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ADVERTISEMENTS HOW TO SPEAK HINDUSTANI IN A MONTH A Vocabulary that will enable the new arrival and the visitor to understand the language of the people. It is produced in the convenient waist-coat pocket size. Price Re. 1-8 Postage 4 Ans. BENNETT, COLEMAN & CO., LTD. BOMBAY, CALCUTTA & LONDON. ' PIONEERS of SHORTHAND & TYPEWRITING The Premier Karnatak S. D. Society's Recognised and Registered Shorthand and Typewriting Institute, since its inception in 1920, has produced ex- cellent results among both students and business-men and has succeeded in creating a liking for Typewriting and Shorthand. The system of short- hand employed is Sloan-Duployan, which to-day is the recognised system for all Government Examinations and appointments. The Institute has been visited by many Gazetted officers and other prominent persons and have been impressed by the friendliness between pupils and instructors. Late Mr. J oshi himself had gained unbounded praise and was considered one of the best teachers in the district.Ever since 1926, hehad been unanimously elected a Fellow of the Ramsgate Sloan-Dup- Late Mr. G. H. Joshi, f.s.d.s., c.t. loyan Society & College and in 1929 s.d. (Eng.), m.i.s.d.m. (Paris). Win- topped the list in the International ner of Col. Watkin's Cup, Inter- Shorthand Competition held at national Shorthand Competition /London, 1929). London. His Institute received upto 1927, a Government grant of Rs. 1,225. He held the advanced Typewriting Diploma in Typewriting with Honours, marks 95 out of 100. And in Shorthand possessed High Speed Diploma, 186 words per minute from Shorthand College, Ramsgate, England, and 160 words per minute in Paris Diploma. The Sloan-Duployan System is the only system 1. Of which His Majesty's Inspector has stated "Shorthand shows remarkable success.' 2. Which written without any is complicated rules and exceptions, gramalogues, etc., and can be adapted to any language. 3. Which is used on the Official Parliamentary Reporting Staff. Mr. W. J. Merridan, A. C. P., Master of Methods, Royal Norman College (London) after 15 years' research, indicated Sloan-Duployan , as possessing the greatest merit in the three essentials of simplicity, legibility and speed. Mr. John A. Fraser in his "Short History of Shorthand" also reveals his preference for this system. The late Mr. G. H. JOSHFS Shorthand & Typewriting Institute, 3576, Shanwar, Belgaum. 