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OIL SPILL RESPONSE

CONTINGENCY PLAN
MUMBAI & JNPT HARBOUR

Prepared by SADHAV SHIPPING LTD



RECORDOFAMANDMENTS

DATE AMANDMENT SECTION/PARA/ PAGE INITIALSOF
NUMBER SUBPARA NO ISSUING
OFFICER





















NOTE

1. Amandment to Plan is to be carried out by replacing the text, information or data


containedinthereleventsection,paraorsubpara.

2.Theoldtextistoberemovedfromringbinderfileandreplacedbyamandeddata,textor
information.

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INDEX
CONTENTS PAGENO.
PARTI

1.0 CONTINGENCYPLANNING 1

1.1. PURPOSEANDOBJECTIVES 1

1.2. AIMSOFCONTIGENCYPLAN 3

1.3. PLANELEMENTS 4
1.3.1. HazardsandIdentification
1.3.2. Vulnerability/SensitivityAnalysis
1.3.3. RiskAssessment
1.3.4. ResponseActions/Resources

1.4. RESPONSEPOLICIES 7

1.5. LOCATIONBASEDRESPONSE 8

1.6. INTEGRATIONWITHWIDERAREAOPERATIONS 8

1.7. PLANFACTORS 10

1.8. REVIEW,REVISIONANDUPDATES 10

1.9.INTERFACEWITHOTHERPLANS 11


2.0 PLANNINGANDADMINISTRATION

2.1 AREALAYOUT 12

2.2 MUMBAIPORT 14
2.2.1 CargoHandling
2.2.2 CargoStatistics

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2.3 JNPT 22
2.3.1 CargoHandling
2.3.2 LiquidCargoBerths

2.4 POLCARGO 25
2.4.1 ChemicalCharacteristicsofDifferentOilandtheirImplications

3.0 RISK&SPILLASSESSMENT

3.1 HAZARDRATING 27

3.2 CAUSESOFOILSPILL 28

3.2.1 LocationofSpillwithinthescopeofthePlan

3.3 OILSPILLSHISTORICDATA 29

3.3.1 Analysisandfigures

3.4 RISKFACTORFOROILSPILLSTERMINALOPS 31

3.4.1 FailurefrequenciesPipelines
3.4.2 CargoOperationsorTransferspillsfrequencies
3.4.3 SpillVolumeCalculations
3.4.4 ONGCPipelineDamage
3.4.5 ONGCPipelineSpillestimates

3.5 SHIPACCIDENTSANDFREQUENCYOFOILSPILLS 35
3.5.1 Collision
3.5.2 Vesselcontact

3.6 MAXIMUMCREDIBLESPILLVOLUMES 37
3.6.1 Volumesformaximumcrediblecasescenario
3.6.2 MaximumcrediblespillvolumesVesselspill

3.7 WORSTCASESCENERIOOILRELEASEFROMGROUNDING
ORCOLLISSION 41

3.8 SPILLINMumbaiHARBOURModelstudies 43

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3.9 MOVEMENTANDTRAJECTORYSTUDIES 44
JawaharDweepandPirPaujetty
3.9.1 Location
3.9.2 SpillScenarios
3.9.3 OilTypes
3.9.4 SWMonsoonPeriod(MaySeptember)
3.9.5 NEMonsoon(DecemberFebruary)
3.9.6 PostMonsoon

3.10 MOVEMENTANDTRAJECTORYMODELJNPT 47
3.10.1 SpillLocation
3.10.2 OilType
3.10.3 PreMonsoon(January)
3.10.4 MonsoonPeriod(July)
3.10.5 PostMonsoon(October)

3.11 MODELPREDICTIONSICMAMandNIO 49

4.0 FATEOFSPILLEDOILANDSPILLANALYSIS

4.1 WEATHERINGPROCESSANDTIMESCALE 50
4.1.1 CalculationofWeatheringLosses

4.2 OILTHICKNESSANDAPPEARANCEOFSLICK 54

4.3 MOVEMENTOFOIL 55

5.0 CLIMATICCONDITIONS

5.1 TEMPERATUREANDRAINFALL 56

5.2 WINDS 57

5.3 VISIBILITY 58

5.4 pHVOLUME 59

5.5 TOTALDISSOLVEDSOLIDS 59

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5.6 WAVES 59

5.7 TIDES 60

5.8 CURRENT 62

5.8.1 TidalStreams(Currents)anapproachestoMumbaiPort
5.8.2 TidalStreams(Currents)inMumbaiHarbour

5.9 MODELSIMULATIONANDVALIDATION 66


6.0 ENVIRONMENTALSENSITIVITY

6.1 ENVIRONMENTALSENSITIVITYMAPPING 67

6.2 GEOGRAPHICAL&TOPOGRAPHICALSENSITIVITY 70

6.3 SHORELINESENSITIVITY 72

6.4 OBSERVATIONS 79

6.5 PROTECTIONPRIORITIES 80

PARTII

7.0 OPERATIONSANDRESPONSESTRATEGIES

7.1 RESPONSEACTIONS 82

7.2 OPERATIONALPRIORITIES 83

7.3 OPERATIONSMANUAL/FIELDGUIDES 84

7.4 LIMITINGANDADVERESECONDITIONS 85

7.5 RESPONSESTRATEGY 86

7.5.1 Jetty/TerminalResponse

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7.5.2 OnWaterResponse
7.5.3 UseofDispersant
7.5.4 CoastalshorelineCleanup

8.0 EQUIPMENT,SUPPLIESANDSERVICES

8.1 LOCATION 90

8.2 ADDITIONALEQUIPMENTANDRESPONSE 91

8.3 INSPECTION,MAINTAINANCESANDTRAINING 91

8.3.1 Exercises

9.0 ORGANISATION

9.1 MANAGEMENTANDMANPOWER 95

9.1.1 MajorfunctionofCMT
9.1.2 FunctionalDesignations

9.2 EXECUTIONOFPLAN 97

9.2.1 CrisisManagementTeamandAssembly
9.2.2 IncidentResponseTeam/Teams
9.2.3 AfloatOperationResponseTeams
9.2.4 ShorelineCleanupTeam

9.3 DUTIESOFCMTANDOTHERSTAFF 102

9.3.1 CrisisManagementTeam/IncidentCoordination
9.3.2 AdditionalResponsibilityofTeamMembers
9.3.3 ResponsibilitiesofOnSceneCoordinator
9.3.4 ResponsibilitiesofIncidentManager/OilSpillResponseOrganization
Manager
9.3.5 ResponsibilitiesandfunctionsofResponseTeam
9.3.6 CommonDuties


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10.0 OPERATIONSCONTROLANDCOMMUNICATION

10.1 OPERATIONSANDCOMMUNICATIONCENTER 113

10.2 EQUIPMENTANDPUBLICATIONS 114

10.3 ACTIONSREQUIREDOFCOMMUNICATIONANDOPERATIONSCENTER 114

10.4 INFORMATIONDISPLAY 115

11.0 REPORTINGSPILLANDPLANACTIVATION

11.1 ACTIVATION 117
11.1.1 ActionsbyPortControl/OSROControlRoomorHMonreceipt
ofincidentinformation
11.1.2 NumberingofIncidentLog
11.2 COMMONDUTIESOFPORTCONTROL/COC&HM 119

11.3 TEAMACTIVATION 119

11.4 SPILLDETAILS 119
11.4.1 AdditionalInformation

11.5 INFORMATIONTOPUBLICAUTHORITY 121

11.6 INFORMATIONTOMEDIA 121


12.0 TERMINATIONANDCOMPLETIONSOFOPERATIONS

12.1 COMPLETIONANDSTANDINGDOWN 123

12.2REVIEWOFPLANANDPROCEDURES 124


13.0 DISPOSAL 125

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DATADIRECTORY
AppendixNo PAGENO

1 OILSHANDLEDATMUMBAIHARBOUR 126
2 BROADCLASSIFICATIONOFOILSASPERMARPOL73/78 127
3 CHARECTERISTICSOFDIFFERENTOILS 128
4 ONGCPIPELINELEAKSPILLVOLUMES(m3) 129
5 WEATHERINGPROCESSANDTIMESCALES 130
6 CALCULATIONOFWEATHERINGLOSSESADIOSSPILLCALCULATOR 131
7 CALCULATIONOFQUANTITYOFSPILLEDOILASPERSLICK 133
CHARACTERISTICS
8 SHORELINETYPES,RANKINGANDCOLOURCODE 134
9 BIOLOGICALRESOURCESESISYMBOLS 137
9A ESIPOINTSYMBOLSBIOLOGICALRESOURCES 138
10 ESIHUMANUSERESOURCESSYMBOLS 139
11 ESIMAPTHAALKNOBTONAVAPADA 140
11A ESIMAPNAVAPADATOMORAJETTY 141
11B ESIMAPMORATOJUNASHEVAROAD,JNPT 142
11C ESIMAPJNPT(NHAVA)TOSOUTHENTRANCETOPANVELCREEK 143
11D ESIMAPSECTOR51TOVASHIVILLAGE 144
11E VASHIVILLAGE(EBANKOFTHANECREEK)TOVIKHROLI 145
(WBANKOFTHANECREEK)
11F ESIMAPVIKHROLITOBPCLREFINERYTOHAJIBANDAR 146
11G ESIMAPVIKHROLITOBPCLREFINERYTOHAJIBANDAR 147
11H ESIMAPHAJIBUNDERTOCOLABA,NAVYNAGAR 148
12 PORTVESSELPOLLUTIONEMERGENCYINTERPHASE 149

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13 LISTOFDISPERSANTSAPPROVEDFORAPPLICATION
BYCOASTGUARD 150
14 EQUIPMENTDETAILSANDLOCATION 151

15 ADDITIONALEQUIPMENTANDLOCATION 152
16 LISTOFINTERNATIONALOSROs 153
17 ORGANISATIONALCHART 154
18 COMPOSITIONOFCMTMbPT 155
18A COMPOSITIONOFCMTJNPT 156
18B COMPOSITIONOFCMTONGC 157
19 PERSONALLOG 158
20 IC/OSC/VESSELMASTERDAILYLOG 159
21 INCIDENTLOG 160
22 OILSPILLREPORTFORM 162
22A CONTACTDETAILSOFSPILLINFORMATIONCENTER 163
23 CONTACTDETAILSOFLOCALADMINISTRATIVEAUTHORITIES 164
24 MEDIACOMMUNICATIONS 166

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ACRONYMS

BPCL BharatPetroleumCorporationLtd

DNV DetNorskeVeritas

COC CommunicationandOperationsCenter

ESI EnvironmentalSensitivityIndex

HM HarborMaster

HPCL HindustanPetroleumCorporationLtd

IC IncidentController

IM IncidentManager

IMO InternationalMaritimeOrganisation

IOCL IndianOilCorporation

IPIECA InternationalPetroleumIndustryEnvironmentalConservation
Association

ITOPF InternationalTankerOwnersPollutionFund

JD JawaharDweep

JNPT JawaharLalNehruPort

MARPOL73/78 InternationalConventionforthePreventionofPollutionfromShips
1973asmodifiedbytheProtocolof1978

MbPT MumbaiPortTrust

NFPA NationalFireProtectionAssociation

NOSDCP NationalOilSpillDisasterContingencyPlan

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ONGC OilandNaturalGasCorporation

OPRCConvention International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response


andCooperation1990

OSC OnSceneCoordinator

OSD OilSpillDispersant

OSR OilSpillResponse

OSRO OilSpillResponseOrganisation

OSROM OilSpillResponseOrganisationManager

OSROS OilSpillResponseOrganisationSpecialist

PC PortControl

POL Petroleum,oilandlubricants

RIL RelianceIndustriesLimited

SRV SpillResponseVessel

UNCLOS UnitedNationsConventiononLawsoftheSea

TPC TataPowerCorporation

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1.0 CONTINGENCYPLANNING

Inspiteofbestintentionstoavoidoilspillsthroughbestandsafepracticesand
rigidenforcementofgoodintentionsinworkplace,thespillsstilloccurandwillkeepon
occurring. The next best post spill activity, then, is to address them in terms of
containment and recovery within shortest possible time and through best available
means that need to be planned and kept ready in advance and spelled through a
ContingencyPlanforthefacilityorareahandlingoil,oilproductsorotherpollutants.

Increaseindensityofmarinetraffic,especiallyoiltankers andpetroleumbased
installationsalongtheIndiancoasthasincreasedtherisksforoccurrenceofspillsin
harbour, coastal waters and during terminal operations apart from spills that could
occur from collision, grounding of vessels and stranding. To address the fallout of
incidentsandaccidentsthatcouldleadtopollutionofmarineenvironment,allcountries
handlingpollutingagentsarerequiredtohavecapabilitiesandcreateinfrastructure
andsetupmeansthatcouldhandlethepollutionresponseactivityincaseofanyspill.
The working parameters and strategy to address the response activities are spelled
throughaContingencyPlan.

1.1 PURPOSEANDOBJECTIVESOFCONTINGENCYPLAN

India being signatory to number of International agreements and conventions
aimedatcontrollingmarinepollutionthroughmeasuresandrulesapplicabletomarine
facilities or surface units, is under an obligation to honour and implement the same
through municipal legislation and through adopting means, practices and rules in
accordancewithArticleIoftheConvention73andProtocol78i.eMARPOL73/78.

The article has placed an obligation on the parties to the convention including
India to give effect to the provisions of the present convention and those Annexes

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thereto by which they are bound, in order to prevent the pollution of the marine
environment by the discharge of harmful substances or effluents containing such
substancesincontraventionoftheconvention.

ApartfromthespecificobligationsimposedbyMARPOL,beingasignatorytoUN
ConventionontheLawsoftheSea(UNCLOS),Indiahasanobligationtoprotectand
preserve the marine environment in addition to obligations under International
Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation 1990 ( OPRC
Convention).

Accordingly,Indiatoohadtoformulaterulesoradministrativedirectionsgiving
effect to international procedures through structures to be developed by ports and
facilitieshandlingvesselsandoilcargo.

While, regulatory procedures are expected to be put in place through rules
implementing the various provisions and annexure of MARPOL 73/78, the practical
aspects of marine pollution to set up a mechanism on the ground are dealt by OPRC
NationalOilSpillDisasterContingencyPlanbeinganinstrumentforthesame.

NOSDCPhasitsorigininIMOconventionOPRC1990,ratifiedbyIndia.Asper
theconventionitisimperativeuponeachsignatorystatetohavelawsandmechanisms
torespondtooilspillsinitswaters.

NationalOilSpillDisasterContingencyPlanisaimedatcoordinationofresource
agenciestocombatanoilspillinIndianwatersandalsospellstheactionsrequiredofoil
handling facilities i.e to prepare contingency plans for respective facilities and to
develop Tier I response capabilities and also to report oil spills. NOSDCP mandates a
number of resource agencies comprising of 03 ministries and 15 departments apart
fromoilindustry,offshoreterminalsetc.toanobligationto:

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Renderresourcesforpollutionresponsewhencalledfor,
ReportOilSpills,
Preparecontingencyplansforrespectivespillscenario,
SetupTierIresponsefacilitiesand
UseofOilSpilldispersants(OSD)inaccordancewithPlan.

Ofthethreetiersofresponseenvisagedandplannedtohandleaspillsituationin
consonancewithquantumofspill,Tier1istheprimaryandfirststepofresponses,tobe
mountedbythefacilitywherethespilltakesplace.

While, NOSDCP outlines the response activities as per Tier system of
addressalofspill,thefacilityplanistheinstrumenttoaddressthespillscenarioatlocal
level. Tier 1 being the first and primary response level has to be executed and
undertakenbythefacilityhandlingpollutingcargo,forwhichpurposedraftingofaCPis
theprimaryrequirement.

The National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan was first drafted in India by
Coast Guard during 1996 with an objective to put in place the machinery and
mechanisms to combat oil spills in Maritime zones of India. The Plan has since been
updatedin2002.

1.2 AIMSOFCONTINGENCYPLAN

The aims and objectives of the Oil Spill Response Contingency Plan (here after
termedthePlanorCP)ofaportorfacilityaretodrawamethodologyandstrategyto
indicateactionsrequiredtobetakenbyrespondersto:
Ensureavailabilityoftimely,measuredandeffectiveresponsetoincidentsofoilspillinwaters
underjurisdictionoftheportorfacility,

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Takemeasurestocontrolthespillwithinminimumarea,
Minimisevolumeofspillbysecuringthesourceinmostappropriateway,
Minimise extent of movement of released oil from the source by timely
containment,
Minimiseenvironmentalimpactbytimelycontainmentandrecoveryresponse,
Maximise effectiveness of recovery actions through selection of appropriate
equipmentandtechniques,
Maximizeresponseeffectivenessthroughtrainedandcompetent,operationaland
responseteams,
Guide response personnel through the process of managing a spill originating
withintheirareaofoperation,
Mitigateconsequencesofoilpollutionincidents,
Allow those involved in rsponse to rapidly disseminate information to parties
involvedandtoensureoptimumdeployementofavailableequipment.

1.3PLANELEMENTS

ThisPlanisasetofguidelinesandinstructionsthatoutlinesthestepsthatshould
be taken before, during and after an oil spill emergency. The Plan has to accordingly,
pay attention to all the possibilities that could go wrong and contingent upon actual
events,hasthecontacts,resourcelists,andstrategiestoassistinresponsetothespill.

Asincumbentbyareasonablyworkableplan,thisPlanprovides detailsofactions
required to be initiated and taken to prepare for and respond to spills and address
differentsituationsthatmayariseduringorafteraspill.ThePlanisstructuredonfour
majorelements,viz:


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1.3.1HazardIdentification

While,itisimpossibletoknowwhenanoilspillisgoingtohappenandhowmuchoil
islikelytobespilled,however,itispossibletoidentifywhereoilisstored,thecorridors
throughwhichittravelsandtheindustriesthatuselargequantitiesofoil.

Since,differentsituationscanaffecttheabilityofresponsepersonneltocontainand
cleanupanoilspill,suchasweatherandgeographicconditionsandspillsize,thisPlan
has attempted to address actions and activities to be undertaken under different
conditions.

Thefollowinginformationhasbeenputintouseasapartofhazardidentification:
Types of oils received, stored in or transported through the area of
operation,
Locations where oil is received in large quantities and mode of
transportationusedtoreceivetheoil,suchasvesselsandpipelinesetc,
Weatherconditionsthatwouldaffectresponseoperationsintheareaduring
differenttimesoftheyear,
Locationofresponseequipment,trainedpersonnelandotherresourcesthat
couldbecalledinforresponsetothespill.

1.3.2 Vulnerability/SensitivityAnalysis

ThevulnerabilityanalysissectionofthePlanisanattempttocollateandprovide
information about resources and communities that could be harmed in the event of a
spill. This information helps personnel involved in clean up operations to exercise
identified reasonable, wellinformed choices on protecting areas of high sensitivity
biological,economicalandpublicutilities,thatarevulnerableandofconcernforpublic

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health and environment. Vulnerability information taken into account for this Plan
includesthefollowingthathavebeenindicatedonconcernedareamaps
Shorelinetypesandrankingbasedonsensitivitytooil,
Biologicalresourcessensitivetooiloremergencyresponseactions,
Humanuseresourcessensitivetooilorusefulduringresponseoperations,

1.3.3 RiskAssessment

AsrequiredofaContingencyPlan,thisPlanhastriedtocomparethehazardand
vulnerability ina particular location to see the kind ofrisk that are posed and then to
addressesthoseproblemsbydetermininghowbesttocontrolthespill,howtoprevent
certain ecological elements or environments from exposure to oil, and how best to
advisethelocalcivilauthorityofthedangersthatcouldbeposedbythespillandhowto
addressthemandtorepairthedamagedonebythespill.

1.3.4 ResponseActions/Resources

As a part of this Plan, the port, facility or the identified OSRO is responsible to
undertake spill mitigation operations apart from managing, acquiring and maintaining
oil spill response equipment and resources appropriate for response. Equipment,
resources and personnel will be stockpiled at one or more suitable location/s as
necessarytomeetresponserequirementswithinshortestperiod.

The team nominated by the executing authority ( in this case the Chairman,
MumbaiPort)oranyOSROnominatedbytheexecutingauthoritywillgiveeffecttoall
theresponsemechanismsandproceduresidentifiedbythePlan andmaintaintrained
personneltoundertaketheoperations.

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1.4 RESPONSEPOLICIESGIVINGEFFECTTOPLAN

Objectives and aims of the Plan are achieved through formulation of oil spill
responsestrategyfortheareaofoperationandoilspillresponseplantobeaddressed
through Operations Manual. While, this Plan includes reference to wider concerns like
EnvironmentalSensitivityetc,theOperationsManualwillbetheresponseactivityguide
along with other documents to ensure execution of each part of response and
implementation.

ThekeydeliverablestogiveeffecttothePlanare:

(i) Action Planning Tactical action strategies including initial containment
and control procedures and locations for Tier 1 events are developed on geographic
basis with resources located strategically within the area of operation at one or
multiplesites.
(ii) Environmental Sensitivity Factors Environmental sensitivity and risk
factors having been taken into account through observations, secondary information
sourcesandstudies,theresultsareintegratedintoidentificationofhighriskareas/
features and protection/cleanup priorities and selection of appropriate response
procedures,resourcesandresourcestagingareas.
(iii) Response or Field Guide manuals Describing procedures for
containment and control actions, the manuals contain information on deployment of
equipmentetcasperthelocationofspillandsafepracticesthatneedtobeadheredto
byresponders.
(iv) Availability of equipment, and employment and training Response
personal being the main key and element in any response, their expertise and
knowledgeofproceduresandhandlingofspillisspelledthroughtheCP.

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1.5 LOCATIONBASEDRESPONSE

THE SCOPE OF THIS PLAN EXTENDS TO FOLLOWING LOCATIONS AND
FACILITIES STRETCHED OVER A GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF MORE THAN 400 SQ KMS
WITHMULTIPLEOPSGOINGONATTHESAMETIME

PORTSOFMMBANDJNPT
TRANSHIPMENT FACILITIES AT JAWAHAR DWEEP, PIR PAU, MUMBAI
HARBOURANDJNPT
ONGCFACILITIESATNHAVAANDLANDFALLPOINTFORURANREFINERY

Protection of these areas requires rapid and wellplanned tactical
responseactions.Consideringthesizeandcomplexityofthearea,thePlanhasdivided
the area into manageable geographic segments. (Individual or multiple areas may be
groupedintofunctionalresponsezones,basedonlogisticalissuesincludingaccessibility
anddrivingtimesfromresourcebases).GeographicalareasofconcerninthisPlanare:
(i) Anchorage/Lighteragearea
(ii) AlongsidecargoberthsatMbPTandJNPT
(iii) JawaharDweep
(iv) PirPau
(v) JNPToilberthsatNhavaandSheva

1.6 INTEGERATION WITH WIDER AREA OPERATIONS ( Spill classification
andTierResponse)

ThisPlanisbasedoninternationallyacceptedstandardsofTierclassificationand
response concept to describe different categories of oil spill events based on their
severity and availability of response resources. Tier classifications are determined in

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considerationofspillvolume,sensitivityofthreatenedresourcesandotherfactorsthat
canonlybedeterminedatthetimeoftheincident.
ThisPlan,isfirstoftheactionsintheseriestocombatoilspillandisopen
tocallforabiggerresponseactivityatnationallevelandismeanttoaddressaspillof
upto7ootonnesasperTier1.Accordingly,allcalculationsandillustrationsinthisPlan
areasperaspillof700tonnes.OilSpillClassificationStandard(Tiers)definitionsare:

Tier1(MinorSpills): Theeventsincludesmalloperationalspills,whichcanbe
dealtonsitebylocalstaffandcontractors.Studyofavailablespilldataindicatesthat
Tier1spillsoccurlargelyduringoperationssuchasbunkerops,refuelling,piglaunching
andreceiving,valveandflangeleaks,androutineoperationandmaintenanceactivities
andareclassifiedasspillsupto700tonnes.
Inmostcases,containmentandcleanupiseffectedusingtheequipmentheldby
facility operator or OSRO and also by use of Spill Response Kits maintained at the
facility. All requirements of notification etc to Central authority are observed, though
supportfromoutsideagenciesisnotrequired.

Tier 2 (Major Spills): Tier 2 incidents include larger spills that would require
additionallocal(incountry)resourcesandmanpower.Tier2spillsusuallyresultfrom
largefuellosses,loadinghosefailureorsmalltomediumpipefailures(holesizeupto50
mm).
Cleanup is effected by dedicated oil spill equipment from in country sources,
equipment stockpiles, incountry oil spill response contractors and by sharing
equipmentheldwithotheroperators.IntheeventofTier2,supportfromtheCentral
spillcontrollerwouldberequiredtobecalledfor.

