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State Estimator

State of a system is defined as the value of all parameters of
the system, i.e. Pressure, Temperature, etc.
Measurements of the parameters are used to estimate the
state of a system. Measurements may be noisy. We need to
generate best guess for the state, given the noisy
measurements.

Weighted Least Square (WLS) method:
Minimizes the weighted sum of squares of the difference
between measured and calculated values.
Error analysis
Error = Measured Value – True Value
Find Probability Density function of error
Standard Deviation and Variance
Determine the estimate that best fits the measurement model
Minimize the WLS function.
For unconstrained minimization problem, efficient solution is
obtained by Newton’s method (Gauss Newton method)
State variables are represented as vector [x 1,x2 … xn]

Bad data detection
Method used: Chi-squared test
For variables [x1,x2, … xn ]
Define a new variable Y = Sigma (i=1 to n) xi2

Takes 2 inputs and outputs how similar they are. every kernel function can be expressed as a dot product in a (possibly infinite dimensional) feature space. Compute 4. Mercer’s Theorem Under some conditions. Compare 3. age are features. height. Measure 2. For people data.Control system has 4 functions:- 1. weight.e. Feature space is R3 Kernels Similarity function. Correct SVM  Single Layer Perceptron  Multi-Layer Perceptron Feature Space A set of features (variables) i. . columns of a dataset.