1,200 STUDENTS TRAINED BY THIS INSTITUTE. ADVERTISEMENTS Ill - 3Hje ®tme£ of Snota Handbook and Quide TO CALCUTTA The City of Palaces This Handbook, in addition to interesting columns on the historical points of interest in Calcutta, contains a detailed map of the City, the usefulness of which to travellers cannot be over- estimated. Chapters are devoted to Cathe- drals and Churches, to the Indian types and Races indigenous t o that locale, to Calcutta Industries and to useful General Inform- ation which includes addresses of Hotels, Theatres, Cinemas, Banks, Clubs, etc. In addition there is a fund of detailed informa- tion on those smaller items which so often prove a vexatious stum- bling block to the new-comer. Profusely illustrated with fine half tone reproductions, and packed as it is with a collection Of authentic fact and detail which cover all fields, this Handbook to Calcutta is a book which should be on every bookshelf. NOW ON SALE THROUGHOUT INDIA PRICE Re. 1/- V.P.P. 1/7 BOOK of The Indian \e Principal ., LL.D. TWENTY-SECOND YEAR OF ISSUE- Published by BENNETT, COLEMAN & Co., Ltd., "The Times of India" Offices, Bombay and Calcutta. >ndon Agency: Salisbury Square House, Fleet Street, E.C 4. Ill ADVERTISEMENTS HAND] NOW ON SALE THROUGHOUT INDIA PRICE Re. 1/- V P P. 1/7 THE [NDIAN YEAR BOOK 1935-36 VOLUME XXII A and Historical Annual of The Indian Statistical Empire, with an Explanation of the Principal Topics of the day. EDITED BY Sir Stanley Reed, Kt., K.B.E., LL.D. AND Francis Low. TWENTY-SECOND YEAR OF ISSUE. Published by BENNETT, COLEMAN & Co., Ltd., "The Times of India" Offices, Bombay and Calcutta, ^ondon Agency: Salisbury Square House, Fleet Street, E.C 4. ADVERTISEMENT. QUALITY PRINTING AND THE TIMES OF INDIA PRESS BOMBAY are synonymous i m PRINTED MATTER is at all times and in j§ all circumstances your Silent Traveller and - untiring representative. It is essential therefore that you have the best obtainable. To obtain * the best you must, employ Expert Typographers- Printers who study the finer arts of printing and printing appeal. Whether it be a Magazine, Catalogue, Brochure, Folder, Pamphlet, Letterheading, or any item of Printing, Binding, or Blockmaking THE TIMES OF INDIA PRESS BOMBAY Can supply your needs. iB — Quality pays handsomely it is the best lever to produce sound business and increase profits. Suggestions & Estimates submitted ivilhout obligation. CALENDAR FOR 1935, JANUARY. JULY. Sun. . . If 6 13 20 27 If Sun. . If 7 14 21 28 VI. .. 7 14 21 28 If M. .. 1 8 15 22 29 ru. .. 1 8 15 22 29 If Tu. .. 