Tier3(CrisisEvent):Tier3incidentsincludeverylarge,possiblyongoingspills,
that would require additional resources from outside the country. Such spills are
expected to be rare and may occur as a result of events such as full diameter pipe

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ruptureoranuncontrolledtankfailureoralargetankergrounding.Responseoperation
utilize all available incountry Tier 2 resources, augmented by additional assets from
outsidethecountry.ExtensivesupportfromtheCentralauthoritywouldberequiredin
suchanevent.

1.7 PLANFACTORS

The following factors are taken into account for the purpose of studying the
risksandforpreparationoftheContingencyorresponseplan.
Geographiclocation,coastline,areasensivity
Typeofoil/product,volumeoftraffic,quantitiesofcargohandled,frequencyof
handling
Typesofoperation,terminaldesign,conditionoffacilities
Qualityofshipping/vesseltypes
Weather,seaconditions,timeofday,navigationhazards
Responsestrategies,trainingprogrammes

1.8 REVIEW,REVISIONANDUPDATES

Contingency Plan being a sequence and layout of dynamic operating
proceduresandparametersissubjecttorevisionduechangesinoperationalparameters
of port, cargo, equipment innovations and changing response strategies. Exercises and
real time drills being operational tasks might also necessitate a review of plan to be
undertakentoincorporatetheobservationsmade,apartfromtheabovementioned.

Accordingly,astudyindetailofobservationsmadeduringeveryresponse
operationwouldbeundertakenbyCMTwithaviewtoincorporatetheobservationsinto
thePlanforeasyandflawlessimplementation.

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1.9 INTERFACEWITHOTHERPLANS

Aspillsituationmaybe,oneoftheemergenciesarisingoutofanincident
or a number of incidents. Such incidents could be natural or manmade leading to
emergencies like fire, gas leak, threats or chemical spills. In the event of multiple
emergencies, while the spill response will be undertaken as per this Plan, response to
otheremergencieswillbeaspertheDisasterManagementPlanoftheparticularfacility,
port,installationorterminal.

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2.0PLANNINGANDADMINISTRATION


InaccordancewiththeNationalOilSpillDisasterContingencyPlan(NOSDCP)all
Portsorfacilitieshandlingoilandoilproductsarerequired tomaintainTierIOilSpill
Response (OSR) capabilities to undertake response activity within their area of
operation.

Accordingly,theportsofMumbaiandJawaharlalNehruPortare requiredtoset
upandsustainTierIOSRfacilitiesinMumbai/JNPTHarbourincoordinationwithoil
companies operating at these Ports. For this purpose, MbPT, JNPT and other
ParticipatingOilCompanies(POCs)viz.ONGC,BPCL,HPCL,IOCL,CTTL,TPC&RILhave
executedaMemorandumofUnderstanding(MOU)forsustenanceofTier1OSRfacilities
forcombatingoilspillsatandinsurroundingareawithinMumbai/JNPTHarbour.

UnderthesaidMOU,ithasbeendecidedtoputinplaceTierIOilSpillResponse
ServicesinMumbaiandJNPTHarbourforconductofoilspilloperationsandmitigation
ofpollutionwithintheidentifiedareaofoperation.

2.1 AREALAYOUT

Since, the fall outs of any accident being addressed by any Contingency Plan
cannot be confined and limited to geographical boundaries within the area of
jurisdictionandarelikelytohaveanimpactonareasbeyondtheareaofaddressal,itis
desirabletohaveaknowledgeofthearea.TheareaofoperationofthisPlanisapartof
MumbaiHarbouranareaencompassingMumbaiestuary.

MumbaiHarbourorFrontBay(Figure2.1)isanaturaldeepwaterharbourinthe
southern portion of Ulhas River estuary. The harbour is spread over 400 square
kilometers (150sqmi) and is protected by the mainland ofKonkanto east and north

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andtheislandcityofMumbaitowest.TheharbouropenstosouthtoArabianSea.The
narrower,northernpartoftheestuaryiscalledThaneCreek.

FrontBayistheofficialnameoftheharbor,sonamedbecausethecitystartedas
a tiny settlement facing the harbor. The water body behind the original settlement,
forminganarcbetweentheformerColabaislandandBombayisland,uptoMalabarHill
promontoryorpeninsula,iscalledBackBay.

FrontBayishometoMumbaiPort,whichliesinthesouthsectionofthewestern
edge of the harbor. Jawaharlal Nehru Port and Navi Mumbailie to the east on the
Konkanmainland,andthecityofMumbailiestothewestonSalsetteIsland.

TherearesixislandsinMumbaiHarbor,anumberofwhicharewithintheareaof
operationandareactiveinportactivities.

(i) ButcherIsland,alsoknownasJawaharDweep,isusedasanoilterminal
by Mumbai Port. It has jetties for tankers and various other infrastructure for
offloadingcrudeoilandforloadingrefinedpetroleumproducts.Theislandisrestricted
toportemployees,andnotopentopublic.Crudeoilisstoredintanksontheislandand
ispipedtoWadalaforrefining.Mostoftheislandiscoveredwithdensevegetationwith
ahillockrisingfromthecentreoftheisland.Itislocated8.25kilometres(5.13mi)from
GatewayofIndia.
(ii) The second island named, CrossIslandis a small, uninhabited islet just
offthecoastofDockyardRoad.
(iii) GharapuriIsland, also known asElephanta Island, is the best known of
the islands in Mumbai Harbor and is a popular tourist destination because of the
island'sElephanta Caves, that have been carved out of rock. The island has an area of
16km2(6.2sqmi) and is located at approximately18.95N 72.93E. The area comes

Page13of167

under the jurisdiction of Raigad district and is thickly wooded with palm, mango, and
tamarindtrees.
TheislandisaccessiblebyferryfromMumbai,beingabout10kilometres(6.2mi)
fromthesoutheastcoastoftheislandcity.Fromtheboatlandingstageontheisland,a
walkwayleadstostepsthatgouptothefamouscaves.Thereisalsoanarrowgaugetoy
train from the boat area on the dock to the base of the steps leading up to the caves
(about600meters).
(iv) Middle Ground is a small islet off Naval harbour. It features an antique
coastal gun battery of the Indian navy. Gun salutes are exchanged with Indian Naval
vesselsasperceremonials
(V) OysterRockisasmallgroupofrockoutcroppingsintheharbor.Thearea
hasrestrictedaccessandisusedfornavalexercises.
(vi) Salsette Islandis the largest island on which the cities of Mumbai and
Thane are located. It is separated from the Konkanmainland by Vasai creek and
theUlhasriver.
Creeks
Theareaismarkedbyanumberofcreeksthatopenintotheharbour.Thecreek
areasareecologicallysensitiveandhavethickmangrovevegetationandarenavigableto
somedistances.Theshallowmudflatsstretchlongdistancesallalongthebanks.

2.2. MUMBAIPORT

The Port of Mumbai is situated almost midway (Latitude 18o54 N, Longitude
72o49E)ontheWestcoastofIndiaandisanaturaldeepwaterHarbourofabout400
square kilometres protectedby the mainland of Konkan on its East and Island of
MumbaionitsWest.

The deep waters in the Harbour provide shelter for shipping throughout the
year.The approaches to the Harbour are well lighted, with Prongs Lighthouse to the

Page14of167

North,visible27kilometresandKenneryLightHousetothesouthvisible29kms.The
entrancetotheHarbourwhichhasapproachesfromtheSouthwestisbetweenProngs
Reef and Thall Reef lying off the mainland to the Southeast, a distance of about 9
kilometres.

Figure2.1MUMBAIHARBOUR

Fig2.1MumbaiHarbour

Page15of167

The main navigational Channel is, for the most part, a natural deepwater
fairway. The channel has been deepened to 11 meters. With a mean high water neap
tideof3.3meters,thechannelisadequatetomeettherequirementofalargenumberof
cargovessels,passengershipsanddeepdrafttankers.Withgoodlightingarrangements
navigationisallowedattheportroundtheclock.

The port is administered by Mumbai Port Trust ( Mb PT ), an autonomous
corporation.The port is primarily used for bulk cargo, while mostcontainertraffic is
directed toJawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) across the harbour. The first of the
presentday docks of Mumbai Port were built in the 1870s.Bombay Port Trust(BPT)
was established as a corporationon June 26, 1873. The port and the corporation took
theirpresentnamesinthe1990s.

Over decades, the port has undergone tremendous expansion, with addition of
berths and cargo handling capacities. Mumbai's expanding growth and population
pressure has led to the establishment of Jawaharlal Nehru Port across Mumbai
Harbour inNavi Mumbaion theKonkanmainland. This port began operations in 1989
andhandlesmostofthecontainertraffic.

Page16of167

Figu
ure2.2Mu
umbaiPORT
T
2.2.1 CargoHan
ndling

Thep
porthandlessbothdryaandliquidcaargoatdiffeerentjettiessandlocatio
onsapart
frromundertaakingLighteerageoperaationsthrou
ughbarges.

Page1
17of167

(i) IndiraDock

Indira Dock having a total water area of 24.04 hectares and a quay length of
about 4000 meters is an enclosed wet dock . The Dock has an Entrance Lock 228.6
meterslongand30.5meterswidethoughwhichvesselscanenterorleavethedocksat
any state of tide. There are 21 berths inside the basin and 5 berths along the harbour
wallwithadesigneddepthof9.14metersand7.5metersrespectively.Berthingdepths
insidethebasincanbeincreasedby1.20metersbypumpingwater.

ThetwoberthsontheSouthwardextensionofEastarmofIndiraDockare
Ballard Pier Station and Ballard Pier Extension. Ballard Pier Extension berth is 244
meterslongandhasamodernpassengerTerminalBuilding.Ithasadesigneddepthof
9.75 meters. Ballard Pier Station berth caters to container vessels and has a designed
depthof9.1meters.

(ii) LiquidCargoTerminalJawaharDweep

There are four jetties at the island Jawahar Dweep for handling Crude oil and
Petroleum products. One of the jetties at Jawahar Dweep, which was commissioned in
1984canhandletankerswithamaximumloadeddraftof12.5meterscorrespondingto
125,000Displacementtons.Twoofthejetties(J1andJ3)canaccommodatetankers
up to 70,000 Displacement Tons and 228.6 m length, while, the third jetty can berth
tankers of 213.4 m length and up to 48,000 Displacement Tons. The berthing
dimensionsandpermissibleparametersareaspertable2.1.

Page18of167

Dock Dimension Max.NormalDimensions Max oversize


JD marine Oil LOA 225.55 237.75
Terminal
Beam 39.62
(3Berths)
Draft(designed) 10.97to11.58(withtide)
Max.Disp 70,000Tons(Berths1&3)
JD4thBerth LOA 300.00
Beam 39.62
Draft(designed) 12.25to14.30
Max 1,25,000tons
Table2.1PERMISSABLEBERTHINGPARAMETERSatJD


Jetty1,2and3areprovidedwithpipelinestohandlebothcrudeandproducts,
namely,HSD,Naphtha,FO/LDO,SKO,ATFetc.Thedetailsareaspertable2.2.

Product Noofheaders Size(inches)&psi No&diaofpipeline(inches)


Crude 8 10/150 2/24
FO/LDO 4 10/150 1/24
Naphtha 2 8/150 1/16
HSD 2 8/150 I/16
Whiteoil 2 8/150 1/12
Dirtyballast 2 8/150 1/16
Table2.2 Producthandlinginfrastructure

(iii) LiquidCargoTerminalPirPau

ChemicalandPOLproductsarehandledattwojettiesatPirPau.OldPirPaujetty
can accommodate tankers of 170.69 m length, while, the new jetty commissioned in

Page19of167

December1996canhandletankerswithalengthof197mandadraftof12.0m.Allthe
jettiesareconnectedtoOilRefineriesbyanetworkofpipelines.

Dock Dimensions Maxnormal Max.Oversize


PirPau(Old) LOA(Daylight) 170.69 178.30
Beam 25.91 28.96
Draft 6.40to7.5
MaxDisplacement 19,000tons
PirPau(New) LOA(DayTime) 191.0 191.0
Beam 28.0 28.0
Draft 11.0 9.5(Night)
Maxdisplacement 47,000tons
Table2.3PERMISSABLEBERTHINGPARAMETERSatPirPau

ThecargohandledatPirPauandlinesizesareaspertable2.4.

Product Linesize Operatedby


LubeOil 8 IOBL
LPG 8 BPCL
LSHS 12 BPCL
Chemicals 6 AEGIS
6 CTTL
8and4 RCF
Table2.4CargoandlinesizesatPirPaujetty

(iv) Bunders

Besides the wet docks, there are along the harbour front a number of bunders
andopenwharveswherethetrafficcarriedbybarges/sailingvesselsishandled.

Page20of167

(v) Storage

Thereearetransittshedsatm
mostofthebberthsand anumberoofwarehoussesinthe
P
Portareaforrstorageofwaitingcarrgoandpreshipmentstorageofexxportcargo..

Figure2.3JawaharDw
weep


2.2.2 CargoStattistics

The figures with
h respect to
o number of
o vessels an
nd cargo haandled for the
t years
20072014aatMbPTareeaspertable2.5.

Page2
21of167

Vessels POLvessels POL cargo


YEAR(AprMarch)
35982
20132014
1949 1018 34785
20122013
2057 1102 33314
20112012
2156 1027 33229
20102011
1639 870 34496
20092010
1612 902 34371
20082009
1709 927 37074
20072008
2236 970 32171
20062007
2153 834
20062005
Table2.5VesselsandvolumesofoilcargohandlededatMbPT

2.3JAWAHALALNEHRUPORT(JNPT)

TheportliesalongtheeasternshoreofMumbaiharbouroffElephantaIslandon
theKonkanmainlandinlocation1856'43"Northand7256'24"East.

The port shares a common 22.0 Km long main harbour channel with Mumbai
PortuptoNo.4berthofJawaharDweep(JD)Terminalwhichispresentlymaintained
toadepthof10.7to11mtrs.belowChartDatum.

The approach channel from J D to JNPT is 7.2 kms in length with maintained
depthsof11mtrsbelowChartDatumwithawidth350metersatentrypointi.e460
meters off the berths. The available depth off the berths is 13.5 meters (Below Chart
Datum)
Makinguseoftidalwindow,largesizevesselshavingadraughtupto12.5mtrs.
areabletonavigatethroughMumbaiharbourmainchannelandJNPchannel.ThePort
isdeepeningandwideningtheexistingchanneltoaccommodateupto14mtrs.

Page22of167

2.3.1 Cargohandling

Thecargohandlingberthscompriseofanchorageberthof600metersdiameter
and 2000 meter of quay length for Container Berth apart from 445 meters of quay
lengthforFeederContainer/Cement/ProjectCargoShips.

Mostofthecontainercargoishandledfromthisportonly.DetailsofPOLvessels
andcargohandledatJNPTareaspertable2.6.


YEAR(AprMarch) Vesselshandled POLvessels POL cargo (ooo
4566
20132014
2588 468 4125
20122013
2916 445 4926
20112012
3100 479 5135
20102011
3096 496 4916
20092010
2973 408 4552
20082009
3106 312 2189
20072008
2775 321 2625
20062007
2395 356
20062005
Table2.6VesselandvolumesofoilcargohandledatJNPT


2.3.2 LiquidCargoBerths

The port handles POL cargo for BPCL, IOC and ONGC through dedicated
berths. Cargo for BPCL and IOC is handled at Sheva, while, ONGC handles its Mumbai
HighsuppliesandvesselsfromNhava.


Page23of167

(i) Sheva

Liquid cargo is handled through the twin berth cargo jetty developed by M/s
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited and Indian Oil Company Limited for handling
liquidcargoincludingPOLproducts.Thejettyis300mtrslongwithawidthof40.5mtrs
havingcapacitytoaccommodatetwovesselsof85,000DWTonseasideberthand30,000
DWTonshoresideberth.

Three dock lines are provided for white and black oil with a capacity of 5.5
million tonnes per annum. Jetty is provided wth six 12 marine loading and unloading
arma ( 3each on sea and shore side ) for working cargo. The deredged draught on
seasideis13.5mtrsand12mtrsonshoreside.

(ii)NhavaandUran

NhavaisthemaincenterforONGCMumbaiHighoperations.Thevessels
operatingintheHighreceivestores,fuelandlubricantsfromNhava.Thevesselscalling
NhavaarelargelyrestrictedtoOSVs.

ONGC off shore facility refinery and tank farm, is located at Uran and was
establishedin1974.Thesiteisabout12kmeastofMumbaiandisapproachablebyall
weathermotorableroads.

The facility receives entire oil and part of natural gas produced in Mumbai
offshore oil fields. Both the oil and gas received from offshore is processed at various
unitsforproducingvalueaddedproductslikeLPG,C2C3,LAN, apartfromprocessing,
storageandtransportationofoil.

Theunstabilizedcrudeoilisreceivedfromoffshoreplatformsthrough3oiltrunk
lines.30"MUToilpipelinefromMumbaiHighand24"HUToilpipelinefromsatelliteoff

Page24of167

sh
horeplatforrmarethe principalfeeedstockto
oplant.Pro
ocessedpro
oductisshippedout
th
hroughJawaaharDweep
p.


Figure2.4 JAWAHA
ARLALNEHR
RUPORT
2.4 POLCARGO

Mumb
bai Port an
nd JNPT aree handling varied
v oil and
a oil prod
duct cargo including
i
im
mportedcru
ude.

Listo
ofoilbeingh
handledatM
Mumbaiwitthintheareeaofopsof thisPlanareplaced
attAppendix
x1.

Page2
25of167

2.4.1 Chemicalcharacteristicsofdifferentoilsandtheirimplications

Though, chemical characteristics of crude oil and gasoline remain confined
withinasmallrangeofvariations,yetdifferentoilswithinthecategoryofthatoil
have a particular chemical signature defining the chemical properties of that class of
oils.Thissignatureisofgreathelptoresponderswhileplanningresponsestrategy.The
processes that the oil would undergo post spill in terms of weathering processes
depends on these base properties and weather conditions in the area at the time of
spill.

The base properties of an oil will determine the physical and chemical changes
thatwouldoccurwhentheoilisspilledontowaterandwillaccountforitspersistence
andtoxicity. Forthis reasonitisessentialtohavehandythelistofpropertiesofoils
beinghandledinthearea.

Many oils have a tendency to incorporate seawater and form a waterinoil
emulsion,whichcanincreasethevolumebyafactorofthreeorfour,andtheviscosityby
several orders of magnitude. Oils with asphaltene contents greater than 0.5 per cent
tendtoformstableemulsions,calledchocolatemousse,whichareparticularlydifficult
tohandle.

To study the probable behaviour on water and implications regarding
effectivenessofdifferenttypesofonwaterrecoverydevicesandchemicaldispersants,
allparticularsofoilarerequiredtobeavailabletoresponders.

BroadclassificationofoilsasperMARPOL73/78isplacedat Appendix2.(The
listisnottobeconsideredcomprehensive).

MajorcharacteristicsofdifferentclassesofoilareplacedatAppendix3.

Page26of167

3.0 RISKANDSPILLASSESSMENT

3.1 HAZARDRATING

NationalFireProtectionAssociation(NFPA)hasaccordedratingswithrespectto
degreeofhazardposedbychemicalsbeinghandledinport.Theratingisinnumbers
withrespecttoflammability(Nf),healthhazard(Nh)andreactivity(Nr).Theratingof
hydrocarbons(highernumberbeingmorehazardous)areaspertable3.1

Product Nf Nh Nr
HIGHSPEEDDIESEL 2 0 0
CRUDEOIL 3 1 0
GASOIL 2 0 0
SKO 2 0 0
NAPHTHA 3 1 0
MOTORSPIRIT 3 1 0
Table3.1HazardRatings

Flammability(Nf) 3Liquidsandsolidsthatcanbeignitedunderalmostallambient
temperatureconditions
2 Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to
relativelyhighambienttemperaturesbeforeignitioncanoccur

Health(Nh) 0Materialswhichonexposureunderfireconditionswouldoffer
nohazardbeyondthatofordinarycombustiblematerial
1 materials which on exposure would cause irritation but only
minorresidualinjuryifnotreatmentisgiven

Page27of167

Reactivity(Nr) 0materialswhichinthemselvesarenormallystable,evenunder
fireexposureconditionsandwhicharenotreactivewithwater

It is apparent that risks to human life in terms of flammability, health and


reactivityarenotverysignificantandcanbehandledwithsomedegreeofexpertise.

3.2 CAUSESOFOILSPILL

Thecommoncausesofspillare
Cargooperationsloading,discharge
Shipcollision,orgrounding
Bunker/fuellingoperations
Shipdistress/sinking
Pipeline ruptures /accidental spills from subsea/over the sea/shore approach
(inthetidalzone)pipelines

3.2.1 LocationofspillwithinthescopeofthisPlan

Basedonthelocationofvesselattheparticulartimeofincidentwithintheareaof
operation,thelikelyspillcouldoccureatanyofthefollowinglocations
(i) Seaorinchannelduecollissionetcduringpassage
(ii) Closeshoreduegroundingor
(iii) Alongsideatjettyorattheterminalduringcargooperations

Notwithstandingtheabovelocations,itispossiblethatan eventualityoccuringat
sea like a collission or mechanical failure could lead to a situation where the
consequenceswouldbefeltinsomeotherlocationatacoastallocation.

Page28of167

3.3OILSPILLSHISTORICDATA

Historic data, oil properties, climate, local meteorology and environmental


sensitivities are important factors in assessing the risk, behavior, fate and potential
consequencesofspilledoil.

Historicdatabeingsecondarydataavailableinpublicdomainisagoodmeasure
ofcauses,probabilitiesandaveragesofthehappeningofanyscenario.

Historic data is of great help to responders and Contingency Planners since the
studyofthisdatahelpsinidentifyingtrendsandcausesofspillswhichinturnhelpin
identifyingandimplementingremedialapproachesasperthegravityandfrequencyof
incidentsandplanappropriateresponse.

3.3.1 Analysisandfigures

ITOPF has carried out extensive studies on all aspects of oil spill and compiled
statisticsovernumberofyears.Thecauseshavebeenannalyisedundertwoheadsviz.
operationsandaccidents.

The data establishes that most spills from tankers result during routine
operationssuchasloading,dischargeofcargo,bunkeringandnormallyoccurinportsor
at oil terminals and the majority of these operational spills are small, with some 92%
involvingquantitiesoflessthan7tonnes.

Accidentsinvolvingcollisionsandgroundingsgenerallygiverisetomuchlarger
spillsinvolvingquantitiesinexcessof700tonnes.Figuresfortheperiod1974to2013
forspillsof<7tonnesand7700tonnesareaspertable3.2and3.2A.

Page29of167

OPERATIONS Loading / Bunkering Other Unknown TOTAL


Collisions 2 2 14 167 185
Groundings 2 0 14 224 240
Hullfailures 324 10 47 195 576
Fires& 50 5 35 83 173
Eqptfailure 1125 104 251 202 1682
Others/unknown 1655 444 921 1971 4991
TOTAL 3158 565 1282 2842 7847
Table3.2Incidencesofspill,<7Tonnes(19742013)


OPERATIONS Loading / Bunkering Other Unknown TOTAL
Collisions 5 0 51 298 354
Groundings 0 0 25 246 271
Hullfailures 36 4 14 46 100
Fires& 8 0 13 25 46
Equipment 6 17 38 203
Other/ 200 22 49 106 377
TOTAL 391 32 169 759 1351
Table3.2AIncidencesofspill,7700Tonnes(19742013)

Ananalysisofavailablefigurespointoutthatmajorspillsfromexplorationand
productionoperationsarefarlesscommonthanthosefromoiltankersthatusuallytake
placeinharbouroratterminalsduringroutineoperations.

Over 75% of marine oil spills that have occurred world wide have been within
portorharborareaduringroutineshipoperationssuchasloading,dischargeofcargo
andbunkering.Mostofthesearesmallinnatureandlessthanseventons.

Page30of167

3.4 RISKFACTORSFOROILSPILLSTERMINAL/PIPELINEOPS

In spite of best intentions to conduct cargo work under best practices, a spill
could still occur at a port or terminal during cargo work because of the failure of
pipelines,loadingarms,flangesorequipment.Thepotentialaccidentsassociatedwitha
plant,port,terminalorpipelinecanbedividedintotwocategoriesintermsofGeneric
andSpecificoperatingfailures.

