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Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45

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Tectonophysics

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/tecto

Invited Review

Mantle structure and tectonic history of SE Asia
Robert Hall a,⁎, Wim Spakman b,c
a
SE Asia Research Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, United Kingdom
b
Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 4, 3584CD Utrecht, The Netherlands
c
Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics — CEED, University of Oslo, Norway

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Seismic travel-time tomography of the mantle under SE Asia reveals patterns of subduction-related seismic P-
Received 27 April 2015 wave velocity anomalies that are of great value in helping to understand the region's tectonic development.
Accepted 6 July 2015 We discuss tomography and tectonic interpretations of an area centred on Indonesia and including Malaysia,
Available online 26 July 2015
parts of the Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia. We begin with an explanation of seismic tomogra-
phy and causes of velocity anomalies in the mantle, and discuss assessment of model quality for tomographic
Keywords:
Subduction
models created from P-wave travel times. We then introduce the global P-wave velocity anomaly model UU-
Tomography P07 and the tectonic model used in this paper and give an overview of previous interpretations of mantle struc-
Tectonic reconstructions ture. The slab-related velocity anomalies we identify in the upper and lower mantle based on the UU-P07 model
Indonesia are interpreted in terms of the tectonic model and illustrated with figures and movies. Finally, we discuss where
tomographic and tectonic models for SE Asia converge or diverge, and identify the most important conclusions
concerning the history of the region. The tomographic images of the mantle record subduction beneath the SE
Asian region to depths of approximately 1600 km. In the upper mantle anomalies mainly record subduction dur-
ing the last 10 to 25 Ma, depending on the region considered. We interpret a vertical slab tear crossing the entire
upper mantle north of west Sumatra where there is a strong lateral kink in slab morphology, slab holes between
c.200–400 km below East Java and Sumbawa, and offer a new three-slab explanation for subduction in the North
Sulawesi region. There is a different structure in the lower mantle compared to the upper mantle and the deep
structure changes from west to east. What was imaged in earlier models as a broad and deep anomaly below
SE Asia has a clear internal structure and we argue that many features can be identified as older subduction
zones. We identify remnants of slabs that detached in the Early Miocene such as the Sula slab, now found in
the lower mantle north of Lombok, and the Proto-South China Sea slab now at depths below 700 km curving
from northern Borneo to the Philippines. Based on our tectonic model we interpret virtually all features seen
in upper mantle and lower mantle to depths of at least 1200 km to be the result of Cenozoic subduction.
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2. Introduction to seismic tomography models based on travel-times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1. A summary of travel-time tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2. Model quality assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3. Seismic velocity anomalies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4. Global mantle model UU-P07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.5. Display of tomographic images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3. Mantle structure of SE Asia: larger scale patterns and early interpretations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. Tectonic models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5. Anomalies: upper mantle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.1. Java–Sumba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.2. Sumatra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.3. Banda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.4. Molucca Sea-Sangihe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

⁎ Corresponding author at: Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, United Kingdom. Tel.: +44 1784 443897.
E-mail address: robert.hall@rhul.ac.uk (R. Hall).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2015.07.003
0040-1951/© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

R. Hall, W. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 15

5.5. North Sulawesi trench subduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.6. Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.7. North Borneo to Sulu Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6. Anomalies: lower mantle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1. Sunda–Java–Banda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.2. North Borneo–Proto-South China Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.3. Philippine Sea plate margins 40–25 Ma north and south sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7. Discussion: tomography and tectonic models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.1. Upper mantle: results from tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.2. Lower mantle: results from tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.3. Key points concerning tectonic models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Appendix A. Supplementary data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

1. Introduction limited period of time, of the order of 10 to 25 Ma, depending on rates
of subduction. A longer subduction history may be recorded in the
In this paper our focus is an assessment of independent models of lower mantle. Like many other workers, but not all (e.g. Anderson,
tectonic evolution and mantle structure concerned with SE Asia. We 2007; Hamilton, 2007), we consider that parts, or all, of subducted
discuss tomography and tectonic interpretations of the region centred slabs often enter the lower mantle. Positive velocity anomalies below
on Indonesia and including Malaysia, parts of the Philippines, New 660 km have been interpreted to record subduction that occurred as
Guinea and northern Australia (Fig. 1). early as ~250 Ma (e.g. van der Meer et al., 2010). A good example of sub-
At present much of the SE Asia region can be considered part of the duction history recorded in the lower mantle is seen in the Indonesian
Eurasian plate, and for some a separate sub-plate, given various names region between Java and the Banda arc (Fig. 2). In the east none of the
such as the SE Asia plate or the Sunda block, at a boundary that varies slab subducted at the former Banda trench penetrates into the lower
in position according to author (e.g. Bird, 2003; McCaffrey, 1996; mantle and there is a large flat lying portion of the slab resting on the
Rangin et al., 1999; Simons et al., 2007). SE Asia is bounded largely by 660-km discontinuity (Spakman and Hall, 2010), whereas further west
subduction zones and is situated in a position where major plates are the subducted slab becomes almost vertical below about 300 km and
converging from the south and east (India, Australia, Pacific, Philippine the positive velocity anomaly can be traced well into the lower mantle
Sea). Subducted slabs are mainly well defined by seismicity down to to depths of c. 1500 km (Fukao et al., 1992; Puspito and Shimazaki,
depths of about 660 km (Fig. 1B) and by volcanoes (Fig. 1A). The region 1995; Widiyantoro and van der Hilst, 1997). This is not an artefact of to-
has a particularly complicated geology and plate tectonic history which mographic methodology and we consider it to be lithosphere that was
has been dominated by subduction (e.g. Audley-Charles et al., 1988; subducted before the slab now imaged in the upper mantle.
Haile, 1973; Hall, 1996, 2002, 2012; Hamilton, 1979; Hutchison, 1989; Interpreting tectonic history from seismic tomography is not
Katili, 1973, 1975; Lee and Lawver, 1995; Metcalfe, 1990, 2011, 2013). straightforward, even for the upper mantle, and even if it is entirely
The SE Asian promontory has grown primarily as a result of subduction the result of subduction. Anomalies at the same depth may correspond
and there have been thousands of kilometres of lithosphere subducted to subduction of lithosphere of different ages, at different rates, may
during the Mesozoic as Tethyan oceans were subducted, and during result from subduction oblique to the trench, and slabs may deform dur-
the Cenozoic as Australia moved northwards and the Pacific plates ing subduction. Furthermore, we cannot exclude seismic heterogene-
moved westwards. ities resulting from other processes or inherited in different ways, and
It is now accepted that the mantle contains a record of subduction some anomalies are simply artefacts of the tomographic imaging.
that can be imaged because subducted lithosphere produces a strong These problems become even greater for the lower mantle where the
temperature anomaly which allows slabs to be detected as regions interpreted subducted slabs are less plate-like and more amorphous,
with relatively high seismic velocities. High-resolution (P-wave) seis- perhaps owing to folding and thickening in the more viscous lower
mic tomography reveals such anomalies although the images are mantle. Thus, linking imaged anomalies to past tectonic evolution be-
blurred representations of mantle structure. Interpretation of subducted comes less well constrained. Despite the difficulties, there are now
slabs is uncontroversial in regions which are seismically active and the many parts of the globe where imaged upper and lower mantle struc-
combination of seismicity and tomography can reveal details of slab ture has been convincingly interpreted in terms of tectonic history. A
morphology and structure that may be used to understand the history tectonic reconstruction model can be used to predict where lithosphere
of subduction. Anomalies in aseismic regions can be more problematic has been subducted and how much has been consumed in plate conver-
to interpret since they may result from processes, as yet unidentified, gence zones. The predictions can be compared to the mantle structure
other than subduction. Nonetheless, seismic tomography should be of interpreted by seismic tomography and if the two are independent
great value in helping to understand the tectonic development of SE (i.e. the tomographic model has not been used in making the recon-
Asia because its active margins are characterised by intense seismicity struction) the tomography provides an independent test of the tectonic
and volcanic activity and there are obvious, relatively simple, seismic reconstruction, and conversely the plate tectonic model may suggest in-
velocity anomalies in the upper mantle which are clearly subduction- terpretations of mantle structure. This analysis may then result in
related. changes of the tectonic reconstruction, particularly if remnants of pro-
Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements (Bock et al., 2003; posed subduction are not detected or if remnants of subduction are
Simons et al., 2007) and other kinematic data (DeMets et al., 1990, found in a different location than predicted.
2010) indicate very high rates of relative motions between plates and We begin with an explanation of seismic tomography, assessment
smaller tectonic fragments in the region. The rates of subduction at of tomographic model quality for tomography models created from
the margins of SE Asia are high, typically between 5 and 10 cm/year, seismic P-wave travel times and causes of velocity anomalies in the
and locally even higher. The lengths of slabs in the upper mantle identi- mantle. Then we introduce the detailed global P-wave velocity anomaly
fied by seismicity to depths of c. 660 km can therefore record only a model UU-P07 used in the paper and explain how the imaged mantle

16 R. Hall, W. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45

Fig. 1. A. DEM of the region including SE Asia, the Western Pacific, eastern Indian Ocean and northern Australia from satellite gravity-derived bathymetry combined with SRTM topography
(Sandwell and Smith, 2009). Red filled triangles are volcanoes from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program (Siebert and Simkin, 2002). B. Seismicity in and around SE Asia
with hypocentre depths (Engdahl et al., 1998).

structure of SE Asia mantle structure will be presented in figures and and then lower, mantle and our interpretation of them in terms of the
movies, followed by an overview of previous interpretations of mantle tectonic model. Finally, we discuss where tomographic and tectonic
structure. Next we introduce the tectonic model used in this paper, models for SE Asia converge or diverge, and identify the most important
and continue with an assessment of velocity anomalies in the upper, conclusions concerning the history of the region.

A summary of travel-time tomography. Notice that the limits of the wave-speed anomaly scale change with depth.g. Travel-time tomography de- veloped from the pioneering work of Aki et al. Zhu et al. . Usually. Introduction to seismic tomography models based on travel-times models are presented as colour maps displaying seismic velocity anomalies as percentages of a used 1-D background. Seismic travel-time tomography is a geophysical inver.g. A summary of travel-time tomography model. 2007) at selected depths. 2). 2. 1992. (1995). Fig...g. sion method that converts observed travel times of seismic waves For an overview of the various tomographic methods we refer to into a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the seismic velocity struc. sical travel-time picks of seismic waves. Small crosses denote the longitude–latitude grid at 5° intervals. plate boundaries or other major tectonic linea- ments in the region. W. Fichtner et al. tomographic relevant to most of the models shown here. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 17 2.g. Fig. opments have meanwhile led to many different tomographic ture have been created with seismic travel-time tomography using methods for different data extracted from seismograms such as clas- P-wave data and adopting the seismic ray approximation (e. Puspito et al. R. Solid lines indicate coastlines. or even large por- Hilst. Hall. Tomographic slices through model UU-P07 (Amaru.. Spakman et al. follows below. arrival times determined Fukao et al. Extra contour lines indicate regions where anomalies are in excess of the colour contour limits by multiples of 1%.... or reference 2.1. Nolet (2008). 1998) used in tomography. tions of a seismogram (e. 1993). (1977). 1993. White dots denote earthquake hypocentres from the EHB data set (Engdahl et al. Colours indicate the P-wave wave-speed anomalies relative to the radial reference model ak135 of Kennett et al. Other devel- Most of the three-dimensional models of SE Asian mantle struc. (2005). Only events within 5 km of the depth of the tomographic slice are plotted. This depth variation follows the scaling between temperature and wave-speed anomalies as used in Goes et al. Blue colours correspond to positive and red to negative wave-speed anomalies. particularly ture of the mantle (e. 1996). Widyantoro and van der from waveforms of body ways or surface waves. 2013. of seismic velocity (e. 2012).

of the estimation of earthquake hypocentres from and constitutes the particular path through the mantle along which a 1 which Lo starts. and Bijwaard. 2 (continued). It facilitates the computation of approximations seismic ray is a high frequency representation of wave propagation Lo of seismic rays L. and of reference model travel times T o ¼ ∫ Lo dlo . The delay-time d is the v(r)dl.g. A tomographic problem. 2001. ray geometry Lo. 1998. As a next step towards inversion.18 R. Global travel-time tomography problems are based on a data L. Bijwaard et al. Spakman is often used for global travel-time tomography. difference between observed travel time T. or for . The observed travel time T is interpreted 1 1 delay time integral equations d ¼ T−T o ¼ ∫ L dl−∫ Lo dlo as an integrated measure of all seismic velocities encountered along ðvo þ ΔvÞ vo the ray path.. The tomo. Fukao et al. graphic inversion focuses on estimating the 3-D seismic velocity anom. 1992.. the Earth's mantle is usually aly field Δv(r) with respect to a laterally averaged seismic velocity vo(r) subdivided into 3-D network of non-overlapping cells which can be of such as the radial reference model ak135 of Kennett et al. This seismic wave travels from an earthquake hypocentre to a seismological vo station. The ray geometry L is fully determined by the seismic velocity information is used to formulate a mathematical linearization of the structure v(r) of the mantle. and reference travel-time To computed along the reference model set consisting of many millions of these integral equations. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 Fig. acquired along the true ray phy. This travel-time integral forms the basis of travel-time tomogra. Widiyantoro and van der Hilst. (1995) which variable size (e. Hall. W. 1997). Mathematically this is expressed as the integral T = ∫L1/ relative to these reference model quantities. Travel-time tomography based on the ray approximation combines A reference model plays an important role in the formulation of the seismic rays with travel time picks of short-period (~ 1 s) P-waves.