2 9 16 23 30 If *v. . 2 9 16 23 30 If W. . 3 10 17 24 31 If rh. .. 3 10 17 24 31 If Th. .. 4 11 18 25 If 4 11 18 25 If If F. .. 5 12 19 26 If If 5. 5 12 19 26 If If S. .. 6 13 20 27 FEBRUARY. AUGUST. Sun. . . If 3 10 17 24 # Sun. . . If 4 11 18 25 If Ji. .. # 4 11 18 25 If M. .. If 5 12 19 26 If ru. .. If 5 12 19 26 If Tu. .. If 6 13 20 27 If N. . . • 6 13 20 27 If W. . If 7 14 21 28 If ?h. .. * 7 14 21 28 If Th. .. 1 8 15 22 29 If 1 8 15 22 • If F. .. 2 9 16 23 30 If ij . 2 9 16 23 If If S. .. 3 10 17 24 31 MARCH. SEPTEMBER. >un. . . 3 10 17 24 31 Sun. . 1 8 15 22 29 £ .. * 4 11 18 25 If M. .. 2 9 16 23 30 If "u. . . If 5 12 19 26 If Tu. .. 3 10 17 24 # If V. . . If 6 13 20 27 If W. .. 4 11 18 25 If If Ti. . . # 7 14 21 28 If Th. .. 5 12 19 26 If If 1 8 15 22 29 If F. . 6 13 20 27 If If 2 9 16 23 30 If S. .. 7 14 21 28 If If APRIL. OGTOBE R. un. . # 7 14 21 28 # Sun. . . If 6 13 20 27 If I. 1 8 15 22 29 If M. .. * 7 14 21 28 If 'u. . . 2 9 16 23 30 # Tu. .. 1 8 15 22 29 If V. . . 3 10 17 24 # If W. . 2 9 16 23 30 If Ti. .. 4 11 18 25 If If Th. .. 3 10 17 24 31 If 5 12 19 26 # m F. .. 4 11 18 25 * If 6 13 20 27 If # S. .. 5 12 19 26 If If MAY. NOVEMBER. un. . 5 12 19 26 if Sun. . If 3 10 17 24 If C. .. 6 13 20 27 if M. .. # 4 11 18 25 If u. . « 7 14 21 28 if Tu. .. If 5 12 19 26 If /. . . 1 8 15 22 29 if W. . . If 6 13 20 27 h. .. 2 9 16 23 30 Th. 7 .. If 14 21 28 3 10 17 24 31 F. ... 1 8 15 22 29 If 4 11 18 25 If * S. .. 2 9 16 23 30 If JU NE. DECEMBE R. un. . If 2 9 16 23 30 Sun. 8 15 . 1 22 29 If [. . . # 3 10 17 24 If M. .. 2 9 16 23 30 If u. . . 4 11 18 25 Tu. If .. 3 10 17 24 31 If /. . . 5 12 19 26 If W. . 4 11 18 25 If If h. .. If 6 13 20 27 Th. If .. 5 12 19 26 If If # 7 14 21 28 If F. .. 6 13 20 27 If If 1 8 15 22 29 If S. . 7 14 21 28 If If 921124 Phases of the Moon —JANUARY 31 Days. # New Moon . ..5th, 10h. 50m. A.M. I O Full Moon .. .. 19th, 9h. 14m. p.m. ..12th, 2h. 25m. a.m. C Last Quarter . . ..28th, lh. 29m. A.M. }> First Quarter I Indian Standard Time. Day of Day of Moon's the the True Moon- Moon- Age at Sunrise, Sunset. Noon. Month. Year. i Noon. rise. set. P.M. A.M. P.M. H. M. H. M. H. M. D S. 12 6 12 0 42 3 4 26 25" 6 23 Tuesday 1 1 7 2 12 6 13 0 42 17 26*6 23 Wednesday 2 7 13 6 13 0 43 5 8 16 27*6 22 Thursday 3 3 7 14 u 12 5 21 28' 22 Friday 4 4 7 13 6 7 13 § 15 o 44 7 13 6 29 29'6 22 Saturday 5 0 13 6 15 0 44 8 8 7 37 1 * 1 22 Sunday .. 