Generic failures are associated with mechanical component of the facility or
terminallikevessels,pipelines,pumpsorcompressors.Thefailuresunderthiscategory
couldbecausedbyfactorsascorrosion,vibrationorexternalimpact.Asmalleventlikea
leakmayescalateintoabiggereventbyitselfcausingabiggerfailure.

TheprimecauseofSpecificoperatingfailuresishumanerrorsbuttheycanalso
includeaccidents.

Everysignificantmechanicalcomponentthatcouldfailwithitsoperatingconditions,
contents and inventory, is a contributor to failure identification. The study of Generic
failures requires consideration of each component under their normal operating
conditions.

Thepossiblerangeoffailuresbeinglargeinnumberaregenerallyconsideredunder
thefollowingheadsandincidents

Forvessel/storagetanks
Rupture(Fullbore)
Largeleaks(20%mmequivalentleaks)
Mediumandsmallleaks(duetocorrosion,impactandothersuchcases)
Forpipelines
Fullboreruptures

Page31of167

Large,mediumandsmallleaks

3.4.1 FailurefrequenciesPipelines

The failure frequency of pipelines is subject to a number of factors like rate of
corrosion,ageofpipeline,durationofuse,sizeofdamageandlengthetc.Differentvalue
ofanyofthesewillgivedifferentfiguresforfailurefrequency.

Thedataaspertable3.3givesthefailuresfrequenciesinrelationtotypeorsize
ofleakandrepresentsthechancesofoccurrenceofmentioned typeofleak perunit
lengthofpipelineperunitdiameter.

TYPE % of cross sectional Frequencyperyear
Smallleak <1 2.8x10L/D
Bigleak 5 1.2x10L/D
Catastrophicleak 20 5.0x10L/D
Rupture(guillotinefailure) 100 2.2x10L/D
Table3.3Pipeleakfrequenciesaspersizeofleak

With respect to causes of leak as per the failure of different systems , the
frequenciesareaspertable3.4

SYSTEM FREQUENCY
Flowline,Hoses,Armfailure Partialrapture1.25x10/year
Mainoilline Totalrapture1824line1.76x10/yr
HoseJoints 3.94x10/year
BlockValve 3111.08x10/year
Flangejoints 3115.56x10/year
Table3.4Frequencyofsystemfailures

Page32of167

3.4.2 CargoOpsorTransferSpillFrequencies

Transferspillisdefinedasaneventwheretheoilisreleasedtoseaduetofailure
orerrorduringloading/unloadingofcargoorfueloil.Thisincludesloadinginportand
shiptoship transfer also. Typical causes for this spill include overflow, hose failure,
errorsinsettingvalvesetc.

As per figures compiled by DNV, during 200010, ten transfer spills on oil
tankers with known quantities were reported. The oil tanker exposure during this
periodwas74,471shipyears.Basedonanaverageof80portvisitspershipyear,atotal
of 5.6 million cargo transfers were undertaken. This figure gives a transfer spill
frequencyof1.7x10percargotransferred.

3.4.3 SpillVolumeCalculationsPipelines

Thequantityofoilspilledcanbecalculatedintermsoftotalraptureand
alsoforpinholeleaksusingsoftwaretakingintoaccountthediameterofholeandflow
rate.Theformulafortotalrapturecalculationis
VolumeofSpill=2PieXRadiusofPipelineXLengthofPipelineXFlowVolume

3.4.4 ONGCPipelineDamage

AsperriskassessmentcarriedoutforONGCpipelinefromMumbaiHightoUran
plant,ascarriedoutthroughOilSpillContingencyPlanWesternOffshoreUnit,the
rates of flow and pressures are continuously monitored at the platforms and Uran
Terminalandincaseofarupture,thepumpingwillbestopped.Attheinstantofrupture,
the oil being under pressure greater than the hydrostatic head due to seawater, will
escapetosea.Oncethepumpsarestopped,thelinebackpressurewouldforceoutmore
oilthatwouldjointheescapingoil.

Page33of167

Theexpansionofgasesentertainedwillalsodisplacesomeoilfromthepipelines
to join the oil escaping to sea. Eventually, the hydrostatic head of sea water would be
sufficienttoholdinplacetheoilremaininginthepipeline, thuspreventinganyfurther
escape of oil to sea. In case of a partial leakage, the oil release rate would be 23 34
m3/hourandinthecaseofatotalrupture,thesizeofspillwillbe19003600m3/hour
approx.Inthecaseofsubseaflowlines,themaximumcapacityofthelongestflowlineis
lessthan250m3/hour.Assumingdurationofoneminute,beforethelineisshutdown
theestimatedquantityofspillwouldbe20m3only.

3.4.4 ONGCPipelinespillestimates

The main 30 diameter oil line from Mumbai High Field to Uran shore
terminal if ruptured would cause a major oil spill. Any rupture in the oil line will be
indicated by sudden loss of pipeline pressure from farthest pumping Platform Control
Room andreduction in quantityof oil received atUran terminal.The size ofspill near
thepointofrupturewouldenlargewithpassageoftimeinthemannerasillustratedin
Appendix4(asperRegionalContingencyPlan,(W).

The quantity of oil to be recovered will depend on the loss due to evaporation.
Studies in the Arabian Sea indicate that at the wind speed of 20 knots and sea
temperaturesof23to30degCthelossduetoevaporationisapproximately50%within
first 2 hours of Oil Spill. After two hours of exposure evaporation does not increases
significantly.Thestudiesfurtherestablishthatafteralapseoftwohoursthelossdueto
evaporationisnotverysignificant.

In case of total rupture of the 36 bay line running from Uran to Trombay, the
pump will be shut down automatically within few minutes and the volume of oil spill
will be around 20 m3 only. The areas affected would be Trombay, Thane Creek,
ElephantaandButcherIslandarea.

Page34of167

3.5 SHIPACCIDENTSANDFREQUENCYOFOILSPILLS

Taking in account the total of world fleet and collision accidents during the
period200010,DNVhascarriedoutanindepthanalysisoffrequencyofshipcollision
each ship type and oil spill there from, to calculate the probability of accident and oil
spills.Thefiguresarrivedatwithrespecttoeventualitiesareaspertable3.5

3.5.1 COLLISION
(i) Collisionfrequenciesvesseltypes
SHIPTYPE NONSERIOUS SERIOUSINCIDENTS TOTALLOSS
INCIDENTS (totalloss)

Oiltankers 1.3E03 3.0E03 9.4E05


Chemicaltankers 1.4E03 3.4E03 1.6E04
Bulkcarriers 1.6E03 4.3E03 2.0E04
Generalcargoships 1.4E03 4.7E03 6.3E04
Containerships 2.1E03 7.1E03 5.1E05
Fishingvessels 1.4E03 3.7E03 1.0E04
Otherships 4.8E03 1.4E03 7.6E05
Allships 7.9E04 2.3E03 1.9E04

Table3.5COLLISIONFREQUENCIES(PERSHIPYEAR)

(ii) OilspillprobabilitiesCollision

TABLE 3.6 shows oil spill probabilities due to collision for oil tankers during
200010.Thesefiguresarebasedonoilspillswithknownquantitiesandincludeships
thatwereloadedandinballast.Hence,thefiguresincludea50%probabilityoftheship
being fully loaded and a 50 % probability of it being in ballast with only bunker fuel
onboard.

Page35of167

SEVERITY OILSPILLS OILSPILL OILSPILL


PROBABILITY FREQUENCY(per
shipyear)
(percollision)
Totallosses 3 0.43 4.0x10
Seriouscasualties(totallosses) 33 0.15 4.4x10
Nonseriousincidents 3 0.03 4.0x10

Totalincidents 39 0.12 5.2x10



Table3.6OILTANKERSPILLFREQUENCIESDUETOCOLLISION,20002010

(iii) OilspillfrequenciesShiptypes

With respect to overall spill frequencies due to collision for each ship type, the
probabilitiesareasperTable3.7.


Table3.7FREQUENCIESOFOILSPILLSSHIPTYPES,200010

3.5.2 VESSELCONTACT

(i) Frequency
With respect to oil spill post contact with other objects than ship or the sea
bottom, DNV has done further calculations with respect to tankers. The noted
frequenciesareasperTable.3.8

Page36of167

SEVERITY CONTACTS CONTACT FREQUENCY


(pershipyear)

Totallosses 3 4.0x10
Seriouscasualties(exctotallosses) 45 6.0x10
Nonseriousincidents 26 3.5x10

Totalincidents 74 9.9x10
Table3.8ContactfrequenciesonOilTankers,200010

(ii) SpillProbabilities

A total of 11 cases of oil spills from tankers having been reported due to contact
during 200010, the average oil spill probability arrived at is 11/74 = 0.15. Oil spill
frequencyis0.15x9.9x10(raisedtopower4)=1.5x104pershipyear.

OBSERVATIONSHISTORICDATA

Supportedbystatisticsandfrequencies,itremainsafactthatthespillsdooccur
from all types of vessels and atall locationsbut with varied frequency and need to be
handledpostoccurrence.

3.6 MAXCREDIBLESPILLVOLUMES

Calculation of volume of pollutants that could be spilled and the volume that will
needtoberespondedtoisundertakentakinginaccountthefollowing:
(i) The rate of release Taking into consideration of whether the release is
instantaneousoroccursoveraperiodoftime,
(ii) ThespilldurationThetimeperiodoverwhichthereleaseofpollutionis
likelytooccur,

Page37of167

(iii) Oil weathering and behaviour Slick volume losses through evaporation
andvolumeincreasethroughemulsification.

3.6.1 Volumesformaximumcrediblecasescenario

Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) has issued figures and indicative
maximumcrediblespillvolumestobeusedifactualvolumecannotbeorhavenotbeen
calculated. These have been promulgated through AMSA Gguidelines and are as per
table3.9below.

Page38of167

Scenario BasisofVolumeCalculation
Source Incident
OilTanker Collision Major Volumeoftwolargestoutsidetanks+oneadjacentinnertank

Nonmajor 100% of volume of largest wing tank (i.e. not double hull) 50% of
tankprotectedbydoublehull
Grounding Major Volumeoflargesttwoconsecutivepotentiallyimpactedtanks

Nonmajor 100% of volume of largest wing tank (i.e. not double hull) 50% of
tankprotectedbydoublehull

Other Collision Volumeoflargesttank


vessel Grounding Major Totalfuelvolume+Cargo
Nonmajor Totalfuelofonetank
MODU/ Blowout Predictedflowrateperdayxdaysestimatedtogetarelief
Production rigonsite+20daystocapwell
Platform Refuelling Transferratex15mtsofflow
(continuous
supervision)
Refuelling Transferratex2hours
(intermittent
supervision)
Onshorepipeline Rupture 100% of maximum flow for 1 hour + volume of affected pipeline
section
Leak(aboveLoD) 2%ofmaximumdailyflowx4daysortimetakentodetect,reach
andrepairleak
Leak(belowLoD) 2%ofmaximumdailyflowx90daysortimetakentodetect,reach
andrepairleak
Offshore Rupture Maximumdailyflowratex1hour+volumeofoilinthepipeline
pipeline Leak 2% of maximum daily flow x 1 day + time taken to clear flush the
pipelinewithseawater
Table3.9Determinationofvolumesformaximumcrediblecasescenario

1. AsperTable3.10

2. Assumespenetrationofexternalandinternalhullatthewaterlineandbasedonthelossofcontents
oflargestpotentiallyimpactedcargotank.

3. Based on the loss of contents of largest outside tank (including fuel tanks). In the case of tanks
protectedbydoublehullamaximumpotentiallossof50%ofthecontentsisassumed.

4. Basedonthetotallossofthevessel.

Page39of167

5. Basedonvesselwithbottomtanks.Ifnobottomtanksarepresentthenthereisnoanticipatedvolume
loss.

6. Ifasupplyvesselcarryingfuelascargo,treatasatanker.

7. Basedonrupturetoallimpactedtanksand/orlossofvessel.

8. Basedondamagetooneimpactedtank.Note:Iftankscannotbeholed,thisscenariowillresultinno
loss.

9. EstimateddaystogetareliefrigonsiteshouldbesupportedbyaBlowoutManagementPlanorother
documentation.Alternativestrategiesforwellcontrolmaybeusedbutshouldbesupported.

10. Ifspillscanonlybetodeckthenvolumeheldbyscuppersetc.maybedeletedfromthetotalprovided
thatthisvolumewillberecovered.

11. Basedonpresenceofleakdetectionsystem,blockvalvesandautomaticshutdownsystems.Noteone
hourshutdowntimemaybereducedifeffectivenessofsystemscanbesupported.

12. LOD=LevelofDetection,asstipulatedbypipelineautomaticdetectionsystems.

13. Timestakentoreachandrepairleaksitesmaybereducedifshortertimescanbedemonstrated.

14. Basedonabilitytodetectmajorfaultsbutabsenceofblockvalves.

15. Assumesdailyoverflightsthatwilldetectsheens.


3.6.2 MaximumCredibleSpillVolumesVesselSpill

International measures implemented through regulation 13 of MARPOL
73/78, have prescribed strict measures in Annex 1 that are required by industry and
administrationtobefollowedtomitigateoilpollutionthroughmodificationstodesign,
structuralrequirements,andinspectionsetc.

Irrespectiveofsizeandtonnage,alltankersarerequiredtohaveaseriesofwing
andcentretanksthatrunalongthelengthofthevesseltocarryeithercargoorballast.

Page40of167

MeasurestohaveSBT,doublebottomtanksandnarrowwingtanksandawider
centertankhavebeenbroughtintoforcesothat,intheeventofacollision,theoilspill
is limited to a particular tank only. Regulation 13G (4) of Annex 1 of MARPOL 73/78
specifies the requirements applicable to existing crude oil tankers of 20,000 tons DW
and above and product carriers of 30,000 DW and above to reduce the accidental
outflowofoilintheeventofacollisionorstranding.

Taking into account the limitaions and requirements imposed by MARPOL, the
Impact of tanker size on credible spill potential in tonnes on vessels of different (
tonnageasperstudiescarriedoutbyIPIECA)wouldbeaspertable3.10

Typical Slightgroundingor Grounding with Bunkerfuel
tonnage(DWT) collision(onewing rupture(two wing
tank) plus one centre
tank)

30,000 700 3,000 450


50,000 1,100 5,000 750
70,000 3000 12,500 1,800
1,00,000 5,500 21,000 2,300
2,00,000 10,500 45,000 2,750
2,40,000 15,000 60,000 4,000
Table3.10Tankersizeandspillpotential

3.7 WORST CASE SCENERIO OIL RELEASE FROM GROUNDING OR


COLLISSION

Giving effect to provisions of MARPOL requirements and guidelines laid down
under Annex 1 for evaluation of an alternattive tanker design concept, Marine
Environment Protection Committee ( MEPC ) of IMO has carried out intricate
calculations for oil outflow probabilities from actual tanker damage statistics and

Page41of167

tanker casuality statistics. The studies carried out under stringent assumptions to
arrive at comparative standards of tanker design based on oil pollution prevention
index, have computed the quantity of oil flow after side and bottom damages to the
vessel for different conditions of tide and taking into account different damage
posibilities.

Thecalculationscanbeconsideredtheworstcasesceneriofortheparticulartype
of damage since they are computed by applying the damage density distribution
functions to determine each unique grouping of damaged compartments and the
probabilityofoiloutflowassociatedwiththatdamagecondition.

The volume of oil lost from a cargo tank assuming hydro static balance can be
calculatedasfollows
Zs.ps.g=g.zc.pc+100p
Where:
Zc=heightofremainingoilinthedamagedtank(m)
pc=cargooildensity(0.9t/m3)
g=gravitationalacceleration(9.81m/s2)
p=setpressureofcargotankpressure/vaccumvalves(0.05bargauge)
Zs=externalseawaterheadaboveinnerbottom(m)
ps=seawaterdensity(1.025t/m3)
Takingintoaccountthatdoublebottomspacesbelowthecargotankalsoholdoil,
oiloutflowiscalculated.

Thesummaryofoiloutflowparametersarrivedatforavesselwith38491m3
cargocapacitybutloadedto98%i.e37721m3isaspertable3.11and3.12.

Page42of167

Bottomdamage (40%) (50%) (10%) Combined


0.0mtide 2.0mtide 4.5mtide
Probabalityof 0.8431 0.8431 0.8431 0.8431
zerooutflow(P0)
Meanoutflow 2133 2752 3528 2582
(m3)
Extreme outflow 14767 18976 3528 17820
(m3)
Table3.11Oiloutflowwithbottomdamage


Combined side and (40%) (60%) Combined
bottomdamage Sidedamage Bottomdamage
Probabality of zero 0.8380 0.8431 0.8411
outflow(P0)
Meanoutflow(m3) 4272 2582 3258
Extremeoutflow(m3) 30824 17820 23021
Meanoutflow 0.0864
parameter(Om)
Extremeoutflow 0.6103
parameter(Oe)
Table3.12Oiloutflowwithsideandbottomdamage

For side damage, 100% of the oil in a damaged cargo oil tank is assumed to
outflowintotheseawhereas,forbottomdamage,oilwaterin50%compositioneachis
supposedtoberetainedinbottomtanksandcanbecalculated.

3.8 SPILLINMumbaiHARBOURMODELSTUDIES
A number of spill model studies have been carried out by National Institute of
Oceanography (NIO) for various locations within the area of operation of this CP to
studythemovementandtrajectoryofoilpostspill.Thesestudiesinclude

1. OIL SPILL RISK ANALYSIS AND CONTINGENCY PLAN FOR BPCL, Mumbai,
AUGUST2003

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2. OIL SPILL RISK ANALYSIS AND CONTINGENCY PLAN FOR JNPT, NAVI
Mumbai,OCTOBER2008
TheresultsofthesestudieshavebeenusedinthisContingencyPlan(Section3.9to
3.11),wrttomovementofoil

3.9 MOVEMENTANDTRAJECTORYSTUDIESJawaharDweepandPirPaujetty

The results are obtained by running the data on computer model Hydrodyn
OILSOFT,takingintoaccounttheactualweatherconditions.Anumberofmodelstudies
to test the validation of tides and currents had also been carried out. The results
obtainedfortidalelevationandtidalcurrentsatvariouspointsatJD,PirPauJettyand
Vashi ( though different at these locations), agree with the tides measured at these
locationsandvalidateallthedata.Theresultsofmodelstudyareaspertable3.13and
asmentionedbelow.

It is observed that Trombay and surrounding areas are vulnerable to spill oil
reaching during SW monsoon, whereas Vashi and surrounding areas are vulnerable
duringNEmonsoon,forquantumofspillsstudiedduringmodeling.Postmonsoon,the
areasatMoracoastarevulnerabletospillreachingthecoast

3.9.1 Location JawaharDweepJetty2and4
ChannellocationclosetoJDjetty2
PirPaujetty
3.9.2 SpillScenarios
Instantaneousspill700,25000tonseachofcrudeandfurnaceoil
Continuousspill2200m3/hofcrudeandfurnaceoilfor15minutesatPirPau

3.9.3 Oiltypes
Crude

Page44of167

SpGr0.9
Viscosity6.5at37.8C
Waxcontent1219%
Furnaceoil
SpGr0.95
Viscosity6.5at37.8C
Waxcontent1219%

3.9.4 SWMonsoonPeriod(MaySeptember)

ThebehaviourofoilspilledatJD2,JD4oratPirPauwillbethesame.60%
ofspilledoilwillreachthecoastwithin2to4hours.Thelikelyareaofimpactforspills
oflessthan700tonnesisTrombaycoastalareas.

3.9.5 NEMonsoon(DecemberFebruary)

Duringthisperiod,themostvulnerableareas,whereoilwillhaveanimpactare
VashiandeastcoastofThanecreek.60%ofspilledoilwillreachthecoastwithin2to6
hours.Forspillsofhighermagnitude,theimpactzonewouldextendto10kmsatVashi
coastline.
3.9.6 PostMonsoon

Duringthisperiod,theoilspilledatjetty2and4wouldnot reachthecoastand
willmovewesttowardsopenseas,butanyspillatPirPaujettyandJD4willreachthe
coastlineatMoraontheeastcoastofThanecreekwithin4to6hours.



Page45of167


Spill Spill volume Losses(t) Timetoreach Coastalimpact
location (t) Coast(hours)

SW NE Post SW NE Post SW NE Post
Monso mons
on oon
Jetty2 700crude 100 120 100 3 3.5 3 Trombay Vashi To
Thane sea
creek
25000crude 8000 7500 7000 4 5 4 Trombay Vashi Tosea
Thane
creek
2200m3/h 650 630 600 14 13 10 Trombay Vashi To
for 15 mts, Thane sea
continuous, creek
crude
Jetty4 700crude 100 120 90 14 13 Trombay Vashi To
Thane sea
creek
2200m3/h 600 630 500 12 13 5 Trombay Vashi Tosea
for 15 mts, Thane
continuous, creek
PirPau 700furnace 100 120 140 3 4 8 Trombay Vashi Mora
Thane coast
creek
10000 2500 2600 2700 4 5 8 Trombay Vashi Mora
furnace Thane coast
creek
2200m3/h 600 630 730 12 14 15 Trombay Vashi Mora
for 15 mts, Thane coast
continuous, creek
Table3.13.OilspillmatrixandimpactareasMumbaiHarbour

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NOTE. IncaseofspillbeingintheapproachchannelnearJawaharDweep,
theareasofElephantaIslandarealsolikelytogetaffectedbyspilledoil.

3.10 MOVEMENTANDTRAJECTORYMODELJNPT

To study the spill movements, a spill scenario of 400 tonnes oil was run on the
model. Based on oil spill analysis occurring at the jetty and along the pipelines, it is
observedthroughtrajectorymodelingthataFOspillof400twillspreadoveranareaof
around300mtrs.within2hours.
Post spill movement analysis and oil spill impact , volumes and areas are as per
Table3.14and3.15.

3.10.1 Spilllocation
ContainerterminalatJNPT

3.10.2 OiltypeFurnaceoil
SpGr0.92
Surfacetension3.0e03
Molarvolume0.002
Viscosity275cstat37.8degC
Waxcontent1219%
Pourpointofuntreatedcrude30degC
Pourpointoftreatedcrude18degC

3.10.3 Premonsoon(January)

It is observed that during the pre monsoon period, the spill will move to south
westtowardsopenseasandwillreachtheopenseas.Theareaofspreadoilwilldiffer
dependingonthesurfacequantity.

Page47of167

3.10.4 Monsoonperiod(July)

Duringthisperiod,thespillwillmovetowardsportboundariesandpartofitwill
movetowardsShevaislandcrossingreclamationsandmangroveforestareaswithin1to
2hours.

3.10.5 Postmonsoon(October)

During the post monsoon period, most of the spill will reach Mora at Karanjia
Island.Partofthespillwillmovetosouthwestopenboundariestoreachwithin15to24
hours.
%reachingport Premonsoon Monsoon Postmonsoon
/openseas
400t 81 89 80

JNPT FO Extentofoiling

Container inport/open 1050 600 1200

terminal seaboundaries

(mtrs)

Table.3.14.Postspillmovementanalysis
Facility Spill Losses Timeto Amountof Areaofimpact
quantity reachcoast oilon /movement
/openseas surface
(hrs)
JNPT 700tFO Premonsoon 5 17 355 CrossingtoSW
container Monsoon 6 5 364 JNPT
terminal Postmonsoon 4 24 346 Manora

Table.3.15.Oilspillimpact,volumesandareas

Page48of167

3.11 MODELPREDICTIONSICMAMandNIO

Apartfromabovestudies,ICMAM,ChennaiaswellasNIOhavecarriedoutmodel
studies of the spill assuming leakage rate of 3 t/hr over 3 days. ICMAM has used
OILMAPtopredictthemovementandspreadingofspilledoilandADIOStoevaluatethe
weathering processes at spatial and temporal scales in the Mumbai Harbour Thane
Creek model domain, while, NIO has used HydrodynOilsoft software with the project
domainextendedtocoastalareabetweenVersovaandRevdandauptoadistanceof25
kmfromthecoast.

The results in both cases predicted that the spilled oil would hit the shores of
Colaba, Uran, JNPT, Vashi, Trombay, Sewri etc. within the Mumbai Bay. The results of
NIOstudyalsopredictedthepollutionofcoastalareassouthoftheBaymouthnamely
Mandva,Kihim,Alibaugetcwithin3daysofthespill.Thesepredictionsbroadlymatch
the feedback of field observations made during Environmental and pollution studies
undertakenpostcollisionofvesselsinMumbaiHarbourin2010.