e. 2000). independent assumptions and approximations that lead to the equation d = of methodology. 2006). Spakman et al. 1989) or even from inverse. Bijwaard et al. about error variances and error correlations. For large inverse problems the resolution matrix volving relatively few model parameters (e. Bijwaard et al. Spakman and Bijwaard. The resolution matrix R explicitly describes in what observations equally well. 2014. R. solving dsyn = Am + ϵsyn.g. i. by using iterative approaches checkerboard structures of different cell sizes (Fukao et al. as well as hypocentre and station requirement for a useful test is that a synthetic test model should parameters. unique as it depends on the imposed model regularisation and on which depends on the matrix A. the assumptions made about the statis- estimates of data errors and their correlations. 1988. Nolet.g. The with repeated 3-D ray tracing and earthquake relocation (Bijwaard and synthetic data are inverted in the same manner as the actual data. m ^ or m ^ syn . contain structure to which the data are insensitive.. contain . integral assessment of how the mantle structure mtrue is mapped into 2008) and regularises the inverse problem such that selected solutions a preferred model m. A is the matrix constructed from ray path intersections with cells and 2. and de. van der Hilst and Spakman.e. e. compute for each the data prediction dpred. eters associated with hypocentre mislocation and station corrections. but for many posed on the model geometry. cannot be computed and this is where sensitivity analysis proves its Trampert et al. 1993). is related to the tomographic model.. 1992).. Widiyantoro et al. data noise on the solution by computing G−εsyn. for instance by using adaptive cell parameterization (Bijwaard alies. Spakman and approximate ray theory. The cell model is the basis of a mography model m ^ is obtained as an approximation of real mantle mathematical parameterization of the unknown seismic velocity anom. By writing tial resolution and model amplitude errors is usually performed with dobs = Amtrue + ϵ. 3). and on the additional regularisation constraints im- can be explicitly computed in small inverse problems. Finding an acceptable model always The choices made by the tomographer leading to a particular model requires making a subjective choice between fitting the data and fitting m^ cannot all be tested by inspecting the resolution matrix or by sensitiv- the additional constraints on model geometry. as m ^ ¼ G− d leading to the estimated tomographic Am + ϵ. spatial resolution is a measure of the linear dependence be- minimize the difference ϵ = dobs − dpred. An additional and substituting d = Amtrue + ϵ. The basic the velocity anomaly in each cell. predefined data fit measure. 2001). i.g. ^ Examples of sensitivity tests for combined esti- can be computed. Montelli et al. Spakman and Nolet. W. or perceived. isolated cells of different sizes (Spakman and Nolet. A general strategy towards determining way the model value in a particular cell depends on the values in all solutions is to find models m ^ with data predictions dpred ¼ Am ^ that other cells. Substituting dsyn = Amsyn into this equation leads to m ^ syn ¼ 3-D reference models (Amaru. and the inversion strategy.g. ity analysis with synthetic models. and due to the approximation of seismic velocity model using the same ray paths as in the real data in- true anomalous mantle structure by the adopted model parameterization. To find acceptable solutions rors and explicitly shows that data error affects a solution apart from there are basically two strategies. due to linearization of the observation equation Nolet. the latter being crucially based on delay times.. or by starting from different 1-D reference models ^ syn ¼ G− dsyn by invoking the same generalized leads to the solution m (Spakman et al.. the to- is interpolated (e. value. 1998). This equation can only be used to study error propagation model m. estimates of data solving on computers.g. By comparing m ^ syn to msyn one can arrive at estimates regarding gy is too demanding of computer time.. model parameterisation.. Synthetic data dsyn are first generated from a synthetic relative to reference model quantities. Hall. Starting from m ^ ¼ G− d methods. Sensitivity analysis cannot test the Formally the entire data inversion step can be written. or by comparing ing the model to be spatially flat and/or smooth.. selecting a solution can be tuned. Rawlinson et al. the multiplication G−d is implicitly tests with only a single synthetic model (Lévěque et al. 1993. formally. This approach has so far only been applied respectively. which renders the tomographic inverse problem suitable for theory. The second strategy is based on spatial resolution and amplitude response. 2007.g. For obtaining detailed mantle models this strate. dobs is the data vector consisting of millions of errors. can be readily obtained.. Clearly. The importance of these additional constraints for mates of spatial resolution and noise are given in this paper (e. Sensitivity analysis for estimating practical problems with a large number of model parameters G− cannot image quality also has potential pitfalls if conclusions are drawn from be computed explicitly. risk of misinterpretation can be reduced considerably by analysing a 1988) leading to an approximated solution m ^ from which estimates of wide range of synthetic models (e. one can also assess the effect of for instance by putting restrictions on model amplitudes and/or requir.g. The ^ complicating factor is that there are usually insufficient data to uniquely term G−ε is caused by the effects of (unknown) data and theoretical er- resolve mantle structure on the cell model. constraints imposed. A synthetic model There are several ways to minimize the different sources of implicit data usually consists of an alternating pattern of negative and positive anom- errors.g. Model quality assessment from coefficients related to hypocentre mislocation and seismological stations (e. the solution sought is the true mantle model mtrue to hundreds of thousands of model parameters. The first is to search the model space resolution issues.e. where I is in mantle tomography using rather coarse model parameterizations in. Rawlinson et al. The preference for a particular model m equations into a linear algebraic set of observation equations dobs = created is that of the tomographer who makes the choices of applicable Am + ϵ. The resolution matrix R is exactly the same as the one pertaining to the real data inversion. − − ^ G Amsyn . This can be implement. By adding synthetic noise assuming additional information on general aspects of model geometry. 1998. The generalized inverse tics of data errors. by forward computation Amsyn = dsyn. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 19 instance a prescribed network of velocity nodes between which velocity Due to the assumptions and approximations described above. εsyn. 2004). for suitable models. the error vector ϵ can be interpreted to comprise not sensitivity analysis based on imaging synthetic seismic velocity models only travel-time observation errors but also implicit errors due to using m (Humphreys and Clayton. 1988).2. This Spakman. sensitivity tests conducted with or without noise.g. Defining R = G A gives msyn ¼ Rmsyn where R is called the Due to insufficient data and data errors ϵ the linear equation dobs = Am + ϵ has no unique solution and many different models may fit the resolution matrix. a perfectly resolved model has R = I. 1998. the identity matrix. vise search strategies to select the model best fitting the data using a m true or m syn . The unknown Without measures of model quality a tomographic model cannot be vector of errors ϵ absorbs all inconsistencies between the data dobs reasonably interpreted. structure mtrue and is usually presented in percentages Δv/vo(r) of the aly structure Δv(r) of the mantle and is used to convert the integral ^ reference velocity at radius r.. 1988) or et al. For very large inverse problems with many tens and Am. Clearly. The resolution matrix R explicitly describes how the true mantle. by using least squares tween model parameters.. Fig. 2014.. reference model. 2000). leads to m ¼ Rmtrue þ G− ε . assessment of the spa- constituting the true anomalous mantle cell structure. m is the model vector from which all velocity anomaly the adopted data fit measure and on the additional regularisation values in the cell model are obtained while m also incorporates param. Instead. leading to a more ed in several ways depending on the inversion approach (e. ^ The matrix G− is called the generalized inverse and is not into the model and how well the preferred model is spatially resolved. to some acceptable level guided by whatever is known. version.. 1993) but the constructed by iterative solution techniques (e.

e. The input blocks can have an irregular shape. (1998). which is due to the parameterization of the tomographic model with cells of variable dimension. Examples of sensitivity test results of imaging various synthetic block models. The colours show the tomographic image of the input model using the same procedure as when real data are input. 1. in the orientation of seismic ray paths such as along the dip direction of a model that are not sampled by the seismic rays. or when block anomalies are not recovered at all. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 Fig. where block anomalies smear into the model. The last number in the model label at the lower left of each panel gives the characteristic lateral spatial dimension of the input blocks in degrees. (1993) and Bijwaard et al. or mantle regions. Black lines show coastlines and plate boundaries and the location of isolated synthetic blocks with seismic wave-speed anomaly amplitudes of +5% or −5% with respect to the 1-D reference model ak135 of Kennett et al. last panel) corresponds to ~400 km. The thickness of the blocks is usually half of this size. smearing of true structure along a locally dominant example of lack of resolution are the cells. An obvious directions only. Blurring can also occur in specific lack of resolution is always detected by sensitivity analysis. In that case the structures with a different geometry. i. More complex resolu. More details can be found in Spakman et al. Hall.. 3. . (1995).0° at 1500 km. These resolution artefacts can all be detected by testing tion artefacts lead to blurring of true mantle structure into larger with proper synthetic models. Note that a lateral distance of 5.0° at 1500 km depth (e. Gaussian noise was added to the synthetic data prior to tomographic inversion to attain a comparable similar variance reduction. structure that is in the null space of the inverse problem. Lack of resolution can be detected where large amplitudes occur between the blocks.. Comparison of ‘input’ and ‘output’ models leads to qualitative assessment of lack of spatial resolution. The eight panels illustrate results at different depths and for different input block-models. i.20 R.g. subducting slab. 5. This is also the reason for the absence of synthetic blocks of a particular size in some parts of the model. W.0° at 60 km.e.

Good spatial resolution at scales of Many tomographic studies based on cell parameterization of the 100 to 200 km is generally obtained in regions of the upper mantle mantle have been performed but differ in cell division. A complete sequence of such map view images is com- terpretation of imaged seismic velocities are still strongly hampered piled as a movie file (SEA_UU-P07_mapview. these negative 2009. by partial melting in the mantle wedge above a In this paper we concentrate on the mantle structure of SE Asia asso- subducting slab). van Hinsbergen et al.g.. Malay Peninsula. Schellart and Spakman.. It is the seismic rays. 0. (2005) this could correspond to a thermal anomaly in the (SVideo_Resolution_1..5% in the mid-mantle. and in depths laterally shifted. mmc1. we present mantle structure from a de. Goes et al. 2 shows map view images at select- that depth (Cammarano et al. Seismic velocity anomalies approach. Negative and positive anomalies In this review paper. or in taking a regional or global approach. decreasing to c. in the first few hundreds of kilometres. or fast.. is essentially the Sundaland continent similar treatment of travel-time data. data treatment. velocity anomalies are often as.. Borneo and Java Sea. comment on the local resolution. 2001). Cell dimensions also vary with and the ambient mantle. Cell thickness varies from 10 km in the crust. or with subducted lithosphere in the mantle. partial melting and volatiles. The imaged 2004). mmc2.g. Compositional effects are still difficult to assess. then 65 km down to using tomography long after the lithosphere entered the trench even 660 km. We interpret or higher than the reference model value at the corresponding depth. 2014. resolution is gen- regularisation method.. to c. depth. (1998) and is based on a Philippines subduction systems. and Subducted slabs are marked by positive anomalies displayed with negative velocity anomalies as reflections of relatively warmer mantle. in a denser cell divi- Seismic velocity is a material parameter depending on local elastic sion of the mantle with lateral cell dimensions which are multiples of properties and density. which facilitates detecting anomaly wave velocity to temperature anomalies is of the same sign as that of smearing along locally dominant seismic ray orientations. Details on how this model was constructed can be found in Amaru sociated with the cold cratonic parts of continental lithosphere. In the lower mantle. we different models for SE Asia. R. der Meer et al. 2012) have seismic velocity anomalies are poorly resolved due to lack of sampling used model UU-P07 in studies of regional mantle structure. 2000). correspond to regions where the seismic velocity is respectively lower mal anomalies associated with subducted lithosphere. such as in the top 1000 km of the mantle under the Indian Ocean to the SW of Sumatra. alies. 2003. A discussion. Fig. The main differences are in the use of more than twice as much data (c. Shelf.5. 1% in the for spatial resolution with synthetic velocity models and examples transition zone.0 which is generally due to a different the tomographic inversion. These resolution tests also help identify larger as composition. Tomographic models based on S-wave data typically shows how synthetic anomalies of variable dimensions (solid line con- image velocity anomalies with amplitudes larger than those based on tours) and with alternating velocity amplitudes of ±5% are recovered in P-wave data by a factor ~1.7–2.g. model ak135 of Kennett et al. Anomaly am- P-wave velocity. inboard of the enclosing Sunda–Banda– successor to the BSE model of Bijwaard et al. 0. Schellart et al. which in turn depend on temperature. W.g. but ciated with subduction along the Sunda–Banda arc. The low thermal conduction in the mantle ex. where important for our analysis. Con.5° with a minimum of 0. van Benthem et al. Negative velocity anomalies are often correlated with higher temperatures in the mantle. In the subducted slab regions of SE tant cause of the observed velocity contrast between subducted slabs Asia cell sizes are generally 0. The colour contouring in the figure and movies depth ranges..3. lower mantle beneath SE Asia and parts of the west Pacific. Compositional effects are not considered dominant for most of mantle structure of the region is presented in a number of figures and the upper mantle above 400 km but can increase in importance below movies as Supplementary Data.mp4 range of 250°K (or 10–20% of ambient mantle temperature) for most and mmc3. and on the origin of high velocity anomalies in the 2003) and may be important for the deeper mantle (Trampert et al. positive velocity anomalies as images of subducted lithosphere. pressure. The cell parameterization is dependent on the local ray density oceanic lithosphere. 2012). 2004) and is largely composed of continental . The sensitivity of S. tailed global mantle model which we use to illustrate mantle structure imaged in other tomographic studies as well as for developing some 3. and in and composition (Cammarano et al. and is 50 km plains why large volumes of subducted lithosphere remain detectable from the base of the crust down to 410 km. inversion and where there are subducted slabs. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 21 2. (2010. we are mostly concerned with the strong ther. Applications of predictions of ed depths of the tomographic model UU-P07 (Amaru. (Spakman and Bijwaard. on the plitudes are generally underestimated and local smearing effects illus- effects on seismic velocities of temperature and other quantities. with (2007).. van increasing to 200 km in the mid mantle. Hall. This region.mov. or may be locally generated (e.4. can be found in Lebedev regions where the tomographic model is essentially unresolved because and Nolet (2003). P-wave anomalies in all P-wave models. 18 million P-wave type travel times). 3 and movies in the folder Resolution_movies Goes et al. The P-wave velocity anomalies are plotted relative to the reference approximations.mp4).. Positive. with smaller cells placed in mantle volumes of higher ray density ductive cooling of the lithosphere prior to subduction is the most impor. 2010). 2003. subduction in the play a role for the continental lithosphere (e. Deschamps and Trampert. Global mantle model UU-P07 and in the top 400 km under the core of Sundaland (Borneo. image blurring is assessed with sensitivity tests cent at the top. 2007) for the SE the effects of temperature and composition on seismic velocities to in. interpretations wave velocity anomaly model UU-P07 of Amaru (2007) from which the evidence for subduction-related global lower mantle structure was The lithosphere of the continental region comprising the Sunda presented by van der Meer et al. the use of CRUST2. hot mantle upwelling).5° in regions of high ray sampling. The input blocks are separated by 0% anom- dependence of S-waves on elastic parameters. which can be due to advective 2. the Thai– Malay Peninsula and Indochina).mov.0 (Laske et al.g. pertaining to the SE Asian region. 2.5° or 1°. 2003). 2012.mov and SVideo_Resolution_2. Lebedev and Nolet. (1995). 2013) as a crustal correction model. amount of data. assumptions and P07.. region of Sulawesi. However. This model is the global P. Several authors (e. of almost complete lack of data sampling the mantle. Asian mantle. Display of tomographic images temperature transport (e. P-wave velocity anomalies for the upper mantle vary from a few per As discussed above. shows negative seismic Chertova et al.mp4) show- by the largely unknown error in the amplitudes of imaged seismic ing depth slices for UU-P07 in the folder Mapview_depth slices_UU- velocity anomalies that results from data noise. blue-to-green colours. Mantle structure of SE Asia: larger scale patterns and early new interpretations of imaged structure. such trate limited resolution. reference erally good for all length scales between 200 to 700 km and anomaly model. and then 100 km at the top of the lower mantle gradually when subduction occurred hundreds of millions of years ago (e. According to are given in Fig. mantle cell division and inversion (Hall and Morley. Rather than discussing smearing is mostly localised. 2013.