6 6 7 16 0 -45 8 58 g 42 2*1 22 Monday 7 7 7 14 6 17 0 45 9 43 9 45 3*1 22 Tuesday 8 8 7 14 6 17 0 46 10 46 10 44 4*1 22 Wednesday 9 9 7 14 6 18 0 46 11 5 11 42 5*1 22 Thursday 10 10 7 14 6 46 11 45 6'1 21 Friday 11 11 7 14 6 18 0 P.M. 0 39 i/ i 21 12 12 7 15 6 19 0 46 0 25 ' jl Saturday 20 0 47 1 7 37 8*1 21 Sunday 13 13 7 15 6 53 2 34 9" 1 21 Monday 14 14 7 15 6 21 0 47 1 6 22 0 48 2 41 3 32 10'1 21 Tuesday 15 15 7 15 22 0 48 3 33 28 11 1 * 21 Wednesday 16 16 7 15 6 48 4 26 O 21 12" 1 20 Thursday 17 17 7 15 6 23 0 24 0 49 5 21 g 10 13'1 20 Friday 18 18 7 15 6 1 1 • i 20 19 19 7 15 6 25 0 49 6 14 6 55 Saturday.. 25 0 49 7 6 7 36 15*1 20 20 20 7 15 6 Sunday .. 9A A 50 7 55 8 13 16-1 20 Monday 21 21 7 15 6 £0 0 27 0 50 8 14 8 47 17*1 19 Tuesday 22 22 7 15 6 50 9 32 9 20 18" 1 19 Wednesday 23 23 7 15 6 27 0 50 10 19 9 53 19* 1 19 Thursday 24 24 7 15 6 28 0 11 9 10 25 20- 19 25 25 7 15 6 29 0 51 Friday 11 59 10 59 21-1 18 Saturday 26 26 7 15 6 29 0 51 27 7 14 6 29 0 51 11 36 221 18 Sunday • 27 A.M. P.M. 0 52 0 17 23- 18 28 28 7 14 6 30 0 51 Monday .. 52 1 49 1 4 24*1 18 Tuesday 29 29 7 14 6 30 0 52 2 50 1 58 25*1 1 Wednesday 30 30 7 14 6 31 0 52 3 52 58 26.1 17 Thursday 31 31 7 14 6 31 0 4 .. . ,. Phases of the Moon — FEBRUARY 28 Days. # New Moon .. ..3rd, 9h. 57m. p.m. | O Full Moon .. .. 18th, 4h. 47m. p.m. J> First Quarter ..10th, 2h. 55m. p.m. | First Quarter ..12th, 6h. 0m. A.M. C Last Quarter . Sun's Indian Standard Time. Moon's Declina- Day of Day of Age at tion the the True Moon- Moon- Day of the Week. Sunrise. Sunset. Noon. set. Noon. at Mean Month Year. P.M. rise. Noon. A.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. H. M. M. i. M. M. D. 44 51 3 35 49 25- 6 Friday . 1 60 6 58 45 51 4 28 56 26- 6 Saturday 2 61 6 58 45 51 5 18 1 27*6 3 62 6 57 Sunday .. 45 51 6 4 6 5 28*6 4 63 56 Monday . 46 51 6 48 7 8 29-6 5 64 56 Tuesday .. 50 7 31 8 10 1- 2 6 65 55 46 Wednesday 1 50 8 13 9 12 2- 2 7 66 54 47 Thursday 50 8 56 10 13 3'2 8 67 53 47 Friday . 43 11 14 4- 2 68 53 47 50 9 Saturday . 9 49 10 32 5- 2 10 69 52 48 Sunday .. A.M. 23 0 13 6- 2 11 70 51 48 49 11 Monday . P.M. 49 0 16 10 7*2 12 71 50 48 Tuesday . 49 1 10 3 8*2 13 72 49 48 Wednesday 49 49 49 2 4 51 9/2 Thursday 14 73 48 49 49 2 57 34 10 Friday . 15 74 49 48 3 47 14 11-2 Saturday 16 75 47 . 48 4 37 50 12 2 17 76 46 49 " Sunday . 48 5 25 23 13- 2 18 77 45 49 Monday . 47 6 12 56 14- 2 19 78 44 50 Tuesday . 0 6 29 15- 2 20 79 43 50 47 7 Wednesday 42 50 47 7 50 7 2 16.2 Thursday 21 80 50 46 8 42 7 37 17-2 22 81 41 Friday . 23 82 40 51 46 9 36 8 16 182 Saturday 39 51 46 10 33 8 58 19 Sunday . 