Page49of167

4.0 FATEOFSPILLEDOILANDSPILLANALYSIS

The physical and chemical characteristics of spilled oil change almost
immediately when spilled in the marine environment due to evaporation, dispersion,
emulsification, dissolution, oxidation, sedimentation and biodegradation. All of these
processes that setintogetherare collectively referred to as oil weathering and decide
thefinalfateofspilledoilandquantitiesthatwouldneedtoberemovedphysically.An
uncertaintyinatrajectoryforecastbuildsovertimeduetotheseprocessesthatthe
spilledoilgoesthrough.

If the oil is persistent and does not vaporizes immediately or disperses and
comes ashore, than the costs in terms of cleanup, damages and economic loses can be
considerable.

4.1 WEATHERINGPROCESSESANDTIMESCALES

Some of the weathering processes that spilled oil goes though and the time
durationoftheseprocesseswhichareimportantforemergencyresponseandneedtobe
taken into account by the responders are placed at Appendix 5. The details of the
processesthatthespilledoilgoesthroughandwhichaffecttheresponseactivityareas
under

(i) Evaporation

Theamountofoilevaporatedpostspilldependsontheoilproperties,windspeed
and water temperature. Generally light refined oils like gasoline or jet fuel, evaporate
fasterthanheavierproductssuchasheavycrudeoil.Whilemostofthegasolinewould
evaporateinfewhourssomecrudesbeingmorepersistentintheenvironmentmuchof
theproductwouldbeexpectedtoremainonthewatersurfaceevenafterlongduration.

Page50of167

(ii) Dispersion

The action of breaking waves can drive small droplets of oil into the water
column. If the droplets are small enough (diameters less than 5070 microns) natural
turbulenceinthewaterpreventstheoilfromresurfacing.Thesmallerdropletsthat
stayinthewatercolumnareconsidereddispersed.

Dispersionisanapprovedprocedureforremovingoilfromthewatersurfaceand
isundertakenbyapplicationofdispersantstooil.However,withsomeconditionscan
be put forth by local administration for application. The amount of oil dispersed
dependsonpropertiesofoil(theviscosityandsurfacetension,inparticular)andwater
conditions.

Oil products with low viscosity, like gasoline or kerosene, are more likely to
disperseintothewaterwithbreakingwavesthanahighviscosityoil,likeanIFO380or
a heavy crude. Therefore, the dispersed fractions of gasoline or kerosene can be
relativelylargeinheavyseas.

A possible treatment of oil spills is to spray the slick with chemical dispersant.
Chemicaldispersantsenhancenaturaldispersionbyloweringsurfacetension.

(iii) Dissolution

Dissolution begins immediately and is likely to continue throughout the
weathering process. The loss of petroleum product from dissolution is minor when
comparedtotheotherweatheringprocesses.

Lessthan0.1%(veryheavyoil)to2%(gasoline)ofthespilledoilvolumeactually
dissolvesintothewatercolumn.However,thecomponentsofoilthatdissolveintothe
watercolumnareoftenmoretoxictotheenvironment.

Page51of167


(iv) Emulsification

For many crude oils and some refined products, weathered oil reaches a stage
where water droplets get mixed into the oil forming a waterinoil emulsion or
mousse.Theemulsioncancontainasmuchas70to90%water,sothatthecombined
volumeofoilandwatermixturerequiredtobehandledbyresponderscouldbemuch
higherthanthevolumeoforiginalspill.

The ability to form an emulsion depends on water conditions and the chemical
properties of oil. Oils with high wax and asphaltene content emulsify easily in sea
conditions with breaking waves and leads to an increase in viscosity of the spilled
product.

Generally, oils weather a certain amount before forming an emulsion. Although
the onset of emulsification may take several days, the emulsification itself can occur
withinafewhoursandclassifiedbytheirstability.Inunstableemulsions,waterandoil
separates easily under calm conditions with warm temperatures. In stable emulsions,
waterremainsintheoilforweekstomonths.

(v) Sedimentation

Sedimentation is defined as the adhesion of oil to solid particles in the water
column.Inthisprocess,theoilgetsabsorbedontosedimentsinthewatercolumntofind
itswayeventuallytobottom.

Turbulentwaterswithhighsedimentload(~500g/m3),suchasafastmoving,
muddy river, can move the oil through the water column within hours of the initial
release,while,waterswithlowsedimentload(<5g/m3),asinopenseas,willallowoil
toremainonthesurfacemuchlonger(weeks),spreadingtheslickoverawiderarea.

Page52of167


(vi) Photooxidation

This process occurring due changes to chemical and physical properties of
spilledoilandsetsinbecauseofexposuretosunlightandislimitedtothesurfaceofoil,
resulting in a thin, crusty skin on slicks and tar balls. The skinning of oil, limits
evaporation because the lighter oil components can no longer diffuse through the
surface of the slick. Photooxidation may increase the ease of emulsification and is
consideredalongtermweatheringprocesstakingweekstomonths.

(vi) Biodegradation

Thespillisfinallyremovedwhentheoilbiodegrades.Themicrobesthatdegrade
oiloccurnaturallyintheenvironment.Therateatwhichtheorganismsdegradetheoil
dependsonthepropertiesofwater,oilandmicrobialactivity.Thisprocessisthoughtto
occurovertimescalesofweekstoyears.

4.1.1 CalculationofWeatheringlosses

The spilled oil being subject to above mentioned factors is amiable to loss in
termsofquantityandalsoanincreaseinvolumedueemulsification.

Consideringaspillof700tonnesofBombayHighCrudeatMumbaiharbour(the
maximumquantityrequiredtobeaddressedbythisPlan)inthemonthofMayandthe
climatic conditions prevalent during the time, the various parameters and details of
losses calculated through ADIOS the spill software and the volume remaining to be
manuallyaddressedof700tonneswouldbeasperAppendix6.


Page53of167

4.2 OILTHICKNESSANDAPPEARANCEOFSLICK

Oilslicksformverythinfilmsonopenwater.Dependingonthepropertiesofthe
product,thethicknesscanrangefromatenthofamicrontohundredsofmicrons.The
colour of oil film post spreading is a good measure of quantity of oil that may be
containedwithintheslick.

When direct light from the sun contacts a very thin oil film (<0.1 micron; m),
muchofthelightisreflectedbacktotheobserverasgrayorsilversheen.

Ifthefilmisthicker(perhaps0.1to3m),thelightpassesthroughthefilmandis
reflectedofftheoilwaterinterfaceandbacktotheviewer.Theobserverwillthenseea
filmthatcanrangefromrainbowtodarkercoloredsheens.

For very thick films (> 3 m), the light is absorbed and the slick appears dark
colored(i.e.,blackorbrown)totheobserver.However,theviewercannolongerdeter
minefilmthicknessbasedoncolor.Iftheslickisdarkcolored,theobservercannottell
whetherthefilmis3mor100mthick.

Inordertoquantifyoilthickness,thefollowingisusedasguidelines
Appearance Thickness
SilverSheen 0.0001mm
Rainbowsheen 0.003mm
Lightbrown/Blackslick 0.1mm
Darkbrown/Blackslick morethan1mm
Todetermineanapproximatequantityofspilledoil,thefollowingformulaisused

L(Lengthofslick)metersXW(Width)XThickness(mm)=Cubicmeters
100

Page54of167

Theextentofspreadintermsoflengthandbreadthalongwith%ofareashowing
a particular colour as per thickness can be used for calculation of quantity of spill
throughspillcalculationsoftware.AnillustrationisplacedatAppendix7.

4.3 MOVEMENTOFOIL

Spreadingandadvectionarethetwomajorprocessesthattransportoilonwater.
Forsmallspills(<100barrels),thespreadingprocessiscompletewithinthefirsthourof
the release, whereas for bigger spills the spreading process could continue for larger
durationsoftime.

Winds,currents,andlargescaleturbulence(mixing)areadvectionmechanisms
that transport oil to large distances. For calculation purposes, the oil movement is
estimatedasthevectorsumofthewinddrift(using3%ofthewindspeed)and100%of
thesurfacecurrent.

Spreading

Thespreadingprocessoccursquicklyandformostspills,mostlywithinthefirst
hour.Inopenwaters,winds,currents,andturbulenceactonandmovetheoil.

Spreading occurs faster for lighter and for less viscous oils in warm water
temperaturesandforwarmoils.Theslickdoesnotspreaduniformlybutwilloftenhave
athickpartsurroundedbyalarger,butthinnersheen.About90%oftheoilisfoundin
10%oftheslickarea.Aspillislikelytokeepspreadinguntilathicknessofabout0.1
mmisreached.Atthisstagebreakingupofslickintowindrowsisanimportantsourceof
furtherspreading.

Page55of167

5.0 CLIMATICCONDITIONS

Forecastingthemovementofanoilspilldependsonavailabilityofaccurateand
reliableinputdata,particularlylocation,volumelost,producttypeandenvironmental
conditionslikewindandcurrentobservationsandforecasts.

Therefore, it is important to have all the climatic and weather information
availablefortheareaofoperation.Theclimaticconditionsandhydrographicfeaturesof
areaofoperationofthisCPthatareofimportancetorespondersareasmentionedhere
under.

5.1 TEMPERATUREANDRAINFALL

ThetemperaturestartsrisingfromMarchandMayisgenerallythehottestmonth
of the year with mean daily max temperature of 32.9 degree C. With the onset of
monsoonbyaboutfirstweekofJunethereisanappreciabledropintemperature.The
month of January is the coolest month of the year with mean daily maximum and
minimumtemperaturesof29.1and19.3degreeC.

Theregionissubjecttoaregularseasonalclimaticvariation determinedbythe
occurrence of two annual monsoons. The SouthWest monsoon period extends from
JunetoSeptember.MostoftheannualrainfalloccursduringSouthWestmonsoon,the
average monthly rainfall being about 45 cm. Rain during the NorthEast monsoon is
slight.

Theaveragerainfallintheareaisabout2422mmandannualmeannumberof
rainydaysisabout77.8.TheperiodbetweenJunetoSeptemberreceivesnearly95%of
theseasonalrain.Themonthlyvariationintemperature,humidityandrainfallisasper
table5.1

Page56of167

Month Temp Minimum Rainfall(mm) No of rainy days


(Max)0C 0C average
January 30.6 16.4 0.6 0.3
February 31.3 17.3 1,5 0.1
March 32.7 20.6 0.1 0.1
April 33.1 23.7 0.6 0.3
May 33.3 26.1 13.2 1.2
June 31.9 25.8 514.1 15.4
July 29.8 24.8 868.3 23.5
August 29.3 24.5 553.0 19.1
September 30.1 24.0 306.4 12.8
October 32.9 23.1 62.9 3.7
November 33.4 20.5 14.9 1.0
December 32.0 18.2 5.6 0.3
Table5.1TemperaturesandrainfallinMumbaiHarbour

5.2 WINDS

General direction of wind is from the North to the West quarter, with seasonal
variationsareaspertable5.2.

Months Directions Speeds
1.FebMay Mainlyfrom (Max. 8 to 10 Beaufort
N.W. Substantial46Beaufort)
2.JuneSep Mainlyfrom (Max. 8 to 10 Beaufort
W.N.W. Substantial68Beaufort)
3.OctJan Mainlyfrom (Max. 6 to 8 Beaufort
N.N.W. Substantial26Beaufort)
Table5.2Winddirections

Page57of167


Windsaregenerallylighttomoderatewithsomeincreaseinforceinthesummer
andmonsoonseasons.DuringJanuarytoMaywindsstrengthenintheafternoon.Inthe
southwestmonsoonseasonwindsaremainlyfromwestornortheast.Duringrestofthe
years, winds are north easterly to easterly in the mornings and blow from directions
betweensouthwestandnorthwestintheafternoons.Summaryisaspertable5.3

Month Windspeed
(knots/hr)
January 9.1
February 9.3
March 10.4
April 10.5
May 10.0
June 12.8
July 14.8
August 13.4
September 10.0
October 8.5
November 8.2
December 8.5
Total/average 10.5
Table5.3WindspeedsinMumbaiHarbour

5.3 VISIBILITY

In general, on the West Coast, above latitude 16oN sometimes mist develops
duringsunrisebutdispersesthereafter.FromNovembertoMarch,thisareaisproneto
occurrence of smog clouds over land thus obscuring visibility. This happens only for
short periods most often shortly after sunrise but also occasionally in the evenings.
Visibilityisgenerallygoodformostpartoftheyear.


Page58of167

5.4 PhVALUE

ThepHvaluewithintheharboursurfacesamplesis8.0to8.3atsurfaceand8.0
to8.2atthebottom.Thewaterqualityisslightlyalkaline.

5.5 TOTALDISSOLVEDSOLIDS(TDS)

The TDS levels in the surface waters vary from 20,920 mg/I to 24800 mg/I. In
bottomsamplesTDSvaluesvaryfrom20900mg/Ito24800mg/I.

5.6 WAVES

The predominant waves are the swell waves generated by deep sea storms.
These mainly arise just before and during the South West monsoon. The statistical
analysisindicatesthatmostwaveperiodsfallbetween6secondsand10seconds.

DuringthecontinuanceoftheNorthEastmonsoon,NorthEasterlywindsknown
as "Elephantas" blow for short durations during the months of OctoberNovember. As
thefetchanddurationofthesewindsarelimited,the"Significantheight"oftheresulting
wavesisnotlikelytoexceed1meterwithperiodrangingfrom3to5seconds.

The predominant wave direction during monsoon is from south west to west.
Duringthisperiod,wavesof4to5mheightnormallyoccur,however,wavesof8.0m
height and period of 14 seconds have also been reported. October and November are
transitionperiodsduringwhichthepredominantwavedirection changestonorthand
northeast.DuringDecemberandJanuarythewavesmainlyoccur fromnorthtonorth
east and from February to May waves predominantly come from the north west
quadrant.Thesummaryofwavedataisaspertable5.4.

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Parameter Value
1Year 100Years
SignificantWaveHeight 0.6 1.6
SignificantWavePeriod 10.0 10.0
Max.WaveHeight 1.0 3.0
Table5.4SummaryofWaveData

5.7 TIDES

ThequalityofwaterspreadareaoftheBayismainlyinfluencedbytideswhich
induce flushing and dispersion of pollutantsentering the system. The tides inMumbai
harbor are characterized by occurrence of two high and two low waters with marked
diurnalvariationinthelevels.

The monsoon freshwater flow, though important in flushing the inner zone, is
nothighenoughtocausesignificantchangesinthehydrographyoftheouterBay.Tides
(1.2 5 m) in the region are semidiurnal type with an appreciable diurnal inequality.
Thefloodtidalfrontadvancesinnortheasterlydirectionandebbstosouthwest.

ThedominanttideintheMumbaiHarbouristhesemidiurnaltidewithaperiod
of12hoursand40minutes.Table5.5givestheparticularsoftidallevelsrelatedtoChart
Datum.








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Above(+)orBelow()
Tide
ChartDatum
HighestHighWaterrecorded +5.39m
MeanHighWaterSpringTides +4.42m
MeanHighWaterNeapTides +3.30m
MeanSeaLevel +2.50m
MeanLowWaterNeapTides +1.86m
MeanLowWaterSpringTides +0.76m
LowestLowWaterrecorded 0.46m
HighestLowWater +2.74m
Table5.5TidesinMumbaiHarbour

Statisticalstudiesindicatethatallhightidesexceed+2.70m.andabout5%ofall
hightideswouldbelessthan+3.20m.

VariationsintidesinMumbaiestuaryareaspertable5.6.
Location Range(m) TimelagfromApolloBunder(min)
Spring Neap
ApolloBunder 5.0 1.6
PirPau 4.3 1.4 1015
Vashi 4.2 1.2 1030
Airoli 4.9 1.6 1245
Thane 4.9 1.5 1560

Table5.6TidevariationsinMumbaiHarbour

The tidal range decreases markedly up to Vashi as compared to that at the
Apollo Bunder but increases in the inner creek, the range at Thane is only marginally

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lowerthanthatatApolloBunder.Thisincreaseappearstobe duetothefunnelshape
geometryoftheBaythatisconduciveforaccumulationofseawaterwiththeadvanceof
tidalfrontinthelowercreek.ThetideatThanelagsby30to45minwithrespecttothe
tideatApolloBunderwiththelagmorepronouncedforneaptide.

Spring tides are important for spill response as oil beached during this time is
likelytoremainstrandedontheupperportionoftheshorelineuntilthenextspringtide
(about14days)orstormevent.Ifthereisastormsurgeduringaspringtide,theoilcan
remainstrandedforamuchlongerperiod.

5.8 CURRENTS

The currents in Mumbai harbor and the near shore zone are tide induced with
reversalathighandlowwaters.Thecurrentstrengthrangesfrom1.5to3knots.

Current speeds and directions within the Bay and associated tributaries are
largely due to the tidal movements and show little variation from non monsoon to
monsoon.ThemaximumcurrentspeedintheouterBayexceeds1m/sandthevariation
inthewatercolumnatanygiventimeisnotsignificant.

Lateral variations in the speed however occur with current in the eastern area
beingsomewhatstronger.Themaximumcurrentspeedsdecreaseintheinnercreekand
aretypicallyaround0.8m/s,decreasingmarkedlyduringneaptide.

As characterized for a tide dominated system, the alongshore components are
fairlystrongwiththedominanceofseawardcomponentwhilecrossshorecomponents
are relatively weak. Their relative magnitude and directions are indicative of net
seawardmovementoveratidalcyclethoughshorewarddriftcan besignificantaround
thechangeoftide.

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ExcursionlengthsandaveragecurrentspeedsobservedfortheBaybasedonthe
availabledroguetrajectoriesareaspertable5.7.

Tide Excursionlength(km) Avcurrentspeed(m/s)
Flood Ebb Flood Ebb
Spring 11.5 11.5 0.5 0.55
Neap 5.5 6.0 0.25 0.3
Table5.7TideexcursionatMumbaiHarbour

Excursionlengthsduringfloodandebbaremoreorlessofasimilarmagnitudeas
expectedfortidalcreeksdevoidoflargevolumesofexternalwaterinputs.Theoverall
circulation pattern suggests that the pollutants entering the creek upstream of the
bridge at Vashi tend to oscillate within the creek system and flushing to the sea is a
delayed process. These pollutants would however be considerably diluted under the
influenceoftideinducedturbulenceandadvection.

During monsoon however, the creek receives voluminous land runoff and the
dischargeofnearfreshwaterthroughtheUlhasestuary,whichflushestheinnercreekto
alargeextent.

Currentandtidalstreamsbeingofimportancetostudymovementofspilledoils,
thedetailsthereofarementionedhereunder.

5.8.1 Tidalstream(currents)onapproachestoMumbaiPort

InapproachestoBombay'tidalstreamsaremuchinfluencedbywindsandheavy
rains.TherateofspringstreamsbetweenThalreefandProngsReef,41/2milesNNW
isfrom2to3knotsandmayattain4knotsinrainyseason.

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Throughthechannelthetidalstreamdoesnotsetfairlybutisgenerallyasunder.

(i) Ingoingstream

Theingoingstream,offtheSWendofProngsReef,setsfirstinanESEdirection,
butastherateincreasesitchangestoNE;thereafterEofthereefasfarasSunkRock
(18"53''5N,72d500E)itsetsNNE.

Between Thal shoal and a position 4 miles WNW the in going stream sets
betweenESEandENEturningmoreNastherateincreases.

The ingoing stream sweeps E over Thal Shoal. The in going stream, in East
ChannelSwatch{18"47'.5N,72d495E)setsNNEasitcrossesthemouthofDharmatar
Creek5milesENE.

(ii) Outgoingstream

The out going stream during the SW monsoon rains sets strongly W out of
DharmatarCreek. On the N side of the entrance to the harbour the stream sets S W
fromSunkRockuntilabreastProngsReef,fromwhereitsetsWchangingtoSSWasthe
rateincreases.

ThestreamsetsSWbetweenThalShoalandaposition4milesWNW.OntheS
sideoftheentrancetotheharbour,thestreamfirstsetsWSWacrossDharmatarCreek
entrancealteringtowardsSSWonnearingThalShoalthenalmostSasitgoesfurther.

5.8.2 Tidalstream(currents)inMumbaiHarbour

Tidalstreamwithintheportsetswithratesofto3knotsasfollows

(i) EastsideoftheharbourIngoingstream

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ThestreamsetsNorthEastabreastKaranjaIslandsettingmoreENEafterpassing
Karanjabeacon.BetweenJawaharDweep(JD)andElephantaIslandthestreamsetsN
buttowardsTrombayislanditbecomesNE.

(ii) WestsideofharbourIngoingstream

ThestreamsetsNNEfromSunkrocktoCrossislandwitharateof2kn,northof
Tucker beacon where the stream separates, a branch of it turns north until abreast
MazagaonDockyard.ThenthestreamsetsbetweenNEandENEtojointhestreamfrom
theEsideoftheharbourNofButcherIsland.

(iii) EastsideofharbourOutgoingstream

ThestreamstartslaterherethanontheWestsideoftheharbour.
The stream sets SW from the channel between Butcher Island and Elephanta
Island along the NW coast of Karanja island. When abreast the entrance to Dharmatar
CreekitsetsWSW.

(iv) WestsideofharbourOutgoingstream

The stream at ordinary tides starts 30 to 45 earlier than on the E side of the
harbour.Duringstrongspringtidesthestreamonthewsidemaystart40minutesto1
hour earlier. Inshore and near Indira dock wall during the SW monsoon, the stream
startsabout45minutesbeforeBombayhighwater.

The stream sets SW from Trombay Island to Mazgaon Dockyard and sets SSW
fromabreastCrossIslandtoWofMiddlegroundIslet.Inthemiddleoftheharbour,the
setisStoSSW.ThesetisbetweenSandSSWfromMiddleGroundIslettoSunkrockbut
withthestartofthisstreamthesetoffSunkrockismoreWgoing.

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5.9 Modelsimulationandvalidation

Anumberofmodelstudiestotestthevalidationoftidesandcurrentshave
been carried out. The results obtained for tidal elevation and tidal currents at various
pointsatJD,PirpauJettyandVashi,thoughdifferentattheselocations,agreewiththe
datamentionedabove.










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6.0 ENVIRONMENTALSENSIVITY

Spill movement predictions will determine which areas are under immediate
threat from the slick after which the protection priorities will need to be determined,
since it is unlikely that all the areas under threat can be successfully protected at the
sametime.Theimportanceoftheareabothecologicallyandsocioeconomicallyistaken
intoaccount.

Areassuchascoralreefs,mangroves,fishnurseryareas,birdandturtlebreeding
areas are ecologically important. At times these areas are also socioeconomically
important.Otherareassuchasbeachesandotherfacilitiesbeingrecreationalareasare
alsoimportantandalsoproviderevenuetothecommunity.

Water intakes for industry or for inland aquaculture practices, shipyards and
portsarecommerciallyimportantbuthavelimitedbiologicallyimportance.

6.1 ENVIRONMENTALSENSITIVITYMAPPING

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps provide a summary of coastal
resourcesthatareatriskifanoilspilloccursinvicinity. Examplesofatriskresources
include birds, shellfish beds, sensitive shorelines (such as coral reefs), and public
beachesandparks.

Shorelinesarecolorcodedtoshowtheirsensitivitytooil.Warmcolorsindicate
the most sensitive shorelines, and cool colors indicate less sensitive shorelines. Large
habitat areas (such as tidal flats and wetlands) are shown as polygons filled with a
patternofappropriatecolor.Symbolsmarklocationsimportanttospillresponders,such
asareaswherebirdsorseamammalscongregateorbreedareaswheredifferentkinds
ofbirdsconcentrateforfeedingornesting,andareasusedbypeople.

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ThreekindsofinformationshownontheESImapsarebasedon

(i) Shorelineranking

Shorelinesarerankedaccordingtotheirsensitivitytooil,thenaturalpersistence
ofoil,andtheexpectedeaseofcleanupafteranoilspill.Therankingscalegoesfrom1to
10.
Lower rankings represent shorelines that are less susceptible to damage by
oiling;higherrankingsbecomemorelikelytoexperiencedamagebyoiling.Arankof1
representsshorelineswiththeleastsusceptibilitytodamagebyoiling.Examplesinclude
steep,exposedrockycliffsandbanks.Theoilcannotpenetrateintotherockandwillbe
washedoffquicklybythewavesandtides.

A rank of 10 represents shorelinesmost likely to be damagedby oiling. Examples
include protected, vegetated wetlands, such as mangrove swamps and saltwater
marshes.Oilintheseareaswillremainforalongperiodoftime,penetratedeeplyinto
thesubstrate,andinflictdamagetomanykindsofplantsandanimals.