spatial resolution under Sundaland (Fig.mov. (1999). (1998).. spreads laterally. Hall and Sevastjanova... 1983.mov. The most obvious feature Their explanation for the shape of the Banda slab followed the 180- of the upper mantle structure in the region is the prominent narrow degree arc-bending hypothesis of Katili (1973. In detail the structure of the subducted slab in the upper arc compared to the eastern limb below Halmahera.g..mp4) with very limited. Hall.. could be traced deeper into the mantle (to 500 km) than indicated by Hamilton. weakening could be plumes such as the interpreted Hainan plume Widiyantoro and van der Hilst (1996.mov (mmc4. To the west. 2006). which can be significant in many SE Asia hydrocarbon basins and may which Puspito and Shimazaki (1995) concluded did not penetrate into have a mantle origin (Imbus et al..mp4). 2 and SEA_UU-P07_mapview. Pesicek et al.and S-wave velocities as discussed beneath Halmahera reached a depth of about 400 km. Cardwell and Isacks. Hamilton. which mantle under the SW Pacific. 2001). the upper and lower ESE and it connects with the large low velocity region in the deepest mantle anomalies appear disconnected in the transition zone. 2008. Hall. Shapiro et al.mp4). was proposed by Das et al. They suggested by Lebedev and Nolet (2003). Hall. and to the north under the Molucca widespread in the Indochina–Hainan region (e. Ritsema Puspito et al. 1998.. 1998). 2011. 1997.. or CO2 the horseshoe-shaped positive velocity anomaly in the Banda arc. 1989. Cardwell et al. or lost it during their movement across the Tethys. 2.g. 2008. as shown in Rangin Fukao et al. They showed that the Java slab (2002).. van mmc1. Li and van der anomalies of the Sundaland lithosphere may result from the Triassic Hilst. 1975) which they re- positive velocity anomaly that can be traced from the Andaman Sea to lated to Pliocene collision of the Banda arc with Australia. Hafkenscheid et al. Hall. 2011. under Sumatra. There are several gaps. 2003. 2011. and proposed a steeper dip for the western limb beneath the Sangihe mmc1. North Sulawesi. However. or even explained this using a model of Ringwood and Irifune (1988) by sug- absent. 1989). Hafkenscheid et al. 2003. and reaches depths up to 1200 km. 1998. They associated the lower mantle part with a Tethyan subduc- anomalies are found in UU-P07 model under the Hainan region and In. Xu et al. 1979. 1969) may penetrate into the lower mantle whereas the eastern limb evated temperatures lower both P. Tomography the transition zone to form a spoon-shape beneath the Banda arc. or perhaps shortly after.22 R. Montelli et al. this image of slab de- plume generation region (Burke et al.mov. Puspito et al. which has been proposed to be a major was interpreted as slab detachment. 1999)..mp4). et al. 1991. Replumaz et al. Their major interpretation concerned the connection between the 1981. ocean ridge collision with western Indonesia arcs and escape tectonics during amalgamation with Asia. SEA_UU-P07_mapview.. has provided additional important insights. Wang et al. which they at- mantle is complex. 2013. W. Bijwaard et al.. 2002.. mmc2. Widiyantoro and van der Hilst (1997) many years (e.g. They suggested that this may also Most of the earlier research focus in the region has been on the com. Temperature effects are probably there may be a remnant of an older subduction zone in the lower mantle greater than compositional effects for the lithosphere and other pos. tentatively suggested that there is probably a continuous slab in the and subduction zones internal to the region. 2 and less steeply. 3 and SVideo_ gesting the subducted slab thickened and buckled to form a megalith Resolution_1. 2012. 1998. composition and density. Barr and MacDonald.mp4 and above the 660-km discontinuity which then sank into the lower mantle mmc3. which did. dips steeply in the lower part of the upper mantle and crosses the 2012. et al. 2012). 2012.mp4). Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 fragments added to Asia from the Triassic to the Cretaceous (e. 1979.g. 2004).mov. Another local cause of thermal seismicity (to 250 km). have been a number of suggestions concerning what happens to Similar anomalies in the mantle under SE Asia are imaged in the subducted slabs at the base of the upper mantle. van der Hilst et al. lower mantle with a flattening of the subducted slab further east in McCaffrey. particularly since Andaman–Sunda–Banda slab in the upper mantle and the large lower the Middle Miocene.. 2013) Several of the models are model for the Indonesian region showing several of the main morpho- shown in the movie Mapview_depth_slices_different_models/ logical features of slabs. 1978. el. and the Philippines has been quite well known from seismicity for Like earlier workers. Negative P-wave velocity system. Chiu et al. or perhaps a partly absent lithospheric mantle. 1974. (2001) and Hall and Spakman West Pacific and Indonesian region. Torsvik et al.g. global mantle model of Bijwaard et al. tion system that can be traced to the Eastern Mediterranean (Bijwaard dochina to depths of 1900 km (Fig.mov and SVideo_Resolution_2. mid- mantle lithosphere. 2006. locities respond differently to temperature.. (1993) imaged and presence of small amounts of volatiles such as water. They proposed that the western limb of the SEA_mapv_4mod. to Cretaceous amalgamation of continental blocks that make up much Widiyantoro and van der Hilst (1997) inferred an overall clockwise of SE Asia (Metcalfe. Although S-wave and P-wave ve.. 2006) if the plume head had model showing images of laterally continuous subduction along the en- spread under a large part of Indochina. It is not clear whether these blocks retained their Gondwana which they linked to the Cenozoic northward advance of India. mmc1.. 2010. They Banda trench. (2000) in the Indonesian region although tive seismic S-wave velocities in the top 100–150 km (Ritzwoller in their model the thickened slab dips steeply. there mantle. The UU-P07 model shows predominantly 660-km discontinuity into the lower mantle where the slab dips much negative seismic anomalies in the top 100–150 km (Fig. 2002. Intraplate Cenozoic volcanism is tire Andaman–Sunda–Banda arc. 1978). have caused a southward migration of the eastern Sunda slab explaining plex subduction systems bordering SE Asia along the Andaman–Sunda– the observed kink between the upper and lower mantle Java slab. 2008. subduction below Sulawesi (Katili. They con- the Banda Sea which is the product of subduction at the Sunda–Java firmed the inverted U-shape of subducted Molucca Sea lithosphere trench and the former Banda trench (Fig. Other global models support slab penetration into the lower ..g. 1981. e. rotation between the upper mantle slab and the lower mantle slab 2012). Surface wave tomography studies have generally a better because of its higher density.. Newcomb and McCann. The seismic gap beneath East Java although they observed that the slab morphology of subducted slabs in the upper mantle around Indonesia could be thinned. They SEA_UU-P07_mapview. 1997) produced the first (Lebedev and Nolet. Puspito and Shimazaki Thermal weakening of the lithosphere may be a result of long-term (1995) also observed that a slab under the Andaman–Sumatra region Cenozoic subduction beneath continental SE Asia (e. west beneath the eastern Sunda arc. 2013). (1992) used a global mantle approach focussed on the et al. Hoang and Flower. and prominent bends at tributed to a westward movement of the entire slab system in the depth. 1987). Metcalfe. Lebedev and Nolet. All would point to a weakened the lower mantle in contrast to the subducted Indian ocean slab further continental lithosphere. Schaeffer and Lebedev. along the eastern boundary with the Philippine Sea plate. postulated for India–Asia collision. Sea. A tachment in the transition zone under Sumatra has not been third possible contribution to the observed negative seismic velocity reproduced in later work (e. and has also been associated with the existence mantle anomaly under SE Asia which they inferred to be one subducting of the Hainan plume (e. Hamburger et al. At greater depths the negative anomaly can be traced der Voo et al. A similar mechanism for slab thickening sampling of the top 100–150 km of SE Asia and invariably show nega. 1988. beneath Sumatra and the Banda region.g. Hutchison. inverted U-shaped Molucca Sea plate (Hatherton and Dickinson. (1993) presented a P-wave travel-time tomography et al. below the Molucca Sea which they interpreted to be related to Miocene sible causes for lowered seismic velocities such as partial melting. Furthermore. contrasted penetration of the subducted slab beneath Java into the 1980.

