugh or swing
an arm; a mathematician gets drunk ; finding that
which is the prerogative of men of action.
I have not worked to confound George Russell,
though often saddened by the thought that I could not
he died some months agobut to confound some-
8
thing in myself. He expressed in his ceaseless vague
preoccupation w i t h the East a need and curiosity of our
time,' Psychical research, which must some day deeply
concern religious philosophy, for its evidences surround
the pilgrim and the devotee though they never take
the centre of the stage, has already proved the exist-
ence of faculties that would, combined into one man,
make of that man a miracle-working Yogi. More
and more too does it seem to approach a main thought
of the Upanishads. Continental investigators, who reject
the spiritism of Lodge and Crookes, but accept their
phenomena, postulate an individual self possessed of
such power and knowledge that they seem at every
moment about to identify it w i t h that Self without
limitation and sorrow, containing and contained by all,
and to seek there not only the l i v i n g but the dead.
But our need and curiosity have no one source. Be-
tween 1922 and 1925 English literature, wherever most
intense, cast off its preoccupation w i t h social problems
and began to create myths like those of antiquity, and
to ask the most profound questions. I recall poems by
T. S. Eliot, Those Barren Leaves' by Aldous Huxley,
where there is a Buddhistic hatred of life, or a hatred
Schopenhauer did not so much find in as deduced
from a L a t i n translation of a Persian translation of
the Upanishads: certain poemsThe Seven Days of
the Sun', 'Matrix', T h e Mutations of the Phoenix',
by W. J. Turner, by Dorothy Wellesley, by Herbert
Read, which have displayed in myths, not as might
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some writer of my youth for the sake of romantic sug-
gestion but urged by the most recent thought, the world
emerging from the human mind. A still younger gener-
ation has brought a more minute psychological curi-
osity, suggesting an eye where a goldsmith's magnify-
ing glass is screwed, to like preoccupations.
In their pursuit of meaning, Day Lewis, MacNeice,
Auden, Laura Riding have thrown off too much, as I
think, the old metaphors, the sensuous tradition of the
poets:
' H i g h on some mountain shelf
Huddle the pitiless abstractions bald about the neck;'
but have found, perhaps the more easily for that sacri-
fice, a neighbourhood where some new Upanishad,
some half-asiatic masterpiece, may start up amid our
averted eyes.
W h e n I was young we talked much of tradition, and
those emotional young men, Francis Thompson, Lionel
Johnson, John Gray, found it in Christianity. But now
that The Golden Bough has made Christianity look
modern and fragmentary we study Confucius w i t h
Ezra Pound, or like T. S. Eliot find in Christianity a
convenient symbolism for some older or newer thought,
or say w i t h Henry Airbubble, 'I am a member of the
Church of England but not a Christian.' Shree Purohit
Swami and I offer to some young man seeking, like
Shakespeare, Dante, M i l t o n , vast sentiments and gene-
ralisations, the oldest philosophical compositions of the
world, compositions, not writings, for they were sung
10
long before they were written down. European scholar-
ship w i t h many doubts has fixed their date, or the date
of the most important, as a little before 600 B.c. when
Buddha was born, but Indian scholarship prefers a far
earlier date. Whatever the date, those forest Sages be-
gan everything; no fundamental problem of philosophy,
nothing that has disturbed the schools to controversy,
escaped their notice.
It pleases me to fancy that when we t u r n towards the
East, in or out of church, we are turning not less to the
ancient west and north; the one fragment of pagan
Irish philosophy come down, 'the Song of Amergin',
seems Asiatic; that a system of thought like that of
these books, though perhaps less perfectly organised,
once overspread the world, as ours today; 1 that our
genuflections discover in that East something ancestral
in ourselves, something we must bring into the light
before we can appease a religious instinct that for the
first time in our civilisation demands the satisfaction of
the whole man.
Upanishad is doctrine or wisdom (literally 'At the feet
of', meaning thereby ' A t the feet of some Master'), the
doctrine or wisdom of the Wedas. Each is attached to
some section and sometimes is named from the section.
The Katha-Upanishad for instance is part of the Kathak
1
All Indian clerks in Government offices have just been or-
dered to wear trousers, so at any rate declares a London mer-
chant, an exporter to India, who has decided to specialise in
trouser-stretchers. It follows the flag.
11
Brahman section in the Yajur-Weda. Shree Purohit
Swami has omitted the usual first five chapters of the
Chhand6gya-Upanishad because they are so intermixed
w i t h ritual that they are no longer studied, though still
sung. For the same reason he has selected from Briha-
daranyaka-Upanishad such passages as contain no such
intermixture. A few passages have been 'omitted, not
because descriptions of ritual but because repetitions
of what is said and said as well elsewhere. Their order
wherein the Upanishads should be studied, according to
tradition, is that in which they are printed in this book.
W. B. YEATS.

12
Contents

I . T h e Lord 15
(Eesha-Upanishad)
I I . At Whose Command? 19
(Kena-Upanishad)
I I I . F r o m the Kathak Branch of theWedas 25
(Katha-Upanishad)
I V . Questions 39
(Prashna-Upanishad)
V . At the Feet of the M o n k 49
(Mundaka-Upanishad)
V I . At the Feet of Master Mandooka 59
(Mandookya-Upanishad)
V I I . F r o m the Taittireeya Branch of the
Wedas (Taittireeya-Upanishad) 63
VIII. At the Feet of Master Aitareya 79
(Aitareya-Upanishad)
I X . T h e Doctrine of the Chhandogyas 85
(Chhandogya-Upanishad)
X . Famous Debates in the Forest 119
(Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad)

13
I
The Lord
(Eesha-Upanishad)

That is perfect. This is perfect. Perfect comes from


perfect. Take perfect from perfect, the remainder is
perfect.
M a y peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

Whatever lives is f u l l of the Lord. Claim nothing;


enjoy, do not covet His property.
T h e n hope for a hundred years of life doing your
duty. No other way can prevent deeds from clinging,
proud as you are of your human life.
They that deny the Self, return after death to a god-
less b i r t h , blind, enveloped in darkness.
The Self is one. Unmoving, it moves faster than the
mind. The senses lag, but Self runs ahead. Unmoving,
it outruns pursuit. Out of Self comes the breath that is
the life of all things.
Unmoving, it moves; is far away, yet near; w i t h i n
all, outside all.
Of a certainty the man who can see all creatures in
himself, himself in all creatures, knows no sorrow.
15
How can a wise man, knowing the unity of life, see-
ing all creatures in himself, be deluded or sorrowful?
The Self is everywhere, without a body, without a
shape, whole, pure, wise, all knowing, far shining, self-
depending, all transcending} in the eternal procession
assigning to every period its proper duty.
Pin your faith to natural knowledge, stumble
through the darkness of the blind; pin your faith to
supernatural knowledge, stumble through a darkness
deeper still.
Natural knowledge brings one result, supernatural
knowledge another. We have heard it from the wise
who have clearly explained it.
They that know and can distinguish between natural
knowledge and supernatural knowledge shall, by the
first, cross the perishable in safety; shall, passing beyond
the second, attain immortal life.
Pin your faith to the seed of nature, stumble through
the darkness of the blind; pin your faith to the shapes of
nature, stumble through a darkness deeper still.
The seed of nature brings one result; the shapes of
nature another. We have heard it from the wise, who
have clearly explained i t .
They that know and can distinguish between the
shapes of nature and the seed of nature shall, by the first,
cross the perishable in safety; shall, passing beyond the
second, attain immortal life.
They have put a golden stopper into the neck of
16
the bottle. Pull it, Lord! Let out reality. I am full of
longing.
Protector, Seer, controller of all, fountain of life, up-
holder, do not waste light; gather light; let me see that
blessed body'-Lord of all. I myself am He.
Life merge into the all prevalent, the eternal; body
turn to ashes. Mind! meditate on the eternal Spirit; re-
member past deeds. Mind! remember past deeds; re-
member, Mind! remember.
Holy light! illuminate the way that we may gather
the good we planted. Are not our deeds known to you?
Do not let us grow crooked, we that kneel and pray
again and again.

17
n
At Whose Command ?
(Kena-Upanishad)

1
Speech, eyes, ears, limbs, life, energy, come to my
help. These books have Spirit for theme. I shall never
deny Spirit, nor Spirit deny me. L e t me be in union,
communion w i t h Spirit. W h e n I am one w i t h Spirit,
may the laws these books proclaim live in me, may the
laws live.

T h e enquirer asked: ' W h a t has called my m i n d to


the hunt? W h a t has made my life begin? W h a t wags in
my tongue? W h a t God has opened eye and ear?'
T h e teacher answered: ' I t lives in all that lives,
hearing through the ear, thinking through the m i n d ,
speaking through the tongue, seeing through the eye.
T h e wise m a n clings neither to this nor that, rises out
of sense, attains i m m o r t a l life.
'Eye, tongue, cannot approach it nor m i n d know;
not knowing, we cannot satisfy enquiry. It lies beyond
the known, beyond the unknown. We know through
those who have preached it, have learnt it from tradi-
tion.
19
T h a t which makes the tongue speak, but needs no
tongue to explain, that alone is Spirit; not what sets the
world by the ears.
'That which makes the mind think, but needs no
mind to think, that alone is Spirit; not what sets the
world by the ears.
'That which makes the eye see, but needs no eye to
see, that alone is Spirit; not what sets the world by the
ears.
'That which makes the ear hear, but needs no ear to
hear, that alone is Spirit; not what sets the world by
the ears.
'That which makes life live, but; needs no life to live,
that alone is Spirit; not what sets the world by the ears.'

2
' I f you think that you know much, you know little.
If you think that you know It from study of your own
mind or of nature, study again.'
The enquirer said: 'I do not think that I know much,
I neither say that I know, nor say that I do not.'
The teacher answered: 'The man who claims that he
knows, knows nothing; but he who claims nothing,
knows.
'Who says that Spirit is not known, knows; who claims
that he knows, knows nothing. The ignorant think that
Spirit lies within knowledge, the wise man knows It
beyond knowledge.
'Spirit is known through revelation. It leads to free-
20
dom. It leads to power. Revelation is the conquest of
death.
'The living' man who finds Spirit, finds Truth. But if
he fail, he sinks among fouler shapes. The man who
can see the same Spirit in every creature, clings neither
to this nor that, attains immortal life.'

3
Once upon a time, Spirit planned that the gods might
win a great victory. The gods grew boastful ; though
Spirit had planned their victory, they thought they had
done it all.
Spirit saw their vanity and appeared. They could not
understand; they said: 'Who is that mysterious Per-
son?'
They said to Fire: 'Fire! Find out who is that mys-
terious Person.'
Fire ran to Spirit. Spirit asked what it was. Fire said:
'I am Fire; known to all.'
Spirit asked: 'What can you do?' Fire said: T can
burn anything and everything in this world.'
'Burn it,' said Spirit, putting a straw on the ground.
Fire threw itself upon the straw, but could not burn it.
Then Fire ran to the gods in a hurry and confessed it
could not find out who was that mysterious Person.
Then the gods asked Wind to find out who was that
mysterious Person.
Wind ran to Spirit and Spirit asked what it was. Wind
said: 'I am Wind j I am the King of the Air,'
21
Spirit asked: 'What can you do?' and Wind said: 'I
can blow away anything and everything in this world.'
'Blow it away,' said Spirit, putting a straw on the
ground. Wind threw itself upon the straw, but could
not move it. Then Wind ran to the gods in a hurry and
confessed it could not find out who was that mysterious
Person.
Then the gods went to Light and asked it to find
out who was that mysterious Person. Light ran towards
Spirit, but Spirit disappeared upon the instant.
There appeared in the sky that pretty girl, the God-
dess of Wisdom, snowy Himalaya's daughter. Light
went to her and asked who was that mysterious Person.

4
The Goddess said: 'Spirit, through Spirit you at-
tained your greatness. Praise the greatness of Spirit.'
Then Light knew that the mysterious Person was none
but Spirit.
That is how these godsFire, Wind and Light
attained supremacy ; they came nearest to Spirit and
were the first to call that Person Spirit.
Light stands above Fire and Wind; because closer
than they, it was the first to call that Person Spirit.
This is the moral of the tale. In the lightning, in the
light of an eye, the light belongs to Spirit.
The power of the mind when it remembers and de-
sires, when it thinks again and again, belongs to Spirit.
Therefore let Mind meditate on Spirit.
22
Spirit is the Good in all. It should be worshipped as
the Good. He that knows it as the Good is esteemed by
all.
Y o u asked me about spiritual knowledge, I have ex-
plained i t .
Austerity, self-control, meditation are the founda-
tion of this knowledge; the Wedas are its house, t r u t h
its shrine.
He who knows this shall prevail against all evil, enjoy
the Kingdom of Heaven, yes, for ever enjoy the blessed
Kingdom of Heaven.

23
Ill
From the Kathak Branch of
the Wedas
(Katha-Upanishad)

Book I
1
May He protect us both. May He take pleasure in us
both. May we show courage together. May spiritual
knowledge shine before us. May we never hate one an-
other. May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

Wajashrawas, wanting heaven, gave away all his


property.
He had a son by name Nachiketas. While the gifts
were passing, Nachiketas, though but a boy, thought to
himself:
'He has not earned much of a heaven; his cows can
neither eat, drink, calve nor give m i l k . '
He went to his father and said: 'Father, have you
given me to somebody?' He repeated the question a
second and a t h i r d time; at last his father said: 'I give
you to Death.'
Nachiketas thought: 'Whether I die now or later
25
matters little ; but what I would like to know is what
happens if Death gets me now.'
Wajashrawas would have taken back his words but
Nachiketas said: ' T h i n k of those who went before,
those that w i l l come after: their word their bond. Man
dies and is born again like a blade of grass,'
Nachiketas went into the forest and sat in meditation
w i t h i n the house of Death. When Death appeared his
servant said: 'Lord! When a holy man enters a house as
guest it is as if Fire entered. The wise man cools h i m
down. So please give h i m water.
' I f a holy man comes into a fool's house and is given
nothing, the fool's family, public and private life, am-
bitions, reputation, property, hopes, alliances, all suffer.'
Thereupon Death said to Nachiketas: 'A guest
should be respected ; you have lived three days in my
house without eating and drinking. I bow to you, holy
man! Take from me three gifts and I shall be the better
for it.'
Nachiketas said: 'I w i l l take as my first gift that I
may be reconciled to my father; that he may be happy;
that he may keep no grudge against me but make me
welcome.'
Death said: 'I shall so arrange things, that when your
father gets you back he shall sleep well at night, his
grudge forgotten and love you as before.'
Nachiketas said: 'There is no fear in the Kingdom of
Heaven; becauseyou are not there, nobody there is afraid
of old age; man is beyond hunger, thirst and sorrow.
26
' Death! you know what Fire leads to heaven, show i t ,
I am full of faith. I ask that Fire as my second gift,'
Death said:' 'I w i l l explain i t , listen. Find the rock
and conquer unmeasured worlds. Listen, for this came
out of the cavern.'
Death told h i m that out of Fire comes this world,
what bricks and how many go to the altar, how best to
build i t . Nachiketas repeated all. Death encouraged
ran on:
'I give you another gift. This Fire shall be called by
your name.
'Count the links of the chain: worship the triple
Fire: knowledge, meditation, practice; the triple pro-
cess: evidence, inference, experience; the triple duty:
study, concentration, renunciation; understand that
everything comes from Spirit, that Spirit alone is
sought and found; attain everlasting peace; mount be-
yond birth and death.
'When man understands himself, understands u n i -
versal Self, the union of the two, kindles the triple Fire,
offers the sacrifice; then shall he, though still on earth,
break the bonds of death, beyond sorrow, mount into
heaven.
'This Fire that leads to heaven is your second gift,
Nachiketas! It shall be named after you. Now choose
again, choose the t h i r d gift.'
Nachiketas said: 'Some say that when man dies he
continues to exist, others that he does not. Explain, and
that shall be my third gift.'
27
Death said: 'This question has been discussed by the
gods, it is deep and difficult. Choose another gift, Nachi-
ketas! Do not be hard. Do not compel mfe to explain,'
Nachiketas said: 'Death! you say that the gods have
discussed i t , that it is deep and difficult; what explana-
tion can be as good as yours? What gift compares w i t h
that?'
Death said: 'Take sons and grandsons, all long-lived,
cattle and horses, elephants and gold, take a great
kingdom.
'Anything but this; wealth, long life, Nachiketas!
empire, anything whatever; satisfy the heart's desire.
'Pleasures beyond human reach, fine women w i t h
carriages, their musical instruments; mount beyond
dreams; enjoy. But do not ask what lies beyond death.'
Nachiketas said: 'Destroyer of man! these things
pass. Joy ends enjoyment, the longest life is short. Keep
those horses, keep singing and dancing, keep it all for
yourself.
'Wealth cannot satisfy a man. If he but please you,
Master of A l l , he can live as long as he likes, get all that
he likes; but I w i l l not change m y gift.
'What man, subject to death and decay, getting the
chance of undecaying life, would still enjoy mere long
life, thinking of copulation and beauty.
'Say where man goes after death; end all that dis-
cussion. This, which you have made so mysterious, is
the only gift I w i l l take.'

28
2
Death said: 'The good is one, the pleasant another;
both command the soul. Who follows the good, attains
sanctity ; who follows the pleasant, drops out of the race.
'Every man faces both. The mind of the wise man
draws him to the good, the flesh of the fool drives him
to the pleasant.
'Nachiketas! Having examined the pleasures you
have rejected them; turned from the vortex of life and
death.
'Diverging roads: one called ignorance, the other
wisdom. Rejecting images of pleasure, Nachiketas! you
turn towards wisdom.
'Fools brag of their knowledge; proud, ignorant, dis-
solving, blind led by the blind, staggering to and fro.
'What can the money-maddened simpleton know of
the future? "This is the only world'' cries he; because
he thinks there is no other I kill him again and again.
'Some have never heard of the Self, some have heard
but cannot find H i m . Who finds H i m is a world's won-
der, who expounds H i m is a world's wonder, who in-
herits H i m from his Master is a world's wonder.
'No man of common mind can teach H i m ; such men
dispute one against another. But when the uncommon
man speaks, dispute is over. Because the Self is a fine
substance, He slips from the mind and deludes ima-
gination.
'Beloved! Logic brings no man to the Self. Yet when
a wise man shows H i m , He is found. Your longing eyes
29
are turned towards reality. Would that I had always
such a pupil.
'Because man cannot find the Eternal'through pass-
ing pleasure, I have sought the Fire in these pleasures
and, worshipping that alone, found the Eternal.
'Nachiketas! The fulfilment of all desire, the con-
quest of the world, freedom from fear, unlimited plea-
sure, magical power, all were yours, but you renounced
them all, brave and wise man.
'The wise, meditating on God, concentrating their
thought, discovering in the mouth of the cavern, deep-
er in the cavern, that Self, that ancient Self, difficult
to imagine, more difficult to understand, pass beyond
joy and sorrow.
T h e man that, hearing from the Teacher and com-
prehending, distinguishes nature from the Self, goes to
the source; that man attains joy, lives for ever in that
joy. I think, Nachiketas! your gates of joy stand open.'
Nachiketas asked: 'What lies beyond right and wrong,
beyond cause and effect, beyond past and future?'
Death said: 'The word the Wedas extol, austerities
proclaim, sanctities approachthat word is Om. 1
'That word is eternal Spirit, eternal distance ; who
knows it attains to his desire.
'That word is the ultimate foundation. Who finds it
is adored among the saints.
'The Self knows all, is not born, does not die, is not
the effect of any cause; is eternal, self-existent, i m -
Spelt A U M , pronounced as 'oam' in 'foam'.
30
perishable, ancient. How can the killing of the body
kill Him?
'He who thinks that He kills, he who thinks that
He is killed, is ignorant. He does not kill nor is He
killed.
'The Self is lesser than the least, greater than the
greatest. He lives in all hearts. When senses are at rest,
free from desire, man finds H i m and mounts beyond
sorrow.
'Though sitting, He travels ; though sleeping is every-
where. Who but I Death can understand that God is
beyond joy and sorrow.
'Who knows the Self, bodiless among the embodied,
unchanging among the changing, prevalent every-
where, goes beyond sorrow.
'The Self is not known through discourse, splitting
of hairs, learning however great ; He comes to the man
He loves; takes that man's body for His own.
'The wicked man is restless, without concentration,
without peace ; how can he find H i m , whatever his
learning?
'He has made mere preachers and soldiers His food,
death its condiment; how can a common man find Him?'