24 S3 84 39 51 45 11 30 9 45 202 Monday . 25 45 10 88 21-2 Tuesday 26 85 38 51 . A.M. 51 45 0 29 11 35 222 Wednesday 27 B6 P.M. 45 25 0 37 23*2 28 87 37 52 1 Thursday 88 52 44 2 18 1 40 242 Friday . 29 44 3 8 2 43 25*2 30 89 52 Saturday 44 3 55 3 46 26*2 31 90 52 Sunday .. 6 .. Phases of the Moon —APRIL 30 Days. # New Moon .. .. 3rd, 5h. 41m. p.m. I O Full Moon . .19th, 2h. 40m. A.M > First Quarter . .10th, llh. 12m. P.M. I <[ Last Quarter .. . .26th, 9h. 50m. a.m. Indian Standard Time. Sun's Day of Day oi , Moon's Declina- Day of the Week. the the Sunrise. Sunset True Moon- Moon- Age at tion Month. Year. ' Noon. rise. set. Noon. at Mean P.M. P.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. Noon. "NT IN . h H M. e / M. H. M. . M. H. H. M. D. Monday 1 91 6 33 6 53 0 43 4 38 4 48 27-2 4 12 Tuesday .. 2 92 6 33 6 53 0 43 5 21 5 50 28-2 4 36 Wednesday 3 93 6 32 6 53 0 42 6 3 6 51 29*2 4 59 Thursday 4 94 6 31 6 53 0 42 6 45 7 53 0-8 5 22 Friday 5 95 6 30 o 54 0 42 7 32 8 55 1*8 5 45 Saturday a 2-8 6 96 6 29 D 54 0 42 8 20 9 57 6 8 Sunday .. 7 97 6 28 O KA 04 0 41 9 12 10 57 3-8 6 30 Monday a 4*8 8 98 6 28 O 54 0 41 10 6 11 53 6 53 ruesday 9 99 6 27 0 54. 0 41 11 2 5'8 7 15 A.M. Wednesday 10 100 6 26 O KK Oi> 0 40 11 57 0 44 6'8 7 38 P.M. rhursday 11 101 6 25 6 55 0 40 0 50 1 30 7*8 8 0 Friday 12 102 6 24 6 55 0 40 1 42 2 11 8*8 8 22 Saturday 13 103 6 23 6 55 0 40 2 31 2 49 9'8 8 44 Sunday 14 104 6 22 6 56 0 39 3 20 3 23 10-8 9 6 Monday 15 105 6 21 6 56 0 39 4 8 3 56 11-8 9 27 Duesday 16 106 6 20 6 56 0 39 4 56 4 29 12-8 9 49 Wednesday 17 107 6 19 6 57 0 38 5 45 5 2 13*8 10 10 diursday 18 108 6 19 6 57 0 38 6 37 5 37 14-8 10 31 Friday 19 109 6 18 6 57 0 38 7 30 6 14 15-8 10 52 Saturday . 20 110 6 17 6 57 0 38 8 27 6 56 16'8 11 13 Sunday 21 111 6 16 6 57 0 38 9 25 7 43 17-8 11 34 Monday 22 112 6 15 6 58 0 37 10 23 8 34 18*8 11 54 ruesday 23 113 6 14 6 58 0 37 11 21 9 31 19*8 12 14 Wednesday 24 114 6 14 6 58 0 37 10 31 20-8 12 34 A.M. Thursday 25 115 6 13 6 59 0 37 0 14 11 33 21? 8 12 54 P.M. ""riday 26 116 6 13 6 59 0 37 0 54 0 35 22*8 13 14 Saturday 27 117 6 13 G 59 0 36 1 51 1 36 23'8 13 33 Sunday .. 28 118 6 12 7 0 0 36 2 34 2 35 24*8 13 53 Monday .. 29 119 6 12 7 0 0 36 3 15 3 35 25-8 14 11 ruesday . 