. Richards et al. they proposed tearing between the Molucca compare different models. Widyantoro and van der Hilst (1996) recognised that the space-time evolution of slab structure beneath 4. 2012.rhul. Hafkenscheid et al. the majority of which are in SE Asia et al. Whittaker et al.. W. Heine and Muller. isotropic directions mapped with SKS-splitting analysis (Hammond 1998). succeeding 2004. R. (2007) appear to make the interpretation that the Gibbons et al. Lange et al. (1998) model and subsequent models of the Utrecht group display The geometry and position of plate boundaries is critical for a clear lateral kink in the slab under NW Sumatra and several other interpreting velocity anomalies in the upper mantle... northward turn of the modern Sunda arc subduction systems towards 2010. Silver et al. Hafkenscheid (e. 1998. Metcalfe. (2008. 1978. for many years. west of SE Asia. 2000. and the Flores region (Ely and Sandiford. Chesner et al. tigator Fracture Zone. 2010) made a detailed study of this region and the lateral and the western Pacific in the area of interest to this paper. Animations of earlier reconstructions from Hall (1996) 2010. Widiyantoro et al.. 2) that has been a topic of considerable interest canic activity in the Banda region (e. other causes. as summarised above. Charlton. 2003.. Zahirovic et al. Information about the way in discussed below we interpret several of these features in a different which the model was developed can be found in Hall (1996.) Relatively few of these can be easily tested. Ufford and Cloos. Li and van der Hilst.mp4). 1990. Spakman and Hall.021. 1993) and the plate motion model for (1997) and Replumaz et al. mantle structure. Govers and Wortel. Particularly around the Philippines and eastern showed similar slab geometries at the western end of the Sunda arc Indonesia trenches are shown on some tectonic maps where there is and they also showed the continuity of the Sumatra–Andaman slab. (2001) and Gorbatov and Kennett (2003) plates are postulated..1016/j. Whittaker et al. possibly linked to the Inves. 1983. Shapiro et al. 2002. Heine et al.org/10. below Sumatra and eastern Indonesia. mography fits the extrusion model of Replumaz and Tapponnier (2003). et al.. Page et al. Thorkelson. 2004..g.. 2006. 2002. Australia. 1998. Spakman and Wortel. 1989. (2010) also regional nature are addressed further in the following sections. 2011). Hall. 2007.. Philippine trench. 2010). 2008). Several tears have been postulated in the SE Asian region. Since plate tectonics became the accepted paradigm slab anomalies delineating the Sunda arc and the Sumatra slab kink there has been a myriad of reconstructions for the SE Asian region (Bijwaard and Spakman. rhul..doi.. Smith (pers.g. (2004) interpreted upper and at plate boundaries.ac. 2000) or orogen (Bird. 1998. 1985. 1987. Such features may be tions. 1988.. Keep and Haig. 2007. and other The morphology of the subducted slab below North Sumatra shows gaps in slabs have been suggested from distribution of seismicity or vol- a conspicuous kink (Fig. 1988. (1979) and Fauzi et al. Negros. 2008. 1994. and and Hall (2002) can be found at http://searg. 2004. the Andaman region to be confined to the upper mantle. East Java (Hall et al.g. 2. 2005. the major plates of Hall (2002). Dickinson and Snyder. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 23 mantle under SE Asia (Fukao et al. Harris. (1996) suggested 2004. Wortel and Spakman. These and other observations of more (Chesner. For instance. strike change in age of subducted lithosphere in the upper mantle Much of the Banda–Molucca–Philippines–New Guinea region can be below SE Sumatra which may also be reflected in a strong change in an. 1987). Taylor and Hayes. which may be related to the Toba volcanic centre 2010. 1996. (2004) that the deep Tethys anomaly is con. 2001. in subducting plates. 2003) in et al. surface it is impossible to draw continuously connected boundaries They also identified subducted slab material in the transition zone between major plates (India. (1993) from 0 to 120 Ma and a point from the Andaman–Sumatra upper segment owing to the passage palaeomagnetic reference frame before 120 Ma using poles provided of the northward moving Indo–Australian plate.. suture zone (Hall and Wilson. 1991). Gaina and Muller. (2004).g. 2004. Hamilton..html. Pacific.. At the kink for which they favoured folding of the slab as an explanation. 2007.g.G. Sandiford. We then discuss the principal features in the tomography that identified on the basis of seismicity although seismic gaps may have should be present or absent in different tectonic models. 2012. an older NW–SE trend of the interpreted deeper Tethys anomaly. The model uses the Indian-Atlantic tinuous with the deep mantle anomaly under SE Asia and tore at some hotspot frame of Müller et al.g. Honza and Fujioka. However.tecto. As by A. 2001) although this is not discussed by Replumaz et al. (e. Like Widiyantoro and van der Hilst (1997) they interpreted the lower Audley-Charles et al. Chamalaun and Grady. 1997. Rosenbaum et al. which there are no easily defined plates with deformation concentrated Beneath the Sunda arc Replumaz et al. Bijwaard et al. considered as a very broad diffuse plate boundary zone (Gordon. 2011. Quarles van development owing to the passage of India and concluded that the to. 1979... 2011. Richards et al. Das.g. there may be a slab tear beneath Sumatra.b. 2005. The Bijwaard et al. Kennett and are and where their boundaries are. 1996. because most provide Philippine Sea were all originally part of one single slab north of India only a few maps. 2000. 2005. Because of and Australia and the slabs imaged now were all either torn from this the number of models and reconstructions we have not attempted to or deformed. Cloos et al. 2009..ac. Ricou.. Pesicek large plates and 38 small plates.. 2014. when they clearly are not (e. Lister et al. Tectonic models Sumatra was not understood and required further study. Hinschberger et al. Bird (2003) has recognised 14 Cummins. 2012. 2001). ambiguous or no evidence for subduction (e.. 1992. 2013. They interpreted the strong Silver.. for example to join the Java trench to the model UU-P07 (Fig. 2005. comm.mov. and then the lower spreading centres or transform faults (e. 2007.. 2010). 1983a. This model shows fragmented weak upper mantle equally complex. 2013.. van Wijk et al. The reconstructions used in this paper are Sea and Banda slabs as if these slabs had a common prior history. McCaffrey. slabs imaged to great depth between western Indonesia and the 2014. as a 2005.. Wheller et al. Replumaz and Tapponnier. and the problem remains even if smaller and smaller Hafkenscheid et al. 1991. 2012. 2010. 2013. Holloway. mmc1. They from Hall (2012) and were made using the ATLAS computer program follow the earlier interpretations by Widiyantoro and van der Hilst (Cambridge Paleomap Services. 2005. 1982.. 2012. 2000).. Animations of the reconstructions that accompany Hall (2012) Subducted slabs may be expected to deform in the mantle and tear and Spakman and Hall (2010) can be downloaded from http://searg.uk/FTP/tecto_2012/ or from http://dx. Philippine to New Guinea trench). Richards et al. which we interpret in the context of our reconstruc- 1979. lower mantle anomalies based on a global tomography model by If the present is complicated we can expect the past to have been Kárason (2002). Replumaz et al. typically at widely spaced time intervals. Hall. way. Rangin et al. Smith and mantle anomaly as having a Tethyan origin. suggested the Investigator Fracture Zone may influence seismicity and presumably slab morphology. . 2001). 2012). Philippine Sea) below Indochina not imaged in earlier studies but also visible in surrounding SE Asia. even studies have observed changes in orientation and dip of the subducted for the present-day there is no agreement on how many plates there slabs between Sumatra and the Andaman segment (e. Chertova et al.04. or as a result of subduction of features such as We first describe the upper mantle structure. Sulu. SEA_UU-P07_mapview.uk/current_ gaps or holes may be created in subducted slabs due to age differences research/plate_tectonics/index. 2008). New From a comparison of bulk-sound and shear velocity anomalies in the Guinea trenches) and some trenches are often shown as connected Sunda arc Gorbatov and Kennett (2003) interpreted an abrupt along. Villeneuve et al.

. 4 and 5. the object was not the Roo an aseismic section of the subduction zone but a hole in the slab Rise. currently at a relative convergence rate of c. 2010)..g. However. Based on approximately eastwards from west of Sumatra. the upper mantle has a relatively easily understood structure. Whatever the cause.mov. which is beginning to subduct beneath East Java. South of Bali the age of the ocean long (Fig. A. 2012). Colour shades correspond to 50 km intervals. from about 45 Ma. 200 km) would be Rise. The subducted slab dips north at about 20° between the trench and the volcanic arc and then dips more steeply at about 60–70° (Vertical_slices/Slices_Whole_regionSEA_UUP07_ Fig. W.1.1 cm/year — NUVEL-1A. Here we ex- Beneath East Java there is gap in seismicity between about 250 and plore the possibility of a hole created during subduction. mmc7.mov.mp4 and mmc8. 2002. 4). and is currently detectable which provides sufficient justification for exploring its causing deformation of the forearc and shallowing of the trench (Kopp origin.mp4). observed rates of convergence wards from east of Halmahera. mmc1.mov. so this implies a significant length of lithosphere subducted in the early Neogene and Paleogene must contribute to the high velocity anomalies in the lower mantle.mp4).3 mm/year — GPS ve- locity from Prawirodirdjo et al. either al- and is overlain by a number of seamount provinces (Hoernle et al. mmc2.mp4 and mmc3. 1999). Anomalies: upper mantle For the most part. It is less likely that lithospheric mantle with a along the subducting slab Gorbatov and Kennett (2003) suggested an strongly different composition or only locally thermally weakened lith- abrupt change in its age midway between West Sumatra and Bali osphere entered the trench could be an explanation for the tomographic (Fig. there is reflect its age. The cause of these features could be structural. There are several long linear high velocity anomalies that are broadly parallel to modern subduction zones which move away from the trenches on deeper depth slices consis- tent with subducted slabs dipping beneath over-riding plates. Simplified 3-D figures showing the form of the subducted slab from Sumatra to Sunda_Banda_sli. e.. 7 cm/year (7. 2 and 4). (2009) suggested a hole was produced by blocking of sub- infer from the spatial resolution tests (Fig. and may be locally overturned in Banda to depth of 600 km. Hall. B. Estimating the age at which the slab at the base of the upper mantle began to subduct is important for interpreting lower mantle structure but has some uncertainties. 500 km. and plate reconstructions which imply similar longer-term average rates. meaning that the slab now at the base of the upper man- tle passed the trench later than would be estimated from the total length now observed. a crust is between 154–134 Ma and south of South Sumatra is 100–78 Ma. Shulgin et al. depending on location. Subduction is almost orthogonal. 5).. and the volcanic arc-trench gap is about 300 km wide. Tomography slices suggest that the East Java gap is not et al. Further east. as reviewed in Section 4. However. 2.mp4) and in selected parts of the region in other subfolders in the folder Vertical_slices (mmc9. Java–Sumba The most obvious and longest feature in the upper mantle is the high velocity anomaly that follows the trace of the subduction zone from Sumatra to Banda (Figs. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 5. This object may have resembled the Roo seismic anomalies on the scale of this gap (up to c. and the very low dip of the slab between 0 and 100 km depth along the arc from Sumatra to Java could reflect an increase in the width of the volcanic arc-trench gap. SEA_UU-P07_mapview. mmc1. all of the anomaly at the base of the upper mantle can be explained by Neogene subduction since between 24 Ma and 13 Ma. with consequences for the tectonic evolution of East Java. as sometimes suggested (e.mov. images. they are interpreted to result from a posi- struction at the position of an former India–Australia transform fault tively buoyant crust/lithosphere that entered the trench and subducted (Hall.24 R. Simandjuntak and . There are no magnetic anomalies on the Indian plate a similar but smaller hole in the slab beneath east Sumbawa between south of Java. the slab now at depths of 660 km would (Widiyantoro et al. Vertical_slices/Slices_Whole_region movies The steep dip of the slab from South Sumatra to Sumba may in part SEA_UUP07_Sunda_Banda_sli. Based on joint bulk-sound and shear wave velocity anomalies ated during subduction. SVideo_Resolution_1. Subduction has been active since the Eocene.mp4 to mmc18. probably because this part of the plate was formed during about 200 and 400 km with an along-strike length of about 150 km the Cretaceous magnetic quiet period. 400 km (Figs.mp4) that south of East Java (Fig. 5). View looking the lowest part of the seismic zone (Schöffel and Das. there could have been variations in rates of subduction.mov duction after buoyant thickened oceanic crust arrived at the trench and SVideo_Resolution_2. 6). 4. mmc7.mp4).. mmc7. we Hall et al. View looking approximately west- the length of the seismically active slab. These are seen in depth slices (Fig. 2006. local absence or considerable thinning of lithospheric mantle.mov. For ex- ample. 2011) which has an along-strike length of about have passed the trench between 11 and 13 Ma (Fig. Garwin. 3. at the Java trench. 5. The segment of the subduction zone from West Java to Sumba is the simplest (Figs.mp4). Although tomographic image resolution is not perfect. 6. whatever assumptions are made. 2 and 4. This fits very well with the age change predicted by the recon. ready present as a lithosphere heterogeneity prior to subduction or cre- 2011).g. SEA_UU-P07_mapview.mp4) and are also illustrated in movies showing Vertical_slices across the whole region (Vertical_slices/Slices_Whole region. 2011).

However. which was followed tent of c. Subduction later resumed behind position of the hole imply that it was created at about 8 Ma. R. Map of seismicity with hypocentre depths below 50 km. blocked subduction. 1994). 1996. F to I. This forced the plateau. 2013. Cartoons showing interpreted sequence of events with upper plate removed as blocking of subduction by buoyant object caused hole to form. Interpreted age (Ma) since slab entered trench based on the present trench position (dashed red line and grey numbers) and inferred position of trench assuming a sudden southward shift in its position (solid red line and black num- bers) after blocking of subduction due to arrival of buoyant object at trench. the plateau. W. producing folding and Java can explain the short-lived activity of K-rich volcanoes (Edwards . 2013. As the hole passed beneath the volcanic arc normal calc-alkaline magmatism ceased as fluid flux from slab diminished and K-rich component was no longer diluted resulting in short period of high-K magmatism behind former arc. initiating the hole.. J to M. Lunt. We suggest that a hole may also have contributed to enlarging the hole and may have tear developed in the downgoing slab in front of the buoyant plateau thickened the slab in the mantle transition zone. nor- subduction continued. 5. E. along the rest of the arc normal neath the arc. 200 km is likely to be an overestimate as local vertical sagging by cessation of normal arc magmatism in East Java in the Late Miocene of the slab accommodated by vertical slab tearing directly below the and resumption in the Late Pliocene (Cross. and leaving the de- mate of age is consistent with the timing of widespread thrusting in formed lithosphere beneath the widened forearc. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 25 B C D A E F G H I J K L M Fig. After hole was subducted to greater depths normal calc-alkaline magmatism resumed. Lunt et al. Cartoons showing interpreted sequence of events as buoyant object (blue) arrived at trench. A. As the hole passed be- which was unable to subduct. Red filled triangle marks position of modern calc-alkaline arc (CA arc) and magenta filled triangle marks po- sition of high-K volcanoes (HK volcanoes) north of the arc. Profiles across the slab subducted beneath Java showing interpreted hole in the slab and its inferred development. leading to deformation on land in Java and southward jump in position of trench. Hall. 2013). Barber. The imaged depth ex- Java (Cross. leaving a hole in the subducting slab. and fluid flux from the subducting slab diminished. because the dimensions and thrusting in and south of Java island. The passage of a hole beneath East forearc and arc to deform causing contraction.. The esti. van der Werff et al. C. Profiles across the selected areas of map A showing estimated position of the slab top and the prominent aseismic gap below East Java. mal calc-alkaline volcanism ceased. 2009). B. D.