3
'The individual self and the universal Self, living in
the heart, like shade and light, though beyond enjoy-
ment, enjoy the result of action. A l l say this, all who
know Spirit, whether householder or ascetic.
31
' M a n can kindle that Fire, that Spirit, a bridge for
all who sacrifice, a guide for all who pass beyond fear.
'Self rides in the chariot of the body, intellect the
firm-footed charioteer, discursive m i n d the reins.
'Senses are the horses, objects of desire the roads.
When Self is joined to body, mind, sense, none but He
enjoys.
'When a man lack steadiness, unable to control his
mind, his senses are unmanageable horses.
'But if he control his m i n d , a steady man, they are
manageable horses.
'The impure, self-willed, unsteady man misses the
goal and is born again and again.
'The self-controlled, steady, pure man goes to that
goal from which he never returns.
'He who calls intellect to manage the reins of his
m i n d reaches the end of his journey, finds there all-
pervading Spirit.
'Above the senses are the objects of desire, above the
objects of desire m i n d , above the mind intellect, above
the intellect manifest nature.
'Above manifest nature the unmanifest seed, above
the unmanifest seed, God. God is the goal; beyond H i m
nothing.
'God does not proclaim Himself, He is everybody's
secret, but the intellect of the sage has found H i m .
'The wise man would lose his speech in mind,
m i n d in the intellect, intellect in nature, nature in God
and so find peace.
32
'Get up! Stir yourself! Learn wisdom at the Master's
feet. A hard path the sages say, the sharp edge of a razor.
'He who knows the soundless, odourless, tasteless, i n -
tangible, formless, deathless, supernatural, undecaying,
beginningless, endless, unchangeable Reality, springs
out of the mouth of Death.'
Those who hear and repeat correctly this ancient
dialogue between Death and Nachiketas are approved
by holy men.
He who sings this great mystery at the anniversary
of his fathers to a rightly chosen company, finds good
luck, good luck beyond measure.

Book II
1
Death said: 'God made sense t u r n outward, man
therefore looks outward, not into himself. Now and
again a daring soul, desiring immortality, has looked
back and found himself.
T h e ignorant man runs after pleasure, sinks into
the entanglements of death; but the wise man,
seeking the undying, does not run among things
that die.
'He through whom we see, taste, smell, feel, hear,
enjoy, knows everything. He is that Self.
'The wise man by meditating upon the self-depend-
ent, all-pervading Self, understands waking and sleep-
ing and goes beyond sorrow.
c 55 Y.U.
'Knowing that the individual self, eater of the fruit
of action, is the universal Self, maker of past and future,
he knows he has nothing to fear.
'He knows that He himself born in the beginning
out of meditation, before water was created, enters
every heart and lives there among the elements.
'That boundless Power, source of every power, mani-
festing itself as life, entering every heart, living there
among the elements, that is Self.
'The Fire, hidden in the fire-stick like a child in the
womb, worshipped w i t h offerings, that Fire is Self.
'He who makes the sun rise and set, to W h o m all
powers do homage, He that has no master, that is Self.
'That which is here, is hereafter ; hereafter is here.
He who thinks otherwise wanders from death to death.
' T e l l the m i n d that there is but One; he who divides
the One, wanders from death to death.
'When that Person in the heart, no bigger than a
thumb, is known as maker of past and future, what
more is there to fear? That is Self.
'That Person, no bigger than a thumb, burning like
flame without smoke, maker of past and future, the
same today and tomorrow, that is Self.
'As rain upon a mountain ridge runs down the slope,
the man that has seen the shapes of Self runs after them
everywhere.
'The Self of the wise man remains pure; pure water,
Nachiketas, poured into pure water.'

34
2
'Who meditates on self-existent, pure intelligence,
ruler of the body, the city of eleven gates, grieves no
more, is free, for ever free.
'He is sun in the sky, fire upon the altar, guest in the
house, air that runs everywhere, Lord of lords, living
in reality. He abounds everywhere, is renewed in the
sacrifice, born in water, springs out of the soil, breaks
out of the mountain ; power: reality.
' L i v i n g at the centre, adorable, adored by the senses,
He breathes out, breathes i n .
'When He, the bodiless, leaves the body, exhausts the
body, what leaves? That is Self.
'Man lives by more than breath ; he lives by the help
of another who makes it come and go.
'Nachiketas! I w i l l tell you the secret of undying
Spirit and what happens after death.
'Some enter the womb, waiting for a moving body,
some pass into unmoving things: according to deed and
knowledge.
'Who is awake, who creates lovely dreams, when
man is lost in sleep? That Person through whom all
things live, beyond whom none can go; pure, powerful,
immortal Spirit.
'As fire, though one, takes the shape of whatsoever it
consumes, so the Self, though one, animating all things,
takes the shape of whatsoever it animates ; yet stands
outside.
'As air, though one, takes the shape of whatsoever it
35
enters, so the Self, though one, animating all things,
takes the shape of whatsoever it animates; yet stands
outside.
'As the sun, the eye of the world, is not touched by
the impurity it looks upon, so the Self, though one,
animating all things, is not moved by human misery
but stands outside.
'He is One, Governor, Self of all, Creator of many out
of one. He that dare discover H i m within, rejoices;
what other dare rejoice?
'He is imperishable among things that perish. Life of
all life, He, though one, satisfies every man's desire.
He that dare discover H i m within, knows peace; what
other dare know peace?'
Nachiketas asked: 'Where shall I find that joy be-
yond all words? Does He reflect another's light or shine
of Himself?'
Death replied: 'Neither sun, moon, stars, fire nor
lightning lights H i m . When He shines, everything be-
gins to shine. Everything in the world reflects His
light.'

5
'Eternal creation is a tree, with roots above, branches
on the ground; pure eternal Spirit, living in all things
and beyond whom none can go; that is Self.
'Everything owes life and movement to Spirit.
Spirit strikes terror, hangs like a thunderbolt overhead;
find it, find immortality.
36
'Through terror of God fire burns, sun shines, rain
pours, wind blows, death speeds.
'Man, if he fail to find H i m before the body falls,
must take another body.
'Man, looking into the mirror of himself may know
Spirit there as he knows light from shade ; but in the
world of spirits It is known distorted as in a dream, in the
choir of angels as though reflected on troubled water.
'He who knows that the senses belong not to Spirit
but to the elements, that they are born and die, grieves
no more.
' M i n d is above sense, intellect above mind, nature
above intellect, the unmanifest above nature.
'Above the unmanifest is God, unconditioned, filling
all things. He who finds H i m enters immortal life, be-
comes free.
'No eye can see H i m , nor has He a face that can be
seen, yet through meditation and through discipline
He can be found in the heart. He that finds H i m enters
immortal life.
'When mind and sense are at rest, when the dis-
crimination of intellect is finished, man comes to his
final condition.
'Yoga brings the constant control of sense. When
that condition is reached the Yogi can do no wrong.
Before it is reached Yoga seems union and again dis-
union.
'He cannot be known through discourse, nor found
by the m i n d or the eye. He that believes in His exis-
57
tence finds H i m . How can a man who does not so be-
lieve find Him?
'Go backward from effect to cause u n t i l you are com-
pelled to believe in H i m . Once you are so compelled,
t r u t h dawns.
'When the desires of the heart are finished, man
though still in the body is united to Spirit ; mortal be-
comes immortal.
'When the knot of the heart is cut, mortal becomes
immortal. This is the law.
'The heart has a hundred and one arteries; one of
theseSushumnagoes up into the head. He who
climbs through it attains immortality; others drive h i m
into the vortex.
'God, the inmost Self, no bigger than a thumb, lives
in the heart. M a n should strip h i m of the body, as the
arrow-maker strips the reed, that he may know H i m as
perpetual and pure; what can He be but perpetual and
pure?'
Then Nachiketas having learnt from Death this
knowledge, learnt the method of meditation, rose
above desire and death, found God: who does the like,
finds H i m .

38
IV
Questions
(Prashna-Upanishad)

1
May our ears hear the good. Lords! inspiration of
sacrifice! May our eyes see the good. May we serve h i m
w i t h the whole strength of our body. May we, all our
life, carry out his will. May peace and peace and peace
be everywhere.
Welcome to the Lord!
Sukesha Bharadwaja, Satyakama Shaibya, Sour-
yayanee Gargya, Kousalya Ashwalayana, Bhargawa
Waidarbhee and Kabandhee Katyayana, students and
devotees, brought their offerings and their faith to
Sage Pippalada.
The Sage said: 'Stay w i t h me for a year, practise
faith, austerity, continence; then ask what questions
you like.'
2
At the end of a year Kabandhee Katyayana said:
' L o r d ! Who created all things?'
The Sage said: 'The Creator, His mind's eye on the
world made a couple in meditation, life and matter,
thinking they would do the rest.
39
'Sun is life, Moon matter; World moveable and
immoveable is matter, all shape matter.
'The sun looks into the east, then into the other
quarters, then above and below, enlivening, lighting.
'He, all-prevalent life, first shows himself as L i g h t .
Here is my authority:
' "The wise know H i m , the all pervading, all i l l u m i -
nating, all knowing, the One, upholder of all, and say
that He rises as the sun that He may warm everything,
go into everything, its particular l i f e . "
'The year is the Creator. There are two paths, the
southern and the northern. Those that are content
w i t h alms-giving and ritual preferring the life of the
family, go to their ancestors by the southern path, attain
the lunar world and are born again. A l l there is matter.
'But those who seek the Self through austerity, con-
tinence, faith, knowledge, go by the northern path,
attain the solar world. It is living, immortal, beyond
fear; it is the goal. Once there, there is no return. It is
the law. Here is my authority:
' "Some call the sun our protector, w i t h five seasons or
feet, twelve moons or bodies, who lives beyond the sky
and sends the rain. Others call H i m the year, reckoner
of time, who rides in the chariot of seven colours or
seven horses, and of six wheels considering that the
number of seasons."
'The month too is the Creator, its bright half is life,
its dark half matter. Wise men perform their rituals in
the bright half; fools in the dark.
40
'The round of day and night is the Creator; day life,
night matter. Those that couple with a woman by day,
waste life ; those that couple by night, preserve it.
'Food is the Creator. Food makes the seed; all things
are from seed.
'Those who obey God as Creator, get all that life and
matter can give. Those who practise austerity, conti-
nence, veracity go beyond these into Heaven.
'They that are neither crooked, nor hypocritical, nor
lying, go beyond into pure Heaven,'

Bhargawa Waidarbnee asked: 'Lord! What powers


have knit the body? What powers give it life? Which is
the greatest?'
The Sage said: 'The powers are: air, fire, water,
earth, speech, mind, light, hearing. All these said aloud
that they had knit the body.
'Life, greater than these, said: you deceive your-
selves. It is I alone, dividing myself into five streams,
knit and enliven the body. But they would not be-
lieve.
'Life, to vindicate himself, rose as though he wanted
to leave the body. But as he rose, others knew that they
too must rise. When he returned they returned. As bees
follow their queen when she goes out; return when she
returns; speech, mind, light, hearing returned: they
began to praise life.
'Life burns in the fire, shines in the Sun. Rain, cloud,
41
air, earth, are life. Matter is life. A l l that has shape or
no shape is life. Life is immortality.
'Everything is fixed in life, as are spokes in the hub
of a wheelthe three Wedas, all sacrifices, all soldiers,
all priests.
'Life, Lord of Creation, moving in the womb, there
bringing yourself to birth, master of the five streams!
A l l things offer you their tribute.
'You carry the offerings to the gods and the fathers;
even breath and sense your handiwork.
'Life! Creator, Protector, Destroyer! Sun in heavenly
circuit! Master of stars!
'Pour down the rain, let all things find their food,
thrive, rejoice.
'Life itself! Purity itself! Fire itself, Eater, Master!
A l l the world your food, Father in Heaven!
'May your body be in our speech, hearing, sight,
mind, make us lucky, and never forsake us.
'May Life, Master of the three worlds, protect us as a
mother protects her children. Grant us wisdom, grant
us luck.'
4
Kousalya Ashwalayana asked. 'Lord! when does life
begin; how does it get into the body; how does it live
there after dividing itself; how does it get out of the
body; how does it support all that is outside, all that is
inside?'
The Sage said: 'You ask weighty questions; you dig
into the root. Here is my answer:
42
'Life falls from Self as shadow falls from man. Life
and Self are interwoven, but Life comes into the body
that the desires of the mind may be satisfied.
'As the king portions out his kingdom under different
officials, life portions out .the body under five living
streams.
T h e organs of excretion and generation under the
downward stream Apana ; eye, ear, where He lives
himself under Prana, which passes out through mouth
and nose ; the middle of the body under the equalising
stream Samana, distributor of food, kindler of the seven
flames.
'Self lives in the heart. There are a hundred and one
arteries, from every artery start one hundred veins,
from every vein seventy-two thousand smaller v e i n s -
all these He has put under the diffusing stream
Wyana.
'Climbing through one of these the upward stream
Udana leads the meritorious man to his reward ; the
sinful man to his punishment; if his merit and demerit
are mixed, back to the world.
'Rising sun is the symbol of life; sun maintains Prana
of the eye; earth draws down Apana; air, filler of all,
maintains Samana; wind, Wyana.
'Light maintains Udana. When that light is out,
sense dissolves in mind, man is born again.
'Udana united to the mind's desire at the moment of
death, returns to Life, and Life, Udana lighting the
way, brings the soul to whatever place it deserves.
43
'The man who knows this, knows the meaning of
life; his children are never lost. Here is my authority:
' "He who knows the source and power of Life, how it
enters, where it lives, how it divides itself into five, how
it is related to the Self, attains immortality ; yes, at-
tains immortality." '
5
Souryayanee Gargya asked: 'Lord! W h o in man's
body wakes, sleeps, dreams, enjoys? On whom do these
depend?'
The Sage said: 'As the rays of the setting sun gather
themselves up into his orb to come out again at sunrise,
so the senses gather themselves up into the m i n d , mas-
ter of them all. Therefore when a man does not hear,
see, touch, smell, taste, speak, receive, give, move, en-
joy, we say that he sleeps.
'Only the living fires are then awake. The living fire
Apana corresponds to the everlasting sacrificial Garha-
patya fire of the householder; the l i v i n g fire Wyana cor-
responds to the sacrificial Anwarhapachan fire that
faces south and the southern path; the l i v i n g fire Prana,
l i t from the fire Apana, corresponds to the sacrificial
Ahawaneeya, fire l i t from the everlasting Garhapatya
fire that faces east and the rising sun.
'The living fire Samana is called the equalising fire,
because it balances those oblations, the outgoing and
the incoming breath. M i n d is the sacrificer. The reward
of the sacrifice is the living fire Udana, the deep sleep
that again and again leads mind to Self.
44
'The dreaming mind enjoys its greatness. What it
has seen it sees again; what it has heard it hears again;
what it has enjoyed in different countries and climates
it enjoys again. Whatever is seen, unseen, heard, un-
heard, enjoyed, unenjoyed, real, unreal, here and
there, it knows; it knows everything.
'When mind is lost in the light of the Self, it dreams
no more; still in the body it is lost in that happiness.
'My son! All things fly to the Self, as birds fly to the
tree for rest.
'Earth, its quality of scent; water, its quality of taste;
light, its quality of beauty; wind, its quality of touch;
air, its quality of sound; eye, what it sees; ear, what it
hears; nose, what it smells; tongue, what it tastes; skin,
what it touches; voice, what it says; hands, what they
handle; generation, what incites it; excretion, what is
excreted; feet, what they tread upon; mind, what it
imagines; intellect, what it discriminates; pride, what
swells it; thought, what is thought; light, what is lit;
life, what depends upon it; all these fly towards the Self.
'This is the Self who sees, touches, hears, smells,
tastes, thinks, discriminates, acts. The personal self and
the ultimate imperishable, impersonal Self, are one.
'My son! Who knows the impersonal Self, wherein
the personal self, the living fires, senses, elements live,
he knows all; lives in all. Here is my authority:
' "He who finds the imperishable Being where the
individual self, sense, vitality and elements live, he
knows all; pervades all." '
45
6
Satyakama Shaibya asked: 'Lord! Where does the
man go after his life, if he meditates on Om all his life?'
The Sage said: 'Om is the conditioned and the u n -
conditioned Spirit. The wise man w i t h its help alone
attains the one or the other.
' I f he meditates on the syllable A alone he is soon
born again on this earth. If he has chanted the Rig-
Weda, he is born among men, a great, austere, self-con-
trolled, God-fearing man.
' I f he meditates on the two syllables A and U, and
has chanted the Yajur-Weda, he goes to the moon and,
after enjoying its pleasure, returns to the earth again
and again.
'He who meditates on the three syllables A, U, M, as
upon God, is joined to the light of the sun. Peeling his
evil off, as the snake peels off its skin, he goes through
that light, w i t h the help of Sama-Weda chants, to the
Kingdom of Heaven, to the God greater than the great-
est of all creatures though l i v i n g in our body. Here is
my authority;
' " I f man meditates on the three syllables in separa-
tion, it is the emblem of mortality; but if he meditate
upon all together, inseparable, interdependent, the
three conditions, physical, mental, intellectual, reward
h i m ; he goes beyond mortality.
' "Rig-Weda brings man to earth, Yajur-Weda sends
h i m to the sky, but only the Seer knows the world
which Sama-Weda brings. The wise man w i t h the help
46
of Om goes there, beyond decay, death, fear; attains
peace."'
7
Sukesha Bharadwaja said: 'Lord! I was asked this
question by Hiranyanabha, Prince of Koasala: "Bharad-
waja! Do you know God and his sixteen phases?"I
said to the young man: "I do not. I w i l l not lie about i t ,
for I know what happens to the liar. If I did, I would
tell y o u . " The Prince mounted his chariot, and went
away without a word. Now I ask: "Where is that God?" '
The Sage said: ' M y son, that God and his sixteen
phases are in this body.
'God thought to himself: " W h a t is that which com-
pels me to go if it goes, to stay if it stays?"
'He then created life; from life, knowledge; from
knowledge, air; from air, wind; from wind, light;
from light, water; from water, earth; from earth,
sense; from sense, m i n d ; from mind, food; from food,
vigour; from vigour, austerity; from austerity, revela-
tion; from revelation, karma; from karma, world; from
world, the names.
'When rivers mingle w i t h the sea they lose their
names and shapes and people speak of the sea only, so
these sixteen phases, when they mingle w i t h God, lose
their names and shapes and people speak of God only;
man becomes the phaseless, the timeless. Here is my
authority:
' "God is the hub of the wheel where the sixteen
phases are the spokes, know H i m and die no more."
47
'What I have told you is all that is known about
Spirit.'
They worshipped the Sage and said: 'You are indeed
our father. You have led us to the further shore.
' A l l bow down to you, Great Sage!
Bow down to the Great Sages!'