ShorelinesonEnvironmentalSensitivityIndex(ESI)mapsarecolorcodedbasedon
sensitivity to oil. Shorelines that are least susceptible to oil are ranked as 1 and are
colorcodeddarkpurpleonESImaps.Shorelinesthataremostlikelytobedamagedby
oilarerankedas10andappearinred.

ESI shoreline rankings are defined using factors that influence sensitivity to oil
including:
Relativeexposuretowavesandtidalenergy
Biologicalproductivityandsensitivity
Substratetype(grainsize,permeability,trafficability,andmobility)
Shorelineslope

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Easeofcleanup
Easeofrestoration

AlistofshorelineclassificationsforEnvironmentalSensitivityIndex(ESI)mapsfor
three types of environmental settings mentioned below along with colour coding is
placedatAppendix08.


(ii) BiologicalResources

Categorizes and displays oilsensitive animals and their habitats that are
themselves sensitive to spilled oil (such as coral reefs). Each kind of animal has a
designated color. Accordingly, the locations where each species is found is indicated
usingpointsymbolsand/orpolygonsmarkedwithappropriatecolour.

Speciesthatareespeciallyvulnerabletotheeffectsofoilspillsareclassifiedinto
seven general categories, such as Bird, Fish, and Marine Mammal. The categories are
thenfurtherdividedbygroupingspeciestogetherbysimilartaxonomy,morphology,life
history,and/orsensitivitytospilledoil.

Whenabiologicalresourceexistsinasmallarea(suchasabirdnestingsite),itis
indicated by asymbol. When a biological resource encompasses a larger area, it is
representedbyapolygonwithaspecificpatternandcolour.
The table for all categories for biological resources and how the information is
displayedonESImapsareplacedatAppendix09and9A.

(iii) HumanUseResources

Humanuseresourcesthatmaybeeithernegativelyimpactedbyanoilspillsor
used as access points for oil spill cleanup are typically marked with a symbol. Most
humanusefeatures(suchaspublicbeachesandaquaculturefacilities)existinasmall

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area and are represented by human use point symbols. Larger areas such as parks,
preserves,protectedareas,andwildliferefugesareshownaspolygons.

All categories of humanuse resources displayed on ESI maps are placed at
Appendix10.

6.2 GEOGRAPHICAL&TOPOGRAPHICALSENSITIVITY

The area of operation of this Plan i.e Mumbai harbour is enclosed by three
districts of Maharashtra namely, Thane, Raigad and Mumbai. The shoreline shows
variation with respect to sediment type, form and gradient and accordingly shows
differenceinshorelineenergyandwetlanduseanddistribution.Theshorelineisamix
ofexposedtidalflats,mudflats,shelteredrockyshoresandthickmangrovevegetations.

The coastal stretches of Mumbai and the region around are variable with a
numberofcreeksandbays.Thecreeksstretchdeepinlandandareasheltertovaried
faunaanddiversecommercialactivityalongtheshoreline.Thecreekshoresarethickly
populatedinstretches.

Historicdataavailablewithrespecttopollutionofshoreline inMumbaiestuary
shows that differences in physical environment such as degree of exposure to waves
andcurrentsandgeomorphicfeaturesliketheterrain,greatlyinfluencethedistribution
andpersistenceofpollutants.Thepollutantsarenotabletoflowouttoseabutremain
confinedwithinthestretchesofestuary.

Inareaswheretheshorelineconsistsofsandytypeofsediment,themovementof
sand due to tidal action results in mixing of pollutants to deeper levels at impacted
areas, thus increasing the persistence of pollutants being retained in the terrain for
longertimesincreasingtheriskofEnvironmentalandbiologicalhazards.

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Them
majorshorellinefeatureesareasperrfigure6.1

LEGEN
ND



FIGURE6.1MumbaiSSensitivearreasOverv
view

Page7
71of167

6.3 Shorelinesensitivity

MumbaiAreapresentsahighconcentrationofdifferentkindsofsensitivezones
tobeprotectedoraccordedpriority.Thesezonesunderdifferentclassificationsare

(i) Ecological

SewriMudflats
ThaneCreekMudflats,marshesandmangroves
NhavaShevaMudflats,marshesandmangroves
MoraMarshes
KarnjaMudflatsandvegetation
ButcherIslandNorthpointMudflatsandvegetation
KolabapointProngReef

(ii) Agricultural

KaranjaCrops
MoraRiceField

(iii) Fishing

MumbaiInnerBay
WestCoastofMumbai
PanvelCreek(Oysters)

(iv) Industrial

TrombayShoreline(WaterintakestoRefineries&nuclearplant)
MumbaiHarbourInstallation
Mora(StateMarshes)

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(v) TouristandRecreational

WestCoastofMumbaiBeaches(JuhuMahim)

The area being large with varied coastline features and different commercial
activities, is divided into sections for the purpose of Environmental Sensitivity. Maps
indicatinglocationofsensitiveareasareplacedatAppendix11.

(i) ThaalknobNavapada

ThaalknobRanjankharDavali(WestbankMouthofDharmatarcreek)

Theextremewesternpartofthestretch(Mandva)isasandyandrockybeachat
geographical location 184757.61N, 725556.42E with a coastline length of
approximately810km.

ThejettyatMandvaisinusewithboatsplyingregularlytoMumbai.Thearea
hasasandybeachwithminorrockystretches.Therearesandbeachesonthesideofthe
jetty with thick mangrove growths. The Geographical position of the jetty is
184915.21N, 725647.58E. The sediment in the area is mud and sand. Large
swathesofmangrovestandalongbothsidesoftheRevasjettyandalsointhecreeklets.

RanjankharDavali(Dharmatarcreek)toNavapada

The area is a small bay with three creeks originating to east, south and
southeast.Thecreekstretchingsouthtoadistanceofappro8kmsuptoMotheBalon
theeasternbankisDharmatarcreekandhasthickmangrovevegetationandmudflats.
The second creek originating from within this bay and running inland south west is
Patalganga river. The third creek running east is Karanja creek. All the creeks have
thickstretchesofmangrovevegetation.

Page73of167

ThecompletestretchfromRKDavalitoNavapadasituatedonthesouthernend
ofUranisland,hasthickgrowthsofmangrovesandmudflatsandisnotassessablefrom
seaorshore.ThemouthopeningbetweenRKandNavapadajetty is1.8kmapprox.(
Appendix11)

(ii) NavapadaMorajettyJunaShevaRoad(BPCLjetty)

(a) NavapadaMorajetty

This stretch is a part of Uran Taluka. The geographic position of Uran is
185242.45 N, 725626.83E. The stretch from Navapada to Mora consists of 3 fine
sandbeachesatUranPirwad,UranNagavandKegav.Thebeachesarevisitedbylarge
numberofpeopleandarepopularspots.ThestretchfromKegavtoKaranjaishillywith
rockycoastlineandstretchesofvegetation.ONGCMumbaiHigh pipelinelandfalland
otherfacilitiesaresituatedoffUranPirwadbeach.

The stretch has 3 jetties one each at Navapada, Karanja and Mora. The jetty at
Navapada, situated at north entrance to Dharmatar creek has regular traffic with
Mandava.ThetwojettiessituatedonnorthcoastofUrani.e.southextentofMumbai
HarbourhaveregularferryservicetoMumbai.

MorajettyisinpublicusewhiletheotheratKaranjaisundernavalcontrol.The
sediment type of the area around Mora jetty is flat sandy and rocky (bed rock), while
KaranjaLandendtotheeasthasthickgrowthofmangroves.Thereisthickmangrove
vegetationalongMorajettyandUranbeach.Oneofthebiggestextentsofwetlandtracts
and mangroves in this part of India lies in this area. The area has developed into a
specialeconomyzoneandhasalargenumberofindustries,namelyJNPT,P&O,GTIand
othershippingcompanies.

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Thestretchisaccessiblebyroadwithcertainstretcheswellconnectedwithroad
runningalongtheshoreline.TheareaishometobirdssuchastheEgrates,Carmorants,
Seagulls and Crows. Crustaceans like crabs are also found over rocks and sediments. (
Appendix11A)

(b) MorajettyJunaShevaroad,JNPT

This stretch comprises of a small estuary and inlet running south from Mora
JettyorlandheadtoFundevillageandthennorthuptoPanjeLandHeadandisnamed
Boripkhadi,thestretchcontinuesfromPanjeKoliwadafurtherEastuptostartingof
JunaShevaroad.Theareaconsistsofmudflatspronetofloodingduringhightideandis
notaccessible.TheareahassomeofthethickestvegetationofmangrovesinIndiaand
varied bird life. The Uran mangroves, about 60 km from Mumbai, are a vast stretch
beginning from the northern end of Palm Beach Road in Navi Mumbai, up to Funde
village in Boripkhadi. The mangrove area is considerably large, dominated by two
speciesi.e.AvicenniamarinaandSonneratiaalba.

The small bay from Panje Koliwada to beginning of JNPT road leading to BPCL
jetty, has thick mangrove vegetations. Reliance tank farm is situated on the western
portionofthisbayalongtheroad.(Appendix11B)

(iii) JNPTNhavaSouthentrancetoPanvelcreek(Sector51)

ThestretchfromJunaShevatoJNPTNhavaconsistsoftheportandlarge
numberofassociatedmanmadestructureswithmetalapproachroadsandconnections.
The geographic position of the port is 185656.00N, 725657.32E. The port
comprisesofalongsideberthsandShevaPOLterminalbeingoperatedbyBPCLandIOC.
Theportisthe6thlargestportandlargestcontainerportinIndia.

Page75of167

ThegeographicalpositionofNhavaislandis1857 28.5 Nand7259 11.45 E


andShevais1856 05.34 Nand7257 39.98 E.

ThestretchextendingfromNhavawherethefacilitiesforONGCvesselberthing
andstoresuppliesforBombayhigharecreatedatankfarmissituated,isapproximately
8kmsinlengthwithmudflatsandmangroves.Thesmallwaterstreamrunningsouth
betweenJNPTandNhavaformsextensiveJNPTbackwatersthatarethickinvegetation
andmudflats.Theinternalareasofthissmallbackwaterarenotaccessibleeitherfrom
NhavaorJNPT.

The complete stretch has thick mangrove vegetation and sea life. The stretch
from Shivaji Nagar to Sector 3 on the south entrance to Panvel creek though well
developedintermsofpublicutilitiesandmanmadestructures, theshorelineismuddy
and has thick mangrove vegetation. Sector 51 forms the north entry point to Panvel
creek. The shoreline is low lying mudflats with thick mangrove forests. Mangroves
stretch inland along the Panvel creek on both banks to a considerable distance. (
Appendix11C)

(iv) Sector51toVashivillage

Sector51landheadformsthenorthentranceofPanvelcreek.Thecreek
extendingeastisheavilypolluted.Thenorthentrancei.e.sector56toVashivillageisa
straitstretchcomprisingPalmBeachroad.Though,theroadrunsparalleltothecoast,
the areas west of the road are mudflats and thick with mangrove vegetations. The
stretchhasafewsmallsandybeaches.

The complete stretch is well developed in terms of man made structures.(
Appendix11D)

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(v) Vashivillage(EbankofThanecreek)toVikhroli(WbankofThane
creek)

ThaneCreekispartoftheestuaryofUlhasRiveropeningintoMumbaiHarbour.
ItcomprisestheareastretchingfromMumbraRetibundertoMankhurdVashiBridge.
Thecreek(Lat19d00to19d15NandLong72d55to73de) isconnectedtoUlahs
river estuary ( Lat18d45 to 19d00 N and long 72d45N and 73d 20E ) in the north
through a narrow shallow channel and is amongst the largest marine bodies in an
enclosedareainIndia.

TheCreekisoneofthe500significantbirdconservationsitesinIndia.Withits
rich natural resources and mangroves, the creek is home to over 205 species of birds.
Rarebirdssuchaswhistlingteals,goldenplover,greyplover,hoopoeandavocetcanbe
sightedhere.Amongthemajorwaterfowlsspottedhereincludelesserflamingo,greater
flamingo, Asian open bill stork, white stork, pied avocet, eastern golden plover, ruddy
turnstoneanddunlin.ThecreekisrecognizedasanImportantBirdAreabytheBombay
Natural History Society being home to flamingoes and several other migratory and
wadingbirds.

WaterqualityanalysisofthecreekandUlhasestuaryshowincreasingevidence
of pollution due to anthropogenic discharges from surrounding areas. Areas between
Balkum, in the north end of channel connecting the two water bodies and Vitawa has
become a dead zone as per a 2006 report from the Municipal Council. However, the
completestretchhasthickgrowthofmangrovevegetation.

Both sides of Thane creek have thick population and comprises of the
areasofBhandup,Kanjur,VikroliandAiroli.Thesedimentismuddyinthisarea.The
creekletshaveabundanceofbirdslikeCranesandEgrets.

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The area has thick mangroves along the eastern banks of the creek and Palm
Beach road banks. Vashi Thane creek cover a stretch of dense canopy of mangroves
strandswithadominanceofAvecciniamarinaspeciesintheforefrontofeasternbanks.

As per NEERI report 2002, the creek has very low assimilating capacity. The
waste water dispersed through the polluting units along the creek is not getting fully
flushed. At the confluence of Thane creek and Ulhas river in the north, the basin of
ThanecreekisconstrictedandthegeometryissuchthatwaterfromThaneCreekisnot
gettingdischargedefficientlyintoUlhasRiverduringlowtide.

Theareaiswelldevelopedandanindustrialstretch.(Appendix11E)

(vi) VikhrolitoBPCLrefinerytoHajiBandar

VikhrolistretchisahookareaofThanecreekcomprisingofregionsofVikhroli
apartfromTrombayandMahul.Theseabedsedimentislargelymuddywithsomesalt
panesclosetonorthextremityatVikhroli.ThestretchfromVikhroli(closetooldThane
Creekbridge)toBPCLrefinerycomprisesofmudflatsandthickmangrovevegetation.

PirPaujettyworkingchemicalcargoisanextensionstretchingSouthintothe
MumbaiharbourfromthelandheadadjacenttoBPCLrefinery.ThisstretchfromBPCL
refinery to Haji Bandar comprises of Mahul, Trombay, Sewri and Wadala. While, the
inland area is well developed, the coastline is highly polluted and has large mangrove
vegetation.BPCLtankfarmissituatedatWadalaandatomicpowerplantatTrombay.

A stretch of about 15 acres of mangroves exists between Sewri and Trombay.
Appendix11FandG.



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(vii) HajiBandartoNavyNagar

The area includes shoreline of Mumbai port, Naval harbour, Colaba and INS
Kunjaliwithgeographicalposition1853 42.39 Nand7248 35.07 E.Theareaisthe
hubofeconomicactivitywiththickpopulationandembankments.Sassondockisused
bylocalfishingfleetfortheiractivitiesandisthelanding pointformostofthefishfor
Mumbai.

The shoreline from INS Kunjali up to prongs reef light is mainly covered with
bedrock,bouldersandpebbleswithfewareacoveredwithsandysediment.

6.4 OBSERVATIONS

Overall, the area from Thal knob to Panvel creek is varied and marked by
numberofcreeks,thickmangrovevegetation,mudflats,saltpans,JNPTinstallationsand
numberoflandingpoints.Publicutilityandmarinasetcarenotthere.

The coastline from Panvel creak stretching north into Thane creek is highly
developedintermsofmanmadestructuresandhaslargeextents ofmudflatsandthick
mangrove vegetations. Thane creek is home to a number of species of birds and is
ecologicallysensitive.

TheareafromVikhrolitoBPCLcomplexthoughwelldevelopedintermsofman
madestructureshaslargestretchesofshallowmudflatswithmangrovevegetations.The
furtherstretchuptoProngsreefisthehubofcommercialactivityandincludesMumbai
Port and installations and number embankments like Gateway of India and Naval
Harbour. The area from INS Kunjali to Prongs is rocky also comprising boulder
shoreline.

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6.5 PROTECTIONPRIORITIES

While, it may not be possible to protect all the resources at the same time, the
areasthatneedtobeprovidedpriorityare

(i) AreaswithpresenceofMangroves
(ii) Elephantaislandlandingpoint
(iii) EntrancetoThanecreek
(iv) EntrancetoNavalandMumbaiport
(iv) Saltpans

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PARTII

RESPONSEOPERATIONSANDORGANISATION

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7. OPERATIONSANDRESPONSESTRATEGIES

AreaofoperationofthisPlanbeingconfinedtoMumbaiandJNPTHarbourall
responsesandactionswouldgetlimitedtocoastalzoneandwithintheestuary.

Recommended action of NO RESPONSE as practised for off shore zones where
the spill originates at a considerable distance from the shore and where movement is
subjecttoanumberoffactorsisnotanoption.

TakingintoaccountthefactthattheareaofconcernofthisPlanislocatedwithin
MumbaiHarbourwherethespillwouldmostlikelyoriginatealongside,atanchoreorin
thechannel,takingofimmediateactionisacertanity.

7.1 RESPONSEACTIONS

Responseactionsarerequiredtobeinitiatedbyrespondersatthefirstnoticeor
information about the spill. While, availability of all data and study of different
parametersthataffectaspillascompiledintothisPlanareofbenefitfurtheracquisition
ofdatacantakeplaceconcurrentlytolaunchingofresponseoperations.

Major actions that would be required to be taken when a spill occurs are
mentioned below. While, some actions like containment are required to be initiated
immediatelyfollowingaspill,someactionslikeshorelinecleanupetcwillgetinitiated
induetime.Thepurposeoffastresponseistominimizehazardstohumanhealthand
environment. The following response are accordingly addressed through the
ContingencyPlanandOperationsManual:

Stoppageofdischargeandcontainingspillwithinalimitedarea,
Defining size, position and content of spill, direction and speed of movement
andlikelihoodofaffectingsensitivehabitats,

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Notification to private companies or government agencies responsible for


cleanupactions,
Movementoftrainedpersonnelandequipmenttosite,
InitiationofResponseactivity,
Ensuringsafetyofresponsepersonnelandpublic,
Oilremovalanddisposal.

7.2 OPERATIONALPRIORITIES

Early hours of a spill being crucial and important for operations, all personnel
involved with response, cargo operations, port or terminal have to be aware of the
prioritiestobefollowed.While,someoftheseactionsaretobeinitiatedandundertaken
byresponders,someactionswouldneedtobeinitiatedbypersonnelinvolvedincargo
operations or persons ashore in case of clean up operations. The OPERATIONAL
PRIORITESARE

1. Stoppage of discharge. This action of primary responsibility can be achieved by
terminating cargo operations, removal of vessel to a less vulnerable area,
lighteringofcargo,stoppingthespillbypatching,transferringthecargotoother
undamagedtanksifpossibleandboomingtheshipwithspillcontainmentbooms
toretaintheoilfromspreading.
2. Prevent released oil from moving to shore. This would involve the use of
mechanical means to contain the oil and remove it. It could also involve
applicationofdispersantstofloatingoilkeepinginviewtheareasensitivity.
3. Initiating action to protect sensitive environmental systems such as estuaries,
mangroves, marshes or areas of high economic value. The containment activity
couldinvolveboomingoftheareaorusingdeflectiontechniquestocausetheoil
to bypass sensitive areas to lesser sensitive areas. The activity could involve

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closingtheentrancetoharbourorestuary,coveringexposedwallswithplastic
sheetsuntilthedangerofcontaminationisover.
4. Removal of pooled oil from coastline. The coastline can be used as a natural
boom to collect and pool the oil. In case of stranding of oil on shore, different
processeswouldberequiredtobeundertakenremoveit.Whereevertheuseof
mechanicalmeanscanberesortedtoprovidehigherratesofrecovery,priorityto
removalfromthebeachistobeaccorded.
5. Removalofcontaminatedmaterialssuchasvegetation,trash,collectedsorbents
etc.afterlooseorliquidoilisremoved.

7.3 OPERATIONSMANUAL/FIELDGUIDE

Thestrategyforhandlingaparticularspillatterminalorat seawillbedictated
bytheOPERATIONSMANUAL.TheManualaimstoprovideinformationontheresponse
measures to be taken in a particular spill situation and is a guide to deployment of
equipment (and their limitations) and spells the philosophy of containment, recovery,
spillcleanupanddisposalwithrespecttodifferentlocationsandoriginofspill.Sections
relevanttoresponseoperationscoveredindetailinManuals(thoughnotinmentioned
sequence)are

Containmentlayingofboomsandconfigurations
Recoveryskimmersandtheirtechnicalcapacities
Coastlinecleaningmethodsrequiredtobeusedfordifferenttypeoftopography
Disposalofcollectedoilanddebris

Ops manual would be used as an aid in contingency actions and would be
availabletoallresponders.


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7.4 LIMITINGANDADVERSECONDITIONS

(i) Weather

Weather, sea conditions and time factor play an important role in oil spill
responseoperations.While,operationscouldcontinueatterminaloratthejettymostof
the time, operations at sea would be largely restricted during night hours and sea
conditions.

The area of operations of this CP is subject to rough and severe weather
conditions during SW monsoon i.e June to September end. An appreciable weather
changeintheareaissubjecttoheavyrains,highwindsandwaves.Theseaconditions
beingrough,itisnotpossibletomountsustainedoperationsordeployequipmentatthe
harbour mouth or in the channel. However, it is possible to continue operations at
MbPT,JNPT,PPandJD,thoughatarestrictedscale.

Best use of good weather windows would be required to be made to mount
operations.

(ii) Terrain

A large portion of the area being mudflats is not accessible from sea and is
constrainedbyavailabilityofdepthsforvesselstoapproach.

(iii) Siteapproach

Certainareasspeciallymudflatsandmangrovevegetationsstretchinglong
distancesarenotapproachablebyroadortracksfromtheshore.

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(iv) Otherlimitationsthatmightneedconsiderationwhileplanningresponse
activitycouldincludethefollowing:

Safetyfactorsincludingvessellimits,nightmovements,riskoffireandexplosion,
toxicity (oil contact/inhalation/ingestion) and hazardous environments such as
fastflowingriversandsteepterrain.
Environmental conditions that can influence logistics including inclement
weather,hazardousterrainandaccessibilityincludingconditionofroads.

7.4 RESPONSESTRATEGY

WithinthescopeofthisPlan,aresponseactionrequiredtobemountedcouldbeat
anyoftheselocations

(i) Seaorchannel,incidentduecollissionetcduringpassage,
(ii) Closeshoreduegroundingorstranding,
(iii) Alongsideatjettyorattheterminalduringcargooperations.

Itisfeasiblethatacasualtyoccuringatsealikeacollissionormechanicalfailure
couldleadtoasituationwheretheconsequenceswouldbefeltinsomeotherlocation
oratacoastallocationduemovementofpollutantsfromthesiteofincdent.

Thefactorsthatwoulddictateimmediateandlongtermstrategiestodealwiththe
spillare
(i) Locationofdischarge,
(ii) Spillmovementandlikelyfateofspilledoil,
(iii) Timewindowavailableforresponsebeforehittingthecoastline,
(iv) Natureofshorelineandpriorityforprotection.

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Keepinginaccountthelocationofspill,theresponsewillrequiredtobeinitiated
eitheratthejetty/terminaloratseaandguidedbyOPERATIONSMANUAL.Theactions
required to be initiated would be immediate and long term depending on a study and
analysisofspillmovement.

7.4.1 Jetty/ Terminal /Vessel response interface Jawahar Dweep, JNPT, Pir
Pau

The reason for thespill would most likely be afailureof loadingarm, flange or
anyfailureonboard.Theoperationsbeingsubjecttofacilityoperatingproceduresand
asperfacilitymanual,terminationofoperationsisexpecttobeaddressedatfirstnotice.
Port ship interface emergency checklist for use in case of oil pollution emergency is
placed at Appendix 12. The check off list can be used for terminal operational
proceduresandguidelinesalso.

Thespilledoilcontainedontheterminal/jettywillbehandledmanually.While,
use of vacuum pumps could be made, the absorbents will be required to be used to
collectthespilledoil.Inrespectofoilreleasedorintroducedintowater,responseasper
waterbodyproceduresaretobeinitiated.

7.4.2 Onwaterresponse

Thespillatseacouldoccuratanchorageorinchanneldueanyeventuality
or accident. An oil spill occurring due damage to vessel is a point source spill which
would need to be addressed earliest. Taking into account the fact that a multiple
response may be required, the vessel and responders will have to mount a rapid
reaction.