1991. thrust zone is seen on many oil company seismic lines further west. 6. 1983a. and absence of a significant trench-like bathymetric feature. that can be traced towards East Java. However. et al. 1994). now inactive. zone.c) which is Pliocene collision of the Australian continental margin with SE Asia in often interpreted to mark a reversal of subduction polarity. A. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 A 20°N Philippine Sea Vietnam Dangerous Grounds bes Cele a Su Se m at ra 0° Borneo Ninety East FZ New Java Guinea Investigator FZ Wharton Basin 95 INDIAN AUSTRALIA 0 B 11 OCEAN 90°E 110°E 130°E Fig. The Sumbawa hole may have developed in a similar way. the sea bed is mostly shallower than 0. K-rich melts. North of Bali. pretation offered by Widiyantoro and Fauzi (2005) that the seismicity There is a discontinuous zone of thrusts north of Wetar and Flores reflects backthrusting within a complex backarc region related to the identified from marine geophysics (Silver et al. to noes of the modern arc and with greater depths to the Benioff zone. with the exception of an E–W trough alkaline arc. 4) shows that the slab hole is a rela. dipping back-arc lithosphere directly north of Bali. diffuse and there is no clear indication of the slab shape nor any obvious tively minor feature compared to the length and depth of the subducted feature on the tomographic sections to show south-dipping subduction. and the deeper area north of the hole could be related to an object fully subducted or to arrival of Flores (N4 km) is very narrow. the fluid flux was restored. the north of Bali. 2003) in northern Sumbawa also continue for long since there is little oceanic lithosphere north of the with greater depths to the Benioff zone than typical of the normal calc. Widiyantoro With the mantle wedge melt component ‘switched off’. B. although there is intense seismicity down to 100 km be- subducted. We therefore prefer the alternative inter- part of the Australian continental margin at the subduction zone. this feature is related to the south-dipping thrusts observed at the sur- alkaline volcanic activity resumed as the slab following the hole was face. . The smaller size and shallow depth of this hole suggests it less than 1.. neath the active arc in Flores and the inactive segment in Wetar. slab from Sumatra to Sumba which makes it easier to comprehend how If this is the beginning of polarity reversal the discontinuity of the thrust it formed and was subducted. and will not young K-rich volcanoes (Turner et al. and K-rich volcanism ceased. arc to be subducted. Red dashed line is continuation of the transform in the subducted slab and black line is the approximate profile of the slab shown in A. it is Reconstructing the entire slab (Fig. A similar the south Banda region. Variation in bulk-sound speed and shear wave-speed anomalies along the slab subducted at the Sunda–Java trench zone correlated with interpreted age of the subducted lithosphere by Gorbatov and Kennett (2003). The position of the volcanoes suggests that unlikely to be underlain by oceanic crust. Present-day tectonic map showing position of inferred subducted India–Australia transform fault from Hall (2012) where there is a major change in age of the subducted lithosphere from Cretaceous in the east to Cenozoic in the west. (2011) show tomographic images interpreted to indicate south- produced from a deeper mantle component that remained undiluted.5 km and is was formed at about 4 Ma. normal calc.. et al. As the hole became deeper.b. It is plausible that dominated arc volcanism.5 km deep. to the north of the calc-alkaline volca.26 R. There are suggest that subduction has been initiated only recently. W. Hall..

It is the result of rollback into the Banda embayment about 1200 km. R.g. beneath Buru and west Seram. 1979). 2010) who identified a slab to depths of at least 530 km from to. Our 2010 paper . 10).g. 2014) to form the Banda arc.. 2004). Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 27 5. 1985.mov. 2008. Charlton. normal subduction and trench-parallel movement on the Sumatran 1979). 1978. 300 km wide flat-lying portion of the graphic studies (Pesicek et al. conception of the 3-D shape of the subducted lithosphere to many (2008. 2011).. we have shown (Spakman and Hall. 2010) have significantly improved slab at the bottom of the upper mantle (Fig.. hypocentres below 300 km and therefore it is not possible to determine Tomographic images of the Banda slab show it is entirely confined to the subducted slab shape and length from seismicity. 1979. features suggested to indicate continental crust subduction can be related volcanic activity (Crow. Richards et al. Cardwell and Isacks. 2008) or tomography (Widiyantoro et al. 9) the mantle structure changes. Cardwell and Isacks. Das. Banda Banda slab may result from a combination of overriding motion of the Australian plate and resistance of the mantle to northward movement Between South Sumatra and Sumba tomographic images show a of the slab (Spakman and Hall. significantly at about 1°N.mp4) resemble those of Pesicek et al. Sandiford. because of its complexity focal mechanisms (e. Milsom. and the shape of the and can be traced into the lower mantle but to the north the slab remains Banda slab.mov and SEA_UUP07_regional_sli. McCaffrey. mmc7. ward offset in the position of the Early Miocene trench from Central to Fichtner et al. In addition. The require 24 Ma and present-day GPS velocities of Prawirodirdjo et al. can be provided here. 2004.g. We have a broadly similar This was interpreted as the northern limb of the fold by Pesicek et al. 1998. and there is a c. beneath Seram and Timor Troughs are located at the limit of delamination of Sumatra lateral compression could result from deformation caused by the continental margin.. The tectonic reconstruction model suggests this length located within the Australian continent which began when the northern of slab was subducted in about 22–23 Ma. This is discussed pothesis (Cardwell and Isacks.. a flexural topographic expression of loading of the Australian continen- who suggested a tear at the fracture zone. 2000..3. The Timor–Tanimbar– (Fig. tear in the slab (Fig.. The complex spatial variation of strong high velocity anomaly that can be traced from the seismically ac. the folded high velocity Banda anomaly is sub-continental lithosphere Whether or not a fold or tear interpretation is preferred there is an we differ from some authors who have proposed that continental offset in the linear anomaly at depth (Fig. 1992).g. 2004. al. The deep high velocity anomaly is absent and in the Banda region seis- Northwest of Java subduction becomes increasingly oblique beneath micity defines a strongly curved Benioff zone known for many years Sumatra and India–SE Asia relative motion is partitioned into trench. 1978. In our view all of the chemical North Sumatra.g. The slab has the form of images of the subducted slab and beneath North Sumatra they interpret a lithospheric fold that plunges west. (1996) suggested there was no some places the trough is an inherited feature that pre-dates subduction conclusive evidence of a tear in the slab but that high seismicity along (Hall. although we consider that part of the strong curvature of the subduction zone. Toba has been linked to subduction of the feature. We consider that the our proposed tear the slab dips more steeply and about 800 km of Banda slab is not the simple continuation of a single long-lived subduc- subducted slab is imaged. 8) is now beneath the volcanic centre of Toba (Chesner. (Pownall et al. focal mechanisms along the entire slab under the Banda Sea has been tive slab to depths of approximately 1000 km and we consider that the key information in developing arguments in support of the two-slab hy- subducted slab continues into the lower mantle. Its cause could be a weakness tal margin during collision. and has a complex origin. 1989. The slab dip but that this subduction zone rolled back into a Jurassic oceanic embay- changes again north of 4°N. 1978. 2005) is not yet adequate to do more accounted for by melting of continental crust basement of the Banda than speculate on the former position of the trench and more geological volcanic arc.. Hilton et al. mographic images (Fig. NUVEL1-A velocities would boundary of the embayment became aligned with the Java trench. 2007) and support those who have advocated subduc- An alternative interpretation to a fold limb is that of a NNE-trending tion of a single slab (e. Fauzi et al. There are a few hypocentres between 300 deformation of a single subducted slab or two different slabs subducted and 500 km below South Sumatra but further northwest there are no from north and south. 2013).to NE-plunging fold. The subducts and encounters a barrier at the transition zone. 1980. investigations of North Sumatra are required to identify this. There is a prominent tear in the slab on SEA_UUP07_Sunda_Banda_sli. The contrast in mantle structure from west to east indicates a different though we have drawn Benioff zone contours slightly differently to history of subduction in the Java and Banda segments with major slab them (Fig. Hamilton. Slab tearing in the southern limb of the 5. Das et al. Chesner et al. Das. with a total length of Pacific subduction. The tomographic slices show that the slab dip decreases rollback in the Banda region. In contrast. There have been two contrasting explanations for this seismicity: and other strike-slip faults. 7) which suggests a north. Incidentally.. Recent tomo. 2010) that the subducted portion of the Investigator Fracture Zone was the result the size of the high velocity Banda anomaly is greater than the area of of the intersection of the fracture zone and the bend in the slab where the former Jurassic Banda embayment oceanic crust and we proposed it is under compressive stress. We have shown (Spakman and Hall. These inferred tear zones are beyond the local resolution of to- mographic model UU-P07.mp4 and mmc8. Seram Trough is not a subduction trench. Das. that narrows eastwards. crust has subducted beneath the volcanic arc (Elburg et al. the upper mantle. nor part of an even larger slab connected to to about 550 km depth and much further to the NE. As suggested by others. 8). 2010. others (e. Bowin et al. 2014). whereas east of the tear the slab can be traced tion zone north of Australia. Unfortunately. Our bling a spoon-shape (Widiyantoro and van der Hilst. 2010). can be explained by long-term subduction at the Java trench in the transition zone and can be followed to the NE (Fig.2. 8). 7). from the Andaman Sea to Burma. The position of the postulated tear ened in a N–S direction by slab-mantle coupling. its north side. East of about 118°E (Fig. (2008). Hamilton. (1996) interpreted a bend in the ment within the Australian continental margin only from about 15 Ma slab between 1°N and 4°N based on hypocentres shallower than 200 km. it is in places Investigator Fracture Zone on the Indian plate (e. South of this latitude the slab dips steeply 2010) that the differences from east to west. We prefer this interpretation because west of 2001) but we differ from them in several ways. that has been described as resem- the slab to have the form of a large NNE.. W. nor a single continuous 2012. lithospheric fold is not merely the result of rollback but has been tight- (2010) would require 27 Ma. Page et al. Various active tears in the slab have been proposed in the slab We have deliberately chosen not to discuss the mantle structure fur. 2010. 1974. 2004. Ely and Sandiford. the geological record of subduction. Fauzi et al. Recent high resolution multibeam images due to the fracture zone which is being subducted subparallel to the and seismic lines crossing the Aru and Tanimbar Troughs show that in postulated tear. Hall. 4). 1991). Sumatra further below. 1997) or the prow tomographic images (Vertical_slices/Slices_Whole_region movies of a boat (Pownall et al.. McCaffrey which requires a more detailed analysis and longer discussion than et al. (2000) also suggested lateral that the lithospheric fold in the mantle also includes delaminated sub- compression and thickening would be produced in the Sunda slab as it continental lithosphere from the surrounding Australian margin.. subducting under the Sumba–Aru segment from analysis of earthquake ther north. (e.

Hall. This may The Molucca Sea region is famous as the only present-day example shed new light on the forcing of inferred slab tears in the southern seg.. perhaps even disintegrating. advocated the importance of slab folding resulting from the interplay Timor. 350 km and 500 km from UU-P07.g.28 R. B. We suggest that a next step forward could be a reassessment of focal mechanisms of the Banda slab based on a quantitative analysis of the 5. slab. and slab-mantle coupling. W. C. (2008) overlain on depth slices at 200 km. and the complex seismicity elsewhere in the heavily deforming. Molucca Sea-Sangihe stress-field in the slab as a function of regional plate motion and slab- mantle interaction by 3-D thermo-mechanical modelling. 1980. Our interpreted depth contours on the subducted slab overlain on depth slices at 200 km. A. D. F. Cardwell et al. between regional plate motions. subduction. . Depth contours on subducted slab from Pesicek et al. of active arc–arc collision and the inverted U-shape of the subducted ment. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 Fig. Hall.4. the absence of seismicity between 100 and 300 km beneath East plate has been known for many years (e. 350 km and 500 km from UU-P07. 7. E.