48
V
At the Feet of the M o n k
(Mundaka-Upanishad)

Book I
1
Lords, inspiration of sacrifice! M a y our ears hear the
good. M a y our eyes see the good. M a y we serve H i m
w i t h the whole strength of our body. M a y we, all our
life, carry out His w i l l . M a y peace and peace and peace
be everywhere.
T h e Creator came first ; He created Himself as Crea-
torf t h e n called Himself the Protector of the world. He
gave the knowledge of Spirit, foundation of all know-
ledge, to his eldest son Atharwa.
A t h a r w a gave it to Angee; Angee to Satyawaha
Bharadwaja; Satyawaha Bharadwaja to Angiras.
T h a t famous m a n the householder Shounaka said to
Angiras: ' W h a t is it that w h e n known, makes us know
everything in the world?'
Angiras said: 'Those who know Spirit say that there
are two kinds of knowledge, a lower and a higher.
' T h e lower is the knowledge of the four Wedas and
such things as pronunciation, ceremonial, grammar,
D 49 Y.U.
etymology, poetry, astronomy, The higher knowledge
is the knowledge of the Everlasting;
'Of that which has neither tangibility, nor ante-
cedent, colour, eyes, ears, hands, feet; of that which is
prevalent everywhere, immeasurably minute, self-
evident, indestructible, always alive; of that which
the wise name the Source.
' As the web springs from the spider and is again with-
drawn, as the plant springs from the soil, hairs from
the body of man, so springs the world from the Ever-
lasting.
'Brooding Spirit creates food, food life, life mind,
mind the elements, the elements the world, the world
Karma, Karma the Everlasting.
'He looks at all things; knows all things. All things,
their nourishment, their names, their forms, are from
His will, All that He has willed is right.'

2
'The Sages studied the rituals described in the Wedas,
went beyond them to the truth. You may find it better
to stay with them; if you seek the reward of your actions,
stay with them.
'When the sacrificial fire has been kindled, set it
ablaze with butter, pour an oblation, then let the butter
set it ablaze again.
' I f the worshipper does not offer his sacrifice, accord-
ing to the rules, during the new moon, or full moon, or
at the rainy season, or at harvest time, if he offer it
50
without regularity or at other seasons, or not at all, if
he entertain no guests at t h e sacrifice, his people for
seven generations shall be unlucky.
'There are seven tongues of fire, the ruinous, the
terrible, the swift, the smoky, the red, the bright, the
flickering.
' I f the sacrifice has been made at the right time, the
tongues, emblem of the solar rays, carry the devotee
into paradise.
' "Welcome! Welcome!" cry his pleasant flattering
good deeds, as the tongues, emblem of the solar rays,
carry h i m . "Look upon what we have made for you,
look upon this beautiful paradise."
'Those sacrifices w i t h their crew of eighteen men,
are unseaworthy ships, belong to a trivial karma. The
fool fixes his hopes upon them; goes to wreck.
'Fools brag of their knowledge, proud, ignorant, dis-
solving; staggering to and fro, blind and led by the blind;
'Dunces think, in their pride, that they have solved
every problem; the passionate never learn. A l l these,
the merit of their sacrifice exhausted, are thrust from
paradise into the misery of life.
'These dunces think ritual and alms are enough,
they know nothing of the good itself; when ritual and
alms have done their work, they fall into their old
human life or it may be lower still.
'The wise and the clean, content w i t h what they get,
living in solitude, practising austerities, go to the
Deathless, through the gates of the sun.
51
'He that understands the results of action, wants to
renounce them all. Activity cannot attain the Inactive;
therefore, with hands folded, let him go to some teach-
er who lives in Spirit and in whom revelation lives.
To such a pupil, humble, master of mind and sense,
the teacher can teach all he knows, bringing him to the
Deathless.'

Book II
1
'This is the truth: the sparks, though of one nature
with the fire, leap from it; uncounted beings leap from
the Everlasting, but these, my son, merge into It again.
'The Everlasting is shapeless, birthless, breathless,
mindless, above everything, outside everything, in-
side everything.
'From H i m are born life, mind, sense, air, wind,
water, earth that supports all.
'He is the inmost Self of all. Fire, His head; sun and
moon, His eyes; the four quarters, His ears; revelation,
His voice; wind, His breath; world, His heart; earth,
His feet.
'Fire is from H i m , its fuel sun, moon from sun, rain
from moon, food from rain, man from food, seed from
man; thus all descends from God.
'From H i m are hymns, holy chants, ritual, initiation,
sacrifice, ceremonial, oblation, time, deeds, everything
under sun and moon;
52
'From H i m , gods, angels, men, cattle, birds, living
fires, rice, barley, austerity, faith, truth, continence,
law;
'From H i m seven senses like ritual fires, seven de-
sires like flames, seven objects like oblations, seven
pleasures like sacrifices, seven nerves like habitations,
seven centres in the heart like hollows in the cavern.
'From H i m , seas, rivers, mountains, herbs and their
properties: in the middle of the elements the inmost
Self.
'My son! There is nothing in this world, that is not
God, He is action, purity; everlasting Spirit, Find H i m
in the cavern; knaw the knot of ignorance.'

2
'Shining, yet hidden, Spirit lives in the cavern.
Everything that sways, breathes, opens, closes, lives in
Spirit; beyond learning, beyond everything, better
than anything; living, unliving.
'It is the undying blazing Spirit, that seed of all
seeds, wherein lay hidden the world and all its crea-
tures. It is life, speech, mind, reality, immortality. It is
there to be struck. Strike it, my son!
'Take the bow of our sacred knowledge, lay against
it the arrow of devotion, pull the string of concentra-
tion, strike the target.
'Om is the bow, the personal self the arrow, imper-
sonal Self the target. Aim accurately, sink therein.
'Into His cloak are woven earth, mind, life, the
53
canopy, the Kingdom of Heaven. He is alone and sole;
man's bridge to immortality.
'Come out of all the schools. Meditate upon Om as
the Self. Remember He takes many shapes, lives in the
hub where the arteries meet; and may His blessing
bring you out of the darkness.
'He knows all, knows every particular. His glory pre-
vails on earth, in heaven, in His own seat, the holy city
of the heart.
'He becomes mind and guides body and life. He lives
in man's heart and eats man's food. He that knows H i m ,
in finding joy, finds immortality.
'He that knows H i m as the shaped and the shape-
less, cuts through the knot of his heart, solves every
doubt, exhausts every action.
' I n a beautiful golden scabbard hides the stainless,
indivisible, luminous Spirit.
'Neither sun, moon, star, neither fire nor lightning,
lights H i m . When He shines, everything begins to
shine. Everything in the world reflects His light.
'Spirit is everywhere, upon the right, upon the left,
above, below, behind, in front. What is the world but
Spirit?'
Book I I I
1
'Two birds, bound one to another in friendship, have
made their homes on the same tree. One stares about
him, one pecks at the sweet fruit.
54
'The personal self, weary of pecking here and there,
sinks into dejection; but when he understands through
meditation that the otherthe impersonal Selfis in-
deed Spirit, dejection disappears.
'When the sage meets Spirit, phallus and what it
enters, good and evil disappear, they are one.
'The sage who knows H i m as life and the giver of
life, does not assert himself ; playing with Self, enjoying
Self, doing his duty, he takes his rank.
'The Self is found by veracity, purity, intelligence,
continence. The ascetic, so purged, discovers His burn-
ing light in the heart.
'Falsehood turns from the way; truth goes all the
way; the end of the way is truth; the way is paved with
truth. The sage travels there without desire.
'Truth lies beyond imagination, beyond paradise;
great, smaller than the smallest; near, further than the
furthest; hiding from the traveller in the cavern.
'Nor can penance discover H i m , nor ritual reveal,
nor eye see, nor tongue speak; only in meditation
can mind, grown pure and still, discover formless
truth.
'The Self shines out of the pure heart, when life
enters with its five fires and fills the mind.
'A pure man gets all he wants. A man with mind
fixed upon some man who knows the Self, gets all he
wants.'

55
2
T h e daring man adores the knower of that Spirit,
wherein the world lives and is bright; knows him es-
caped from the seminal fluid.
'He who desires one thing after another, brooding
over them, is born where his desires can be satisfied;
but the Self attained, one desire satisfied, all are satisfied.
'The Self is not known through discourse, splitting
of hairs, learning however great. He comes to the man
He loves; takes that man's body as His own.
'Blunderers, charlatans, weaklings, cannot attain
the Self. He is found by the pure, daring, cautious
man.
'He who has found Him, seeks no more; the riddle is
solved; desire gone, he is at peace. Having approached
from everywhere that which is everywhere, whole, he
passes into the Whole.
'When the ascetic has mastered theory and practice,
he forgets body, remembers Spirit, attains immortality.
'His phases return to their source, his senses to their
gods, his personal self and all his actions to the imper-
sonal imperishable Self.
'As rivers lose name and shape in the sea, wise men
lose name and shape in God, glittering beyond all dis-
tance.
'He who has found Spirit, is Spirit. Nobody ignorant
of Spirit is born into his family. He goes beyond sorrow,
sin, death; the knots of his heart unloosed.
'The Rig-Weda says "Tell this to those that know
56
the Wedas, do their duty, obey the law, make them-
selves an oblation to the sole Fire."
'This is that ancient Truth,' sage Angiras declared.
'Obey the law and understand,'
We bow down to you, Great Sage!
Bow down to you, Great Sages!

57
VI
At the Feet of Master Mandooka
(Mandookya-Upanishad)

Lords! inspiration of sacrifice! May our ears hear the


good. May our eyes see the good. May we serve H i m
with the whole strength of our body. May we, all our
life, carry out His will.
Peace, peace, and peace be everywhere.

Welcome to the Lord!


The word Om is the Imperishable ; all this its mani-
festation. Past, present, futureeverything is Om.
Whatever transcends the three divisions of time, that
too is Om.
There is nothing that is not Spirit. The personal self
is the impersonal Spirit. It has four conditions.
First comes the material conditioncommon to all
perception turned outward, seven agents,1 nineteen
agencies,2 wherein the Self enjoys coarse matter. This
is known as the waking condition.
1
Heavens (head), sun (eye), air (breath), fire (heart), water
(belly), earth (feet), and space (body).
2
Five organs of sensehearing, touching, seeing, tasting and
59
The second is the mental condition, perception
turned inward, seven agents, nineteen agencies, where-
in the Self enjoys subtle matter. This is known as the
dreaming condition.
In deep sleep man feels no desire, creates no dream.
This undreaming sleep is the third condition, the in-
tellectual condition. Because of his union with the Self
and his unbroken knowledge of it, he is filled with joy,
he knows his joy; his mind is illuminated.
The Self is the lord of all; inhabitant of the hearts of
all. He is the source of all; creator and dissoiver of
beings. There is nothing He does not know.
He is not knowable by perception, turned inward or
outward, nor by both combined. He is neither that
which is known, nor that which is not known, nor is
He the sum of all that might be known. He cannot
be seen, grasped, bargained with. He is undefinable,
unthinkable, indescribable.
The only proof of His existence is union with H i m .
The world disappears in H i m . He is the peaceful, the
good, the one without a second. This is the fourth con-
dition of the Selfthe most worthy of all.
This Self, though beyond words, is that supreme
word Om; though indivisible, it can be divided in

smelling; five organs of actionspeaking, handling, walking,


generating and excreting; five living firesPrana, Apana,
Wyana, Udana and Samana; Discursive mind (Manas), Dis-
criminative mind (Buddhi), Mind-Material (Chitta) and Per-
sonality (Ahangkara).
60
three letters corresponding to the three conditions of
the Self, the letter A, 1 the letter U, and the letter M.
The waking-condition, called the material condition,
corresponds to the letter A, which leads the alphabet
and breathes in all the other letters. He who under-
stands, gets all he wants ; becomes a leader among men.
The dreaming condition, called the mental condi-
tion, corresponds to the second letter U. It upholds;
stands between waking and sleeping. He who under-
stands, upholds the tradition of spiritual knowledge 5
looks upon everything with an impartial eye. No one
ignorant of Spirit is born into his family.
Undreaming sleep, called the intellectual condition,
corresponds to the third letter, M. It weighs and unites.
He who understands, weighs the world; rejects; unites
himself with the cause.
The fourth condition of the Self corresponds to Om
as One, indivisible Word. He is whole; beyond bargain.
The world disappears in H i m . He is the good; the one
without a second. Thus Om is nothing but Self. He who
understands, with the help of his personal self, merges
himself into the impersonal Self; He who understands.
1
'A' is pronounced short like the sound of V in 'her', 'U' as in
'put', and 'M' as 'Me' in 'Merchant'.

61
VII
From the Taittireeya Branch
of the Wedas
(Taittireeya-Upanishad)

Book I
Admonition
1
May the Sun bless us! May the Night bless us! May
the Eye bless us! May M i g h t bless us! May Speech bless
us! May the All-prevalent bless us! Welcome Spirit!
Welcome Life, Face of Spirit! T r u t h shall be on my
lips and t r u t h in my thoughts. May t r u t h protect me;
protect my teacher; protect us both. May peace and
peace and peace be everywhere.

2
We explain what constitutes pronunciation. It com-
prises letters, accent, quantity, articulation, r h y t h m ,
and lastly sequence of letters.

3
Grant success! Grant that we may be one in the light
of Spirit!
65
This chapter deals with the world, heavenly bodies,
education, generation, language.
What is this world? Earth below, heaven above, air
between, wind joining them.
What are the heavenly bodies? Fire on one side, sun
on the other side, water between, lightning joining
them.
What is education? The teacher on one side, pupil on
the other side, knowledge between, discourse joining
them.
What is generation? Mother on one side, father on
the other side, child between, procreation joining them.
What is language? The lower jaw on one side, the
upper jaw on the other side, words between, tongue
joining them.
This is the summary. He who knows them all, shall
have children, cattle, food, knowledge, heaven.

4
Om! Essence of the Wedas, revealed in the Wedas,
revealed in the world, sprung from immortality! Lord,
fill me with intelligence, that I may grasp immortality!
Make my body strong, my tongue sweet, my ears
keen. You are the Spirit's armour, hidden by sensual-
ity. Keep me from forgetting.
May spiritual riches come of their own will. May
they increase, then send me Spirit itself. May I never
lack clothes, cows, food, drink, that I may serve you
the better. May pupils come, may pupils gather round,
64
may pupils listen, that I may serve you the better. May
they in peace, control mind and sense, that they may
serve you the better.
May I become famous, may I become richer than the
richest, that I may serve you the better.
Lord! may I enter into you, may you enter into me!
may I merge into your thousands of shapes, for my
purification.
As water flows downward, as months mingle with
the year, Guardian! may pupils come from everywhere,
that I may serve you the better.
You are the Fold. Take me. Enlighten me.

5
Bhoohu, Bhuwaha, Suwaha, are sacred sounds. Sage
Mahachamasya taught a fourth, Mahes, meaning
Spirit, meaning God. The others are His limbs.
When Bhoohu is earth, Bhuwaha sky, Suwaha
heaven, Mahas is the sun; for everything is sustained
by the sun.
When Bhoohu is fire, Bhuwaha wind, Suwaha sun,
Mahas is the moon; for planets are sustained by the
moon.
When Bhoohu is Rig-Weda, Bhuwaha Sama-Weda,
Suwaha Yajur-Weda, Mahas is Spirit; for the Wedas
are sustained by Spirit.
When Bhoohu is Prana, Bhuwaha Apana, Suwaha
VVyana, Mahas is Food; for the living fires are sustained
by food.
E 65 Y.U.
Thus there are four times four, sixteen sacred
sounds. He who knows them, knows Spirit; all gods
will pay him homage.

6
God lives in the hollow of the heart, filling it with
immortality, light, intelligence.
Where the skull divides and where it is customary to
divide the hair, lies the hollow, where the gate of God
swings, like the uvula within the palate.
Through that gate man goes forth into fire crying
Bhoohu, into air crying Bhuwaha, into sun crying
Suwaha, into Spirit crying Mahas.
In Spirit, he attains heaven, conquers his mind ; be-
comes master of speech, sight, hearing, knowledge.
He becomes Spirit itself, which has for its body air,
for its soul truth, for its rest life; there he is peaceful,
merry, immortal.
Worship Spirit, now that you are fit to worship an-
cient Spirit.

7
Earth, sky, heavens, quarters, sub-quarters; fire,
wind, sun, moon, stars; water, air, herb, food, body;
are elements.
Prana, Wyana, Apana, Udana, Samana; eye, ear,
mind, tongue, touch; skin, flesh, muscle, bone, mar-
row; are the body.
A Sage said, understanding these sets of five: 'Every-
66
thing is sacred; for with the help of the latter, man con-
quers the former.'

8
Om is Spirit. Everything is but 6 m .
Om permits, Om gives the signal. Om begins the
ceremony. All chants begin with Om. All hymns begin
with Om. The priest begins with Om. His commands
are in the name of Om. The sacrificer offers the obla-
tion with Om. The teacher begins with Om. The pupil
begins with Om,
The pupil murmuring Om seeks for Spirit; in the
end he finds Spirit.

9
Do your duty; learn and teach. Speak truth; learn and
teach. Meditate; learn and teach. Control sense; learn
and teach. Control mind; learn and teach. Kindle fire;
learn and teach. Feed fire; learn and teach. Be hospit-
able; learn and teach. Be humane; learn and teach.
Serve the family; learn and teach. Procreate; learn and
teach. Educate your children; learn and teach.
Ratheetara Satyawacha says: 'Truth is necessary.'
Paurushishti Taponitya says: 'Austerity is necessary.'
Moudgalya Naka says: 'Learning and teaching are
necessary.'
Learning and teaching, they are austerity; they are
austerity.

67
10
'I nourish the tree of life. My glory is like the moun-
tain peak. I am exalted, wise, luminous, immortal,
pure. I am the life that flows from the sun.' So said
sage Trishanku, having attained.

