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Pressure Gradient Force


Coriolis Force
Geostrophic winds
Air under the impact of both the pressure gradient force and Coriolis force tends to move parallel
to isobars in conditions where friction is low and isobars are straight. Winds of this type are
usually called geostrophic winds. Geostrophic winds happen because pressure gradient force and
Coriolis force obtain a balance when the air is moving.
As we going through the upper atmosphere, the surface frictionless affected to the wind. When
it reaches to the geostrophic wind only affected pressure gradient and Coriolis force. This
boundary layer exists from 1-2km above the surface. However, this layer depending on terrain,
temperature, wind. Above the boundary layer, there are no friction forces affected to the wind.

Asian Monsoon
The definition for the word monsoon is a continues surface wind pattern due to the different
surface heat change the direction of wind one season to another. In the world, the monsoon is
most often around the tropics such as Indian ocean, Africa, and South America. Like typical wind
Monsoons always going through the cold to warm regions. The summer monsoon and the winter
monsoon determine the climate for most of India and Southeast Asia.

Summer Monsoon

The summer monsoon is related with heavy rainfall. It usually happens between April and
September. As winter ends, warm, moist air from the southwest Indian Ocean blows toward
countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. The summer monsoon brings
a humid climate and torrential rainfall to these areas.
Winter Monsoon

The Indian Oceans winter monsoon, which lasts from October to April, is less well-known than its
rainy summer equivalent. The dry winter monsoon blows from the northeast. These winds start
in the air above Mongolia and northwestern China. Winter monsoons are less powerful than
summer monsoons in Southeast Asia, in part because the Himalaya Mountains prevent much of
the wind and moisture of the monsoons from reaching the coast.

General Circulation

The world-scale systems of pressure and winds which continue throughout the year or reappear
seasonally. Such winds transport heat from tropical to polar latitudes, accordingly maintaining
the present patterns of world temperatures.

This global circulation is driven by forceful differences in insolation between the tropical and
polar regions and is powerfully influenced by the Coriolis force. Air moves vertically along the
meridians and horizontally with the wind systems, both at ground level and in the upper

When seasonal changes occur this system moves north-south direction.When summer times
start northern Hemisphere system going north. Therefore countries near to the equator,
Subtropical region, and sub-polar regions have faced a great change of wind direction.

An example new york located at 40 degrees north. Due to the westerlies, the overall wind
direction is from the west. In summer months wind came through the southwest direction. These
wind have more moist air. There for in summer month New York city have a large amount of
precipitation and warmer temperature. In winter months wind came through the northwest
direction. These wind have less amount of water vapor so in summer months New York has less
precipitation. These cold dry wind affected to the lake effect snow in New York.

In Brazil (10 degrees South). Due to the easterlies , the general wind direction from the east. In
summer month in southern hemisphere wind came through the northwest direction. These wind
are warm and moist. There for higher precipitation occur in December to April in Brazil. In winter
months winds came through the Southwest direction there for brazil have moderately low
precipitation in the winter season.