(2008). in the Bird's Head (Pieters et al. There is a second slab below the The length of the Molucca Sea slabs is of importance in reconstructing North Arm of Sulawesi..mp4). 1979. Guinea (Weiland. B. In the palaeomagnetic data from the Philippine Sea plate provided the basis central part of the subduction zone the subducted slab reaches a for reconstructing eastern Indonesia and the western Pacific (Hall. The Halmahera hinge rolled back rapidly until about 2 Ma when the arcs began to collide.. close to Manado. and shorter east-dipping slab as the Halmahera slab (Fig.. 1978) with slabs dipping to west and east Australia. and at its western end based on spreading centres and transform faults. Hall et al. The simplest model that accounts for the present configuration is as follows. mmc12. A model based on terminates at the offshore continuation of the Palu–Koru Fault. Arc–arc collision has produced young volcanic activity from under the two active volcanic arcs of Sangihe and Halmahera on the the eastern tip of North Sulawesi through Sangihe to Mindanao. Hall.b. 11) traceable from seismicity to the base of the upper with a similar average dip and has a length of about 400–450 km. 12). 1996). Moore Celebes Sea lithosphere southwards from the North Sulawesi trench and Silver.e. depth of 600 km viewed from the north. if not the most complex it is certainly the most tomography slices show that neither slab penetrates into the lower difficult to unravel. 1969. depth of just over 200 km. 1983). 11). The tomography slices indicate that the length of the seismically active slab is the total actually subducted. The Sangihe slab reaches mmc16. The Molucca Sea plate (Hamilton.c) and used in the Hall (1996. i.b. Although there are now no clear subduction trenches in the Molucca Sea because there is an elevat- ed collision complex produced by the two converging arcs.mov. R. Fig. Subduction began on the west side under the Sangihe arc and was driven by Philippine Sea plate rota- tion at about 20 Ma. Hall et al. The Philippines region. Palaeomagnetic data allow an estimate of evidence (Surmont et al. The 25 Ma reconstruction should thus look more like the Hall (1996. there are 5.c) estimated a realistic position for the pole based on one additional geological condition — collision of the Halmahera arc with the Australian margin at about 25 Ma. Ali et al.c). North Sulawesi trench subduction two slabs subducting to west and east as explained above. 1979. dicates a total length of subducted lithosphere of about 1500 to Seismicity and tomography show that at depths below 400 km this 1600 km. subducted in the last 5 Ma. 2002) model. 1983a. Hamilton. The Halmahera arc was therefore reconstructed at the easternmost possible position on the Australian margin. Molucca_Sea/Molucca_sli.. The geometry of this system has been interpreted to result but the Philippine Sea plate is surrounded by subduction zones and was from rotation of the North Arm about a pole near the eastern end of therefore for many years omitted from global plate models using plate the arm (Hamilton. The total amount of subduction was unknown and it was not expected that present-day seismicity would record it. 8. 1996. and is about 700 km less than postulated by Hall et al. Vertical_slices/ phy and seismicity is in good agreement (Vertical_slices/Slices_ Slices_Sula and Vertical_slices/Slices_Molucca_Sea (mmc13. It is unlikely that subduction would have occurred simultaneously over a long period on both sides of the Molucca Sea. Up to 900 km of slab was subducted. that subducts the Philippine Sea plate.. Movies that show different slices across the region mantle and the total length of subducted slab estimated from tomogra. 2006) suggest this has been alone only identify a zone within which Euler poles can lie (Hall et al. 9) is possibly the most complex in the eastern Indonesian– slab. We refer to the west-dipping part of the Molucca Sea plate traceable from seismicity The configuration of subducting slabs in the North Sulawesi region to the base of the upper mantle beneath the Celebes Sea. Palaeomagnetic 1996. 2001). The position of the slabs in the mantle indicate that the Molucca Sea has moved in the later part of its history as an independent plate completely separate from all surrounding plates but subducting be- neath both the Sangihe arc and the Halmahera arc. (Vertical_slices/Slices_Molucca_Sea/Molucca_sli.mp4. McCaffrey et al. which we term the Celebes slab. 1979. 1995a.. (1995a.mp4). Silver et al. Hatherton and Dickinson.. are in the folders Vertical_slices/Slices_North_Sulawesi. west and east sides of the Molucca Sea. 1999) are probably related to minor subduction with- in the northern New Guinea strike-slip zone. Interpreted fold in Sumatra slab based on contours from Pesicek et al. Those models placed Halmahera at the eastern end of New Guinea in the Manus re- gion at 25 Ma. The Halmahera slab reaches 300 km slab (Fig. as the Sangihe (Fig. and western New A.c). after which Halmahera arc moved west by subduction of the Molucca Sea. Dur- 1987.mp4. mmc12. Simplified 3-D figures showing form of the subducted slab beneath Sumatra to 11–12 Ma volcanic rocks on Obi (Baker and Malaihollo. about 1500–1600 km. 11). The subduction trench circuits with rotation poles determined by conventional methods terminates at its eastern end. Silver and Moore.b. 1983) was once part of the Philippine Sea plate (Hall.b.mov. 1987). mmc12. whereas the length estimated from tomography indi- cates a position closer to the Bird's shoulder of western New Guinea. slab is straight and strikes NNE.. Continued motion of the Philippine Sea plate initiated volcanic activity in the Halmahera arc by 8 Ma (Baker and Malaihollo. . the base of the upper mantle with an average dip of 45° indicating about On the west side of the Molucca Sea is the west-dipping Sangihe 900–950 km of subducted slab. 1994) and GPS observations of rates of motion rotation history and northward movement of the plate but these data on the Palu–Koro Fault (Socquet et al. Colour shades correspond to 50 km intervals. (1995a. this suggestion is sup- ported by observations of the lower mantle. mantle and imaged clearly beneath the Celebes Sea by tomography Adding a flat section between the subduction hinges of 100–200 km in. 2002) 15 Ma reconstruction. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 29 1995a).5. Interpreted tears in Sumatra slab based on our depth contours from UU-P07. based on seismicity (Fig. At about 10 Ma subduction ceased on the Sangihe side and began on the Halmahera side. (Fig. W. ing this period the Molucca Sea plate moved northwards pushed by 1980. As discussed below.mp4).

9. They considered all hypocentres to result deepest seismicity of the Celebes slab is in its central part while sug- from subduction of two slabs. and on some sections a north-dipping slab. East of 123°E the hypocentres can be in recent years a great deal has been learned from new fieldwork and explained as marking the edge of the west-dipping Sangihe slab. mantle beneath North Sulawesi. Further dating on land. Running approximately E–W from the central Molucca Sea ridge be. (1998) and Kopp et al. Seismicity indicates (2012a. Mapping the slabs and their geometry from earthquake hypocentres is In the late 1990s almost nothing was known about Gorontalo Bay extremely difficult in this region because it is not possible to identify (Fig. The 90° bend in the Celebes slab slab. Major trenches and troughs in Philippines to east Indonesia region discussed in the text. for which there is no evidence. Based on these new N–S profiles the hypocentres appear to define a vertical slab. 11). Gudmundsson and interpreted by Gudmundsson and Sambridge (1998) implies Sambridge (1998) produced a global regionalised mantle model by an 150 km of subduction from the west. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 115°E 120°E 125°E 130°E 135°E 20°N 15°N Manila South China Sea Philippine 10°N Negros Sulu 5°N Cotobato N Sulawesi 0° Tolo 5°S 10°S Java Fig. 12). On different and detailed multibeam bathymetric data. Hall. . gesting diminishing slab length to the east and west consistent with both of which bend through about 90° in the upper 200 km of the the tomographic images. in the cen. The Sangihe slab was traced in a similar neath the axis of Gorontalo Bay is a steep zone of earthquakes (Fig.b) with slab identifications and contours in the Molucca Sea subduction was from the North Sulawesi trench and shows that the and North Sulawesi region. Palu–Koro Fault. and from offshore oil industry exploration seismic west relatively few hypocentres are above the Sangihe slab. from the Makassar Strait of automated process and the results are portrayed by Di Leo et al. data. way by Walpersdorf et al. the Sangihe slab and the Celebes slab. W. the area between the North and East Arms of Sulawesi.30 R. but hypocentres with specific slabs. (1999). the previously proposed slab shapes are difficult to reconcile tral part of the bay near Una–Una the steep segment of a south-dipping with the geological observations.

2014). 2011) shows that lithosphere older than ~80 Ma. been discussed by Miller and Kennett (2006) and Miller et al. (1983a) tentatively suggested motion models. in press. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 31 from the Sula microcontinental block. responding to the depth of the slab imaged as far as the base of the quence of almost undeformed sediments (Pholbud et al. Colour shades correspond to 50 km inter.6. At present.tecto. Spencer. suggested by the observation that the overthrust Sula Spur con- tinental crust may extend as far north as the North Arm of Sulawesi. and data from the NUVEL-1 and -1A global plate which we name the Sula slab. We consider that the been close together. and modification of the reconstructions ocene. Lallemand joined to the northern edge of the Sula microcontinent. Recent slab detachment modelling (Duretz et al. It is difficult to see how such data can be used much be- a north-dipping Benioff zone beneath Gorontalo Bay continuing north yond the recent past as all are measurements of present-day plate . Silver et al. although Fig. The Banda tectonic reconstruction Timor (Hall. Lin et al. The deeper part of this slab broke off after collision and sank into the lower mantle (as discussed below) leaving a short length of about 200 km still attached Flores (Fig. Simplified 3-D figure showing form of the subducted slab beneath the Banda re. (1998) to For reasons of length we do not discuss the upper mantle structure of join the Sangihe slab subducted from the east to a north-dipping slab the West Pacific further north and east of the Philippines. 4 Ma reconstruction from Spakman and Hall (2010) showing modelling of 3-D slab evolution has helped constrain tectonic evolution subduction zone rolling back into Banda embayment with trace of tear corresponding to models elsewhere (e. (2014) are among many authors who have discussed shallower depths. Cheng et al.. based on zircon age data from young granites in the North Arm (Rudyawan et al. The slab tear in interpreted to have propagated east as rollback into the Banda embayment proceeded. Philippines The almost 90° bend in Sangihe slab interpreted by Gudmundsson and Sambridge (1998) is suggested by Walpersdorf et al.g. 2011).mp4).2012. Recent studies of the offshore and onshore geology tomographic images of the West Pacific support models suggesting show that during the Late Miocene and Pliocene this region has extend. The eastern and northern boundaries of the plate have hypocentres and tomography slices that is consistent with the geologi. as in the Banda arc. most of the slab did detach. Philip_Sea_Plate.org/10. The deeper. 15). (2004). the time cor- Miocene suture zone is now overlain by a several kilometre thick se. Watkinson et al. 2010) shows how this situation could have evolved (http://dx. The Early is seen clearly to migrate eastwards during the past 15 Ma. the much larger Molucca Sea plate must also have moved north by a sim- gion to depth of 600 km viewed from the west. ilar amount as it subducted to the west and east. but which 25 Ma based on Euler poles estimated from earthquake slip vectors. mmc5. W. 2014. and hypocentres this requires the slab to increase in strike length at Huang et al. whereas geological observations show they collided in the Early have been suggested above in the light of tomographic images that Miocene. Interaction with the nearby NW-subducting Sangihe slab (since c.021). 13). ob- we consider not to be part of the Sangihe slab but a separate third slab served GPS velocities.doi. (2001). as previously proposed by others. (2012). the history of the between the North Arm and the Sula Spur in the Late Miocene and Pli. 2010. Pezzati et al. 20 Ma. 5.. For the Philippines themselves. Moving an inactive slab of c.04. Our proposition of a third slab is tentative but consistent with the seismicity.. 2014) and may contribute to zone of strike-slip faulting in west Seram. can detach below ~300 km. 13) based on the earthquake since c. Cheng (2009). as is the case here. Hennig et al.. 200 km length hundreds of kilometres to the north in the last 20 Ma raises some geodynamic questions. and since then have show the length of subducted Molucca Sea slabs. recent geological evidence and the tectonic reconstruction. Spakman and Hall. of which up to half may be continental litho- sphere. 5 Ma) may have affected the morphology of the Sula slab leading to steeper B dips. 10. tomography and complexities of reconstructions north of the Restoring the inferred subducted slab implies a major separation Philippines. 2012). and be deformed most strongly at shallowest depths. (1998) al- Slab though we interpret differently their postulated continuity of the tear Sangihe slab and our Sula slab. 2014a. The total length of the slab interpreted from the tomography slices is about 400 km (Fig. vertical part of the Sula slab imaged in the tomography slices is currently almost aseismic. Rather than two slabs we explore the possibility of a who suggested modifications of previous reconstructions for the past slab dipping northwards. Based on et al.. 2011). emplacing the ophiolite on the Sula Spur. 2012. 2010.. and the Sangihe slab began to sub- S Sulawesi duct westwards. Chertova et al. Before collision of the Sula Spur and the North Arm in the Early Miocene there was a north-dipping slab subducting below the North Arm bound- ed by slab tears at its east and west ends (Fig. 24 Ma) and S-subducting Celebes slab (since c. Philippine Sea plate is relevant. Thermo-mechanical vals. leaving only a short hanging length of a few hundred kilometres.b.. The eastern boundary of the plate 2014. 2012. The recently acquired industry A Looking east seismic lines support a north-dipping thrust interpretation north of Seram the Sula Islands (Ferdian et al. although it may be unusual to find a slab remnant still attached after collision. with a flat section interpreted to record subduction We suggest a new interpretation (Fig. assessing this proposal.mov. B. 14). Neogene rotation of the Philippine Sea plate (Mapview_movies/ ed rather than contracted (Advokaat et al. Thus. It is also consistent with cross-sections drawn by Walpersdorf et al. upper mantle. at shallow depths earthquakes could mark delamina- 4 tion of the lower continental lithosphere.. (2006) cal observations. Hall. R..1016/j. The tear at the eastern end became a new subduction zone at the west side of the Molucca Sea.