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(i) Vesselresponse

While,thefirstactionisexpectedofthevesseloperatorincontainingthe
spillbywayofpluggingofleakasfaraspossible,thefirstactionoftheresponseteamis
tobetocontainthespillbyplacingboomsattachedtoshipshulltoisolatethedamaged
area.Recoveryofspilledoilwouldalsoberequiredtobeundertakensimultaneously.

(ii) OSROresponse

The response team being stationed afloat with equipment placed on response
vessel, would deploy the equipment to contain the spill. In the event of the spill
originatingfromtheshipside,thecontainmentwillbehandledbyplacingboomsalong
theshipside.

Incaseofalargespill,theactionstolightertheshiportransferthecargowillbe
initiatedbytheportauthorityorshipowners.

While, Containment and recovery would be the preferred option, the other
alternativeslikedispersioncouldalsobeputtousesubjecttolocalrestrictions.

7.4.3 Useofdispersants

Though, use of dispersants is not a much recommended option, there may be
situations where the application may be required to be under taken. In a situation of
priority response, where the spill is likely to hit a sensitive area, limited use of
dispersants would be undertaken in accordance with the Guidelines issued by Coast
Guard.

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Application is to be dictated as per the procedures, calculations and


methodologies recommended by Operations Manual. List of dispersants approved by
CoastGuardforapplicationisplacedatAppendix13.

7.4.4 Coastalandshorelinecleanup

The coastal stretches off Mumbai harbour are varied in terms of ecological
sensitivity; with large stretches of mangroves inter spread with sandy beaches and
rockyshores.Mumbaiestuaryshowsdifferencesinphysicalenvironment,thedegreeof
exposuretowavesandenergylevelsandcurrents.Geomorphicfeaturesliketheterrain
greatlyinfluencethedistributionandpersistenceofoil.

While,thefirstprioritywouldbetostoptheingressofoilontothecoast,stillthe
requirement of coastal or beach cleaning operations cannot be ruled out. The local
administration being responsible for shore cleaning activity is to be notified in time
aboutthemovementofspillandadvisedaboutthestrategytobeadopted.

Tacticalbeachcleaningopsaretobeconductedasperthephysicalpropertiesof
the terrain with respect to retention of oil. Operations are to be guided as per
OPERATIONALMANUALparameter.

SomestretchesmightrequireboominglikeatnavalportandatElephantaIsland.






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8.0 EQUIPMENT,SUPPLIESANDSERVICES

Thetypicalresponseequipmentrequiredformountinganoperationconsistsof
equipmentforwaterresponseandshorelineoperationsandcouldinclude:

Offshore Shoreline
Booms Shovels
Skimmers Diggers/loaders
Absorbents Drums/skips
Sprayers&dispersants Trucks/tankers
Radiocommunication Plasticsheeting
Boats/tugs/responsevessel Protectiveclothing
Pumps/hoses Communications
Tanks/barges/storage Controlroom
Aircraft Transportation

8.1 LOCATION

(i) Offshoreoperations

The equipment required for response in terms of containment, recovery and
disposal will be maintained at Jawahar Dweep and onboard the Oil Spill vessel. The
equipmentmaintainedonthevesselwillbethefirsttobedeployedforcontainmentand
wouldbeaugmentedbymovementofadditionalequipmentasrequiredbythesituation.
DetailsoftotalequipmentheldatthesetwolocationsisasperAppendix14.

(ii) Shorelineoperations

Shorelineoperationswillbeundertakenbylocalciviladministrativeaspertheir
contingency Plan. Taking into account the spill movement and area sensivity, the

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equipmentwillbemobilizedalongwithmanpowertothesitebythelocaladministrative
authority. The procedures laid down in Operations Manual will be available for
referencetocleanupteamsalongwithexpertiseheldwithresponders.

8.2 ADDITIONALEQUIPMENTANDRESPONSE

While, the equipment held with response team will be available for initial and
first response, the additional requirements would be met from equipment held by
participatingcompaniesbeingaddressedbythisPlan.

In the event of a decision being taken by the team managing the spill, the
equipment held with the participating units will be made available to response teams.
ThedetailsofequipmentheldatdifferentlocationsareplacedatAppendix15.

In the event of an ongoing spill or a spill that requires declaring of Tier 2 or 3
response,theadditionalequipmentandmanpowerheldwithanyotherOSROorfacility
will be sourced in an accelerating manner including resourcing from the international
spillhandlingcompanies.Contactdetailsofcompaniesholding equipmentinIndiaand
InternationalOSROsareplacedatAppendix16.

8.3INSPECTION,MAINTAINANCEANDTRAINING

Asamatterofpolicyandprudenceallequipmentrequiredforspillresponseisto
be maintained at highest degree of readiness. For this reason, it is desirable that the
equipment be periodically tried and tested through dry runs apart from actual
deploymentfortrainingpurposes.

Identified member/s of the response team will be responsible for maintenance
andoperationalstatusoftheequipment.IntheeventofanOSRObeingappointed,the
equipment will be maintained by the person appointed by OSRO as per laid down

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schedule for each equipment, with records maintained as per preventive maintenance
cards.

8.3.1 Exercisesanddrills

The purpose of exercises and drills is to test the knowledge of persons and
members associated with response activity and maintain them in the highest state of
readinessandprofessionalcompetence.Theexerciseswouldaimtoassessacquaintance
ofresponseteamswithoperationabilityandinitiationofPlanandalsotheknowledgeof
operationalparameters.

Forthispurposeitisrequiredtoconductbothinhousetrainingandevaluation
exercisesandalsomultiagencycoordinationexercises.

In addition to classroom training, the responders would need to go through
regularinternalandexternalexercisesthatwouldincludedeploymentofequipmentto
demonstrate level of proficiency. With respect to management of operations in
consonance with the plan, it is desirable to conduct real time CP exercises with all
industrial stack holders involved. Such an exercise conducted at a large magnitude
wouldneedtoincorporatethestafffromMbPT,JNPT,ParticipatingOilCompaniesand
theIndianCoastGuardandscheduledasmutuallyagreed.

Thepurposeofexercisesanddrillwouldbetocheckthefollowing:

1. OrganizationalandPlanning
a. KnowledgeofContingencyPlanandProcedures
b. PersonnelNotificationsandStaffMobilization
c. AbilitytooperateasperCPandOperationsManual
2. OperationalResponse
a. Oilspillassessment

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b. Responseequipmentselection
c. Containmentstrategies
d. Spilledoilrecoverytechniques
e. Disposalofrecoveredoilywaterandcontaminatedmaterial
3. ResponseSupport
a. Communications
b. Logistics
c. Personnelsupport
d. Documentation


















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9.0 ORGANISATION

While, any response activity is envisaged to be undertaken by qualified team
members on the ground, the larger issues of management of operations are to be
handledbyacoreteamofseniorpersonsrelatedtoportoperations.

The core operational team discharging the functions of incident control,
administration and management is designated as Crisis Management Team/s (CMT)
operatingfromtheidentifiedcontrolcenterlocatedinthePortAdministrativebuilding.

Apart, from the designated CMT, another senior level team designated as Core
Management ( CMG), headedby the respectivehead ofMbPT,JNPT andONGCwillget
activated in times of major spill crisis that may require liaison with senior level state,
centerauthoritiesorotheragencies.Apartfromtherespectiveheadoforganization,the
otherteammemberswillbetheheadsofdepartmentsmentionedin9.2.1.Thefunctions
ofCMGwillbethesameasCMT(asmentionedin9.1.1)withaviewtoprovidesupport
to operations in terms of administrative requirements. CMG will assemble on the
recommendationofChiefIncidentController.

This Plan formulates the policies and strategies to be followed in case of a


responseandtobeexecutedonthegroundbyCMTalongwithresponseteamorOilSpill
ResponseOrganisation(OSRO).

TheoperationalspillpreventionprovisionsofthisCPwillbedischarged
bythreeCMTsheadedbyChiefIncidentController,oneeachfortheareaofjurisdiction
ofMbPT,JNPTandONGC.Dutiesandresponsibilitiesofallthethreeteamswouldlargely
remainthesameasspelledinthisCP,withadditionsandamendmentsundertakenby
each team as per operational situation and requirements particular to their area of

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operation. Each team would be responsible for operations in their respective area of
jurisdiction.

9.1 MANAGEMENTANDMANPOWER

Management,executionanddelegationofteamstoundertakedutieswithrespect
to discharge of this Plan and any other function that may come to notice is the
responsibility of the respective Chairman, of Mumbai Port, JNPT and Head of ONGC
establishmentfortheirareaofjurisdictionoranyotherperson,personsororganization
specifically appointed in writing or by identification through a notification or
administrativeorder.Suchdelegationandnotificationwillformaninherentpartofthis
Planpostissue.

While,thethreerespectiveheadswillbethefunctionalauthoritywithrespectto
executionofthisPlan,ChairmanMbPTwillbethecustodianandadministrativeheadof
the Plan with respect to revisions and amendments as per recommendations of other
members.

9.1.1 MajorfunctionsofCrisisManagementTeam

ThemajorfunctionsthatwouldneedtobecarriedoutbyCMTtodischargethe
Planareaspertable9.1




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Fieldops Initiation,ControlofOperationsandresponseactivity
EmergencyControlroomfunctions
Implementingtiredresponseanddisposal
Shorelinecleaning(wheninitiatedthroughthisCP)
Planningandstrategy
Adminandlogistics Victuals
Transport
Additionalmanpowerandequipment
Security
Technicalmatters Cargoops,availabilityofresponseitems,repairs

Liaison Communicationoperationalandwithother
Government/nongovt.authorities,Media
Legal Documentationofdamages,claimsand
compensation,notifications

Healthandsafety Medicalassistance
TABLE9.1 MajorfunctionsofCrisisManagementTeam

9.1.2 FunctionalDesignations

FollowingfunctionaldesignationsstandidentifiedandnotifiedthroughthePlan,
togiveeffecttothisPlan:

(i) CrisisManagementTeam
(ii) ChiefIncidentController
(iii) IncidentController(OnSceneCommander)
(iii) IncidentManager/OSROManager
(iv) OnSceneCoordinator/ResponseSpecialist
(v) Responders

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9.2 EXECUTIONOFPLAN

Postactivation,theexecutionofthePlanistobecarriedoutbyfollowingteamsby
givingeffecttomentionedfunctions

9.2.1 CrisisManagementTeamandassembly

Theteamistheprimaryunitforincidentmanagementandiscomposedofsenior
managersfromvariousdepartmentsforprovidingadviceandresourcesandtakeonthe
spotdecisionstomeetanyimmediaterequirementsarisingduringtheresponse.

Thecompositionoftheteamwithrespecttorequiredfunctionswouldbetomeet
therequirementsmentionedin9.1.1aboveandaspertable9.2

A typical organizational chart that usually gets followed in the event of a large
spillresponseisplacedatAppendix17.

Details,compositionandcontactdetailsofthreeCMTs(asdetailedvidesection
9)foroperationsinrespectiveareaofMbPT,JNPTandONGCareplacedatAppendix
18,18A,BandC.








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DESIGNATION FUNCTIONS

ChiefIncidentController(CIC) Head,CMT(presentlyidentifiedtobeHM)
Initiation,conductandcontrolofoperations
Emergencycontrolroomandresponse
Implementingtiredresponseanddisposal
Planningandstrategy
IncidentController(IC) OnSceneCommander
MemberAdmin&Finance Adminandlogistics
Victuals/Financialreportsandclosing
Transport
Additionalmanpower
Communication
MemberHSE&Media Security,Medicaladviceandattention,
Securityandliaison
Memberlegal Legaladvice,Damagecompensations
MemberTech Technicalmatters
Incident Manager / Manager Incidentadministration
OSRO
OSRO/ResponseSpecialist OSCoordinator
TABLE9.2CrisisManagementTeamComposition

NOTES

(i) Multiple duties and responsibilities as mentioned above can be assigned
byICtooneormorepersonsasrequired,

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(ii) Intheeventofmultipleresponseoperations,anyresponseteammember
maybeassignedthedutiesofOSROspecialist/OSCoordinator(OSCo)forthatpartof
theoperation,
(iii) Assembling of Crisis Management Team will depend on the severity or
extent of incident, while, a major incident may require the whole team to assemble, a
comparativelysmallspillmayrequirepartofteamonlytobeassembledormayrequire
actiononlyofincidentmanagementteamoroperationsteam,
(iv) Assessing the gravity of spill, the Chief Incident Controller may call the
wholeteamorpartofteamtoassembleatCrisisManagementCenter,
(v) CICmayassigntheresponsibilityordutytoadministerormanageasmall
spillorpartofspilltoanIncidentController(alsotermedOnSceneCommander)the
person responsible for operational control of that part of the port or terminal.
Accordingly,theappointedIC(OSC)willcarryoutthedutiesofCMT/CICasmentioned
in9.3.1.However,CICistobekeptinformedofallactionstakenandbeingplannedbyIC.
(v) Crisis Management Team being a permanent standing team of the Port
authority remains identified and nominated at all times. The team members can be
assigned a fixed tenure or duration, to be replaced in due time with other members
competenttocarryouttheCMTduties.
(vi) AllCMTmembersareexpectedtokeepthemselvesfullyawareofall
thecontentsandrequirementsofthisPlanandtobeawareofdemandslikelyto
bemadeonthemindischargeofCMTfunctions.

9.2.2 OperationsandResponseTeam/Teams

IncidentoperationsandresponseteamcomprisesofCMTorpartthereof,asdecided
byCICasperthemagnitudeofspill(Reference9.2.1Noteiii).While,theCMTwouldbe
activatedtomeetintheeventofamajoraccident,acomparativelysmallincidentmay
needonlylimitedactionofCMTtobeperformedbyapartofteam.

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i. Chief Incident Controller (CIC) Harbour Master (H M) is nominated
permanentChiefIncidentControllerirrespectiveofthemagnitudeofspill.While,inthe
event of a large spill, major decisions and duties are expected of him to be discharged
alongwithCMT,intheeventwherethespillcanbehandledbyresponseteamalone,the
incident will be handled by Incident Controller ( IC )( Reference 9.2.1, Note iv). The
appointed IC will carry out the functions of On Scene Commander for the
operation.However,theCICistokeepaccountoftheoperationandensuretobekept
informed.

ii. Incident Manager ( IM ) is a member appointed by HM or respective CMT
leader to undertake the responsibilities associated with administration of operations
and giving effect to decisions arrived at by CMT. He is to ensure timely execution of
demands and decisions with a view to provide continuity to operations. To facilitate
easeofoperationsandadministration,apermanentIMistostandnominatedatalltimes
byHMorCMTleader.

Intheevent,theresponseactivityisassignedbytheportto anOSRO,theOSRO
willappointamanagerinadditiontoIncidentManagertoundertaketheresponsibility
ofmeetingthedemandsofresponseteams.

iii. Operations Response Team (OSRO specialist/ Responder / OSCo) The
responseteamistohaveapermanentstatusandistobenominatedbyCIConbehalfof
CMT. The team would comprise of persons specifically nominated on account of their
experience of response operations, their qualification or expertise in the matter. The
nominated members could be employee of the port or any department in addition to
nomination to response team. Being of permanent status, the details of identified
membersaretobeavailableatCommunicationandOperationsCenteratalltimesand

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are to be inserted as a temporary enclosure to this plan. All responders are to be


qualifiedintermofhavingundergoneIMOLevelIcourse.

The functions of response team can be assigned to an identified and qualified


OSROalso.Insuchaneventofnomination,allfunctionswithrespecttoresponseteam
and On Scene Coordinator will be carried out by the OSRO or OSRO representative,
while,CMTandCICwillcontinuetofunctionhitherto.

Response resources like equipment to be deployed having been identified in
termsofquantityandlocation,additionalresourceslikespillresponsevessel(SRV)and
workboatetcalongwithresponderswouldbeasperidentificationandnotificationby
CMT leader. In the event of an OSRO being assigned the responsibility to provide
resources,OSROwillhavetomobilizethedifferentunits.

TheresponseteamistocompriseofaManager,Specialists,responders,response
workersapartfromthecrewofthevesselorworkboatassignedtoresponseduties.The
teamandadditionalresourcecompositionis

(i) IncidentManager/OSROManager
(ii) OSCIncidentController/OnSceneCoordinator
(iii) SRVesselandCaptain
(iv) Responders
(v) Vesselcrew
(vi) Workboat,masterandcrew

Additionalresponders or additional teams could be assembled during response
opsastherequirementdemands.

9.2.3 Shorelinecleanupteam

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Shoreline clean up is usually the last of the response activity undertaken either at
completion of response actions or at times in consonance with afloat actions as the
situationdemands.

While, the response is expected to be taken by the local administrative authority,
theremaybereasonsandrequirementsthatthesamemayberequiredtobeundertaken
by the port or facility. In such an event, the team or teams as required is /are to be
nominatedbyCIConbehalfofCMTunderthesupervisionofshorelinecleanupadvisor.
The team response will be in accordance with the beach type response as dictated by
OperationsManual.

The members of CMT will be responsible for providing support, equipment, advise
andresourcesinthesamemannerasbeingprovidedtoafloatoperationsteam.

9.3 DUTIESOFCMTANDOTHERSTAFF

CMTisconstitutedtoprovidesupporttooperations,whetherbeingcarriedout
by nominated responders or by an OSRO. The primary duty of CMT is to provide
logistics,equipmentandresourcestotheoperations.

All decisions taken by the CMT are to be logged with all details by the
personappointedbyCMTforprovidingadministrativesupport.

9.3.1 CRISISMANAGEMENTTEAM/CHIEFINCIDENTCONTROLLER(CIC)/IC

ANY ACTION/S UNDERTAKEN BY ANY TEAM OR MEMBER TO ACHIEVE THE
OBJECTIVES OF THIS PLAN WOULD DEEMED TO HAVE BEEN TAKEN BY THE TEAM
HAVINGBEENFULLYAUTHORIZEDBYTHISPLAN.

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Intheeventofaspillrequiringresponse,ChiefIncidentController(CIC)ashead
of the CMT, supported by CMT is required to discharge the below mentioned
responsibilitiesorpartthereofasthesituationmaydemand. Theresponsibilitiesare
notexhaustiveorallinclusiveandcouldbeamendedoraddedtoasthesituationmay
demand.
Any of these responsibilities or part can be assigned by CIC to any other team
memberormembersasthesituationmayrequire.Takingintoaccounttheoperational
demands,theCICmaynominateanymemberstobepartofateam tocarryoutanyof
theCTMfunctionsmentionedbelow.AllactionsundertakenbythemembersoftheCMT
areauthorizedbythisPlan.

TheresponsibilitiesrequiredtobedischargedbyCMT/CICinclude

Ensuring availability of mechanism in terms of manpower, equipment and
infrastructureatalltimestomanCrisisControlroomandreceivereportsofspill
Receive details of incident from Port control/ OSRO control room, Incident
Controller(OnSceneCommander)/OnSceneCoordinator
AssessmagnitudeofincidentandassembleCMTorpartthereofasrequired
ConferwithIC/OSROSoranddeterminethemosteffectivemethodofdealing
withthespill
Provideassistancetoresponseteam,IC/OSROSforsurveillanceofslick
Ensuredetailedrecordingofevents
Decideonsafety&securityofmenandincidentsiteinconsultationwithIM/OSC
LiaisewithOSCandteamleadersforavailabilityofresourcesandprogressof
responseoperations
Mobiliseadditionalresponseteammembersandequipmentasmayberequired
byOSC
CoordinateresponseeffortsbetweenOSCandCMT

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Provide support to operations in terms of manpower, equipment, vehicles,


watercrafts and other resources etc. (Sourcing of items not available is to be
discussedwithCMTforprocurementandsupplywithdemandsjustified.)
Make weather forecast reports available to COC for further dissemination to
responseteamsforbothafloatandashoreoperations
Decideonrequirementofmedicalcover
Decide on mobilization of shore cleanup operations in consultation with OSC
andadvisestateadministration,ifrequired
Ensure availability of arrangements and facilities at ashore work site/s if
operationsareundertakenbyCMT
Consider use of external technical assistance in case of major emergency
includingdecisionsonlighterage,transferofcargo,shiftingofvesseletc
Decideonrequirementtosuspendcompleteorpartofport/cargooperations,
trafficmovementetcasthesituationdemands
Initiate Mutual Aid Assistance Scheme, if such pact exists between different
organizations(i.eports,oilcompanies,etc.)beyondtheMOUforthisCP
DECIDEonactivationoftieredresponseandconferwithCoastGuardtotake
over operations as per NOSDCP. In the event of tier response being initiated,
confer with Coast Guard OSC or CIC to call for assistance from any OSRO
nationalorInternational
ReportspilldetailstoNationalspillReportingCentrei.eIndianCoastGuard
In case of large spill, assess the risk to life and installation , size and
consequencesofspill,abilityoftheorganizationtohandletheoperations
Instruct and direct additional teams and resources to act in consultation with
OSC
Advise state, private agencies of actions required to be taken by them in the
eventofthreatbymovementofspill

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AcommondutyrequiredtobeperformedbyallmembersofCMT,Control
Room, IC(OSC),OSCo, IM, Vessel Master, responders and any other person
associatedwiththeoperationsisto
Maintainpersonaldetailedlogofdemandsmadeonthemandaction
taken or demands made or communication forwarded by them to
anydepartmentorteammember.FormatisasperAppendix19.

NOTE

IN THE EVENT OF TIER RESPONSE BEING RESOTRED TO, WHILE THE OSC
DUTIESMAYBEASSUMEDBYCOASTGUARDMEMBER,THECMTWILLCONTINUETO
FUNCTIONASEARLIERINSUPPORTOFOPERATIONS.

HM WILL CONTINUE TO DISCHARGE THE DUTIES OF HEAD OF CMT, WHILE
UTIES OF CIC MAY PASS TO OSC OR ANY OTHER CG PERSON SPECIFICALLY
NOMINATED.

9.3.2ADDITIONALRESPONSIBILITIESOFTEAMMEMBERS

Apart from specific responsibilities mentioned above at 9.3.1 with respect to
response activities, the appointed team members may be required to undertake the
followingtasksalsoinsupportofoperations:

Assessmentoflossesintermsofdamages,cessationofoperationsetc
Receive reports of damages to public utilities, loss to economic activity for
compilationofcompensationanddemands
Initiatecompensationproceedings
AuthorizationofexpensesforspillresponseasperrequirementsraisedbyCMT
Assist/AdviseCMTinmattersrequiringfinancialapproval

Page105of167

ComputationofexpensesincurredbyportonOSRactivities(forcompensation
demands)
AdviseOSC/OSCoofdangersposedtoportequipmentandmachineryfromoil
spillandadviseondecidingprioritiesforresponse
Brief breakdown/maintenance teams to be available to OSC in support of
operationsandmakingavailablemobileunits,cranes,forklifts,tankersetc
AdviseOSC/OSCoonfireandsafetymatterswhicharelikelyto beencountered
duetospill
Making available equipment required for shore cleanup (to be discussed with
shorecleanupteamleader/s)
Orderterminationofallcargooperationsorpartthereof,ifrequired
Orderremovalofcargofromalocationorlocations
AssistICinaddressingmediaandpress
Providingfirstaidintheeventofinjuriesandevacuationofinjuredtomedical
center
AdviseonterminationofOperations

9.3.3 ONSCENECOMMANDERandONSCENECOORDINATOR(OSCO)

As per requirement of this Plan, the Incident Controllerappointedfor response
by CIC is designated as the On Scene Commander (OSC). He will report to Harbour
Master, who is designated as CIC and Head of Crisis Management Team (CMT) for all
operations, of whatever magnitude. OSC will be responsible for discharge of all
response activity when the activity is being undertaken by the CMT or the Port. The
appointed OSC can also be assigned the duties of Incident Manager required to be
appointed.

Page106of167

In the event of an OSRO being appointed to undertake response actions within


the jurisdiction of this Plan, the person appointed by the OSRO as OSRO specialist /
OSROresponderwillassumethedutiesofOSCoordinatorandwillberesponsibleforall
response activity. However, the OSC will still remain nominated providing support to
operationsonbehalfoftheorganisation.

Multipleoperations

In the event of multiple response activities being undertaken at the same time,
response team leaders appointed for each team would assume the duties of OS Co
ordinatorforthatpartofresponse,whileOSROspecialistwillassumethedutyofChief
OSCo.TheICwillcontinuetodischargehisdutiesofOnSceneCommanderhitherto.All
OSCosthusdesignatedwillreporttoChiefOSCowhointurnwillreporttoCIC.

The duties with respect to conduct of operation assigned and mentioned here
under will accordingly be required to be discharged by each OSC (in the event of
multipleops).