11
After teaching the Wedas, teacher says to pupil:
'Speak the t r u t h . Do your duty. Study the Wedas. Give
what is fitting to the teacher; marry, continue the
family. Neither neglect your spiritual nor your worldly
welfare. Always learn and teach. Forget neither God
nor ancestor. Your mother your goddess, your father
your God, your guest your God, your teacher your God;
copy our good deeds alone, so escape blame.
'Look for men greater than us, welcome them, give
them hospitality.
'Give w i t h faith; if you lack faith, give nothing. Give
in proportion to your means. Give w i t h courtesy. Give
as the God-fearing give. Give to the deserving.
' I f you do not know what to do in some particular
case or in your general conduct, think of what sense of
duty, what kindness, independence of public opinion,
some holy men of your neighbourhood, whether of an
order or not, would show in like circumstance; if you do
not know what to think about a man think what some
such holy man would think about h i m .
'This is the admonition, the advice, the law of the
Wedas. Obey! Obey.'
68
Book II
Joy
May He protect us both. May He take pleasure in us
both. May we show courage together. May Spiritual
knowledge shine before us. May we never hate one
another.
May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

1
He who knows Spirit knows the foundation. Here is
my authority: 'He who knows Spirit as that boundless
wise reality, hidden in the heart's cavern, gets all that
he wants.'
Out of Spirit came air, out of air, wind; out of wind,
fire; out of fire, water; out of water, earth; out of earth,
vegetation; out of vegetation, food; out of food, man;
Man's elemental Self comes from food: this his head;
this his right arm; this his left arm; this his heart;
these legs his foundation. Here is my authority:

2
'From food are born all creatures; they live upon
food, they are dissolved in food. Food is the chief of all
things, the universal medicine.
'They who think of food as Spirit, shall never lack.
From food all beings are born, all beings increase their
bulk; all beings feed upon it, it feeds upon all beings.'
69
The elemental Self is from food, but w i t h i n it lives
its complement and completion, the l i v i n g Self. The
living Self grows up side by side w i t h the elemental
Self. Prana is its head, Wyana its right arm, Apana its
left arm, air its heart, earth its foundation. Here is my
authority:
5
'Gods, men, beasts, live by breath. Breath is life and
is called the giver of L i f e . '
The living Self is the soul of the elemental Self, but
w i t h i n it lives its complement and completion, the
thinking Self. The thinking Self grows up side by side
w i t h the l i v i n g Self. Meditation is its head, ritual its
right arm, prayer its left arm, admonition of the Wedas
its heart, Sage Atharwangiras its foundation. Here is
my authority:
4
'He who knows the spiritual joy mind cannot grasp
nor tongue speak, fears nothing.'
The thinking Self is the soul of the living Self, but
w i t h i n it lives its complement and completion, the
knowing Self. The knowing Self grows up side by side
w i t h the thinking Self. Faith is its head, right its
right arm, t r u t h its left arm, concentration its heart,
discrimination its foundation. Here is my authority:

70
5
'Knowledge runs to sacrifice and incites action. Gods
worship knowledge as the highest expression of Spirit.
The steadfast worshipper of Spirit, as knowledge, goes
beyond all evil, gets everything he Wants.'
The knowing Self is the soul of the thinking Self,
but within it lives its complement and completion, the
joyous Self. The joyous Self grows up side by side with
the knowing Self. Satisfied desire is its head, pleasure
its right arm, contentment its left arm, joy its heart,
Spirit its foundation. Here is my authority:

6
'He who denies Spirit, denies himself; he who affirms
it, affirms himself.'
This joyous Self is the soul of the knowing Self.
Does an ignorant man attain Spirit after death or
only a wise man?

7
God thought: 'I would be many; I will procreate.'
And in the heat of his meditation created everything;
creating everything He entered into everything; en-
tering into everything He took shape yet remained
shapeless; took limits yet remained limitless; made his
home, yet remained homeless; created knowledge and
ignorance; reality, unreality; became everything; there-
fore everything is reality. Here is my authority:
' I n the beginning there was no creation; then crea-
n
tion came. He created Himself, out of Himself. Hence
He is called Self-Creator.'
Everything is Self-created. He is that essence.
Drinking that essence, man rejoices. If man did not
lose himself in that joy, he could not breathe} he could
not live. Self is the sole giver of joy.
When man finds invisible, nameless, homeless,
shapeless, invulnerable rock, he is no longer terrified.
To doubt Spirit is to live in terror. For that man,
thinking himself wise, who doubts Spirit, Spirit be-
comes terror itself. Here is my authority:
'Through terror of God, sun shines, rain pours, fire
burns, wind blows, death speeds. '
8
What is joy?
Think of a young man, well read, ambitious, firm,
strong, noble; give him all the wealth of the world, call
him one unit of human joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of those brought to the celestial choir by
their good deeds. A man full of revelation, but without
desire, has equal joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of choir-born spirits, A man full of re-
velation, but without desire, has equal joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of the fathers, living in their eternal
paradise. A man full of revelation, but without desire,
has equal joy.
72
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of heaven-born gods. A man full of re-
velation, but without desire, has equal joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of gods brought to godhead by their
good deeds. A man full of revelation, but without de-
sire, has equal joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of ruling gods. A man full of revelation,
but without desire, has equal joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of Indra, god of Power. A man full of
revelation, but without desire, has equal joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of Brihaspati, who has taught the gods.
A man full of revelation, but without desire, has equal
joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of Prajapati, maker of gods. A man full
of revelation, but without desire, has equal joy.
Multiply that joy a hundred times, and call it one
unit of the joy of Spirit. A man full of revelation, but
without desire, has equal joy.
He who lives in man, He who lives in the sun, are
one.
He who knows this, cries goodbye to the world 5 goes
beyond elemental Self, living Self, thinking Self, know-
ing Self, joyous Self. Here is my authority:

75
9
'He who knows the spiritual joy mind cannot grasp
nor tongue speak, fears nothing.'
Should he do wrong, or leave good undone, he knows
no remorse. What he does, what he does not, is sancti-
fied ; what he does not, what he does, is sanctified.

Book I I I
Bhrigu
May He protect us both. May He take pleasure in us
both. May we show courage together. May spiritual
knowledge shine before us. May we never hate one
another.
May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

1
Bhrigu, seeking his father Waruna, said:
'Lord! what is Spirit?'
Waruna said: 'First know food, life, seeing, hearing,
speaking, thinking; then that Spirit from whom all
things are born, by whom they live, towards whom
they move, into whom they return.'

2
Bhrigu meditated and found that food is Spirit. From
food all things are born, by food they live, towards food
they move, into food they return.
74
Having found this he said to his father: 'Lord! Tell
me more about Spirit.'
Waruna said:- 'Find Spirit through meditation; medi-
tation is Spirit,'

5
Bhrigu meditated and found that life is Spirit. From
life all things are born, by life they live, towards life
they move, into life they return.
Having found this he said to his father: 'Lord! Tell
me more about Spirit.'
Waruna said: 'Find Spirit through meditation, medi-
tation is Spirit.'
4
Bhrigu meditated and found that mind is Spirit.
From mind all things are born, by mind they live, to-
wards mind they move, into mind they return.
Having found this he said to his father: 'Lord! Tell
me more about Spirit.'
Waruna said: 'Find Spirit through meditation; medi-
tation is Spirit.'

5
Bhrigu meditated and found that knowledge is
Spirit. From knowledge all things are born, by know-
ledge they live, towards knowledge they move, into
knowledge they return.
Having found this he said to his father: 'Lord! Tell
me more about Spirit.'
75
Waruna said: 'Find Spirit through meditation; medi-
tation is Spirit.'
6
Bhrigu meditated and found that joy is Spirit. From
joy all things are born, by joy they live, toward joy
they move, into joy they return.
This is what Bhrigu, son of Waruna, found in the
hollow of his heart.
He who knows it stands on a rock; commands every-
thing, enjoys everything; founds a family, gathers
flocks and herds; grows famous through the light of
Spirit; is a great man,

7
Respect food. Life is food; body lives on food. Body
is life; life is body; they are food to one another.
He who knows it stands on a rock; commands every-
thing, enjoys everything; founds a family, gathers
flocks and herds; grows famous through the light of
Spirit; is a great man.

8
Do not steal food. Water is food; light lives on water.
Water is light; light is water; they are food for one
another.
He who knows it stands on a rock; commands every-
thing, enjoys everything; founds a family, gathers
flocks and herds; grows famous through the light of
Spirit; is a great man.
76
9
Store food. Earth is food; air lives on earth. Earth is
air; air is earth; they are food for one another.
He who knows it stands on a rock; commands every-
thing, enjoys everything; founds a family, gathers
flocks and herds; grows famous through the light of
Spirit; is a great man.
10
Never turn anyone from the door; gather enough
food, say to the stranger: 'Sir, the dinner is served.' He
who gives with purity, gets purity in return; he who
gives with passion, gets passion in return; he who gives
with ignorance, gets ignorance in return.
He who knows, meditates upon Spirit as the blessed-
ness of speech; as Prana and Apana, the getting and
giving of the two breaths; as the activity of hands, as
movement of feet, as the evacuation of the bowels.
These are the customary meditations upon the body.
He meditates upon Spirit as nourishment in rain, as
violence in lightning, as abundance in cattle, as light in
stars, as creation, joy, immortality in sex, as all-filling,
all-containing nature in air.
These are the customary meditations on Nature.
Worship Spirit as the support, be supported; worship
Spirit as the great, become great; worship Spirit as the
mind, become mind.
Bow down to Spirit as the sole object of desire, be the
goal of all desire; worship Spirit as the master of all,
become the master of all.
77
Worship Spirit as the destroyer, your enemies whe-
ther public or in your own house shall be destroyed.
He who lives in man, He who lives in the sun, are the
same.
He who knows this, says goodbye to the world: goes
beyond elemental Self, living Self, thinking Self, know-
ing Self, joyous Self.
He moves at will throughout the world, enjoying
whatever he will, creating whatever shape he will,
praising the unity of Spiritmiraculous, miraculous,
miraculous.
I am the food, I am the food, I am the food ; I am the
eater, I am the eater, I am the eater j I am the link be-
tween, I am the link between, I am the link between.
I am the first among the visible and the invisible. I
existed before the gods. I am the navel of immortality.
Who gives me, protects me. I am food; who refuses to
give me, I eat as food.
I am this world and I eat this world. Who knows this,
knows.

78
VIII
At the Feet of Master Aitareya
(Aitareya-Upanishad)

1
May God be revealed; speech merge in mind; mind
merge in speech. May they bring me the Wedas. May
I ponder over that knowledge day and night, may I
never forget it. Truth shall be on my lips, and truth in
my thoughts. May truth protect me; protect my teacher;
protect us both.
May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

2
There was in the beginning one sole Self; no eye
winked. He thought: 'Shall I create territories?'
He created territories: that of the first water, that of
light, that of earth, that of water. Heaven and beyond
heaven is that of the first water; sky is that of light;
this mortal territory is that of earth; under earth is that
of water. He thought again: 'The territories are there;
let me create their rulers,' Out of water he lifted an
egg-
He warmed it, and because of His warmth a being with
79
a mouth appeared through a crack, for His own form
lay w i t h i n i t . From the mouth came speech ; from speech
fire. A nose appeared; from its nostrils came breath,
from breath air. The eyes appeared; from the eyes came
sight; from sight the sun. The ears appeared; from the
ears came hearing; from hearing the four quarters.
The skin appeared; from the skin came hair; from hair
vegetation. The heart appeared; from the heart came
the m i n d ; from the mind came the moon. The navel
appeared; from the navel came the downward breath
Apana; from Apana death. Sex appeared; from sex came
seed; from seed water.

5
When these gods were created, they went back into
the waters. Then He endowed that being w i t h hunger
and thirst. Then the gods said: 'Give us some place
where we can live and eat.'
He created a b u l l out of the waters. They said: 'No;
it is not sufficient.' He created a horse. They said: 'No;
it is not sufficient.'
He created a man. They said: 'You have done w e l l . '
Because they were satisfied, man is the chief of crea-
tures. He said to the gods: 'Take your places.'
Fire in the character of speech entered the mouth;
air in the character of scent entered the nose; sun in
the character of sight entered the eyes; four quarters
in the character of hearing entered the ears; vegeta-
tion in the character of hair entered the skin; moon
80
in the character of m i n d entered the heart; death in
the character of Apana entered the navel ; water in the
character of seed entered the loins.
Hunger and thirst said; 'Where is our place?' He said:
'Take your place beside all the gods, for I have made
you the partners of all. To whatever god man makes
oblation, hunger and thirst shall partake.'

4
He thought: 'Here are the territories and their
rulers. I w i l l create food.'
He meditated on water, and from the heat of medi-
tation came an image. That image is food.
Food fled from man. Man tried to grasp it w i t h
speech but failed ; had he succeeded, to talk about it had
been satisfaction enough.
He tried to grasp it w i t h breath but failed; had he
succeeded, to inhale it had been satisfaction enough.
He tried to grasp it w i t h his eyes but failed ; had he
succeeded, to look upon it had been satisfaction enough.
He tried to grasp it w i t h his ears but failed 5 had he
succeeded, to hear it had been satisfaction enough.
He tried to grasp it w i t h his skin but failed ; had he
succeeded, to touch it had been satisfaction enough.
He tried to grasp it w i t h his mind but failed; had he
succeeded, thinking of it had been satisfaction enough.
He tried to grasp it w i t h the downward breath
Apana and succeeded. Apana alone receives food;
Apana lives on food.
F 81 Y.U.
God thought: 'Can they live without me? How shall
I enter the body?' He knew that even if tongue spoke,
breath breathed, eyes saw, ears heard, skin touched,
mind thought, Apana drew i n , sex threw out, they
would not know H i m .
He opened the suture of the skull, entered through
the gate which is called the Gate of Joy. He found three
places in the body where He could live, three conditions
where He could move; waking, dreaming, sleeping.
He entered the body, named its various parts, won-
dered if there could be anything there not Himself, re-
joiced to find there was nothing but Himself.
Hence He is known by the name IdandraHe that
seesor it is shortened into Indra ; for even the gods
are affectionate.
5
First He becomes the seed of a man, which is light
gathered from all the limbs of the body. Man nourishes
himself w i t h i n himself as seed. W h e n he ejects that
seed into a woman, he himself is born. That is his first
incarnation.
The seed merges in the woman's body; because it
becomes her body, it does not harm her. She nourishes
the self of the man w i t h i n herself.
Protect her, for she is protecting the seed. Before and
after the b i r t h of the child, man blesses the child,
blessing himself. M a n lives in his child; that is his
second incarnation.
The son being the father over again, carries the tra-
82
ditions of the family, and the father having completed
his fate, exhausted his years, dies and is born again.
That is his t h i r d incarnation.
Sage Wamadewa said: 'When lying in the womb, I
understood how the gods worked. They put me into
that iron-gated, hundred-gated, prison 5 but I fled
quickly51 fled like a hawk.'
Sage Wamadewa, broke out of the body, did all that
he desired, attained the Kingdom of Heaven, became
immortal; yes, became immortal.
6
'On whom should we meditate as the Self? W h i c h of
the two is He? Is He that by which we see, hear, speak,
smell, separate the sweet from the sour?
'Or is He that other, l i v i n g in the mind or in the i n -
tellect as imagination, discrimination, knowledge, con-
tinuity, intuition, conviction, contemplation, w i l l , emo-
tion, memory, desire, resolution, being, living, loving,
longing; all names for the one Intelligence?'
He is Spirit, Creator, God; all gods; earth, air, water,
wind, fire, constituents of life, all greater and lesser
combinations; seminal, egg-born, womb-born, sweat-
born, soil-born; horses, cows, men, elephants, birds;
everything that breathes, movable, immovable: all
founded upon, all moved by the one Intelligence. I n -
telligence is Spirit.
Sage Wamadewa, w i t h this knowledge, did all that he
desired, left this world for Heaven, became immortal;
became immortal.
85
IX
The Doctrine of the Chhandogyas
(Chhandogya-Upanishad)

Book VI
1
Speech, eyes, ears, limbs, life, energy, come to my
help. These books have Spirit for theme. I shall never
deny Spirit, nor Spirit deny me. Let me be in union,
communion with Spirit. When I am one with Spirit,
may the laws these books proclaim live in me, may the
laws live.

2
6 m . Once upon a time there lived Shwetaketu, son
of Uddalaka. Uddalaka said: ' M y son! Find a teacher,
learn; none of our family has remained a Brahman in
name only.'
At twelve he found his teacher; at twenty-four, hav-
ing completed the study of the Wedas, he returned
home, stiff-necked, arrogant, self-willed.
Uddalaka said: 'My son! You think such a lot of your-
self, but did you ask your teacher about that initiation,
85
which makes a man hear what is not heard, t h i n k what
is not thought, know what is not known?'
'What is that initiation, Lord?' said Shwetaketu.
Uddalaka said: 'By knowing a l u m p of clay you know
all things made of clay; they differ from one another as
it were in language and in name, having no reality but
their clay;
'By knowing one nugget of gold you know all things
made of gold; they differ from one another as it were
in language and in name, having no reality but their
gold;
'By knowing one piece of base metal you know all
things made of that metal; they differ from one an-
other as it were in language and in name, having no
reality but that metal.
'For the like reason, after that initiation, you know
everything.'
Shwetaketu said: ' M y revered teacher cannot have
known that; had he known it he would have told me.
Therefore, Lord! teach i t . '
Uddalaka said: ' I w i l l teach i t , m y son!'

3
' M y son! In the beginning, there was mere being,
one without a second. Some say there was mere no-
thing, nothing whatsoever; that everything has come
out of nothing.
'But how can that be true, my son,' said Uddalaka;
'how could that which is, come from that which is not?
86
I put it otherwise; in the beginning there was mere
being, one without a second.
'That being thought: " W o u l d that I were many! I
w i l l create." He created light. Light thought: "Would
that I were many! I w i l l create!" L i g h t created the
waters. W h e n anybody weeps or sweats, the tears and
the sweat are created by light.
'Those waters thought: " W o u l d that we were many!
We w i l l create!" They created food. Whenever and
wherever it rains, food is abundant. Food is from wate .'

4
'There are three classes of creatures: the egg-born,
the womb-born, the soil-born.
'That divine Being thought: " I w i l l g o into the
three godslight, water, food. I w i l l give them not
only life, but names and shapes."
'He said: " I w i l l make each of them threefold." He
and life went into the three gods, and He gave them
names and shapes.
' Y o u shall hear, my son, how He divides each of the
three gods into three, and each of these three into three
again.'
5
'Whatever redness is in fire is a shape of light; what-
ever whiteness, a shape of water; whatever blackness,
a shape of food. So fire as fire disappears, its shape is a
name or way of talking; reality lies in the first three gods.
'Whatever redness is in sun is a shape of light; what-
87
ever whiteness a shape of water} whatever blackness a
shape of food. So sun as sun disappears, its shape is a
name or way of talking; reality lies in the first three gods.
'Whatever redness is in moon is a shape of light;
whatever whiteness a shape of water; whatever black-
ness a shape of food. So moon as moon disappears, its
shape is a name or way of talking; reality lies in the first
three gods.
' Whatever redness is in lightning is a shape of light;
whatever whiteness a shape of water; whatever black-
ness a shape of food. So lightning as lightning disappears,
its shape is a name or way of talking; reality lies in the
first three gods.
'The great householders of the past, men famous for
their learning and wisdom, had this in mind when they
said: "Let no man say there is anything we have not
heard, thought, seen." They knew everything.
'They knew that redness, no matter where found,
was always light, whiteness always water, blackness
always food.
'They knew that a thing, no matter how strange it
looked, was but some combination of those three first
gods.
' M y son, when the three gods enter into man, each
of those three divides into three.'
6
'Food when drunk is changed into three qualities
the grossest becomes excrement; the finest mind; what-
ever is midway, flesh.
88
' Water when drunk is changed into three qualities
the grossest becomes urine ; the finest becomes life;
whatever is midway, blood.
'Light when we eat it in fat or oil, is changed into
three qualitiesthe grossest becomes bone ; the finest
speech; whatever is midway, marrow.
'Remember, my son! mind comes from food, life
comes from water, speech comes from light.'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'I will explain, my son!' said Uddalaka.