30 120 6 12 7 0 0 36 3 55 4 34 26*8 14 30 7 Phases of the Moon —MAY 31 Days. 27m. P.M. 0 New Moon 3rd, 3h. 6m. a.m. I O Full Moon .... ..18th, 3h. ..25th, 3h. 14m. P.M. ...10th, 5h. 24m. P.M. | £ Last Quarter . }> First Quarter I Sun's Indian Standard Time. Moon's Declina- Day of Day of Moon- Moon- Age at tion True Day of the Week. the the Sunrise. Sunset. Noon. rise. set. Noon, at Mean Month Year. A.M. P.M. P.M. Noon. P.M. A.M. | M. H. M. 1 [. M. D. N. I I. M. E[. M. P[. I j O 0 4 37 5 35 27*8 1 4 49 121 (> 11 7 1 C 36 1 Wednesday 1 6 37 Oft • ft L5 7 11 1 C) 36 5 20 Thursday 2 122 <> l ' 36 6 8 7 39 0*4 L5 25 123 5 10 r 1 () Friday . 3 41 1*4 1 K ID 43 *o 10 2 ) 35 6 59 8 4 124 6 7 Saturday 7 52 9 39 2*4 16 0 6 9 7 2 0 35 Sunday .. 5 125 3*4 1 a 16 17 1f 2 0 35 8 49 10 33 6 126 6 9 7 Monday .. Q 4. 9 45 11 22 4*4 iet 16 6 8 7 3 0 35 Tuesday .. 7 127 10 40 5*4 16 51 6 7 7 3 0 35 Wednesday 8 128 A.M. 6*4 17 17 7' 3 0 35 11 33 0 6 9 129 6 7 7 Thursday.. P.M. 45 7 * 4 17 94, 0 35 0 24 0 10 130 6 6 7 Friday . *J 21 8'4 1 7 30 ' 4 0 35 1 13 1 11 131 6 6 7 Saturday 9' 4 17 4 0 35 2 1 1 55 12 132 6 5 7 Sunday . i q in 35 2 49 2 28 10*4 lo io 133 6 5 7 5 0 Monday .. 13 11 4 1 Q 94. 0 35 3 37 3 1 " 134 6 5 7 5 Tuesday .. 14 12*4 1 a 4.0 40 0 35 4 28 3 35 lo 135 6 4 7 6 Wednesday 15 13* 4 1Q lo "il »>* 6 0 35 5 21 4 12 16 136 6 4 7 Thursday 14* 4 ia 19 A o 6 0 35 6 17 4 52 17 137 6 4 7 Friday . 5 37 15*4 19 21 6 3 7 7 0 35 7 15 Saturday . 18 138 16*4 1 ft 19 3K «5D 7 0 35 8 15 6 28 19 139 6 3 7 Sunday .. Aft 14 7 24 17* 4 ft 19 -i 48 6 3 7 7 0 35 9 Monday . 20 140 10 10 8 24 18*4 20 1 6 2 7 8 0 35 Tuesday . 21 141 35 11 2 9 26 19*4 20 13 142 6 2 7 8 0 I Wednesday 22 10 29 20* 4 20 25 6 2 7 9 0 35 11 50 Thursday 23 143 11 30 21*4 20 36 6 2 7 9 0 35 Friday 24 144 P.M. . A.M. 0 33 0 30 22-4 20 48 6 2 7 9 0 35 Saturday. 25 145 14 1 28 23*4 20 59 6 2 7 10 0 36 1 •• 26 146 Sandfly 24*4 21 9; 10 0 36 1 53 2 26 27 147 6 2 7 Monday . 3 24 25*4 r 21 19i 7 11 0 86 2 34 28 148 6 i! Tuesday .. 6 7 11 0 36 3 lfi 4 24 26*4 \ 21 n Wednesday 29 149 1 5 25 27-4 21 38 7 11 0 36 t 4 1 30 150 6 1I Thursday 0 36 4 4* 6 26 28 v [ 21 151 6 7 11> } 4j Friday . 31 | I 8 Phases of the Moon —JUNE 30 Days. • New Moon .. ..1st, lh. 22m. p.m. I O Full Moon .. .. 17th, lh. 50m. a.m. }) First Quarter .. ..9th, Hh. 19m. A.m. | Day of the Week. the the True Age al tion Sunrise Sunset. Month Year. Noon. Moonrise Moonset Noon. at Mean A.M. P.M. P.M. Noon. N. H M. H M. H M. A.M. P.M. D. O f Saturday.. 1 152 6 1 7 12 0 36 5 40 7 26 29-4 21 56 Sunday 2 153 6 1 7 12 0 36 6 36 8 22 l'O 22 4 Monday 3 154 6 1 7 13 0 37 7 33 9 13 2-0 22 12 Tuesday 4 155 6 1 7 13 0 37 8 29 9 59 3-0 22 20 Wednesday 5 156 6 1 7 14 0 37 9 23 io 42 4-0 22 27 Thursday 6 157 6 1 7 14 0 37 10 15 11 19 50 22 34 Friday 7 158 6 1 7 14 0 37 11 5 11 53 6-0 22 40 Saturday 8 159 6 1 7 15 0 37 11 53 7-0 22 46 P.M. A. M. Sunday 9 160 6 1 7 15 0 38 0 41 0 26 8'0 22 52 Monday 10 161 6 1 7 15 0 38 1 29 0 59 9'0 22 57 Tuesday .. 