On Scene Coordinator (OSCo)/ Chief OSCo is responsible for undertaking all
possibleandfeasibleactionstorespondtospillanddirecttheresponseteam/teamsat
site.Heistodecidethebestresponseactionrequiredtobeadoptedaspersituationand
guidetheresponseteam/teamsaccordingly.

EveryOSCoappointedforanypartoftheoperationandOSCowouldberesponsible
forthefollowingdutiesorpartthereofaspertheiractivity,intheoperationandareaof
operation:

Determinewhethertheincidentcanbehandledwithresourcesavailableatsite,
onvesselorwillrequireactivationofCMT
AdviseCICaboutactivationandassemblingofCMT

Page107of167

Decideonmosteffectivemeanstocombatspillinmostfeasiblemannerwithin
thelimitationsimposedbyarea
Decide deployment of equipment and configuration to be adopted for
containmentofspill,recoveryanddisposal
Use available resources, vessels and equipment to the best of capability and in
thebestmannerforcontainment&collectionofoil
SafeandEffectivedeploymentofOSROteamandequipment
Deploymentofresponseteam/teamsandtheirturnaround
Coordinatemultipleoperationsandvesseldeployments
RequisitionadditionalmanpowerfromCMTasrequiredforlandorwaterborne
operations
Initiateequipmentdeploymentandundertakeperiodicalreview
Ensureavailabilityofoperationalnondisruptivemeansofcommunicationtoall
teams and establishing communication network between OSC, CIC , COC and
team/s(incasemorethanoneteamisdeployed)
Assess spill scenario and advise CIC on declaration of spill as Minor or Major
SpillofTierI,TierIIorTierIIImagnitude
Assess requirement and availability of consumables and response items and
rendertimelyadvisetoOSROMandCICforfurtherprocurement
Taking necessary preventive measure against Oil Fire arising or likely to arise
outofanysituation/action
Tomonitorweatherforecastsandcarryoutnecessarychangestodeploymentof
menandmachinery,ifrequired
Incaseoflargespill,assessrisktolifeandinstallation,sizeandconsequencesof
spillandabilityoftheorganizationtohandlethespill
AdviseCICtodecideondemandingsupportfromexternalresource

Page108of167

Takedecisionwithregardtoadequacyandeffectivenessofresponsestrategyand
statusofslickintermsofthreatsposed
AvailabilityofFirstAidkittoalltheteamsatsiteofresponse
AssistCICinrenderingreporttoNationalspillReportingCentrei.eCG
Ensuremaintenanceofequipmentandundertakingofroutines
Conductoftraining,drillsandexercisesforresponders
Preparedailyresponseactivitylog

9.3.4 ResponsibilitiesofIncidentManager(IM)/OSROManager

I M or OSRO M will be in charge of all administrative activities required to be
taken with regard to management of response team and running an actual incident
response.IMorOSROMwillbeappointedbytheCICorOSROasapplicable.

Apart from additional responsibilities that an operation may demand of IM or
OSROM,someofhisresponsibilitiesareto

Keep track of stock levels of consumables held by OSC and response team/
teams
Initiate procurement action for stores as per demands and requirements from
OSCasthecasemaybe
Ensureavailabilityofvictualsforteamsatworksite
Availabilityofessentialsafetyandpersonalprotectivegeartoallteammembers
PreparedutyrosterofOSRpersonnel
TurnaroundofdutywatchatECR,respondersandteammembers
CoordinatemovementofOSROstaff,personnel,equipmenttoincidentspot
Arrangefortransport,stay,victualsetcforadditionalteams/personsasrequired

Page109of167

Arrange for boarding/lodging etc for any party/personnel arriving for


undertakingOSROactivities
Providingshortnoticebackupsupportintermsofmanpowerforoperationsand
activationofshorecleanup(asdirected,ifrequired
ObtainnecessaryclearancesforOSRpersonnelandequipmentarrivingfromany
nationalorinternationalagency
ExecuterequirementsraisedbyCMT/OSROS
Providesupporttovesselintermsofberthing,victualsandotherrequirements
Arrangeforandprovidelogisticsupporttooperations
Ensuremaintenanceofequipmentasperlaiddownfrequencyandschedule
Makeavailablespares,toolsandexpendablestomaintenanceteam
Makeavailableadequatenumberoffirstaidkitstoallteams,vesselsetc
CarryoutthedutiesofHSEManagerandensuresafetyofpersonnelasperSafety
Manual

9.3.5 ResponsibilitiesandfunctionsofResponseTeam

Composition of response team/s being identified in advance, the team/s would
beavailableatallhoursattheidentifiedsiteforresponseactivity.

In case of any spill, the first response is expected to be launched by the vessel
masterandrespondersassignedthedutyforspillresponse.

IntheeventwhereresponseactivityisassignedtoanOSRO,theOSROresponder
and vessel will undertake the activity on first receipt of spill report. The functions of
initialresponderandvesselmasterwouldbeto

Render / receive preliminary spill report including extent, cause and quantity of
spill

Page110of167

Collect samples of spilled oil and assess the extent of spill and adequacy of
equipmenttoaddressthespill
AdviseOSC,ECRandCIConthesituationandadditionalrequirementofequipment
Ensure non disruptive communication with ECR and rendering of reports as
decided
Advise the team to rig up containment recovery equipment in the best effective
configuration
Cooperateonriggingofequipmentandmaneuverability
Coordinatewithotherteamsoperatinginclosevicinity
Discussequipmentdeploymentstrategywiththeskipper/masterofthevessel,
soastoavoidlastminuteoperational/navigationalfailures

9.3.6 Common duties Responders/ OSC/ COSC / SR Vessel Master / Control
roomareasmentioned:

1. To maintain detailed daily log of activities undertaken by them and their team
includingdeploymentofequipment,adviserenderedordemandsraised.Thelog
is to mention action taken daily (in narrative form) and observations made.
Appendix20.
2. The final report is to highlight achievements, failures, lessons learnt and
specificallymentionoperationalconstraintsanddifficultiesfaced,changestobe
madetooperationaldoctrines,personalpoliciesandtraining.
3. Tobeawareofdeploymentpatternofequipmentandoperationalparameters
4. Tobeawareofthearealayoutincludingsensitiveareas
5. Haveinpossessiondrawingsandsketchesofthearea#
6. Be aware of the position of OSR equipment at each site along with all latest
weatherreports

Page111of167

7. Tokeeptideconditionsinviewandkeepstores,vesselandotherequipmentsafe
fromdangersimposedbytidalconditions
8. Knowledgeofproceduresandprecautionsforcollectionofspilledoil
9. TobeconversantwiththeCPandresponsibilitiesassignedtoeachthroughthis
section
# Sensitive area sketches are to be available with OSC / COSC and
VesselMasteratalltimes,Controlroomistohaveadequatestocksavailable

(Membersofateamundertakingoperationsunderthesupervisionandordersof
aresponder,masterofSRvesseloranyothermemberoftheteamareexemptedfrom
maintaining the log. The log under these conditions will be maintained by the person
supervisingthepartofoperation.)
















Page112of167

10. OPERATIONSCONTROLANDCOMMUNICATION

Uninterrupted, clear and precise communication of information, situation,
operationalanddemandsisthebasisforthesuccessofanyoperation.

Allfunctionsrelatedtoanyresponseoperationwillbeplannedandundertaken
by CMT from the Communication and Operations Center ( COC ). While, activation of
planmaybeinitiatedbyinformationtoPortControl,thelongtermresponsedecisions
takenforprotractedoperationsatanylocationawayfromCOC,aretobepassedto
COCattheearliest.Aworkingchannelwillbepromulgatedfortheoperations.

10.1 CommunicationandOperationsCenter

A permanent location is to be designated as Communication and Ops Center (
COC)bytheauthorityresponsibleforexecutionofthisplan.Bothfunctionsaretobe
manned by different persons unless the magnitude of operations dictates manning of
any particular operation by one operator only. (As far as practicable, both functions
shouldbelocatedatsamesite.)

The center has to be separate than the Port control and easily assessable to all
the members of CMT and manned at all hours by persons qualified for such duties. In
casethelocationhastobeatthePortControl,thepersonsmanningCOCaretobein
additiontothosemanningthePortControl.Anyinformationreceivedinrespectofan
oilspillbyanymemberassociatedwiththisCPistobepassedtotheCOCattheearliest.

IncasetheresponseactivitieshavebeenassignedtoanOSRO, theCOCwillbe
mannedbyOSROrepandmaybedesignatedasOperationsroomalso.

The person/ persons manning the center are to be fully acquainted with the
contentsanddemandsofCP.

Page113of167

10.2 EquipmentandPublications

The communication center is to be provided the following equipment and
publications

VHF2numbers
Walkietalkiesasperthenumberofresponseteamsandfunctionalteam
leaders
Telephone(landlineorwireless)1
Computerandprinterwithinternetandprojectorfacility
CopyofCPandappendixes
DetailsofCMT,OSROorganizationandtheircontactdetails
ChartsofMumbaiharbour,TideTable
LargescalechartsshowinglayoutofPOLandcargoberths
GAplanofatypicaloiltanker
Location map of jetties, berthing and landing facilities available in
Mumbaiestuaryalongwithfacilitiesavailable
Telephone contact directory of all emergency aid and medical services,
portofficesandlocaladministrationauthority
DisasterManagementPlansofMbPT,JNPT,ONGCandBPCL

10.3 ActionsrequiredofCOC

TheactionsrequiredtobeundertakenbyCOCatalltimesinclude:

Continuous watch on working frequencies used by ships, port and
terminalforPOLcargoops
WatchonCh16atalltimes

Page114of167

Log all information in respect of an oil spill ( with maximum details)


receivedthroughkeepingwatchorfromanyothersource
Incaseoffirstreceiptofinformation,passallthedetailsregardingspillto
CMTleadertofacilitatecompleteorpartialactivationofteamorresponse
actionsbyOSRO
Pass all information regarding spill to OSRO and duty vessel or tug
assignedresponseduties.
Remain in constant touch with designated response team leader and
response/supportvesselsasperworkingchanneldecidedforoperations
Receive and pass information during operations to the authority
identifiedthroughthemessage
Collect latest information from MET dept on weather conditions in the
area including wind direction & speed, tide condition and other weather
parameters(allreceivedinformationistobelogged)
Provideweatherdatatooperationalteamsasdemanded
Check the operational status of communication equipment periodically
andbringthedefectstoattentionofIMorOSROMasapplicable
Details of vessels working cargo at different locations with quantity of
cargo
ETA,ETDofallvesselsarriving/leavingharbour
Detailsofequipmentlocationandstockpile

10.4 INFORMATIONDISPLAY

The following latest information is to remain displayed at all times on
wallboardsintheControlandOperationsCenter:

Page115of167

Vesselsworkingcargoinportquantityofcargo,locationandexpected
timesofcompletion
Prevailingweatherconditionsandfutureforecast
Vessels expected to arrive and depart port in next 24 hrs , cargo and
quantity
ImportantcontactnumbersofCMT,OSROandotherCPaidagencies

Page116of167

11. SPILLREPORTINGANDPLANACTIVATION

Any person whether an employee of the port, vessel operator, appointed
responderornot,canpassanyinformationofanyoilspillorasituationthatcouldlead
to an oil spill , held or observed by him or her, to any one of the identified centers to
facilitateactivationofthisplanandinitiationofresponseactivityinaccordancewith
theprocedureslaiddown.

11.1 ACTIVATION

Anypersonwhoobservesaspillorgetsaninformationofaspillorobservesa
situation that could lead to a potential spill, may pass the available information with
maximumpossibledetailstoanyoneofPortControl,ControlandOperationsRoomor
HarbourMaster,byfastestmeansavailable(Allincidentsofspillofwhatevermagnitude
aretobereportedtoHMbyPortControlRoomorCOC).

Contactdetailsareaspertable11.1

PortControl LandlineMbPT
JNPT
VHFMbPT Marinechannel12
JNPT MarineChannel13
COC Landlinenumber

Mobile

VHF MarineChannel12and13

HarbourMaster/CIC LandlineMbPT
JNPT
Mobile

Table11.1Contactdetails

Page117of167

11.1.1 ActionsbyPortControl/COCorHM

Thefollowingactionsaretobeinitiatedonreceiptofinformation:

(i) Log information as per format at Appendix 21(Incident Log) with
maximum information and details possible like position, source and reason of spill,
likelyquantity,actioninitiatedbyspillunit,
(ii) Passallreceivedinformationtoothertwoincidentreceivingauthorities,
(iii) Post receipt of information, the HM or CIC is to assess the magnitude of
spillalongwithOSROMorSanddecidedwhetherCMThastobeassembled,
(iv) HMorCICistopassallavailableinformationtoChairmanPortandother
stackholdersalongwithdetailsofspillanddecisiontoassembleCMTornot,
(v) Postconfirmationofspillbyanyofthethreementionedsources,thisPlan
willstandactivatedintotalityorapartthereof,
(vi) In the event, response action is initiated on first observation by OSRO, the
informationmaybepassedtoPortControlRoomandHMsubsequentlybutattheearliest
opportunity.
(vii) ALLRECEIVEDINFORMATIONISTOBEREDUCEDTOFORMATASPERPOLREP
REQUIRED TO BE PASSED TO SPILL INFORMATION CENTER i.e CG. POLREP FORMAT
andcontactdetailsofcenterareplacedatAppendix22andAppendix22A.

11.1.2 NumberingofIncidentLog

Any information received in respect of a spill is treated to be an independent
incidentandistobedocketedasunder:
(i) TitleidentificationBynameofvessel
(ii) NumberingReportsequencefortheday/date,monthandyear
In the event of a spill from an unidentified source only the numbering is to be
mentionedalongwithplaceofobservationanddate,monthandyear.

Page118of167

11.2 COMMONDUTIESOFPORTCONTROL/COCandHM

Receivealldetailsfrompersonreportingthespillandstartlogofevents
Assesssituation&takeappropriatestepstoestablishsourceofleak/spilland
renderadvise(ifpossible)onreducing/preventingfurtherleak/spill

11.3 TEAMACTIVATION

ThefollowingcentersandteamsassociatedwiththedischargeofthisPlanwillstand
activatedirrespectiveofthemagnitudeofspillordecisiontoassembleCMT.
i. Operationsandcommunicationcenter
ii. Responseteamandresponder
iii. OnSceneCommander(IC/IM)andOnSceneCoordinator(OSCo)
iv. Vesselmasterandcrew
v. IncidentController/HM

IntheeventofalargespillanddecisiontoassembleCMTbeingtakenbyCIC(HM),
the CMT will join the above teams to take decisions with respect to conduct of
operations. Composition of CMT and actions required to be initiated by different
membersandteamspostactivationoftheplanareasperSection9ofthisPlan.Incident
andinformationflowchartisplacedatFigure11.1

11.4 SPILLDETAILS

Any INFORMATION RECEIVED WITH RESPECT TO A SPILL, BEING OF


IMPORTANCE TO ARRIVE AT A DECISION WITH RESPECT TO ACTIVATION OF CMT
and RESPONSE REQUIRED TO BE TAKEN, HAS TO BE RECORDED WITH CARE AND
WITHALLPOSSIBLEDETAILS.

Page119of167

CorrectknowledgeofthequantityofspillisafactorthatwouldfacilitatetheCMT
and other responders to decide on the scale of response action and also the
requirements to decide on Tier responsibility. The information has to contain the
followingdetails
Authorityreportingspill(withalldetails)
Timeandpositionofspill
Typeofoil
Assessedquantumofspill

INCIDENTANDSPILLINFORMATION



Port Control / Harbour Master /
Communication and Ops Centre


CONVIENECMT(Assess

ASSESS SPILL QUANTUM
Major enhancedTierResponse)

MinorTierITierresponse

InformOSC/OSRO
TakeOverOperations
(AsperCP)

InformCoastGuard/
Undertakeresponseops& Resourceagencies/
closeout

Figure11.1INCIDENTANDINFORMATIONFLOWCHART

Page120of167


11.4.1 AdditionalInformation

In addition to the above information, following info is also to be recorded and
providedtotheresponderorOSRO,

Detailedweatherconditionswind,directionandspeed
Seaconditions

11.5 INFORMATIONTOPUBLICAUTHORITY

Based on information held with respect to parameters affecting the spill, like
weatherconditionsandamountofspill,theCMTsupportedbyOSCorIMhastoarriveat
the conclusion with respect to resources which are at risk at shore and need to be
protected.
Information in regard to risks is to be passed immediately to the concerned
resourcemanagementauthorityapartfrominformationtorespectivedistrictauthority
andCG.
Theactionsrequiredtobeinitiatedbytheshoreauthoritycouldbetopreparefor
beachoperations,shutdownaparticularpublicutilityplant, moveeconomicresources
likecaptivefisheriestootherlocationsorprepareforanyemergencyaction.
ThecontactdetailsofcivilauthorityareplacedatAppendix23.

11.6 INFORMATIONTOMEDIA

Release of Information to media is to be as per Media policy of the
respectiveorganisationheadingtheCMTforparticularoperation.

Information to mediais toreleased by the personidentified through respective
Mediapolicyoftheorganisation.Intheeventofnonauthorisationofanyoneperson,the

Page121of167

mediareleasewillbemadebyCICorbyapersonnominatedbyhimafterauthorisation
by head of the Organisation. The daily report of actions taken on a particular day as
preparedbyCOCandOSC,istobesharedwiththepersonnominatedtobriefthemedia.
EachpressbriefistoclearedbyCICpriorbeingprovidedtomedia.

While,providingfactualdetailsandinformationtomediaassistsinpassingthe
situationalreporttopubliclikelytobeeffectedbyaspill,itisadvisablenottosensalize
the information with unwanted figures or actions that could shock or distress the
public.

Most of the factual information like precautions required by public to be taken
with respect to fishing activity, closure of beaches, demand for beach cleaning
volunteerscouldbedisiminatedthroughmedia.Awriteupongoodmediapractisesis
placedatAppendix24.













Page122of167

12. TERMINATIONANDCOMPLETIONOFOPERATIONS

TERMINATION AND COMPLETION OF OPERATIONS will be declared by CMT.
ThetwophasesofoperationsenvisagedbythisPlanare

(I) Spillresponseactivityatterminal/seaand
(ii) Shorelinecleanupactivity

Termination of operations is to be declared by Chief Incident Controller post
discussionswithCMTandOSCandistobeundertakeninstepsasperthesatisfactory
completionofeachphase.

In the event of multiple operations being undertaken, each operation is to be
declaredcompletedaftersatisfactorycompletionandpostdiscussionwithCMT.

IntheeventwhereboththeactivitiesareundertakenbytheCIC,actionsunder
eachactivitycanbedeclaredcompletedinphasespostdiscussionswithOSCandCMT.
However,adviseonterminationisalsotobesoughtfromNationalOilspillcenterie.CG.

In the event of shoreline activity being conducted under the authority of local
administration,that part of the activity will be declared terminated by the controlling
authority.

12.1 CompletionandStandingdown

For declaring termination, the provisions outlined in Operations Manual with
regardtoassessdifferentparametersespiciallytheNetEnvironmentalBenefits(NEB)
aretobetakenintoaccount.

Page123of167

While,allphasesandactivities(asdictatedbypara11.1)ofoperationmaybe
declaredterminatedoncompletion,theoperationspersayaretobedeclaredcompleted
afterfollowingactivitieshavebeencompleted
Machineryandequipmentaccounting,
Ensuringserviciabilityofequipment,
ReceiptoffinalreportfromOSC,
Disussionsaboutamendments,revisions,plansandproceduresbyCMT,
Completionofactionsarisingoutoffinalreportonconductofoperations,
Compilationofdetailswithrespecttocompensationsanddamages.

12.2 ReviewofPlanandProcedures

AmandementsasrequiredtobeundertakentoCPorOperationsManualaretobe
put up to CMT for review and approval for induction into the CP. Any member
associated with response operations in any manner or otherwise may suggest
amendementstoCOC/IM/OSROSorCIC.TheamendmantswillbeundertakenbyIM
orOSROSasrequiredforinclusionintotheplanwithauthorizationfromCIC.

Amendments are to be inserted in the Plan by replacing the relevent page/s or
sectionintheringbinderfolder.

Page124of167

13. Disposal

DisposalofrecoveredoilywasteisanintegeralpartoftheOperationManualand
isexplainedindetailinWASTEDISPOSALPLAN.Thepurposeofdisposalisnotonlyto
direct the recovered oil and waste to a final processing facility but also to bring to
attention of responders, the methods to mininmize the amount of waste generated
duringoperations.

All disposal is to be undertaken keeping in view the provisions of different
statutes and legal parameters like The Environmental Protection Act 1986 and the
Hazardous Waste ( Management & Handling and Transboundary Movement ) Rules
2008.Disposalofcertainwastelikesolidsanddebrisetcthatcannotbeprocessedby
participatingoilcompanieswillberequiredtobeundertakenincloseconsultationwith
localadinistrativeauthority.

In the event, where, spill originates from any unit of the participating oil
companies,thecustodyofwasteandrecoveredoilistobehandedovertothecompany
fortrasportation,storageanddisposal.

Theparticipatingcompanieswillmakeavailableadequateresourcestotakeover
thewastefromtheresponers,soastomakefreetheresourcesbeingusedforrecovery
andcollectionearliest.

Any dispute arising on this account will be settled by respective CMT, whose
decisionwillbefinalandbinding.

Page125of167

APPENDIX1

(ReferstoPara2.4)


OILSHANDLEDATMumbaiHARBOUR


1. BombayHighCrude

2. PersianGulfCrude

3. MotorSpirit

4. HighSpeedDieselOil

5. Naphtha

6. FurnaceOil

7. LightDieselOil

8. IndustrialFurnaceOil

9. Reformate/Benzene

Page126of167

APPENDIX2

(ReferstoPara2.4.1)


BROADCLASSIFICATIONOFOILSASPERMARPOL73/78

Asphaltsolutions Gasolineblendingstocks
Blendingstocks Alkylatesfuel
Roofersflux Reformates
Straightrunresidue Polymerfuel
Oils Gasolines
Clarified Casinghead(natural)
Crudeoil Automotive
Mixturescontainingcrudeoil Aviation
Dieseloil straightrun
Fuelno.4,5and6 Fueloilno.1(Kerosene)
Residualfueloil Fueloilno.1D
Roadoil Fueloilno.2
Transformeroil Fueloilno.2D
Aromaticoil(excludingvegetableoil) Jetfuels
Lubricatingoilsandblendingstocks JP1(Kerosene)
Mineraloil JP3,4
Motoroil JP5(Kerosene,heavy)
Penetratingoil Mineralspirit
Spindleoil Naphtha
Turbineoil Solvent
Distillate Petroleum
Straightrun Heartcutdistillateoil
Flashedfeedstocks
Gasoil
Cracked

Page127of167

APPENDIX3

(ReferstoPara2.4.1)


CHARASTRISTICSOFDIFFERENTCLASSOFOILS


OILTYPE DENSITY Viscosity PourpointC FlashpointC
(kg/l) mPasat20C
At15C

Crudeoil 0.80.95 1100 +10to35 Variable

Gasoline 0.700.78 0.5 Na Lessthan0

Kerosene 0.8 2 Lessthan40 3860

Jetfuel 0.8 1.52 Lessthan40 3860

Dieseloil 0.85 5 5to30 Morethan55

LightFOIFO60 0.9 60at50C +50to20 Morethan60

MediumFOIFO180 0.9 180at50C +30to20 Morethan60

HeavyFOIFO380 0.99 380at50C +30to20 Morethan60

Page128of167

APPENDIX4

(ReferstoPara3.4.4)


ONGCPIPELINESPILLVOLUMES(m3)


Timeinhoursafterrupture SpillSIZE

1 1900

3 3400

6 5300

12 9000

24 13500

36 14100

NOTEFiguresarefor30MumbaiHighCrudepipelinetoUran

Page129of167

APPENDIX5

(ReferstoPara4.1)


WEATHERINGPROCESSESANDTIMESCALES

Process Importance Timeframe

Evaporation Conversionofliquidto Majorprocessaccountingforlossofoil.At15C <5days


gaseousstate.Lighter gasolinewillevaporatecompletelyovera2day
factionsarelostfirst period, 80% of diesel fuel and 40% of light
crude,20%of heavycrudeandabout510%
ofBunkerCfuel.

Emulsification Small water droplets Will increase the amount of pollutant to be Onsetmaybedelayed
or mousse get mixed into liquid recoveredbyafactorof24. butemulsification
formation oil. Water content will processwillstart
reach5080% rapidly.