7
'The finest quality of curds, when churned, rises up
as butter.
'So the finest quality of the food we swallow, rises up
as mind.
'The finest quality of the water we swallow, rises up
as life.
'The finest quality of the light we swallow, rises up
as speech.
'Remember, my son! mind comes from food, life
comes from water, speech comes from light.*
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'I will explain, my son!' said Uddalaka.

8
'Man has sixteen phases. Abstain from food for a
fortnight if you will, but drink j if you cut off drink, you
cut off life.'
89
Shwetaketu having abstained from food for a fort-
night, went to his father and said: 'What is the lesson
today?'
Uddalaka asked h i m to repeat Rig-Weda, Yajur-
Weda, Sama-Weda verses.
Shwetaketu said: 'I do not remember them.'
Uddalaka said: 'A coal no bigger than a fire-fly would
not make a blaze bigger than itself, so, my son, since
only one of your sixteen phases remains, you cannot re-
member the Wedas. Now go and eat; then you w i l l
understand me,'
Shwetaketu having taken food, went to his father
again, answered all his questions.
Uddalaka said: ' M y son! A coal no bigger than a fire-
fly if fed w i t h hay makes a blaze bigger than itself.
'One phase that remained out of sixteen fed w i t h
food blazed up, and now you can remember the Wedas.
'Remember, my son! mind comes from food, life
comes from water, speech comes from light.'
Shwetaketu understood what he said; understood
what his father said.

9
Aruna's son, Uddalaka said to Shwetaketu: ' M y son!
know the nature of sleep. When a man sleeps, he is
united w i t h that Being, that is himself. We think it
enough to say that he sleeps, yet he sleeps w i t h h i m -
self.
'A tethered bird, after flying in every direction,
90
settles down on its perch; the mind, after wandering in
every direction, settles down on its life; for, my son!
m i n d is tethered to life.
'Know the nature of hunger and thirst. M a n be-
comes hungry. Water brings his food to his belly.
Water brings his food, as cowherd his cow, horseman
his horse, general his army. Remember, my son! that
body sprouts from food; could it sprout without a root?
'What is the root of all? What but food?
'Remember, my son! water is root, food its sprout;
light is root, water its sprout; in the same way, that
Being is root, light its sprout. A l l creatures have their
root in that Being. He is their rock, their home.
' M a n becomes thirsty. L i g h t brings the water to his
gullet, as cowherd his cow, horseman his horse, gene-
ral his army. Remember, my son! that food sprouts
from water; could it sprout without a root?
'What is the root of all? What but water?
' L i g h t is root, water its sprout; that Being is root,
light its sprout. A l l creatures have their root in that
Being; He is their rock, their home. My son! I have
already told you how the three first gods became each
of them threefold when in contact w i t h body. W h e n a
man is dying, his speech merges into mind, his mind
into life, his life into light, his light into the one Being.
'That Being is the seed; all else but His expression.
He is t r u t h , He is Self. Shwetaketu! You are That.'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
' I w i l l explain!' said Uddalaka.
91
10
'My son! Bees create honey by gathering the sweet
juices from different flowers, and mixing all into a com-
mon juice.
'And there is nothing in honey whereby the juice of
a particular flower can be identified, so it is with the
various creatures who merge in that Being, in deep
sleep or in death.
'Whatever they may be, tiger, lion, wolf, bear,
worm, moth, gnat, mosquito, they become aware of
particular life when they are born into it or awake.
'That Being is the seedj all else but His expression.
He is truth. He is Self. Shwetaketu! You are That.*
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'I will explain!' said Uddalaka.

11
'My son! Rivers, flowing east and west, rise from the
sea, return to the sea, become the sea itself, forget their
identities.
'These creatures do not know that they have risen
from that Being, or returned to that Being.
'Whatever that may be, tiger, lion, wolf, boar, worm,
moth, gnat, mosquito, they become aware of particular
life when they are born into it or awake.
'That Being is the seed; all else but His expression.
He is truth. He is Self. Shwetaketu! You are That.'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'I will explain!' said Uddalaka.
92
12
'Strike at the bole of a tree, sap oozes but the tree
lives; strike at the middle of the tree, sap oozes but the
tree lives; strike at the top of the tree, sap oozes but the
tree lives. The Self as life, fills the tree; it flourishes in
happiness, gathering its food through its roots.
' I f life leaves one branch, that branch withers. If life
leaves a second branch, that branch withers. If life
leaves a third branch, that branch withers. When life
leaves the whole tree, the whole tree withers.
'Remember, my son! The body bereft of Self dies.
Self does not die.
That Being is the seed; all else but His expression.
He is truth. He is Self. Shwetaketu! You are That.'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'I will explain!' said Uddalaka.

13
Uddalaka asked his son to fetch a banyan fruit.
'Here it is, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'Break it,' said Uddalaka.
'I have broken it, Lord!'
'What do you see there?'
'Little seeds, Lord!'
' Break one of them, my son! '
' I t is broken, Lord!'
'What do you see there?'
'Nothing, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
Uddalaka said: 'My son! This great banyan tree has
93
sprung up from seed so small that you cannot see i t .
Believe in what I say, my son!
'That Being is the seed; all else but His expression.
He is t r u t h . He is Self. Shwetaketu! Y o u are That.'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'I w i l l explain!' said Uddalaka.

14
'Put this salt into water, see me tomorrow morning,'
said Uddalaka. Shwetaketu did as he was told.
Uddalaka said: 'Bring me the salt you put into water
last night.'
Shwetaketu looked, but could not find i t . The salt
had dissolved.
Uddalaka asked his son how the top of the water
tasted. Shwetaketu said: ' I t is salt,'
Uddalaka asked how the middle of the water tasted.
Shwetaketu said: ' I t is salt,'
Uddalaka asked how the bottom of the water tasted.
Shwetaketu said: ' I t is salt,'
Uddalaka said: 'Throw away the water; come to me.
Shwetaketu did as he was told and said: 'The salt w i l l
always remain in the water,'
Uddalaka said: ' M y son! Though you do not find that
Being in the world, He is there.
'That Being is the seed; all else but His expression.
He is t r u t h . He is Self. Shwetaketu! Y o u are That,'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
' T w i l l explain!' said Uddalaka.
94
15
' M y son! If a man were taken out of the province of
Gandhara, abandoned in a forest blindfolded, he would
t u r n here and there, he would shout: "I have been
brought here blindfolded and abandoned!"
'Thereupon some good man might take off the ban-
dage and say: "Go in that direction; Gandhara is there.''
The bandage off, he would, if a sensible man, ask his
way from village to village and come at last to Gand-
hara. In the same way the man initiated by his master,
finds his way back into himself. Having remained in
his body t i l l all his Karma is spent, he is joined to H i m -
self.
'That Being is the seed; all else but His expression.
He is t r u t h . He is Self. Shwetaketu! Y o u are That.'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
' I w i l l explain!' said Uddalaka.
16
'Relations gather round a sick man and say: " D o you
remember me? Do you remember me?" He remembers
u n t i l his speech has merged in his mind, his m i n d in
his life, his life in his light, his light in the one Being.
'When his speech is merged in his mind, his mind in
his life, his life in his light, his light in that one Being,
what can he remember?
'That Being is the seed; all else but His expression.
He is t r u t h . He is Self. Shwetaketu! You are That.'
'Explain once more, Lord!' said Shwetaketu.
'I w i l l explain!' said Uddalaka.
95
17
' M y son! They bring a man in handcuffs to the ma-
gistrate, charging h i m w i t h theft. T h e magistrate or-
ders the hatchet to be heated. If the man has commit-
ted the theft and denies i t , he is false to himself, and
having nothing but that lie to protect h i m , grasps the
hatchet; and is burned,
' I f he has not committed the theft, he is true to h i m -
self and, w i t h t r u t h for his protector, grasps the hat-
chet; and is not burned. He is acquitted.
'The man that was not burnt, lived in t r u t h . Re-
member that all visible things live in t r u t h ; remem-
ber that t r u t h and Self are one. Shwetaketu! You are
That.'
Shwetaketu understood what he said, yes, he under-
stood what his father said.

Book V I I
1
Narada asked Sage Sanatkumar to teach h i m .
Sanatkumar said: 'Say what you know; I w i l l say
what you do not,'
Narada said: 'Lord! I know Rig-Weda, Yajur-Weda,
Sama-Weda, Atharwa-Weda, histoiy and tradition
called the fifth Weda, grammar, ritual, mathematics,
astrology, mineralogy, logic, economics, physics, meta-
physics, zoology, politics, astronomy, mechanics, fine
arts.
96
'Lord! Yet these things are but elementary know-
ledge; I do not know the Self. I have heard from mas-
ters, that he who knows Self, goes beyond sorrow. I am
lost in sorrow. Help me to go beyond.'
Sanatkumar said: 'All your knowledge is but the
knowledge of names. The four Wedas, grammar, ritual
and the like, all that is but a name. Worship name as
Spirit.
'Who worships name as Spirit, moves within the
limits of what is named, as it may please him, provided
he worships it as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above name?' said Narada.
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar.
'Explain it, Lord!' said Narada.

2
Sanatkumar said: 'Speech is above name. Through
speech we understand not only the Wedas, grammar,
ritual and the like but heaven, earth, wind, air, Water,
fire, men, gods, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, beasts, worms,
midges, ants, right, wrong, true, false, good, evil,
pleasant, unpleasant. Without speech who could ex-
plain right, wrong; good, evil; pleasant, unpleasant?
Speech explains all. Worship speech.
'Who worships speech as Spirit, moves within the
limits of what is spoken, as it may please him, provided
he worships it as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above speech?' said Narada.

G 97 Y,U.
3
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. ' M i n d is above speech. A
closed fist holds two acorns, two berries, two nuts; so
mind holds both speech and name.
'When man thinks of reading Wedas, he reads them;
when he thinks of doing, he does; when he thinks of
children and cattle, he wants them; when he thinks of
this world or the next, he wants i t . M i n d is Self. M i n d
is world. M i n d is Spirit, Worship mind.
'Who worships mind as Spirit, moves w i t h i n the
limits of what is thought, as it may please h i m , provided
he worships mind as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above mind?' said Narada.

'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. ' W i l l is above mind. When


man wills he thinks, calls up speech which breaks into
names. Sentences are made out of words, actions are
made out of thoughts.
'Everything is founded on w i l l ; everything forms
w i l l ; everything lives in w i l l . Heaven and earth w i l l ;
wind and air w i l l ; water and light w i l l ; rain wills be-
cause water and light w i l l ; food wills because rain wills;
life wills because food wills; speech wills because life
wills; actions w i l l because speech wills; world wills be-
cause actions w i l l ; everything wills because world wills.
Such is w i l l . Worship w i l l .
'Who worships w i l l as Spirit, obtains the world he
wills, attains the eternal by his w i l l for the eternal, at-
98
tains honour by his will for honour, attains the sorrow-
less by his will to go beyond sorrow. Who worships will
as Spirit, moves within the limits of what is willed, as it
may please him, provided he worships will as nothing
but Spirit,'
'Is there anything above will?' said Narada.

5
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Mind's mother substance is
above will. When that is stirred, man wills; thinks,
calls up speech; which breaks forth in words. Sentences
are made of names; actions are made of thoughts.
'AH these are founded on mind's mother substance.
They form that substance, they live in substance. Man
may be learned in names, but if that substance is ab-
sent, he is absent; he is ignored by everybody, the
names go for nothing. Everybody listens to a man, no
matter how light his learning, if substance be there.
Therefore that substance is the abode of all. That sub-
stance is Self, is rock. Worship the mind's mother sub-
stance.
'Who worships that as Spirit, moves within the lim-
its of all that it contains, as it may please him, provided
he worships it as nothing but Spirit. He attains the
eternal by becoming eternal, he attains the unchang-
ing by becoming unchanging, attains joy, becomes
joy.'
'Is there anything above that substance?' said Narada.

99
6
'Yes,'said Sanatkumar. 'Meditation is above substance.
Earth, sky, heaven, water, mountain, men, gods, medi-
tate. The greatness of the great comes from meditation.
Small men quarrel, deceive, denounce ; great men
meditate, enjoy the greatness that it brings. Worship
meditation.
'Who worships meditation as Spirit, moves w i t h i n the
limits of its subject, as it may please h i m , provided he
worships meditation as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above meditation?' said Narada.
7
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Wisdom is above medita-
tion. Through wisdom we understand the four Wedas,
history, tradition, grammar, ritual and all the other
sciences; heaven, earth, w i n d , air, water, fire, men,
gods, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, beasts, worms,
midges, ants, right, wrong, true, false, good, evil,
pleasant, unpleasant, food and its taste, this world and
the next. Worship wisdom.
'Who worships wisdom as Spirit, attains all know-
ledge and experience ; moves w i t h i n the limits of its
subject, as it may please h i m , provided he worships wis-
dom as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above wisdom?' said Narada.
8
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Power is above wisdom.
One powerful man terrifies a hundred wise men. When
100
man becomes powerful, he rises; as he rises, he serves}
as he serves, he associates w i t h the wise; in consultation
w i t h the wise,-he sees, hears, thinks, knows, acts; be-
comes wise. Through power we are masters of earth,
sky, heaven, mountain, men, gods, cattle, herbs, trees,
beasts, worms, midges and ants. Worship power.
'Who worships power as Spirit, moves w i t h i n the
limits of the powerful, as it may please h i m , provided
he worships power as nothing but Spirit,'
'Is there anything above power?' said Narada.

9
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Food is above power. If a
man abstain from food for even ten days, though he
may live, he cannot see, hear, think, discriminate, act
or know. W h e n he eats, he w i l l see, hear, think, dis-
criminate, act and know. Worship food.
'Who worships food as Spirit, he obtains food and
drink as much as he likes, moves w i t h i n the limits of
all that eat, as it may please h i m , provided he worships
food as nothing but Spirit,'
'Is there anything above food?' said Narada.

10
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Water is above food. When
rain fails creatures fall sick for lack of food; when there
is enough rain there is enough food, and they rejoice.
A l l are images made of water; earth, sky, heaven,
101
mountain, men, gods, cattle, herbs, trees, beasts, down
to worms, midges, ants. Worship water.
'Who worships water as Spirit gets everything he
wants, becomes contented, moves within the limits of
all that drink, as it may please him, provided he wor-
ships water as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above water?' said Narada.
11
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Light is above water. When
light quiets wind, heats air, people say: " I t burns, it
boils, it will rain." First, light; then water. Light makes
thunder roll, light makes lightning strike, whether
above or below. People say: "There is thunder, it will
rain." Light first; then water. Worship light.
'Who meditates on light as Spirit, becomes bright,
attains the receptacles of light, full of brilliance without
darkness; moves within the limits of all that is bright,
as it may please him, provided he worships light as no-
thing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above light?' said Narada.
12
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Air is above light. Sun,
moon, lightning, star, fire, live in air; through air we
speak, through air we hear, through air the echo
comes. Man enjoys through air, he is born in air, grows
in air, enjoys in air. Worship air.
'Who worships air as Spirit, attains the receptacles of
light, free from sorrow, free from bondage; moves
102
within the limits of air, as it may please him, provided
he worships air as nothing but Spirit,'
'Is there anything above air?' said Narada.

13
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Memory is above air. Take
away memory from men, they no longer hear,
think, or understand. Give back their memory, they
hear, think and understand. Through memory
we recognise our children and our cattle. Worship
memory.
'Who worships memory as Spirit, moves within the
limits of his memory, as it may please him, provided he
worships memory as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above memory?' said Narada.

14
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Hope is above memory.
Fired with hope, man repeats the sacred words, does
this or that, desires children and property, longs for life
here and hereafter. Worship hope.
'Who worships hope as Spirit, gets all he wants,
never gives a blessing in vain, moves within the limits
of his hope, as it may please him, provided he worships
hope as nothing but Spirit.'
'Is there anything above hope?' said Narada.

15
'Yes,' said Sanatkumar. 'Life is above hope. Spokes
of a wheel are centred in the hub, everything is fixed in
103
life. Life lives by life; life gives life; life gives for life.
L i f e gives power. Life is father, mother, sister, brother,
tutor and guide.
' I f a man speak cruel words to a father, mother, sis-
ter, brother, tutor or guide, people say: "Shame upon
you for such cruelty!" but if, life once gone, somebody
shoves them back on to the funeral pyre w i t h a poker,
where is the cruelty?
'Life is all. If a man feels and knows this, his reason
is deeper than discussion. Should people say that his
reason is deeper than discussion, he should not deny i t .
He who knows t r u t h goes beyond discussion.'
'Lord! I discuss and at length, that I may find t r u t h , '
said Narada.
'What should we know but truth?' said Sanatkumar.
'Lord! I would know,' said Narada.
16
'How can a man speak the t r u t h , without knowing
i t . Man speaks what he knows. Then know.'
'I would know, Lord!' said Narada.
17
'Thinking, man knows; unthinking, he cannot know.
Therefore think.'
' I would think, Lord!' said Narada.
18
' W i t h faith, man thinks; faithless, he cannot think.
Therefore have faith.'
'I would have faith, Lord!' said Narada.
104
19
'From devotion, man gets faith; without devotion,
he has none. Have devotion.'
'I would have demotion, Lord!' said Narada.

20
'When man acts, he gets devotion; without action,
he has none. Act.'
'I would act, Lord!' said Narada.

21
' M a n acts when he gets happiness; without happi-
ness, he does nothing. Find happiness,'
'I would be happy, Lord!' said Narada.

22
'Man gets happiness from the unlimited; from the
limited, none. Find the unlimited.'
'I would find the unlimited, Lord!' said Narada.

23
'Where man finds a thing, sees nothing else, hears
nothing else, knows nothing else, that is the unlimited;
where he finds a thing, sees something else, hears some-
t h i n g else, knows something else, that is the limited.
The unlimited is immortal; the limited is mortal.'
'Lord! On what does the unlimited depend?' said
Narada.
'On His own greatness,' said Sanatkumar, 'or not
even that. The possession of cattle, horses, elephants;
105
farms, mansions, servants, women, gold; are greatness
in this world. I do not call it greatness when one thing
depends upon another. The unlimited depends on no-
thing.'
24
'He is below, above, behind, in front, on the right,
on the left; He is everything. If I put I instead of He, I
say, I am below, I am above, I am behind, I am in
front, I am on the right, I am on the left. I am every-
thing.
'I put Self instead of He, I say, the Self is below,
above, behind, in front, to the right, to the left. The
Self is everything. The personal Self is the impersonal
Self.
'He who sees, thinks, knows this, loves the Self, plays
w i t h the Self, unites w i t h the Self, enjoys the Self,
governs himself, moves himself everywhere at his -
pleasure. Those who think otherwise are governed by
others. They lose what they gain. Nowhere can they
move at their pleasure.'
25
'He who thinks, feels, knows this, draws life from
himself, hope from himself, memory from himself ; air,
light, water from himself; birth, death, food, power,
knowledge, meditation, mind, will, speech, name,
words, action, everything from himself.
'He who knows this, cares nothing for death, cares
nothing for disease, cares nothing for misery; looks at
everything w i t h the eye of Self; gets everything every-
106
where; remains one, though multiplied threefold, five-
fold, sevenfold, elevenfold, hundredfold, hundred-and-
elevenfold, twenty-thousandfold.'
Pure food creates pure intellect ; pure intellect creates
strong memory; strong memory cuts all the knots of the
heart.
Sage Sanatkumar leads beyond the darkness those
that have washed their impurities away. Hence men
call him the Great Commander, men call him the
Great Commander.