Long lived strike-slip faulting in the plate before c. 9)..mov and Mapview_movies/SEA_east_mapv. Hall et al. Dashed red line is inferred northern limit of subducted continental crust of the Sula Spur which extends beneath part of the Sulawesi North Arm. or have no obvious link to 1995a. 20 Ma is recorded in the lower mantle as discussed fur.g. 2007. mmc6. and its great depth 2009) based on present knowledge.mov. 1983. ISC. Karig et al. sidering how well defined the Philippine trench is.c. Hall.c)... 2015) including events acquired 600 km (Mapview_movies/SEA_east_mapv.. Subduction at the Philippine trench is young and the (Hall. as expected from its short length and lack of seis.. sli. Rangin et al.mov. the The Negros trench. and larger and better located seis.mp4).. Be- subducting from the Philippine trench. There is a particularly large and strong steep-dipping key features of subduction geometry. has no tomographic or seismic expression. tectonic reconstruction (Vertical_slices/Slices_Molucca_Sea/Molucca_ graphic expression. 1986. Rangin. 1993) cannot account for the motion Philippine trench. This is surprising con. 1998. western boundary of the Philippine Sea plate in the Philippines and fur. which of a seismically well-defined slab and relatively recent (Pliocene or are at different depths. 1986. A slab tonic reconstruction simplifies this region and shows a number of differ- subducting from the Philippine trench can be traced to little more ent subduction zones on the east and west side of the Philippines linked than 100 km depth between 15°N and 3°N and cannot be identified intermittently by strike-slip faults. 9). Cardwell et al. motions.. Quebral et al. Seno et al. 1991. Yumul et al. consistent with provided the detail needed to help unravel this complexity but as they .. The tec- since their study have not changed the picture they interpreted.32 R. Philippines has been discussed by many authors (e. At the north end of the Philippines.mp4). (1995c) for their recon. 11. Yumul et al.mov. is a complex pattern of high velocity anomalies. 1991. again consistent with the lack tween them. mmc11. W.mp4 and micity below about 100 km. Rutland.. and it has been shown that the present-day Philippine Sea absence of obvious volcanoes associated with subduction at the plate rotation pole (Seno et al. except in Luzon tion confirmed the basic characteristics of models by previous workers (Fig.. We suggest the history of the Philippine Sea older strike-slip fault zone. Nonetheless Miller et al. suggesting a trench that is just beginning. (2006) concluded their reconstruc. pear to be associated with the Philippine fault.g. Stephan et al.. Tomographic models have not yet of more than 9 km east of Mindanao. mostly aseismic. mmc6. Seno and Maruyama. any slabs subducting below the western Philippines. 1984. (1980) identified the vary in their dip. mainly below 200 km. anomaly beneath the central Philippines at depths between 200 and mic data sets (Engdahl et al. ther below.mp4). mmc12. mmc14. At the south of the Philippines hypocentres beneath Mindanao in a position consistent with the the Cotobato trench on the SW side of Mindanao has no clear tomo. partitioning of oblique subduction into trench-normal subduction and 1993) and used the rotation poles of Hall et al. 2002. On to about 300 km depth from seismicity and a little deeper from the to- the east side of the Philippines there is little or no indication of a slab mography slices (Mapview_movies/Manila_sli. 2008. 1995b. beneath Luzon. Queano Philippines/Philippines_sli. 1991. and younger) initiation of subduction. often shown on tectonic maps on the west side of South China Sea slab subducted at the Manila trench can be identified the central Philippines...mp4). et al. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 Philippine Fault Philippine Trench Sulu Sea Philippine Sea Mindanao plate Cotobato Trench Celebes Sea N Sulawes i Trench Halmahera Sunda Celebes margin slab Sangihe Molucca Sea slab plate Halmahera slab Una-Una Sula slab Gorontalo Bay Sulawesi N Banda Bird’s Sea Seram Head s Ridge Banda S Banda Sea New Banda emba Guinea yment Banda slab Australian plate Fig. volcanoes in the southern and central Philippines ap- of the plate before 5 Ma recorded by palaeomagnetic data (Hall et al. Karig. The northern part of the Sangihe slab is clearly identified from ther south in eastern Indonesia (Fig. 1996. It is however. strike-slip motion on the Philippine fault may reflect re-use of a much structions older than 5 Ma.mov. 2004).b. 3-D cartoon showing principal subduction zones in the southern Philippines and east Indonesia region. in part reflecting the difficulty of un- more clearly from the tomographic sections (Vertical_slices/Slices_ derstanding and reconstructing such a complex region (e. None of the tomographic studies have been concerned with the 1968. Pubellier et al.

Note the Una–Una hypocentres are all south of the dipping slab. R. 2. Profile on red box shown in A showing slab dipping south from North Sulawesi trench to depth of c. 250 km.mov. Hypocentres interpreted to be related to subduction of Celebes slab from North Sulawesi trench. Note the very abrupt termination of deeper seismicity at approximately W–E line in centre of Gorontalo Bay between the East and North Arms of Sulawesi.mp4). Almost all events south of this line have depths less than 50 km. 12. nor to western side. which can all be related to Cenozoic . aly. Hypocentres shown in purple were all related to 1983 eruption of Una–Una volcano. There is nothing in our tectonic reconstruction. support models that include significant rotation of the Philippine Sea the transition zone (Fig. (2011). Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 33 120°E 125°E 130°E 135°E 5°N Una-Una volcano Celebes slab subduction Sangihe and Sula slab subduction 0° 5°S A 0 km 50 km 100 km 150 km 0 km South North 50 km 100 km 150 km 200 km 250 km B Una-Una volcano Celebes slab subduction 300 km 5°N < 75 km 75-100 km 100-150 km 151-200 km 201-300 km 301-400 km 401-500 km 500-600 km 0° >600 km 5°S C 120°E 125°E 130°E 135°E Fig. A. this implies a complex strike-slip dominated mobile belt at its mmc5. Our tentative hypothesis is that this is an anomaly produced during Below the South China Sea and possibly traceable beneath the a much earlier episode of subduction than any other anomaly in the northern Philippines is a broad flat lying high velocity anomaly in upper mantle of the region. Mapview_movies/Philip_Sea_Plate. plate. Hypocentre depths in the region. B. W. Seismicity and subducted slabs in the North Sulawesi and Molucca Sea region modified from Cottam et al. rather than simple northward translation during the our knowledge in any other reconstruction. that accounts for this anom- Cenozoic. C. Hall.

W. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 . Hall.34 R.

13. 2000). However.mp4 and mmc3. SVideo_Resolution_1. Su is the tion. A. 1991) show no oceanic crust was produced in the Sulu Sea in what would have been the backarc of this north-directed subduc- Fig. beneath the South China Sea and its margins. 1996. 2003) (Castillo and Solidum.. the Sulu arc subduction... The we suggested that large flat anomalies that are identified there could differences have been attributed to melting of a subducted slab have been produced during major episodes of subduction rollback and (Sajona et al. Hall. which created the Sulu arc (Cottam et al. 2) but this is on the edge of the area with limited or inadequate resolution so this feature could be an artefact.mov. Li and Li. 2007.mov and Vertical_slices/Slices_Proto_SCS/Proto_SCS_sli. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 35 Asian margin. 1991. 15 to 5 Ma). Hall.. 2000).mov and SVideo_Resolution_2.. The absence of a high velocity anomaly beneath the Sulu Sea is sur- prising since there is a volcanic arc. 2000). an interpretation excluded by later workers. 2013). 2013) shows high velocities in the lithosphere suggesting the anomaly is real. could remain in the transition zone for very long periods before entering Castillo and Solidum (2002) proposed that the mantle already the lower mantle. 2013. based on the resolution tests it should be possible to image subducted slabs in the upper parts of the upper man- tle beneath the Sulu Sea from the Philippines as far west as northern Borneo. which has recently detached and is sinking into the mantle below Mt Kinabalu (Cottam et al. 2002. 2013) the length of subducted slab could and Hall (2010). have been very small. B.. Silver et al.mp4). 2010). A. This portrays the upper surfaces of the three slabs. the Sulu arc.mov. Silver and Rangin.. Regional surface wave tomography (Tang and Zheng. This subduction was marked by granite magmatism from Vietnam to East China and terminated in the Cretaceous at about 80–90 Ma (e. However. mm17. B: approximately E–W slice across the southern end of the Molucca Sea plate which obliquely intersects the south-dipping Celebes slab. a possible explanation for this fea- ture is a slab subducted northwards from the Celebes Sea in the Middle and Late Miocene (c. is the west-directed Mesozoic subduction beneath the magmatism was not subduction-related but resulted from upwelling Fig. (2010) suggested that Plio–Pleistocene flat anomaly. There is a relatively large anomaly beneath northern Borneo at depths between 100 and 250 km (Fig. contained an enriched component that melted during later subduction possibly associated with flat slab subduction.and north- directed subduction beneath the now inactive arc at different times since the Oligocene. The anomaly is directly beneath Mt Kinabalu which is a granite pluton emplaced between 8–7 Ma (Cottam et al. Assuming it is not an artefact. 5. Depth slice at 820 km from UU-P07 showing high velocity anomalies. 24 Ma between Sula Spur and North Arm. although there is no seismicity and little other geological or geophysical evidence to support active or re- cent subduction.7. E: NNW–SSE slices crossing Gorontalo Bay which cut the south-dipping Celebes slab and the sub-vertical Sula slab (south-dipping and overturned in the west and steeply north-dipping further east). mmc2. The Sangihe slab is cut very obliquely in the transition zone. and the maximum extension between Palawan and the Sulu arc interpreted slab subducted beneath the North Arm of Sulawesi which broke off after col- during the Miocene was less than 200 km. C: approximately E–W slice across the northern part of the Molucca Sea plate showing the Sangihe and Halmahera slabs. between Sabah and the Zamboanga peninsula of Mindanao. 2013). 2013). if this was the case it would be expected that the slab would be imaged beneath the Sulu Sea and it is not (Vertical_slices/Slices_Sulu/Sulu_sli. 1991. Middle to Upper Miocene vol- canic rocks are typical calc-alkaline arc products (Chiang. In a study of the SW Pacific (Hall and Spakman. 1996. Zhou and Li.mp4). Plio–Pleistocene volcanic rocks are chemically different from the Mio- cene volcanics in Mindanao (Sajona et al.g. and would be no deeper than about 150 km. 14. On Sabah. An alternative explanation is that the anomaly represents a thickened lithosphere beneath northern Borneo. A candidate in the western Pacific for major rollback. W.. 2002) and Sabah (Macpherson et al. that could have left a wide whereas Macpherson et al. 3. 2002) interpreted as the result of north-directed subduction. D. 2004.. North Borneo to Sulu Sea In the northern part of the area of interest of this paper. Hamilton (1979) suggested both south. R. If this was entirely the result lision at c. there are no obvious anomalies in the upper mantle at depths less than 500 km but this is an area with very little resolution as indicated by the resolution tests (Fig. 3-D cartoon showing interpreted slabs in the North Sulawesi and Molucca Sea region. now broken off. Nguyen et al. and many tectonic maps show a Sulu trench on the north side of the Sulu arc.mp4 and mmc15. However. 2010) and rap- idly exhumed during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene (Cottam et al. . ODP drilling results (Rangin and Silver. Reconstruction at 26 Ma for the Banda region shortly before collision of Sula Spur and Sulawesi North Arm from Spakman of subduction rollback (Hall. formed during col- lision of the Dangerous Grounds microcontinental block with the Sabah–Cagayan volcanic arc.

Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 Fig. with formed during earlier Miocene subduction. Hall. By 20 Ma oceanic lithosphere has broken off and at present day is in the lower mantle (Fig. 14). By 10 Ma Sangihe slab is subducting from the Molucca Sea to the east into the plane of the section and contributes to steepening of Sula slab. Inferred development of Sula slab following collision of Sula Spur and Sulawesi North Arm. Extension at 15 Ma was associated with beginning of Banda rollback further SE. and Una–Una volcano is product of localised melting accompanying crustal thinning and delamination of Sula Spur as Sula slab becomes vertical. 2013). and magmatism in North Arm. W. Therefore. Subduction of Celebes Sea lithosphere beneath the North Arm and steepening of dip of Sula slab begins delamination of Sula Spur contributing to extension and rapid subsidence of Gorontalo Bay. In passing it is also worth reiterating that the . and possibly reflecting any high velocity anomalies beneath the Sulu Sea is interpreted here extension (Hall. the absence of younger volcanism unrelated to subduction. 15.36 R. Celebes slab has now reached depth of c. 200 km beneath Gorontalo Bay. of OIB-like domains in the upper mantle into lithospheric thin spots to reflect a very short length of slab subducted in the Miocene.

Slab detachment and vertical sinking following this collision changes from west to east (Fig. 18) the two parts of the deep anom- 6.. Jagoutz et al. Fuller et al. This anomaly can be seen and attributed this to convergence between Australia and SE Asia. positive anomalies in the lower mantle between Timor Tomography studies showed some years ago that there is a different and Sulawesi at depths between c. prior to the Early Miocene collision with the Australian Sula Spur Widiyantoro and van der Hilst. China Sea remain controversial (e..g. Nonetheless. 2007. and incorporated in the earliest plate tectonic dips steeply southwards and can be traced eastwards beneath North models for the South China Sea (Holloway. 1982. Hall et al. Taylor and Hayes.. Anomalies: lower mantle ence frame during the Cenozoic. (Fig. 2. Subduction beneath Borneo. where it strikes approximately E–W. eral parts to this anomaly which represent different subduction zones 2010. 1980. broad high velocity anomaly trending roughly NE–SW which is particu.g. Hall. 9) have no seismically-defined. Sarawak and southern Sabah of about 50° CCW between 30 and 10 Ma. 2008) show that what was previously imaged reconstructions of Spakman and Hall (2010) and Hall (2012). Cullen et al. slab associated with them.g. Furthermore. lawan. Recent tomography models (UU- fits the present-day lower mantle position of the slab remnant in the P07 used here. gested many years ago based on pioneering palaeomagnetic studies 2008. Hafkenscheid et al. 2001. (1999) as dif. 1100 km depth slice of UU-P07 showing change in lower mantle structure from west to east.. We interpret there to be sev. North Borneo–Proto-South China Sea reconstructions. Sunda–Java–Banda aly are separated but below 900 km to depths of about 1100 km they merge (Fig. 2006. 2012). below the north. 1997). Cullen.. R. 1996. so-called Negros and Sulu trenches often shown on the east and south. 2012. Further east. the size and subduction history of the Proto-South mmc1. Volcanic activity related to this subduction began at about 42 Ma in crossing them show nothing more than shallow thrusting.. 2012). W. E–W and can be traced with steep dip to about 900 km and then less east side of the Sulu Sea (Fig. 18). Sea.. Hall.. 2007. Broad deep anomaly below Indonesia east of 110°E records Cenozoic subduction. Replumaz and Tapponnier. 2015.1. van Hinsbergen et al. Clements et al. East Java (Smyth et al. 17). (1999) reviewed the palaeomagnetic evidence and East of about 110°E under SE Asia instead of linear anomalies there is concluded there had been rigid plate rotation of much of Kalimantan. was sug- Aitchison and Davis. 16) the Proto-South China Sea which subducted SE-wards from 45 to trending roughly NW–SE. We suggest this SW–NE striking anomaly is ferent subducted Tethyan slabs now over-ridden by India (Fig. 16). 1981). The lower mantle anomaly north of the equator can be West of about 110°E there are several broadly NW–SE linear high traced from below central Borneo with a SW–NE strike to 15°N under velocity anomalies interpreted first by van der Voo et al. Hall. in earlier models as a broad and deep anomaly below SE Asia has a clear- er internal structure and we argue below that many of the features can be identified with older subduction zones recognised in the tectonic 6. The position of the deep anomaly is consis- tent with the Java trench remaining relatively fixed in a mantle refer- 6. and rotation of Borneo. nor steeply to about 100 km below southern Borneo just south of the equa- tomographically imaged. 2011. Li et al. Aitchison et al.mp4) to have an internal structure. the central Philippines.. SEA_UU-P07_mapview. 14). later overridden by India. Rangin et al. 2008) and West Java (Clements and Hall. 2014. Sumatra. 16. Bijwaard et al. On the 800 km depth slice (Fig. The prominent southern linear anomaly 20 Ma beneath North Borneo and the Cagayan arc. the deep structure (Fig. 2). Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 37 Fig. Linear anomalies west of 110°E record Mesozoic and early Cenozoic Tethyan subduc- tion north of India. 1999. and seismic lines tor. The first of these is north of Java where the anomaly strikes 2003. larly prominent between 800 and 1100 km. 1998. 1979.. This anomaly (Haile. 1983) which also included a then unnamed Proto-South China dipping Sunda slab (Fig. 2010.mov. 2004.. 700 and 950 km are interpreted as structure in the lower mantle compared to the upper mantle beneath remnants of the slab that subducted under the North Arm of Sulawesi SE Asia (e. Tang and Zheng (2013) interpreted .2. now southeast of Pa- is now accepted to mark an early Cenozoic India–arc collision (e. 2002. on lower mantle depth slices (Fig. Replumaz et al.. 2004).