Natural Breakupofanoilsleek Removesoilfromwatersurface <5days


dispersion intosmalldroplets

Dissolution Mixingofsolubleoil Watersolublecomponentsaremosttoxic <5days


componentsinto
water

Biodegradation Breakingofoilby Rate depends on oil type, temperature, Weekstomonths


microbesintosmaller nutrients,oxygenandamountofoil
compoundsandfinally
towaterandcarbon
dioxide

Formation of Breakupofheavy Hardtodetect Daystoweeks


tarballs crudesandrefinedoils
intosmallpatches
withlongpersistence

Page130of167

APPENDIX6

(ReferstoPara4.1.1)


CALCULATIONOFWEATHERINGLOSSESADIOSSPILLCALCULATOR


OILtype
BOMBAYHIGHCrude
LocationINDIA
API 39.4
PourPoint30degC
Density0.825g/ccat30degC
Viscosity5.0cStat30degC
Emulsification
Moussebeginstoformwhen19%oftheoilhasevaporated
Windandwaveconditions
Windspeed10knotsfrom245degrees
Waveheightcomputedfromwindspeed,unlimitedfetch(default)
Waterproperties
Temperature30degreeC
Salinity32ppt
Sedimentload500g/m3(muddyriver)
Current3.0knotstowards80degree
Instantaneousrelease
TimeMay04,2014
Quantityofspill700tonnes

Page131of167

Lossat0000hrs/05May Lossat1200hrs/05May
Evaporation270tonnes 280tonnes
Dispersion 110tonnes 190tonnes
Remaining 320tonnes 330tonnes

Page132of167

APPENDIX7

(ReferstoPara4.2)


CALCULATIONOFSPILLQUANTITYASPERSLICKCHARACTERISTICS

Page133of167

APPENDIX8

(ReferstoPara6.1)


SHORELINETYPES,RANKINGANDCOLOURCODE


Vulnerability index of shores in order of increasing vulnerability to oil spill
damageasperGundlachandHayes1978

1.Exposedrockyheadlands Wave reflection keeps most of the oil offshore. No


cleanupnecessary.

2.Erodingwavecutplatforms Mostoilremovedbynaturalprocesseswithin

Wavesweptweeks.

3.Finegrainedsandbeaches Oil does not usually penetrate into the sediment,


facilitating mechanical removal if necessary.
Otherwise oil may persist several months. (some
evidence suggests that penetration can occur,
dependingonwatertablemovementsinsediments.)

4.Coarsegrainedbeaches Oilmaysinkand/orbeburiedrapidly,makingclean
up difficult. Under moderate to highenergy
conditions, oil will be removed naturally from most
ofthebeachface.

5.ExposedcompactedtidalflatsMost oil will not adhere to, nor penetrate into, the
compactedtidalflat.Cleanupisusuallyunnecessary.

Page134of167

6.Mixedsandandgravelbeaches Oil may penetrate the beach rapidly and become


buried.Undermoderatetolowenergyconditions,oil
maypersistforyears.

7.GravelbeachesSameasabove. Cleanup should concentrate on hightide/swash


area. A solid asphalt pavement may form under
heavyoilaccumulations.

8.Shelteredrockycoasts Areas of reduced wave action. Oil may persist for


manyyears.Cleanupisnotrecommendedunlessoil
concentrationisveryheavy.

9.Shelteredtidalflats Areas of great biological activity and low wave


energy. A number of interpretations of the
biological activity are possible. In this case, it is
taken to mean a combination of high productivity,
biomass and possibly bioturbation. Oil may persist
for years. Cleanup is not recommended unless oil
accumulation is very heavy. These areas should
receive priority protection by using booms or oil
absorbingmaterials.

10.Saltmarshes/mangroves Most productive of aquatic environments. Oil may


persistforyears.Cleaningofsaltmarshesbyburning
or cutting should be undertaken only if heavily
soiled.Protectionoftheseenvironmentsbyboomsor
absorbingmaterialshouldreceivefirstpriority.

Page135of167

INTERTIDALHABITATRANKING


1A ExposedRockyShores
1B Exposed,solidmanmadestructure
1C Exposedrockycliffswithbouldertalusbase
2A ExposedwavecutPlatforms
2B Exposedscarpsandsteepslopesinclay
3A NotPresentinStudyArea
3B Scarpsandsteepslopesinsand
4 SandBeaches
5 MixedSandandGravelBeaches
6A GravelBeaches(GranulestoCobbles)
6B GravelBeaches(CobblestoBoulders)
7 Exposedtidalflats
8A Shelteredscarpsinbedrock,mudorclay,shelteredrockyshore
8B Sheltered,solidmanmadestructures
8C Shelteredriprap
8D Shelteredrockyrubbleshores
8E PeatShoreline
9A Shelteredtidalflats
9B Vegetatedlowbanks
9C Hypersalinetidalflats
10 Saltandbrackishwatermarshes
10B Freshwatermarshes
10C Swamps
10D Mangroves


Page136of167

APPENDIX9

(ReferstoPara6.1)


BIOLOGICALRESOURCESESISYMBOLS

Page137of167

APPENDIX9A

(ReferstoPara6.1)


POINTSYMBOLSFORBIOLOGICALRESOURCES

Whenabiologicalresourceexistsinasmallarea(suchasabirdnestingsite),itis
indicatedonanESImapbyasymbol.Whenabiologicalresourceencompassesalarger
area,itisrepresentedonESImapsbyapolygonwithaspecificpatternandcolour.

Page138of167

APPENDIX10

(ReferstoPara6.1)


ESIHUMANUSERESOURCESYMBOLS

Page139of167

APPENDIX11

(ReferstoPara6.3)


ESIMAPTHAALKNOBTONAVAPADA

Shrimp,Nurseryareas;highconcentrations Village

Crab,Nurseryareas;highconcentrations Beach

Areasofsubmergedaquaticvegetation;seagrassbeds,kelp,algae Ferry

Turtle,Nestingbeaches;concentrationareas

Spawning,nursery,andotherconcentrationareas

Page140of167

APPENDIX11A

(ReferstoPara6.3)


ESIMAPNAVAPADATOMORAJETTY


LEGEND

Divingbird,rookeries,roosting

Alcid,Pelagicbird,roosting

Passerinebird,threatened,endangered

Areasofsubmergedaquaticvegetation;seagrassbeds,kelp,algae

Harvestareas;highconcentrations,threatened,endangered,orrarespecies

Page141of167

APPENDIX11B

(ReferstoPara6.3)

ESIMAPMORATOJUNASHEVAROAD,JNPT

Crab,highconcentration
1A&BExposedrockyshore
and man made structures
10DMangroves

Page142of167

APPEND
DIX11C

(R
ReferstoPaara6.3)


ESIM
MAPJNPT(NHAVA)TOSOUTHENTRANCE
ETOPANVE
ELCREEK

ort,Marina
Po

Page1
143of167

APP
PENDIX11D
D

(R
ReferstoPaara6.3)

ESIMAP
PSECTOR51TOVASHIVILLAGE
E

1BExposedssolidmanmadeestructures

10DMangroves

8BSheltered
dsolid,manmade

Page1
144of167

APPENDIX11E

(ReferstoPara6.3)

Vashivillage(EbankofThanecreek)toVikhroli(WbankofThanecreek)

Divingbird,rookeries,roosting
Alcid,Pelagicbird,roosting
Passerinebird<threatened,endangered
Winteringandmigrationconcentrationareas;nestingsites
Harvestareas;highconcentrations,threatened,endangered,orrarespecies
Areasofsubmergedaquaticvegetation;seagrassbeds,kelp,algae

Page145of167

APPEND
DIX11F

(ReferstoPara
a6.3)

ESIMAPVIKHROLIITOBPCLR
REFINERYT
TOHAJIBA
ANDAR

IndustrrialcoolingwaterIntak
ke

Village

Page1
146of167

APPEND
DIX11G

(RefferstoPara6.3)


ESIMAPVIKHROLIITOBPCLR
REFINERYT
TOHAJIBA
ANDAR

In
ndustrialcoo
olingwaterIntake

Harbour,Maarina

Page1
147of167

APPEND
DIX11H

(R
ReferstoPaara6.3)

ESIMAPHAJIBUNDERTO
OCOLABA,N
NAVYNAGA
AR



Expo
osedsolidm
manmadesttructures

Harrbour,Mariina

Ferrry

Com
mmercialfish
hing

Page1
148of167

APPENDIX12

(ReferstoPara7.4.1)


PORTVESSELPOLLUTIONEMERGENCYINTERPHASE


ACTION RESPONSIBILITY
IMMEDIATEACTION
SoundingEmergencyAlarm Personnoticingspill
InitiatingVesselPollutionResponsePlan Dutyofficer
INITIALRESPONSE
Suspendcargoops Ch.Eng./Dutyofficer
InformationtoTerminal/PortControl/Master Master/Dutyofficer/ChEng
CallcrewtoPollutionResponsePositions Master/Dutyofficer

SECONDARYRESPONSE
Locationofsourceofspill Chiefofficer
Assess&consider
Firerisk&manningoffirepositions Master
Stoppingofairintake ChiefEngineer
Transfer of bunker to empty or slack tank, Master/ChEngineer
shore/barge
Preparedetailedreportofspillandactions Master/ChOfficer
Informagent,ownersandPIclub Master/Chofficer
FURTHERRESPONSE
Callinexternalassistancetolocatespill(ifbelow MasterPort
waterline)
Considerstabilityofvessel Master/Chofficer
Followdirectionsofresponseauthority Master

Page149of167

APPENDIX13

(ReferstoPara7.4.3)

LISTOFDISPERSANTSAPPROVEDFORAPPLICATIONBYCOASTGUARD

APPENDIX14

(ReferstoPara8.1)


EQUIPMENTDETAILSANDLOCATION


OnboardSpillResponseVessel

Sr.No ITEM QTY CAPACITY


1 FastResponseTroilboomGP750 2200mtrs
2 WeirSkimmerTerminatorDOP 2 50m3
3 MultiSkimmerDBD40 2 50m3
4 VacuumSkimmerDesmiMiniMax 2 30m3
5 Floatingstoragetank 2 10m3
6 Oilspilldispersantspray 1
7 DispersantTypeIII 10KL
8 PersonalprotectiveGear 15
9 OilAbsorbentKits 2

Page150of167

APPENDIX14

(ReferstoPara8.1)


EQUIPMENTDETAILSANDLOCATION


OnboardSpillResponseVesselandOSROCentre

Sr.No ITEM QTY CAPACITY


1 FastResponseTroilboomGP750 2200mtrs
2 WeirSkimmerTerminatorDOP 2 50m3
3 MultiSkimmerDBD40 2 50m3
4 VacuumSkimmerDesmiMiniMax 2 30m3
5 Floatingstoragetank 2 10m3
6 Oilspilldispersantspray 1
7 DispersantTypeIII 10KL
8 PersonalprotectiveGear 15
9 OilAbsorbentKits 2

Page151of167

APPENDIX15

(ReferstoPara8.2)

ADDITIONALEQUIPMENTANDLOCATION

Sr. EQUIPMENT Qty Year Operational Remarks


No. Status /Location
1 OILBOOMSSECTIONS
a.HeavyDutyHDB1500,Make:Lamor,freeboard20"/ 500Mtr 2007 OK S/Sevak
draft28"
b.HeavyDutyOilBoomDH10Y2, Make:Canadyne, 500Mtr. 2006 OK HalAnant
freeboard18"/draft24"
c.CompactableOilSpillcotainmentBoom, make: 500Mtr. 2007 OK Malviya36
KepnerPlasticsFabricators,freeboard16"/draft20"
d.SeacurtainCompactable,Make:KepnerPlastics 500Mtr. 300Mtr OK SeamecII
Fabricators,freeboard46cm/61cm 2003
2 SKIMMERUNITS
(a)TypeBrushskimmerunit,Capacity 3x50.2 1 2007 OK S/Sevak
CUM/Hr.MakeLamor
(b)TypeMultidiscskimmer,Capacity 11CUM/Hr. 1 2006 OK HalAnant
MakeCanadyne
(c)TypeWeirskimmer,Capacity 400gpm, Make 1 2007 OK Malviya 36
KepnerPlastic
(d)TypeWeirskimmer,Capacity 400gpm, Make 1 2011 OK Seamec II
KepnerPlastic
3 OSDsprayunit
a.AntiPollutionChemicalSprayer,MakeIstanbul 1 2010 OK Samudra
turkey,Capacity60lpm Seavk
b.AntiPollutionChemicalSprayer,Capacity 80lpm 1 2006 OK HalAnant
c.AntipollutionChemicalSprayer,Capacity 68lpm 1 2007 OK Malviya36
d.AntiPollutionChemicalSprayer,MakeVikomaIntl, 1 2011 OK SeamecII
Capacity150lpm
e.AntiPollutionChemicalSprayer,Capacity 50lpm 1 2010 OK S/Prabha
4 Storagetankcapacityforrecoveredoil
3
245M S/Sevak
3
103M HalAnant
3
75M Malviya 36
3
112M Seamec II

Page152of167

APPENDIX16

(ReferstoPara8.2)


LISTOFADDITIONALRESOURCESANDINTERNATIONALOSROs


1. AustralianMarineOilSpillCentre

POBox305
Victoria3214
Australia
Tel+61352721555Fax+61352721839
Mail:amose@amosc.com.auWeb:http://www.aip.com.au
2. FastOilSpillTeam

c/oPIM40G23
TourElf
92078ParisLaDefenseCedex
France
Tel:+33147445636Fax:+33147442677
Mail:giefost@clubinternet.fr
3. OilSpillResponseLtd

OilSpillServicesCentre
LowerWilliamStreetNortham
SouthamptonSOI1QE,UK
Tel:+441703331551Fax:+441703331972
Mail:osrl@osrl.co.ukWeb:http://www.oilsillresponse.com

4. PetroleumassociationofJapan

OilSpillresponseDepartment
KeidanrenBuilding
#94,1Chome,Ohtemachi
ChiyodaKu,
Tokyo100,Japan
Tel:+81332793819Fax:+81332425688
Mail:mail@pcs.gr.ipWeb:http://www.pcs.gr.ip

Page153of167

APPENDIX17

(ReferstoPara9.2)


ORGANISATIONALCHART


CrisisManagement


IncidentCommand



Legal Technical

Safety&Media Finance



Planning Operations Logistics Finance&Legal


Safety Marine Manpower Claims

Environment Shoreline Transportation Administration

Disposal Aviation Maintenance Accounts


Specialists Communications

Procurements


Support

Food/Housing

Page154of167

APPENDIX18

(ReferstoPara9.2)

COMPOSITIONOFCRISISMANAGEMENTTEAM

1. MbPT

DESIGNATION APPOINTEDMEMBER

ChiefIncidentController(CIC) HarbourMaster

IncidentController(IC)/OnScene Respective operations/ dock /terminal in
Commander chargeofJD/PP/IndiraDock
MemberAdmin&Finance DyChiefAccountsOfficer

MemberHSE&Media PortsafetyandFireofficer

Memberlegal Secretary

MemberTech AdditionalChiefMechanicalEngineer

Incident Manager / Manager To be appointed by OSRO, in case response


OSRO beingundertakenbyOSRO
OSRO/ResponseSpecialist To be appointed by OSRO, in case response
beingundertakenbyOSRO

Page155of167

APPENDIX18A

(ReferstoPara9.2)

COMPOSITIONOFCRISISMANAGEMENTTEAM

2. JNPT

DESIGNATION APPOINTEDMEMBER

ChiefIncidentController(CIC) HarbourMaster

Incident Controller(IC)/ On Respective operations/ dock /terminal in
SceneCommander chargeatShevaandJNPTberths
MemberAdmin&Finance ManagerFinance

MemberHSE&Media DyCMO

Memberlegal Secretary

MemberTech ManagerTechnical

Incident Manager / Manager To be appointed by OSRO, in case response


OSRO beingundertakenbyOSRO
OSRO/ResponseSpecialist To be appointed by OSRO, in case response
beingundertakenbyOSRO

Page156of167

APPENDIX18B

(ReferstoPara9.2)

COMPOSITIONOFCRISISMANAGEMENTTEAMS

3. ONGC

DESIGNATION APPOINTEDMEMBER

ChiefIncidentController(CIC) HeadHSE

Incident Controller(IC)/ On Scene SupportManager


Commander
MemberAdmin&Finance HeadFinance

MemberHSE&Media ManagerFireandsafety,MedicalOfficer

Memberlegal Secretary

MemberTech HeadEngineeringservices

IncidentManager/ManagerOSRO To be appointed by OSRO, in case response


beingundertakenbyOSRO
OSRO/ResponseSpecialist To be appointed by OSRO, in case response
beingundertakenbyOSRO

Page157of167

APPENDIX19

(ReferstoPara9.3.1)

PERSONALLOG(ALLMEMBSERSOFSPILLRESPONSEORGANISATION)

IncidentTitleNumber(asper)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

Date

NameDesignation(asperCP)

TimeofRx/ForwardingInfo Activityrequestedby/demandedofother
member/s

Observationsondaysoperations

NoteCopyofPersonalLogistobehandedovertoCOCdailyorasearliestaspossible
oncompletionofaschedule

Page158of167

APPENDIX20

(ReferstoPara11.1.1)

IC/OSC/VESSELMASTERDAILYLOG


INCIDENTTITLENUMBER


DATE


IncidentSeverity Minor/Major/TierI/TierII/TierIII

1. RESPONSERESOURCESAVAILABLE

VESSEL

BOAT

EQUPMENT

2. ACTIONINITIATED

CONTAINMENT

EQPTDEPLOYED

3. POLLUTANTCOLLECTEDanddisposed

Today(Tonnes)

Total(Tonnes)

4. Reportingauthority(Designation)

Page159of167

APPENDIX21
(ReferstoPara11.1.1)

INCIDENTLOG

INCIDENENTINFORMATION

INCIDENTTITLE(NameofVessel)

IncidentNumber(Sqnumber/dd/mm/yyyy)

1.DETAILS

Timeofrecording.(24hrformat)Date..

Day

Person/Organisationreportingincident

Name..Designation.

Contactnumber

2.INCIDENT

NameofVESSELLocation...

Position(ifnotalongside)Latitude.

Longitude..

Sounding....

Incidentdetails

Page160of167

Time.(ofincident,24hrsformat)Date..

Causeofspill

Typeofoil

Estimatedquantityofspill

Detailsofdamagetovessel/installation

3.COMMENTS

1. Recordedby

Name

Time

Note:FOURCOPIESOFINFORMATIONARETOBERECORDED.RETAININGONE
FOROFFICERECORD,THREECOPIESARETOBECIRCULATEDONEEACHTO

CHIEFINCIDENTCONTROLER

OSC/RESPONDER/INCIDENTCONTROLER

VESSELMASTER

Page161of167

APPENDIX22

(ReferstoPara11.1.1)


OILSPILLREPORTFORM

Sl.No DESCRIPTION


1 Person

2 Title

3 Company

4 Telephonenumber(Contactdetails)

5 Faxnumber

6 Dateofspill

7 Timeofspill

8 Typeofoil

9 Spilllocation
Quantity
10
Causeofspill
11
Response
12
Anyotherinformation
13

Page162of167

APPENDIX22A

(ReferstoPara11.1.1)

CONTACTDETAILSOFSPILLINFORMATIONCENTER

1. TheCommander

CoastGuardRegion(West)
PrabhaDeviPO
Mumbai400025
Tel:02224379478
02224385089
Fax:02224333727

2. TheCommander
CoastGuardDistHQ2
PrabhaDeviPO
Mumbai400025
Tel:02224222696
Fax:02224222696

Page163of167

APPENDIX23

ReferstoPara11.5)

CONTACTDETAILSOFLOCALADMINISTRATIVEAUTHORITIES

1. DISTRICTADMINISTRATION

OFFICE ADDRESS CONTACT

DistrictCollector& OFFICE02141222001

DistrictMagistrate RES02141222002
RAIGAD DistrictCollector'sOffice FAX02141222025
At/POAlibag EPABX02141222118
DistrictRaigad collector_raigad@maharashtra.gov.in
Pin402201

OfficeoftheCollector OFFICE02226414742,26556806
Mumbai
MumbaiSuburbanDistrict
Suburban 10thFloor,Administrative FAX(022)26556805
Building,Bandra(E)
Mumbai400051

MumbaiCityCollectorate OFFICE0222266123122662440
MUMBAI
OldCustomHouse FAX02222664232
CITY Fort,Mumbai400001. collector.mumbaicity@maharashtra.gov.in
mahbom@nic.in

CollectorOffice, OFFICE02225343636
THANE
CourtNaka, FAX02225349200
Thane(West) collector.thane@maharashtra.gov.in
Pin400601 rdc.thane@thane.maharashtra.gov.in






Page164of167

2. FISHERIES

MaharashtraFisheriesDevelopmentCouncil
N.K.M.InternationalHouse,
178,BackbayReclamation,
BabubhaiM.ChinaiMarg,
Mumbai400021.
Tel./FaxNo.:02222026014/20225022
Emailmfdc@rediffmail.com

3. STATEPOLLUTIONCONTROLBOARDREGIONALOFFICES

(i) MUMBAI

MaharashtraPollutionControlBoard,
RaikarChambers,"A"wing,216,2ndfloor,
DeonarGaonRoad,NearJainMandir,
Govandi(E),
Mumbai400088
Tel:02222640346Fax:02222640345
Mail:romumbai@mpcb.gov.inmpcbmumbai@mpcb.gov.in
(ii) NAVIMUMBAI

MaharashtraPollutionControlBoard,
RaigadBhavan,7thfloor,
Sector11,C.B.DBelapur,
NaviMumbai
Tel:02227572739Fax:02227571586
Mail:mpcbnavimumbai@mpcb.gov.in
(iii) RAIGAD

MaharashtraPollutionControlBoard,
RaigadBhavan,
6thfloor,Sector11,
C.B.DBelapur,NaviMumbai.
Tel:02227572620Fax:02227562132
Mail:roraigad@mpcb.gov.inmpcbraigad@mpcb.gov.in

Page165of167

APPENDIX24

(ReferstoPara11.6)


MEDIACOMMUNICATIONS

Thedegreeofinterestfromthepressinaspecificoilpollutionincidentis
unpredictable but normally closely related to the number of other news items at the
time of the incident. Experience shows that even quite extensive pollution does not
alwaysattracttheattentionfromthemedia,whileminor,ratherinsignificantpollution
cancreateamediastormwhenthereislittleelsetoreport.

The media can be an effective means of ensuring that the public is kept
informedoftheincident,itseffectsandwhatisbeingdone.Therefore,properattention
tothemediaandprovidingthecorrectinformationisveryimportant.

The responsibilities of First Responders do notinclude dealing with the
media.Though,itisadvisabletoreferallandanyquestionstothemedialiaisonofficer
identifiedthroughtheContingencyPlan,stilltheresponseleadersonalllevelsshouldbe
preparedtoanswerquestionsfromthepressbecauseofmediaspersistencefornews.

The lesson to be learned is that unless otherwise instructed, it should
always be remembered that even precise information can be misinterpreted or
misunderstood.Itisthereforerecommendedtoobtainthenameandtelephonenumber
of members of the press who have received information in order to verify or correct
wrongnewsstoriesbasedonmisunderstoodinformation.

Thebasicquestionsfromthepressarelikelytobe:

Whathappened?
Whydidithappen?
Whatarethemeasuresbeingtakenbytheauthoritieswithrespecttothe
pollution?
Whatisbeingdonetopreventsuchanincidenthappeningagain?

Page166of167

How to deal with these approaches is a matter of experience but the following
guidelinescanbeusedbyFirstResponders:

Tellthetruth.Ifthereissomethingyoudonotknow,thensaysotoavoid
gettingchasedbythepress,
commentonlyaboutyourareaofresponsibilityanddonotspeculateon
othertopics,avoidofferingopinions,
Emphasisethepositivepointsoftheoperationlikeoutcomeofoperations,
objectivesgoingtobeachievedetc,
Never make assumptions, your information must be verified and solid
beforereleased,
Donotofferapersonalopinion,
Bewareoflanguage(e.g.itisbettertosaythattwoshipscollidedthanone
crashedintotheotherifitisnotclearwhichwasatfault),
Bepolite,patientandnevergetpersonalorsarcastic(youwillnormallybe
treatedinthesamewayyoutreatapersonandaggressivebehaviourfrom
yoursidecancauseyoualotofunnecessaryproblems),
Insistthatthepressobservelocalsafetyregulations.

Page167of167