Book V I I I
1
In this body, in this town of Spirit, there is a little
house shaped like a lotus, and in that house there is a
little space. One should know what is there.
What is there? W h y is it so important?
There is as much in that little space within the heart,
as there is in the whole world outside. Heaven, earth,
fire, wind, sun, moon, lightning, stars; whatever is and
whatever is not, everything is there.
If everything is in man's body, every being, every
desire, what remains when old age comes, when decay
begins, when the body falls?
What lies in that space, does not decay when the body
decays, nor does it fall when the body falls. That space
is the home of Spirit. Every desire is there. Self is there,
beyond decay and death; sin and sorrow; hunger and
107
thirst ; His aim truth, His w i l l truth. Man can live in
the body as long as he obeys the law, as a man may live
in a certain farm, in a certain town, in a certain pro-
vince, or wherever he fancy, if he obey the law.
Earthly pleasures exhaust themselves ; heavenly
pleasures exhaust themselves. Wherever men go w i t h -
out attaining Self or knowing truth, they cannot move
at their pleasure; but after attaining Self and knowing
truth, wherever they go, they move at their pleasure.

2
If man wants the company of his fathers, all he need
do is to will i t ; they will appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants the company of his mothers, all he need
do is to will i t j they w i l l appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants the company of his brothers, all he need
do is to will i t ; they will appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants the company of his sisters, all he need do
is to will it; they will appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants the company of his friends, all he need
do is to will i t ; they w i l l appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants women, all he need do is to w i l l i t ; they
will appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants perfume or flower, all he need do is to
will it; i t will appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants food or drink, all he need do is to w i l l i t ;
i t will appear and make h i m happy.
If he wants a thing or a place, all he need do is to w i l l
it; it will appear and make h i m happy.
108
3
These wants are justified, but they are smothered by
self-interest ; it'is because they are so smothered that an
ignorant man cannot see the dead.
A wise man sees in Self, those that are alive, those
that are dead; and gets what this world cannot give. An
ignorant man treads on the ground, but does not know
the gold that lies underneath ; we pass into the Self
during sleep, but do not know H i m .
Self stays in the heart; 'heart', a word that seems to
say 'here it is'. W h o knows this, daily enjoys the King-
dom of Heaven.
A wise man, leaving his body, joins that flame; is one
w i t h His own nature. That nature is Self, fearless i m -
mortal Spirit.
Whatever binds mortal and immortal, they call t r u t h .
Who knows this, daily enjoys the Kingdom of Heaven.

4
Self is the wall which keeps the creatures from break-
ing i n . Day and night do not go near H i m , nor age, nor
death, nor grief, nor good, nor evil. Sin turns away
from H i m ; for Spirit knows no sin.
Self is the bridge. When man crosses that bridge, if
blind, he shall see; if sick, he shall be w e l l ; if unhappy,
he shall be happy. When he crosses that bridge, though
it be night, it shall be day; for heaven is shining always.
Heaven is for those that are masters of themselves.
They can move anywhere in this world at their pleasure.
109
5
Sacrifice is to be master of oneself; for through that
mastery a wise man knows the Self. Duty is to be mas-
ter of oneself. Through mastery a wise man knows the
Self.
Vows are the mastery of oneself; for through that
mastery man gets the protection of the Self. Silence is
the mastery of oneself} for through that mastery man
attains the meditation upon the Self.
Fasting is the mastery of oneself ; for through that
mastery man shares the imperishability of the Self. A
hermit's life is that mastery.
In the Kingdom of Heaven are the springs of doing
and knowing that rise from Spirit itself ; beyond spreads
the lake of joy ; beyond that blossoms the tree of im-
mortality ; beyond that lies the town of spirit, full of
light built by the Lord.
But heaven is for those that find the springs of doing
and knowings they can move anywhere in this world at
their pleasure.
6
Orange, blue, yellow, red, are not less in man's ar-
teries than in the sun.
As a long highway passes between two villages, one at
either end, so the sun's rays pass between this world
and the world beyond. They flow from the sun, enter
into the arteries, flow back from the arteries, enter into
the sun.
When man is asleep, enjoying his sleep, he creates
110
no dream; his soul sleeps in the arteries. No evil can
touch him, for he is filled with light.
When he is dying, those around him ask if he knows
them; as long as the soul does not leave the body he
knows them.
But when the soul leaves the body, ascending with
the sun's rays, he meditates on Om and, with the
speed of thought, goes to the sun. Sun is the Gate of
Heaven, where the wise can pass.
Here is my authority:
'There are a hundred and one arteries leading to the
heart; one of them pierces the crown of the head. He
who goes upwards through it, attains immortality; He
who does not, is born again.'

7
Prajapati said: 'Self is free from sin and sorrow; de-
cay and death; hunger and thirst. His aim is truth; His
will is truth. Find H i m ; know H i m . Who finds and
knows H i m , gets what he wants, goes where he likes.'
The godly and the godless both came to know what
Prajapati said and thought: We swear by our souls, we
must find that Self, by which we shall get whatever we
want, go wherever we like.' Indra from among the godly,
Wirdchana from among the godless, went to Prajapati,
with folded hands, without letting one another know.
They stayed with him for thirty-two days, observing
the vows; when Prajapati asked for what they stayed,
they said:
111
'Everyone knows that you have said that Self is free
from sin and sorrow; decay and death; hunger and
thirst. His aim is t r u t h ; His w i l l is truth. Find H i m ;
know H i m . Who finds and knows H i m , gets what he
wants, goes where he likes. We hope to attain that Self,
and therefore stay.'
Prajapati said: 'That Person seen in the eye is Self.
That is unalarmed, immortal Spirit,'
They said: 'Lord! Which of the two is Self, the one
reflected in water, or the one reflected in a mirror?'
Prajapati said: 'He is reflected in both, reflected
everywhere.'

8
Prajapati said: 'Look at yourself in a bowl of water;
come again if you do not understand the Self.'
They looked into the bowl of water.
Prajapati said: 'What did you see there?'
They said: 'We saw ourselves; our doubles; even
w i t h our hair and nails.'
Prajapati said: 'Shave, put on fine clothes, fine jewels;
look into the water again.'
They did accordingly.
Prajapati said: What did you see?'
They said: 'Lord! We saw ourselves shaven, dressed,
adorned.'
Prajapati said: 'That is Self. That is unalarmed, i m -
mortal Spirit.'
They both went away satisfied.
112
Prajapati said to himself: 'They go without finding
the Self, without knowing the Self. W h o follows
their philosophy, whether godly or godless, perishes.'
Wir6chana, perfectly satisfied, went to the godless
and preached to them his philosophy: 'Body alone is
important; body alone is to be adored. Who knows the
importance of body and adores i t , gets everything in
this world and the next.'
Hence even today a man who has no faith, no devo-
tion, no charity, is called godless; for that is the philo-
sophy of the godless. They supply the dead w i t h food,
clothes, jewelry; they think thereby to attain heaven,
9
But Indra, before he returned to the godly, saw the
snare. He thought to himself: ' I f the body is adorned,
so is its reflection; if it is well dressed, so is its reflection;
if it is clean, so is its reflection; but then if the body
were blind, Self would be blind; if the body were lame,
Self would be lame; if the body were crippled, Self
would be crippled; if the body were dead, Self would be
dead. I see no good in this.'
He went back w i t h folded hands.
Prajapati said: 'Indra! you went away w i t h W i r 6 -
chana, perfectly satisfied. What brings you back?'
Indra said: 'Lord! If the body is shaven, dressed,
adorned, so is its reflection; but if the body were blind,
lame, crippled, Self would be blind, lame, crippled; if
the body were dead, Self would be dead. I see no good
in this.*
H 113 Y.U.
Prajapati said: 'Indra! This bodily Self is like that.
Stay for another thirty-two days; I w i l l explain more.'
Indra stayed accordingly; Prajapati said:

10
T h e Self is the Adorable, who moves in dreams. He
is the unalarmed, immortal Spirit.'
Indra went away satisfied but, before he reached the
godly, saw the snare. He thought w i t h i n himself: 'Self
that dreams is not blind, if body is blind; Self is not
lame, if body is lame; Self is not affected by the defects
of body.
'He is not killed when body is killed; he is not
crippled when body is crippled; yet he is killed and
chased in dreams; he is unhappy; now and again he
weeps. I see no good in this.'
He went back w i t h folded hands.
Prajapati said: 'Indra! You went away satisfied. What
brings you back?'
Indra said: 'Lord! Self is not blind, because body is
blind; Self is not crippled, because body is crippled; Self
is not affected by the defects of body.
'Self is not killed when body is killed. He is not lame,
if body is lame. Self is killed and chased in dreams; He
is unhappy; now and again He weeps. I see no good in
this,'
Prajapati said: 'You are right. Stay for another
thirty-two days; I w i l l explain more,'
Indra stayed accordingly; Prajapati said:
114
11
'When man is fast asleep, at peace with himself,
happy, without a dream, then that is Self. That is the
unalarmed, immortal Spirit.'
Indra went away satisfied but, before he reached the
godly, saw the snare. He thought within himself:
'Man in his sleep does not know that he is Self;
neither does he know any other creatures. He is lost.
I do not see any good in this.'
He went back with folded hands.
Prajapati asked: 'Indra, you went away satisfied.
What brings you back?'
Indra said: 'Lord! Sleeping without a dream man
does not know that he is Self, neither does he know any
creatures. He is lost. I see no good in this,'
Prajapati said: 'Indra! You are right; yet where else
can you find the Self?
'Stay for five days more; I will explain more,'
Indra stayed accordingly. He stayed there for a hun-
dred and one days in all; everybody knows that Indra
stayed with Prajapati for a hundred and one days, mas-
tering Self. Prajapati said to him:

12
'Indra! This mortal body is under sentence of death;
nevertheless it is the house of the immortal; the un-
embodied. So long as He is in body, He likes and He dis-
likes; so long as He is in body there is no escape. When
He is without body, likes and dislikes do not touch H i m .
115
' W i n d has no body; cloud, lightning, thunder have
no body; but when they conjoin w i t h light and rise
in air, they show in their own shapes. Likewise that
blessed Self, conjoint w i t h light, rises from body, shows
himself in His own shape. He moves in this world en-
joying women, riding in conveyances, entertaining his
friends, heedless of his body; as a master workman en-
gages an assistant, Self engages life to look after his
body.
'Who sees through the eye, knowing that He sees, is
Self, the eye an instrument whereby He sees; who
smells through the nose, knowing that He smells, is
Self, the nose an instrument whereby He smells; who
speaks through the tongue, knowing that He speaks, is
Self, the tongue an instrument whereby He speaks;
who hears through the ear, knowing that He hears, is
Self, the ear an instrument whereby He hears; who
thinks through the mind, knowing that He thinks, is
Self, the mind an instrument whereby He thinks. He
looks through the mind's eye, his spiritual eye; in that
eye heaven is made and all desires arise; all these his joy.
'Gods adore that Self; thereby go where they w i l l ;
satisfy every desire. Who discovers and knows the Self,
goes where he w i l l ; satisfies every desire.'

13
I have been drifting from darkness to passion, from
passion to darkness. Shaking off evil, as a horse shakes off
his' loose hair, freeing myself from evil as the moon
116
breaks free from the eclipse, attaining the aim of my
life, I enter the Kingdom of Heaven, where there is
nothing more to attain; I enter the Kingdom of Heaven.

14
Names and shapes but hang in air; in very truth they
live in immortal Spirit. He is Self.
Grant that I may enter the audience chamber. Grant
that I may become glory itself; the glory of saints, the
glory of kings, the glory of merchants; grant that I
attain the glory of all glories. Grant that I may never
be bopn again.

15
The Creator gave this knowledge to Prajapati; Pra-
japati to Manu; Manu to mankind.
He who studies the Wedas rightly, under the right
teacher, does the right by that teacher; returns home;
settles himself as an householder in a sacred place,
keeps his study of the Wedas, leads a holy life, turns
his senses towards the Self, never asks anything of any-
one unless upon pilgrimage, and leads such a life to the
last, he attains the Kingdom of Heaven; he never re-
turns.

117
X
Famous Debates in the Forest
(Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad)

Book I
L e a d me from the unreal to the real!
Lead me f r o m darkness to light!
Lead me f r o m death to immortality!
In the beginning all things were Self, in the shape of
personality. He looked round, saw nothing but H i m -
self. T h e first thing he said was, ' I t is I . ' Hence 'I' be-
came His name. Therefore even now if you ask a m a n
who he is, he first says, ' I t is I',, and gives w h a t other
name he has. He is the eldest of all. Because he de-
stroyed all evil, he is called the first Person. He who
knows this, destroys all evil, takes the first rank.
He became afraid ; loneliness creates fear. He
thought: 'As there is nothing but myself, w h y should I
be afraid?' T h e n his fear passed away; there was no-
thing to fear, fear comes w h e n there is a second.
As a lonely m a n is unhappy, so he was unhappy. He
wanted a companion. He was as big as m a n and wife
together ; He divided himself into two, husband and
wife were born.
119
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Man is only half himself; his
wife is the other half.'
They joined and mankind was born.
She thought: 'He shall not have me again; he has
created me from himself; I w i l l hide myself.'
She then became a cow, he became a b u l l ; they
joined and cattle were born. She became a mare, he a
stallion; she became a she-ass, he an ass; they joined
and the hoofed animals were born. She became a she-
goat, he a goat; she became a ewe, he a ram; they
joined and goats and sheep were born. Thus He created
everything down to ants, male and female.
Then he put his hand into his mouth and there
created fire as if he were churning butter. He knew that
He was this creation; that He created it from Himself;
that He was the cause. Who knows, finds creation joyful.
W h e n they say: 'Sacrifice to this or that god,' they
talk of separate gods; but all gods are created by H i m ,
and He is all gods.
Whatever is liquid He created from His seed.
Everything in this world is eater or eaten. The
seed is food and fire is eater.
He created the gods; created mortal men, created
the immortals. Hence this creation is a miracle. He who
knows, finds this miracle joyful.
This world was everywhere the same t i l l name and
shape began; then one could say: 'He has such a name
and such a shape.' Even today everything is made dif-
ferent by name and shape.
120
Self entered into everything, even the tips of finger-
nails. He is hidden like the razor in its case. Though He
lives in this world and maintains it, the ignorant can-
not see Him.
When he is breathing, they name H i m breath; when
speaking, they name H i m speech} when seeing, they
name H i m eye ; when hearing, they name H i m ear ;
when thinking, they name H i m mind. He is not wholly
there. All these names are the names of His actions.
He who worships H i m as the one or the other is ig-
norant, is imperfect; though he attain completely one
or the other perfection. Let him worship H i m as Self,
where all these become the whole.
This Self brings everything; for thereby everything
is known. He is the footprint that brings a man to his
goal. He who knows this attains name and fame.
This Self is nearer than all else; dearer than son,
dearer than wealth, dearer than anything. If a man call
anything dearer than Self, say that he will lose what is
dear; of a certainty he will lose it; for Self is God. There-
fore one should worship Self as Love. Who worships
Self as Love, his love never shall perish.
It is said everything can be got through the know-
ledge of Spirit. What is that knowledge?
In the beginning there was Spirit. It knew itself as
Spirit; from that knowledge everything sprang up.
Whosoever among gods, sages and men, got that know-
ledge, became Spirit itself. Sage Wamadewa knew it
and sang 'I was Manu; I was the sun.'
121
Even today he who knows that he is Spirit, becomes
Spirit, becomes everything; neither gods nor men can
prevent h i m , for he has become themselves.
Who thinks of himself as separate from Self, and
worships some other than Self, he is ignorant; becomes
a sacrificial animal for the gods.
As many beasts serve a man, man serves the gods; if
one beast is taken away, man is sorry, and much more
sorry if many are taken away? For a like reason gods
dislike men who get this knowledge.
In the beginning all things were Spirit, one and sole;
hence He lacked power. He created the good kings.
Indra, Waruna, Soma, Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, M r i t y u ,
Eeshana, are the kings among gods.
Hence the king is above all men. The priest occupies
a lower seat at the coronation. The priest confers the
crown upon the king, is the root of the king's power.
Therefore though the king attain supremacy at the
end of his coronation he sits below the priest and ac-
knowledges h i m as the root of his power. So whoever
destroys the priest, destroys his root. He sins; he de-
stroys the good.
He still lacked power; therefore He created the traders,
that are arrayed in guilds like those troups of the gods;
Wasus, Rudras, Adityas, Maruts and Wishwedewas.
He still lacked power; therefore He created the lab-
ourer who, like the god Pushan, feeds all. This
earth is Pushan, for it feeds everything everywhere.
He still lacked power; therefore He created the good
122
law. That law is the power of the king; there is nothing
higher than law. Even a weak man rules the strong
with the help of law; law and the king are the same.
Law is truth. Who speaks the truth, speaks the law;
who speaks the law, speaks the truth; they are the
same.
Thus Spirit became the priest, the ruler, the trader,
the labourer. Among the gods, Spirit appeared as fire;
among men He appeared as priest; He became the king
whose duty is to rule; the trader, whose duty is to trade;
the labourer, whose duty is to serve. People wish for a
place among the gods through fire, for a place among
mankind through the priest; for Spirit appeared in
these two forms.
If a man leaves this kingdom without knowing that
he owns the kingdom of Self, that Self is of no service
to him; it remains like the unread Wedas, or a deed not
done. No, even if he does a great meritorious deed with-
out knowing the Self, that deed will exhaust itself in
the end. Worship the kingdom of Self. He who wor-
ships the kingdom of Self, does that which is never ex-
hausted; whatever he wants, he gets from himself.
Hence this Self is the goal of all creatures. As long
as man makes offerings and sacrifices, he pleases the
gods; as long as he studies the Wedas, he pleases the
wise; as long as he offers libations and desires chil-
dren, he pleases the fathers; as long as he gives food
and shelter, he pleases mankind; as long as he gives
fodder and water the beasts are pleased; if birds and
123
beasts down to the ants are fed in his house, they are
pleased. But everybody wishes good to the man who has
this knowledge; everybody is good to the man who is
good to him.
In the beginning there was the Self, one and sole.
He thought: 'Let me have a wife that I may have chil-
dren; let me have wealth that I may do something in
the world,' Thus far desire can go; even if man wants
more, he cannot get it.
A lonely man thinks of a wife and children, of
wealth and work; and so long as he does not get any
of these, he thinks he is incomplete. Yet he is already
complete; his mind is himself; speech his wife; life his
offspring; eyes are his human wealth, for through eyes
he gets it; ears his divine wealth, for through ears he gets
it; body his work, for through body he works. This is
the fivefold sacrifice; it applies to man, animal, every-
thing. Who knows this, gets everything.