15 Ma which was a period of no rotation of the Philippine Sea plate. There is no tomographic support for . 1000 km depth slice of UU-P07 showing the eastern end of the elongate Tethyan anomaly and the broad deep anomaly below Indonesia east of 110°E which is due to Cenozoic subduction. mmc15. 2012) reconstructions. Hall. these wave tomography has poor resolution in this region. On the other hand. based on palaeomagnetic data (Hall et al. like almost all other velocity anomalies to to. is compared to with a lateral extent consistent with a wide Proto-South China Sea in the tomography depth slice at 800 km in Fig. Most anomalies are the Paleogene which narrowed and terminated towards the SW. and east of. Sulawesi. The P. 2002.3. the main subduction zones (Proto-South China Sea. 18. for which there may be evidence in complex geology of the 6. subduction history at the Paleogene NW side of the Philippine Sea plate. However. south side of Philippine Sea plate. Philippine Sea plate margins 40–25 Ma north and south sides Philippines.mov. Fig. It suggests a more complex about 20 Ma and represents the Proto-South China Sea. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 Fig. 18A). There is one north-south anomaly beneath the of the tectonic reconstructions (Hall. 2012). and a in good agreement with the reconstructed positions of the major position consistent with a large Neogene rotation of Borneo. 18 shows a tectonic recon. and beneath the North Arm of Sulawesi.mp4). interpreted on the reconstructions (Fig. the Proto-South China Sea slab and appears to be depths of c. 1996. 1995a. there are sever- longer than estimated by Rangin et al. north side of Philippine neath Borneo are looking in the wrong place because of the rotation of Sea plate) were stationary during the interval between 40 and 25– Borneo and SE margin of Sundaland. struction for 30 Ma compared to a tomography depth slice at 800 km. and we do not see this feature in the upper mantle (Vertical_ the Philippine Sea plate. 17. North of the Philippine Sea plate a subduction zone was The anomalies in the lower mantle below the Philippines and south. W. which could include either double or opposed subduction zones. North Arm of we suggest that those looking for the Proto-South China Sea directly be. East of of 500 km length in the upper mantle beneath northern Borneo which is the interpreted Proto-South China Sea discussed above. 1200 km. 3-D images showing the Tethyan slab at depth below the Sunda slab. Below Java and Sumatra the part of the slab at depths greater than 600 km is omitted for clarity. 2002. as discussed anomalies are in a position consistent with subduction at the margins of above. but visible on depth slices from 760 to 900 km. all features subduction zones. The tectonic In the lower mantle the P-wave tomography images show an anomaly reconstruction for 30 Ma. regional surface wave tomography to show a Proto-South China Sea slab position to inferred Neogene and modern-day subduction zones. All of slices/Slices_Proto_SCS/Proto_SCS_sli.c).b.. We suggest this Philippines for which we currently have no explanation. A. in the middle of this period. Below Sumatra the Sunda slab is in the upper mantle but further SE below South Sumatra and Java the subducted slab penetrates the lower mantle. B.38 R. most clearly seen at 800 km interpreted by the Hall (1996. (1999) but smaller than al broadly linear anomalies that strike ESE. 18B) in the Paleogene from ern part of the Philippine Sea plate have a very different orientation and approximately Luzon to Japan. It is parallel anomaly in the lower mantle. is a slab subducted before subduction ceased at traceable to greater depths (Fig.

Resolution in the mantle beneath the Pa. 18A). R. B. depending on the region considered. W. Discussion: tomography and tectonic models is commonly interpreted (e. Maruyama et al. Hall. this. Sunda-Java trench subduction. the tomo- south of Japan in unknown. north of the Philippine Sea plate. Lewis and Byrne. Depth slice at 800 km from UU-P07 showing high velocity anomalies. and subduction below NE side of Philippine Sea plate all fit well with position of high velocity anomalies in lower mantle. There is no evidence from tomography to support the interpreted subduction at the east side of the Pacific.. 2001) although it may have ceased at times (von Based on the premise that positive seismic P-wave velocity anoma- Huene et al. subduction below North Sulawesi–East Philippines. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 39 Fig. graphic images of the mantle from UU-P07 record subduction beneath cific is poor. our tectonic model we interpret virtually all features seen in upper .g. Proto- South China Sea subduction. 1997. 18. A. but it is possible that the subduction boundary of the the SE Asian region to depths of approximately 1600 km. West-directed subduction beneath Japan during the Paleogene 7. Tethyan linear anomaly marked with magenta line interpreted to record northward subduction north of India in Late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic.. Based on trending northwards (Fig. 2003. Taira. 1982) but where subduction boundaries were to the lies in the mantle are primarily the product of subduction. Anomalies east of about 110°E are interpreted as the result of subduction since 45 Ma. Symbol P? marks a linear feature in the deep anomaly that could represent a subduction zone not in tectonic model. Reconstruction at 30 Ma from Hall (2012) showing interpreted subduction zones. As explained Kula or Pacific plates continued southwards to join the east end of above the anomalies in the upper mantle mainly record subduction dur- the Philippine Sea plate where there is a weak high velocity anomaly ing the last 10 to 25 Ma.

However. 18) and Halmahera (Hall and which are interpreted to result from buoyant obstacles on the Spakman.1. in general there are few significant differences between them and the As explained by Spakman and Hall (2010) the deep mantle structure majority of high velocity anomalies in the upper mantle can be linked changes further east below the Banda region where the folded slab in to present subduction zones. From about above that lower mantle structure can now be interpreted in terms of . duction history that is inferred from present trenches and geological ob- etry of the slab reflects the shape of the pre-existing Banda embayment. seen in previous models. 2012) in which sub- at depths from 800 to 1100 km. a Sula subduction zone. slabs can be identified (Gorbatov and Kennett. this would imply this slab has been in the mantle in this posi. Hall.. There is a Java trench-related part duction ceased for a period from about 90 Ma to 45 Ma and accounts for (NE-directed subduction from 45 to 15 Ma). In the lower mantle below the Banda For the Sunda–Java subduction zone we postulate a tear rather than Sea and into the West Pacific north of New Guinea there are remnants a fold in the slab beneath Sumatra. the resolution of the tomographic 2012) which shows advance of the subduction hinge between 25 and models has significantly improved since then and we have argued 15 Ma as a result of Borneo (SE Sundaland) rotation. 2003).. We conclude that most anomalies record the upper mantle cannot be traced into the lower mantle. Age variations in the subducted Sea northwards into the Philippines region the subducted slabs are seg. Key points concerning tectonic models ular from them and earlier workers in our interpretation of the develop- ment of the Banda region. Unlike several Neogene subduction mostly younger than suggested by some previous previous authors we therefore do not identify Tethyan subduction authors (e. model reconstructions. supporting the (400–650 km) below the South China Sea with weak amplitudes one-slab model and deformation of the subducted slab in the upper which is not explained by any tectonic model. A significantly improved understanding of the Banda arc evolution There is a broad positive velocity anomaly in the transition zone has been acquired with the aid of tomographic models. (Hinschberger et al. tectonic interpretations of the region could not be distinguished using This is what would be expected based on the tectonic model (Hall. 2008) and concluded that some and overlaps the deep flatter anomaly which extends further south. 2005) which should be clearly visible in tomogra- phy sections. and the geom. From the Molucca other areas such as Sumbawa–Flores. The crucial differences are the recognition For the Neogene the tomographic images broadly confirm the sub- that the Banda subduction began only in the last 15 Ma. and like Widiyantoro et al. the change in beneath SE Asia have invariably proposed a single anomaly linked to lower mantle structure west and east of 110°E implies a major change the Tethyan anomalies which can be traced to the Eastern Mediterranean. Thus. The tectonic model predicts no subduction beneath the region from In Section 3 we reviewed previous interpretations of tomographic 90 Ma so no high velocity anomaly is expected at depths greater than models. This deep anomaly disappears by about 1500 km and suggests 7. In this region the resolution of the tomo- westward-directed Cretaceous subduction zone at the Pacific margin. If subduction beneath Indonesia had been continuous during anomaly. The quality and resolution of recent models has improved but about 1500 km. we would expect the lower mantle extends beneath Sumatra at depths below c.g. To the east of this there are several parts to the broad anomaly therefore favours the tectonic reconstruction (Hall. The most prominent. explained as NW-directed subduction from 65 to 50 Ma in the tectonic model.3. subduc- infer there are holes in the slab below East Java and Flores–Sumbawa tion below the East Philippines (Fig. (2007). including the broken off Sula slab. The mography shows this is where slab dip begins to change from very steep oldest subduction zone in the Philippines region that can be connected below Java (Cretaceous crust subducted) to much less steep below to a modern trench is the slab subducting eastwards from the Manila Sumatra in areas where there are few hypocentres. 7. the absence of a high velocity anomaly associated with subduction at subduction at the Philippine Sea plate margins. We suggest this can now identify subduction For subduction before the Cenozoic the lower mantle tomography zones which mainly pre-date about 15 Ma. centred on Bor- Below Java the steep anomaly in the upper mantle passes through neo. In our view. ceous and much younger Cenozoic crust is now beneath SE Sumatra. Upper mantle: results from tomography that the oldest subduction being seen is latest Cretaceous (c. and southern. Lower mantle: results from tomography of major east-directed subduction on the east side of the Makassar Straits and. such as If correct. 2010). Beneath Sulawesi. and plausibly interpreted in geological observations that suggests a third slab. does not greatly aid tectonic interpretation because most high velocity Previous interpretations of the lower mantle high velocity anomaly anomalies are due to Cenozoic subduction. and a Proto-South the Java trench deeper than about 1600 km. China slab which were subducted between 45 and 25 Ma. can also suggest new tectonic in- The UU-P07 model resolves more structure in the lower mantle than terpretations in areas of complex seismicity and deformation. However. as often suggested. accompa- tion since about 80–90 Ma and would be the oldest subduction system nied by subduction of several hundred kilometres of oceanic lithosphere that is identifiable beneath SE Asia.2. and changes in arc magma chemistry consistent with seismicity. W. To- Philippine trench. zones below the Banda region. 2003) and are consistent mented. ical observations of the upper crust. graphic models can also exclude some tectonic interpretations. tomographic images and recently acquired can now be linked for areas like East Java. servations. However. 2002. the improving resolution of the tomographic and Neogene eastwards rollback into the embayment while the models now makes it possible to link the subduction history to geolog- Australian plate moved northward. (2011) we of 45 to 25 Ma subduction. arc deformation.40 R. and linking surface deforma- this could be a possible remnant of a flat slab section from a tion to slab-mantle interaction. in subduction history north of India compared to that north of We propose a separation of this huge SE Asia anomaly from the Tethys Australia. Spakman / Tectonophysics 658 (2015) 14–45 mantle and lower mantle to depths of at least 1200 km to be the result 1200 km to greater depths the anomaly becomes NE–SW oriented — of Cenozoic subduction. Li and van der Hilst. We tentatively suggest mantle first proposed by Hamilton (1979). in an earlier paper (Hall et al. the Miocene initiation of faulting at the Tarera–Aiduna fault. subducting plate. Celebes Sea subduction beneath the Sulu arc). the holes interpreted in Beneath Sulawesi we propose a new interpretation of slab geometry subducted slabs. However. We discussed various features of the SE Asia region. as we have shown above. the tomographic images. tomography can rule out suggestions 7. but we differ in partic. 850 km but only to about anomalies to be traceable to much greater depths. this 110°E. Tethyan linear anomaly the Mesozoic. and several subduction zones are not imaged because of the with predictions of our tectonic model. The relative age of Trench. high velocity anomalies in lower part of the upper the subducted slab may have contributed to the way in which the mantle suggest a subduction history more complex than shown in subducted slab has deformed. 65 Ma). Our interpretation of slab geometry from Sunda to Banda is similar to that of Richards et al. The boundary between Creta- short slab lengths consistent with their young age (Cotobato trench.

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