Book II
There lived Gargya, son of Balaka, learned yet proud.
He went to Janaka, the king of Benares, and said: 'I
will teach you about Spirit.'
Janaka said: 'People flock to me, my name on their
lips, yet I give you a hundred cows for that promise.'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
the sun.'
124
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. He transcends all being} I worship H i m as the
crowned king of all. Who worships H i m as such, trans-
cends all being, becomes the crowned king of all.'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
the moon.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as the great king, the heavenly
drinker, clad in purity. Who worships H i m as the
great King, milks heaven and drinks it day by day. His
food is never exhausted.'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
lightning.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as light. Who worships H i m as
light becomes enlightened ; his children become en-
lightened,'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
the air.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as the still and the full. Who
worships H i m as the full is blessed with children and
cattle. His family shall never be cut off.'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
wind.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as that impregnable, unconquer-
able army. Who worships H i m as that army conquers
his enemies.'
125
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in fire,'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as the tolerant; for fire warms the
good and the bad. Who worships H i m as the tolerant
becomes tolerant; his children become tolerant.'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
water.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as a reflection. Who worships H i m
as a reflection gets what he wants; nothing runs against
h i m ; his children reflect h i m . '
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is the
mirror.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as beauty. Who worships H i m
as beauty becomes beautiful; his children become beau-
t i f u l ; he is adored by everybody.'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
the echo.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as life coming out of life. Who
worships H i m as life is blessed w i t h abounding life. He
does not die u n t i l all is spent.'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
the four quarters.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as my double, who never for-
sakes me. Who worships H i m as his double is surrounded
by friends; his neighbours do not forsake h i m . '
126
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
the shadow.'
Janaka said: .'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as death. Who worships H i m as
death gets long life; he does not die too soon,'
Gargya said: 'I worship as Spirit the God that is in
the body.'
Janaka said: 'No, no; that is no right way to talk of
Spirit. I worship H i m as a man. Who worships H i m
as a man gets the body he wants, his children get the
bodies they want.'
Gargya became silent.
Janaka said: 'Is that all?'
Gargya said: 'That is a l l , '
Janaka said: 'Spirit is not so quickly known,'
Gargya said: 'I come to you as a pupil,'
Janaka said: ' I t is unusual for a preacher to come to a
king, to learn about Spirit. However, I w i l l make you
understand H i m clearly,'
He took h i m by the hand and rose. The two came to
a sleeping man. Janaka called out: ' M i g h t y man! Pure
man! Heavenly drinker!' He did not wake; he woke
when Janaka took h i m by the hand.
Janaka said: 'Where was this man's knowing Self
when he slept, whence came he when he woke?'
Gargya could not understand.
Janaka said: 'When he slept, the knowing Self, all the
senses w i t h i n i t , lay at rest in the hollow of the heart.
W h e n Self has mastered sense, man is said to sleep.
127
Life is absorbed; speech, sight, hearing, thinking, ab-
sorbed.
'But when Self moves in dreams, He becomes his
dreams. He becomes a great k i n g ; he becomes a great
priest; he becomes the high and the low. As a great
king surrounded by his retinue moves in his own country
at his pleasure, Self, surrounded by his senses,
moves in his own body, at his pleasure.
'But when man is in deep sleep he knows nothing;
Self having crept out of those seventy-two thousand
arteries called the Hita, which spread from the heart
through all the body, goes to rest surrounded by his
body. Whether a child, or a king or a holy man, he
transcends all happiness and goes to sleep. Thus it is
that Self goes to sleep.
' As threads come from the spider, as little sparks come
from the fire, so all senses, all conditions, all gods, all
beings, come from this Self. He is known as the " T r u t h
of all truths". The senses are true, but He is the t r u t h of
them all,'

Book I I I
Spirit has two aspects: measurable, immeasurable;
mortal, immortal; stable, unstable; graspable, ungrasp-
able.
Everything on this earth except wind and sky is
measurable, mortal, stable, graspable; it comes from
128
the graspable, from the sun that shines in the heavens,
the substance of the graspable.
W i n d and sky are immeasurable, immortal, un-
stable, ungraspable; they come from the ungraspable,
from God that shines through the sun, the substance of
the ungraspable.
This is the material aspect of Spirit.
Now the divine aspect of Spirit.
Everything in the body except life and heart is
measurable, mortal, stable, graspable; it comes from
the graspable, from the eye, the substance of the
graspable.
Life and heart are immeasurable, immortal, un-
stable, ungraspable; they come from the ungraspable,
from God that shines in the right eye, the substance of
the ungraspable.
And what is the shape of that God? It is like a saffron-
coloured garment, like a white woollen garment, like
red cochineal, like the flame of fire, like the white
lotus, like a sudden flash of lightning. Who knows H i m
thus, his glory flashes like lightning.
They describe Spirit as 'Not this ; not that'. The first
means: 'There is nothing except Spirit': the second
means: T h e r e is nothing beyond Spirit.' They call
Spirit the ' T r u t h of all truths'. The senses are true, but
He is the t r u t h of them all.

129 Y.U.
Book IV
Yadnyawalkya said to Maitreyee: 'Dear! I am going
to renounce the world: I wish to divide my property
between you and Katyayanee.'
Maitreyee said: 'Lord! If I get the wealth of the
world, w i l l it make me immortal?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'No, your life w i l l be like the
life of the wealthy. T h e r e is no hope of immortality
through wealth.'
Maitreyee said: ' W h a t can I do w i t h that which can-
not make me immortal? T e l l me what you know of i m -
mortality.'
Yadnyawalkya said: ' W e l l spoken! Y o u were dear to
me; those words have made you dearer. Come, sit
down. I w i l l explain; meditate on what I say.'
He continued: 'Of a certainty, the wife does not love
her husband for himself but loves h i m for herself only.
'The husband does not love his wife for herself, but
loves her for himself only.
' T h e father does not love his sons for themselves, but
loves t h e m for himself only.
'A m a n does not love his wealth for itself, but loves
it for himself only.
'A m a n does not love the priests for themselves, but
loves t h e m for himself only.
'A m a n does not love the rulers for themselves, but
loves t h e m for himself only.
130
'A man does not love the community for itself, but
loves it for himself only.
'A man does- not love the gods for themselves, but
loves them for himself only.
'A man does not love the creatures for themselves,
but loves them for himself only.
'A man does not love anything for itself, but loves
it for himself only.
'Maitreyee! This Self deserves to be seen, heard,
thought of, meditated upon. W h e n this Self is seen,
heard, thought of, known, everything becomes known,
'The priestly order ignores the man who thinks of it
as anything apart from the Self.
'The ruling order ignores the man who thinks of it
as anything apart from the Self.
'The community ignores the man who thinks of it as
anything apart from the Self.
'The gods ignore the man who thinks of them as
anything apart from the Self.
'The creatures ignore the man who thinks of them
as anything apart from the Self.
'Everything ignores the man who thinks of it as any-
thing apart from the Self.
'Hence this Self is the priest, the ruler ; He is all gods,
all men, all creatures, all that exists ; for these are
'As the sounds of a d r u m that cannot be understood
unless we understand the drum and the drummer;
'As the sounds of a conch that cannot be understood
unless we understand the conch and the blower;
131
'As the sounds of a lute that cannot be understood
unless we understand the lute and the player.
'As clouds of smoke come from fire kindled w i t h damp
fuel, from the great Being come the Rig-Weda, Yajur-
Weda, Sama-Weda, Atharwa-Weda, history, ancient
knowledge, sciences, Upanishads, poetry, aphorisms,
commentaries, explanations. These are His breath.
'As all waters belong to the sea, all touches to the
skin, all smells to the nose, all tastes to the tongue, all
beauties to the eye, all words to the ear, all thoughts to
the mind, all knowledge to the intellect, all works to
the hand, all journeys to the feet, all Wedas to speech}
so everything belongs to H i m .
'As a lump of salt thrown in water dissolves, and can-
not be taken out again as salt, though wherever we
taste the water it is salt, so this great endless deathless
Being dissolved is knowledge; He reveals Himself w i t h
the elements, disappears when they disappear; leaving
no name behind.'
Maitreyee said: 'You say, Lord! that after death no
name is left behind; this has confounded me,'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Maitreyee! I say nothing that
should confound you. It is easy to understand.
'For as long as there is duality, one sees the other,
one smells the other, one hears the other, one speaks to
the other, one thinks of the other, one knows the other;
but when everything is one Self, who can see another,
how can he see another; who can smell another, how
can he smell another; who can hear another, how can
152
he hear another ; who can speak to another, how can he
speak to another; who can think of another, how can
he think of another; who can know another, how can
he know another? Maitreyee! How can the knower be
known?'

Book V
This earth is the honey of all beings; all beings the
honey of this earth. The bright eternal Self that is in
earth, the bright eternal Self that lives in this body, are
one and the same; that is immortality, that is Spirit,
that is all.
Water is the honey of all beings; all beings the honey
of water. The bright eternal Self that is in water, the
bright eternal Self that lives in human seed, are one
and the same; that is immortality, that is Spirit, that is
all.
Fire is the honey of all beings; all beings the honey
of fire. The bright eternal Self that is in fire, the bright
eternal Self that lives in speech, are one and the same;
that is immortality, that is Spirit, that is all.
W i n d is the honey of all beings; all beings the honey
of w i n d . The bright eternal Self that is in w i n d , the
bright eternal Self that lives in breath, are one and the
same; that is immortality, that is Spirit, that is all.
The sun is the honey of all beings; all beings the
honey of the sun. The bright eternal Self that is in the
133
sun, the bright eternal Self that lives in the eye, are
one and the same; that is immortality, that is Spirit,
that is all.
The quarters are the honey of all beings; all beings
the honey of the quarters. The bright eternal Self that
is in the quarters, the bright eternal Self that lives in
the ear, are one and the same; that is immortality, that
is Spirit, that is all.
The moon is the honey of all beings; all beings the
honey of the moon. The bright eternal Self that is in
the moon, the bright eternal Self that lives in the mind,
are one and the same; that is immortality, that is Spirit,
that is all.
L i g h t n i n g is the honey of all beings, all beings the
honey of lightning. The bright eternal Self that is in
lightning, the bright eternal Self that lives in the light
of the body, are one and the same; that is immortality,
that is Spirit, that is all.
Thunder is the honey of all beings; all beings the
honey of thunder. The bright eternal Self that is in
thunder, the bright eternal Self that lives in the voice,
are one and the same; that is immortality, that is Spirit,
that is all.
A i r is the honey of all beings; all beings the honey of
air. The bright eternal Self that is in air, the bright
eternal Self that lives in the hollow of the heart, are
one and the same; that is immortality, that is Spirit,
that is all.
Law is the honey of all beings; all beings are the
134
honey of law. The bright eternal Self that is in law,
the bright eternal Self that lives as the law in the body,
are one and the-same; that is immortality, that is Spirit,
that is all.
T r u t h is the honey of all beings; all beings the honey
of t r u t h . The bright eternal Self that is t r u t h , the
bright eternal Self that lives as the t r u t h in man, are one
and the same ; that is immortality, that is Spirit, that
is all.
Mankind is the honey of all beings ; all beings the
honey of mankind. The bright eternal Self that is in
mankind, the bright eternal Self that lives in a man,
are one and the same ; that is immortality, that is Spirit,
that is all.
Self is the honey of all beings ; all beings the honey of
Self. The bright eternal Self that is everywhere, the
bright eternal Self that lives in a man, are one and
the same; that is immortality, that is Spirit, that is
all.
This Self is the Lord of all beings ; as all spokes are
knit together in the hub, all things, all gods, all men,
all lives, all bodies, are knit together in that Self.
This is the honey that Dadheechi gave to Ashwinee-
kumars. A sage said to Ashwineekumars: 'As a reward
for cutting off his head and substituting a horse's head
Dadheechi gave you this honey, daring man! I pro-
claim this news, as thunder proclaims the rain. Dad-
heechi kept his word; though this honey was his secret,
he gave i t ; gave this secret of creation.
135
'He made the two-footed; He made the four-footed.
He, the great god, became the bird, entered into its
body. He is the God who lives in all bodies. There is
nothing that does not fill H i m ; nothing that He does not
fill.
'He wanted every form, for He wanted to show H i m -
self; as a magician He appears in many forms, He mas-
ters hundreds and thousands of powers. He is those
powers; those millions of powers, those innumerable
powers. He is Spirit; without antecedent, without pre-
cedent, without inside, without outside; omnipresent,
omniscient. Self is Spirit. That is revelation.

Book VI
Adoration to the highest Self.
K i n g Janaka of Behar sacrificed. Costly gifts were
given to the priests. Many priests from the provinces of
K u r u and Panchala had come. Janaka wanted to find
out who knew most. He bought a thousand cows, every
cow had ten gold coins tied between its horns.
He said: 'Venerable Priests! Let h i m , who knows
Spirit, take those cows.'
But the priests dared not.
Thereupon Yadnyawalkya said to his pupil: 'Sama-
shrawa! my son, take these cows.' He obeyed.
The other priests were angry. They said: 'How dare
he call himself the wisest among us?'
156
Ashwala, a priest attached to the court of Janaka,
said:
'Yadnyawalkya! Do you think you are the wisest
among us?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'I bow to h i m who knows Spirit.
I wanted the cows.'

Ushasta, son of Chakra, said: 'Yadnyawalkya! Ex-


plain that Spirit, which out of sight is known by sight;
that Self who lives in the hearts of all.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Your own Self lives in the
hearts of all.'
Ushasta said: 'What Self do you say lives in the hearts
of all?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'He who inhales w i t h the help of
Prana is your Self, living in the hearts of all. He who
exhales w i t h the help of Apana is your Self, living in
the hearts of all. He who diffuses breath w i t h the help
of Wyana is your Self, l i v i n g in the hearts of all. He who
goes out w i t h the help of Udana is your Self, living in
the hearts of all. Your own self lives in the hearts of all.'
Ushasta said: 'As one might point and say "this is a
cow; this is a horse", explain Spirit; that Spirit which
out of sight is known by sight; that Self who lives in
the hearts of all.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Your own Self lives in the
hearts of all.'
Ushasta said: 'What Self do you say lives in the hearts
of all?'
137
Yadnyawalkya said: ' Y o u cannot see the seer of the
sight, you cannot hear the hearer of the sound, you
cannot think of the thinker of the thought, you cannot
know the knower of the known. Your own Self lives in
the hearts of all. Nothing else matters.'
Thereupon Ushasta became silent.

Then Kahola, son of Kusheetaka said: 'Yadnyawalk-


ya! Explain that Spirit which out of sight is known by
sight; that Self who lives in the hearts of all.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Your own Self lives in the
hearts of all.'
Kahola said: 'What Self do you say lives in the hearts
of all?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'He who is beyond hunger,
thirst, delusion, sorrow, decay, death. When saints
know that Self, they conquer desire for children,
wealth, companions, live the life of mendicants. De-
sire for children is desire for wealth; desire for wealth
is desire for companions; therefore let a spiritual man
transcend all book-learning, and live like a child. W h e n
he transcends book-learning and childlike simplicity,
let h i m meditate. When he transcends meditation and
lack of meditation, he becomes a saint.'
'By what means?' said Kahola.
Yadnyawalkya said: 'By whatever means please h i m
best, so long as he becomes like that. Nothing but the
Self matters.' Thereupon Kahola became silent.

138
Then Gargee, daughter of Wachaknu, asked:
'Yadnyawalkya! Since everything in this world is
woven, warp and woof, on water, please tell me, on
what is water woven, warp and woof?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Gargee! It is woven on w i n d . '
'On what is w i n d woven, warp and woof?'
'On the sky.'
'On what is sky woven, warp and woof?'
'On the region of the celestial choir.'
'On what is the region of the celestial choir woven,
warp and woof?'
'On the sun.'
'On what is the sun woven, warp and woof?'
'On the moon.'
'On what is the moon woven, warp and woof?'
'On the stars.'
'On what are the stars woven, warp and woof?'
'On the region of gods.'
'On what is the region of gods woven, warp and
woof?'
'On the region of light.'
'On what is the region of light woven, warp and
woof?'
'On the region of the Creator.'
'On what is the region of the Creator woven, warp
and woof?'
'On the region of Spirit.'
'On what is the region of Spirit woven, warp and
woof?'
139
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Gargee! Do not transgress the
l i m i t ; or you may go crazy,'
Gargee became silent.

Then Uddalaka, of the family of Aruna, said: 'Yad-


nyawalkya! We were staying in the province of Madra
in the house of Patanjala Kapya, studying the ritual of
sacrifice.
'A celestial singer entered into his wife. We asked
h i m who he was.
'He said: "I am Kabandha of the family of Athar-
wana."
'He said: "Do you know that thread wherein this
world, the next world and all beings are strung?"
' " I d o not know, Sir," said I .
'He said: " D o you know who controls this world, the
next world and all beings from within?"
' " I d o not know, Sir!" said I .
'He said: " W h o knows thread and controller, knows
Spirit, knows the world, knows the gods, knows all
beings, knows all knowledge, knows the Self, knows
everything."
'He then explained everything, hence I know every-
thing. If, Yadnyawalkya! you drive away these cows
without knowing that thread and that controller, you
w i l l be lost.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'I know the thread, and the con-
troller.*
140
Uddalaka said: 'Anybody can say that he knows, that
he is wise. What do you know?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Life is that thread whereon this
world, the next world, and all beings are strung. We say
that when a man is dead his limbs are unstrung; every-
thing is strung on life.'
Uddalaka said: 'So it is; now what of the controller
within?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'He who lives on earth, apart
from earth, whom earth does not know; whose body is
earth; controlling earth from within; is your own Self,
the immortal, the controller.
'He who lives in water, apart from water, whom
water does not know; whose body is water, controlling
water from within; is your own Self, the immortal, the
controller.
'He who lives in sky,wind, heaven, quarters, sun, moon,
stars, air, darkness, light; apart from them; whom sky,
wind, heaven, quarters, sun, moon, stars, air, darkness,
light do not know; whose body is sky, wind, heaven, quar-
ters, sun, moon, stars, air, darkness, light; controlling
them from within; is your own Self, the immortal, the
controller. Thus He lives in all gods.
'He who lives in all beings, apart from them, whom
no being knows; whose body is all beings; controlling
all beings from within; is your own Self, the immortal,
the controller. Thus he lives in all beings.
'He who lives in breath, speech, eyes, ears, skin,
mind, knowledge; apart from them; whom breath,
141
speech, eyes, ears, skin, mind, knowledge do not know;
whose body is breath, speech, eyes, ears, skin, mind,
knowledge; controlling them from w i t h i n ; is your own
Self, the immortal, the controller.
'Thus he lives in man's body.
'He who lives in man's seed; apart from i t ; whom
man's seed does not know; whose body is seed; con-
trolling it from w i t h i n ; is your own Self, the immortal,
the controller.
'Invisible, He sees; inaudible, He hears; unthink-
able, He thinks; unknowable, He knows. None other
can see, hear, think, know. He is your own Self, the
immortal; the controller; nothing else matters.'
Thereupon Uddalaka became silent.

Then Gargee said: 'Revered sirs! I can ask h i m two


questions, that if he answer, no one amongst you can
defeat h i m in discussion about Spirit.'
The venerable Brahmans gave her permission.
Gargee said: 'Yadnyawalkya! As a soldier from
Benares or Behar might string his loosened bow and
rise w i t h two deadly arrows, so I have risen to fight
you. Answer my questions.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'What are they?'
Gargee said: 'Yadnyawalkya! T e l l me, on what is
woven, warp and woof, that which is above heaven,
below earth, containing heaven and earth; that which
is past, present and future?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'That which is above heaven,
142
below earth, containing heaven and earthy that which
is past, present and future, is woven, warp and woof,
on air.'
Gargee said: 'Yadnyawalkya! I curtsy; you have
solved my doubt. Now answer my second question.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'What is that?'
Gargee said: 'Yadnyawalkya! On what is that air
woven, warp and woof?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'The saints call it the Root. It is
neither big nor little, neither long nor short, neither
burning like fire nor flowing like water; without sha-
dow, without darkness, without w i n d , without air, with-
out attachment; without touch,taste, sight, smell; with-
out hearing, speaking, t h i n k i n g ; without breath,without
face, without energy, without measure, without inside
or outside; it consumes nothing; nothing consumes i t .
'Gargee! At the command of that Root, sun and moon
do not clash; heaven and earth do not clash; moments,
hours, days, nights, fortnights, months, seasons, years,
follow their course; rivers issuing from the snowy moun-
tains follow their course to east and west or where you
w i l l . A t the command of that Root, people praise the
generous, gods guard the sacrificer, fathers watch the
sacrificial offerings.
'Gargee! who without knowing this Root, meditates,
sacrifices, practises austerity, though for thousands of
years, does what passes away. W h o dies without know-
ing this Root, is p i t i f u l ; who leaves this world, knowing
i t , is wise.
145
'Gargee! That Root sees, though invisible} hears,
though inaudible thinks, though unthinkable; knows,
though unknowable. Nothing else can see, hear,
think, know. Air is woven on that Root, warp and
woof.'
Gargee said: 'Revered sirs! Anybody has a right to
be proud who can escape this sage, with a curtsy; no
one can defeat him in discussion about Spirit.'
Thereupon Gargee became silent.

Widagdha Shakala asked: ' Yadnyawalkya! How many


gods are there?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Three hundred and three and
three thousand and three, as is mentioned in the list
of the hymns to all gods.'
'Right,' said Widagdha; 'but how many in reality?'
'Thirty-three.'
'Right; but how many in reality?'
'Six.'
'Right; but how many in reality?'
'Three.'
'Right; but how many in reality?'
'Two.'
'Right; but how many in reality?'
'One and a half.'
'Right; but how many in reality?'
'One God only.'
'Then what are those three hundred and three and
three thousand and three?'
144
'The divine powers; the more important being thirty-
three.'
'What are those thirty-three?'
'Eight Wasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Xdityas, Indra
and Prajapati.'
'What are the Wasus?'
'Fire, earth, wind, sky, sun, moon, stars, heaven.'
'What are the eleven Rudras?'
'Five living fires, five senses and the personal Self.
When they leave our body, they make us cry out; hence
their name Rudra.'
'What are Adityas?'
'Twelve months of the year; they pass carrying
everything; hence their name.'
'Who is Indra? Who is Prajapati?'
'Indra is thunder; Prajapati is sacrifice.'
'What is the symbol of thunder?'
'The thunderbolt.'
'What is the symbol of sacrifice?'
'The sacrificial animal.'
'What are the six gods?'
'Fire, earth, wind, air, sun, sky; all the world lives
therein.'
'What are the three gods?'
'The three worlds; all the gods live therein.'
'What are the two gods?'
'Food and breath.'
'What is one and a half?'
'The wind.'
K 145 Y.U.
'The w i n d is one, w h y is it called one and a half?'
'Because as the wind blows, everything grows,'
'Who is the one God?'
' l i f e is the one God. It is that Spirit. 7

Yadnyawalkya said: 'Revered sirs! Anybody in this


assembly can question me; I can question anybody or I
can question all.'
Nobody dared question h i m .
Then Yadnyawalkya questioned them: 'Man is like a
big tree; his hairs are leaves, his skin bark; blood can
ooze from a wound like sap from a tree; there is flesh in
man, wood in the tree; his muscles are like its fibres,
his bones like hard wood, his marrow like its pith.
'The tree when felled grows up again from its root,
from what root does man grow when cut down by
death?
'Do not say that he grows from his seed, his seed dies
w i t h h i m ; the tree can grow from its seed, its seed does
not die w i t h i t .
' I f the tree is pulled root and all, it w i l l not grow
again. From what root or seed does a man, cut down by
death, grow again?
'He is not born again as he is; then who creates h i m
again?'
Yadnyawalkya answered his question: 'Spirit is the
root, the seed; for h i m who stands still and knows, the
invulnerable rock. Spirit is knowledge; Spirit is joy,'

146
Janaka, king of Behar, descending from his throne,
said: 'Yadnyawalkya! I bow. Teach me,'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'King! As one about to make a
long journey is furnished with ship or carriage, so
you are furnished with the sacred teachings. Though
a rich king, you have learnt the Wedas and the
Upanishads; where will you go, when you leave this
world?'
Janaka said: 'Lord! I do not know where I shall go.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'But I can tell you where.'
Janaka said:' Tell me.'
Yadnyawalkya said: ' I n the right eye Self lives and
kindles the light; in the left eye His queen. They meet
in the hollow of the heart, feed on the heart's red lump,
rest in the network of the veins, move through the
artery that rises upward from the heart. The veins, like
numberless small hairs, are rooted in the heart,
through the heart flows a food finer than the food that
nourishes the body.
'East, west, south, north, above, below, every quar-
ter is filled with His breath. That Self described as
"not this, not that" cannot be grasped, nor destroyed,
nor captured, nor afflicted. King, he is imperishable.
Do not fear.'
Janaka said: 'You have set me above fear. Here is my
kingdom; here am I, at your service.'

147
Book VII
Yadnyawalkya went to Janaka. He had not planned a
discussion; but something said about sacrifice so pleased
h i m that he promised Janaka whatever he asked.
Janaka asked permission to question h i m ; and that was
the first question he asked.
Janaka said: 'Yadnyawalkya! What is the light of
man?'
Yadnyawalkya said: T h e sun is his light. By that
light man sits, works, goes, returns,'
Janaka said: 'When the sun has set what is his light?'
Yadnyawalkya said: T h e moon is his light; by that
light man sits, works, goes, returns,'
Janaka said: 'When sun and moon have set, what is
his light?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Fire is his light; by that light
man sits, works, goes, returns,'
Janaka said: 'When sun and moon have set, when
fire is out, what is his light?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Speech is his light; by that light
man sits, works, goes, returns. W h e n man cannot see
his own hand, he can hear what is said, and go towards
the voice.'
Janaka said: 'When sun and moon have set, when
fire is out, when nothing is said, what is his light?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'Self is his light; by that light
man sits, works, goes, returns.'
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Janaka said: 'Who is that Self?'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'He who lives w i t h i n the heart,
surrounded by the senses, He is the light w i t h i n , know-
ledge itself. Unchanged He moves through both condi-
tions, through waking and sleeping; seems to think in
the one, to sport in the other; plays amid multiform
dreams, then transcends this world, transcends every
perishing shape, goes to sleep.
'He takes a body at birth, takes up its infirmities; but
when he leaves that body, He leaves all infirmities.
'He has in t r u t h two homes, earth and heaven; but
seems to have a t h i r d between, built of dreams. He
stands in this t h i r d home, surveys both heaven and
earth. While passing on his way to heaven, his nightly
way, He knows both happiness and misery. He breaks
the link. He has made dreams through his own power
and light, he rejects them and goes into dreamless
sleep.
' I n dreams he shone by his own light; no horse
there, no road, no carriage, but he made i t ; no well,
no tank, no river, but he made i t ; no excitement, no
pleasure, no happiness, but he made i t . He is the
maker.
'Here is my authority: "He breaks the link w i t h all
that belongs to body; he remains awake giving light;
dreamless he makes dreams. By that light he returns
to earth. He is the Golden God, the Man, the Self,
Hamsa, the solitary B i r d . "
'The Golden God, the Man, the Self, Hamsa, the soli-
149
tary Bird, He leaves that small nest, the body, in charge
of its guardian life, goes out wherever He will, is never
weary.
'He the God, seems to dream, sporting among
forms, to go hither and thither, seems to delight in sex,
to eat and laugh with friends, or to look upon heart-
rending spectacles.
' His playing ground is seen; no one can see H i m .
'Some say that dreaming and waking are the same;
for what man sees while awake, he sees in his dreams.
Whatever else be true, the Self shines by its own
light.'
Janaka said: 'Lord! I give you a thousand crowns.
Speak on for the sake of my liberation.'
Yadnyawalkya said: 'He wakes; and having enjoyed,
gone hither and thither, known good and evil, he
hastens back again to his dreams. But nothing can
affect him, nothing can cling to Self.
'Having enjoyed his dreams, gone hither and thither,
known good and evil, he hastens back to wakeful-
ness. But nothing can affect H i m , nothing can cling to
Self.
'Having enjoyed his wakefulness, gone hither and
thither, known good and evil, he hastens back again to
his dreams.
'As a large fish moves from one bank of a river to the
other, Self moves between waking and dreaming.
'But as a falcon or eagle, flying in the sky, wearies,
folds its wings, falls into its nest, Self hastens into that
150
sleep, his last resort, where he desires nothing, creates
no dream.
'In this body; there are those veins like numberless
small hairs called Hita, full of white, blue, yellow,
green, red. It is because of these that he sees himself
killed, sees himself beaten down, sees himself chased by
elephants, sees himself falling into a well; in all these
dreams, he creates, through ignorance, dangers known
when awake, or he draws upon imagination, thinking
himself a king or a god or the world.
'But his true nature is free from desire, free from
evil, free from fear. As a man in the embrace of his be-
loved wife forgets everything that is without, every-
thing that is within; so man, in the embrace of the
knowing Self, forgets everything that is without,
everything that is within; for there all desires are satis-
fied, Self his sole desire, that is no desire; man goes be-
yond sorrow.
'Father disappears, mother disappears, world disap-
pears, gods disappear, Wedas disappear, thief disap-
pears, rogue disappears, ascetic disappears, monk dis-
appears, menial disappears, good and evil disappear; he
has gone beyond sorrow.
'What He cannot see, He cannot see, yet He can see;
sight and He are one, and He is indestructible; what
can He see; there is nothing separate from H i m ; no
second.
'What He cannot smell, He cannot smell, yet He can
smell; smelling and He are one, and He is indestruct-
151
ible; what can He smell; there is nothing separate from
H i m ; no second.
'What He cannot taste, He cannot taste, yet He can
taste; taste and He are one, and He is indestructible;
what can He taste; there is nothing separate from H i m ;
no second.
'What He cannot speak, He cannot speak, yet He can
speak; speech and He are one, and He is indestructible;
what can He speak; there is nothing separate from
H i m ; no second.
'What He cannot hear, He cannot hear, yet He can
hear; hearing and He are one, and He is indestructible;
what can He hear; there is nothing separate from H i m ;
no second.
'What He cannot think, He cannot think, yet He can
think; thinking and He are one, and He is indestruct-
ible; what can He think; there is nothing separate from
H i m ; no second.
'What He cannot touch, He cannot touch, yet He can
touch; touching and He are one, and He is indestruct-
ible; what can He touch; there is nothing separate from
H i m ; no second.
'What He cannot know, He cannot know, yet He can
know; knowing and He are one, and He is indestruct-
ible; what can He know; there is nothing separate from
H i m ; no second.
'Where there is another, one sees another; smells,
tastes, touches, knows, hears another, speaks to another,
thinks of another,
152
'One, without a second; that is the Kingdom of
Heaven; man's highest achievement; his greatest
wealth; his final goal; his utmost joy. Other creatures
must live on a diminution of this joy,
' When the knowing Self masters the personal self at
death, the personal self groans, as a heavily laden cart
grtfans under its burden.
'When body grows weak through age or disease, the
Self separates itself from the limbs, as a mango, a fig,
a banyan fruit separates itself from the stalk; man
hastens back to birth, goes, as before, from birth to
birth.
'As soldiers, governors, scholars, leaders, wait upon a
returning king with food and drink and bring him to
his house announcing his approach, so all the elements
wait upon such a Self, announcing its approach.
'As soldiers, governors, scholars, leaders, gather to-
gether to bid goodbye to a king, so when the Self de-
cides to go, all the senses gather.'

'As a caterpillar, having reached the end of a blade of


grass, takes hold of another blade, then draws its body
from the first, so the Self having reached the end of his
body, takes hold of another body, then draws itself from
the first.
'And as a goldsmith takes the gold from an old piece
of jewelry and shapes it into a more modern piece, so
the Self forgets the old body, takes hold of another
body, whether like that of the fathers, or of the celestial
153
singers, or of the gods, or of the begetter, or of any other
creature.
'This Self is Spirit. He is knowledge, mind, life,
sight, hearing, earth, water, wind, air, light, dark-
ness, desire, absence of desire, anger, placability, right,
wrong; He is everything; He is this and that. Whatever
his conduct and character in one life, he has it in his
next; if good in one, he is good in another; if a sinner in
one, he is a sinner in another; his good karma makes
h i m good, his sinful karma makes h i m sinful. Hence
they say that soul is f u l l of desire. He wills according to
his desire; he acts according to his w i l l ; he reaps what
he sows. Here is my authority:
1
''Self goes where man's m i n d goes. Whatever his
actions in this world, he enjoys their reward in the
next; that over, he returns for action's sake. I speak of a
man w i t h desire; but what is he who has no desire? He
has no desire, because he has attained his desire; desire
of Self is no desire. He does not die like others; he is of
Spirit, he becomes Spirit."
'When all desires of the heart are gone, mortal be-
comes immortal, man becomes Spirit, even in this life.
'As the skin of a snake is peeled off and lies dead on
an ant-hill, so this body falls and lies on the ground; but
the Self is bodiless, immortal, full of light; he is of
Spirit, he becomes Spirit.
' I f man knows that he is He, w h y should he hunger
for a body?
'He, whose Self lying in this mysterious uncertain
154
body is awakened, becomes Spirit. He becomes the
maker of the world, the maker of everything. His is the
world, he is the' world itself.
'Let the wise and holy man know H i m , govern his
intellect by that knowledge} not learn words after
words, a weariness to the tongue.
Holding this purpose, people long ago did not want
children. Spirit was their goal; what had they to do
with children? They refused children, wealth, com-
pany, travelled with a begging bowl. Desire for chil-
dren is desire for wealth, desire for wealth is desire for
company ; what is desire but desire?'

Book V I I I
Shwetaketu went to the assembly of the wise men of
Panchala, and found king Prawahana Jaiwali, sur-
rounded by courtiers. The king saw him and said: W e l -
come, young man!'
'Here I am, Your Majesty,' said Shwetaketu.
The king said: 'Have you been taught by your
father?'
Shwetaketu said: 'Yes!'
The king said: 'Do you know if people go in different
directions when they die?'
'No!'
'Do you know how they come back again to this
world?'
"No!'
155
'Do you know why the other world is not overcrowded
by those who are pouring in?'
'No!'
'Do you know when water takes the form of man
and begins to speak?'
'No!'
'Do you know where to find the road that leads to
God and the road that leads to the fathers? Have you
not heard these words of the Sage: "I have heard of the
roads by which men travel, one that leads to God, one
that leads to the fathers. Everything that moves be-
tween heaven and earth, moves along these roads!'''
Shwetaketu said: 'I have not heard of either road.'
Then the king offered h i m bed and board but the
young man refused, went back to his father and said:
'Father! W h y did you call me well educated?'
Father said: 'Wise man! what is the matter?'
Son said: 'That king asked me five questions, and I
did not know how to answer one of them.'
Father said: 'What were they?'
Son said: 'They were these,' and told h i m the five
questions.
Father said: ' M y son! Whatever I knew, I taught
you. But come, we go to the king and become his
pupils.'
Son said: 'You can go alone.'
Thereupon Gautama went to the king, who gave
h i m a seat, water and a welcome, saying: ' I will give
whatever you ask.'
156
Gautama said: 'Say what you said to my son.'
K i n g said: ' W h y ask for a spiritual gift; w h y not ask
a more substantial gift?'
Gautama said: ' Y o u know well that I do not lack
gold, cows, horses, servants, attendants, clothes. Do not
offer me what I have already in great abundance.'
K i n g said: 'Gautama! T h e n ask in the proper way.'
Gautama said: 'I come as a pupil. There was a time
when people gave their word, and were accepted as
pupils.'
Gautama was accepted and stayed as a pupil.
K i n g said: 'Gautama! As your forefathers were not
offended w i t h my forefathers, do not be offended w i t h
me. I give what you have asked; for who can refuse
when asked, as you have asked?
'This knowledge is not born even in a priest.
'Gautama! Heaven is the sacrificial fire, sun its fuel,
rays its smoke, day its flame, quarters its coal, sub-
quarters its sparks. Gods offer faith as an oblation and
create k i n g moon.
'Rain-cloud is the sacrificial fire, year its fuel, vapour
its smoke, lightning its flame, thunderbolt its coal,
thunder its spark. Gods offer k i n g moon as an oblation
and create the rain.
' W o r l d is the sacrificial fire, earth its fuel, fire its
smoke, night its flame, moon its coal, stars its sparks.
Gods offer rain as an oblation and create food.
'Man is the sacrificial fire, open mouth its fuel,
breath its smoke, tongue its flame, eyes its coal, ears
157
its sparks. Gods offer food as an oblation and create
seed.
'Woman is the sacrificial fire. Gods offer seed as an
oblation and create man. He lives as long as he may
and dies.
'Then they burn h i m on the funeral pile. There fire
is the sacrificial fire, fuel is fuel, smoke is smoke, flame
is flame, coal is coal, spark is spark. Gods offer man as an
oblation and create a being blazing w i t h light.
'Householders who know and worship sacrificial fire;
ascetics who know it in solitude, and worship it as faith
and t r u t h ; pass after death into light, from light into
day, from day into the moon's brightning fortnight,
from the moon's brightning fortnight into the six
months when sun moves northward, from these
months into the territory of gods, from the territory
of gods into the sun, from the sun into lightning. The
self-born Spirit finds them there and leads them to
heaven. In that Kingdom of Heaven they live, never
returning to earth.
'But they who conquer the lesser worlds by sacrifice,
austerity, alms-giving, pass into smoke, from smoke into
night, from night into the six months when the sun
travels southward, from these months into the world
of fathers, from the world of fathers into the moon,
where they become food. As priests feed on the moon,
so gods feed on them. When their karma is exhausted,
they return to air, from air to wind, from wind to rain,
from rain into the earth where they become food, where
158
they are offered as sacrifice to the fire in man; offered as
sacrifice to the fire in woman; then they are born again.
Once more they rise, once more they circle round.
'Those who do not know any of these roads, are born
as poisonous worms and insects.'

This is perfect. That is perfect. Perfect comes from


perfect. Take perfect from perfect; the remainder is
perfect.
May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

The End