11 162 6 1 7 16 0 38 2 18 1 32 lO'O 23 2 Wednesday 12 163 6 1 7 16 0 38 3 10 2 7 11-0 23 6 Thursday 13 164 6 1 7 16 0 38 4 4 2 45 12-0 23 10 Friday 14 165 6 1 7 17 0 39 5 1 3 28 130 23 13 Saturday.. 15 166 6 1 7 17 0 39 6 1 4 17 14'0 23 16 Sunday .. 16 167 6 1 7 17 0 39 7 2 5 11 15-0 23 19 Monday 17 168 6 1 7 17 0 39 8 0 6 11 16'0 23 22 Tuesday .. 18 169 6 2 7 18 0 39 8 55 7 14 17-0 23 23 Wednesday 19 170 6 2 7 18 0 40 9 46 8 19 18-0 23 25 Thursday 20 171 6 2 7 18 0 40 10 31 9 22 19-0 23 26 Friday 21 172 6 2 7 18 0 40 11 14 11 24 20-0 23 27 Saturday 22 173 6 3 7 19 0 40 11 54 11 23 21- 0 23 27 A.M. P.M. Sunday 23 174 6 3 7 19 0 41 0 21 22- 0 23 27 Monday 24 175 6 3 7 19 0 41 0 34 1 19 23*0 23 26 Tuesday .. 25 176 6 3 7 19 0 41 1 15 2 18 24 0 23 25 Wednesday 26 177 6 3 7 19 0 41 1 57 3 17 25-0 23 24 Thursday 27 178 6 4 7 19 0 41 2 44 4 17 26 '0 23 22 Friday 28 179 6 4 7 20 0 42 27-0 3 34 5 16 23 20 Saturday 29 180 6 4 7 20 0 42 4 26 13 28-0 17 6 23 Sunday 30 181 6 4 7 20 0 42 5 22 7 6 29-0 23 14 9 Phases of the Moon-JULY 31 Days. ..16th, 10h. 30m. A.M. lh. 15m. A.M. O Full Moon . 23rd, lh 12m. A.M. » New Moon . .1st, C Last Quarter ..30th, 3h. 2m, P.M. First Quarter .. ..9th, 3h. 58m. A.M. 0 New Moon . 5 . Phases of the Moon—AUGUST 31 Days. > First Quarter .. ..7th, Gh. 53m. p.m. i C Last Quarter ..21st, 8h. 47m. a.m. O Full Moon .. ..14th, 6h. 14m. p.m. | # New Moon . . ..29th, 6h. 30m. A.M. Indian Standard Time. Sun's Day of Day of Moon's Declina- Day of the Week. the the Sunrise. Sunset. True Moon- Moon- Age at tion Month. Year. A.M. Noon. rise. set. Noon. at Mean P.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. Noon. H M. H . M. H M. H. M. H. M. D. N. o / Thursday 1 213 6 15 7 15 0 45 7 42 8 25 19 18 15 Friday 2 214 6 15 7 14 0 45 8 30 8 58 2*9 18 0 Saturday 3 215 6 16 7 14 0 45 9 17 9 31 3'9 17 44 Sunday .. 4 216 6 16 7 13 0 45 10 5 10 4 49 17 29 Monday 5 217 6 16 7 13 0 45 10 53 10 38 59 17 13 Tuesday 6 218 6 17 7 12 0 45 11 44 11 16 6*9 16 57 P.M. Wednesday 7 219 6 17 7 12 0 44 0 36 11 58 7'9 16 40 Thursday 8 220 6 17 7 11 0 44 1 32 8'9 16 24 A.M. Friday .. 9 221 6 18 7 11 0 44 2 29 0 45 9-9 16 7 Saturday 10 222 6 18 7 10 0 44 3 28 1 38 10-9 15 50 Sunday .. 11 223 6 18 7 9 0 44 4 26 2 37 11-9 15 32 Monday 12 224 6 19 7 9 0 44 5 20 3 40 12-9 15 14 Tuesday 13 225 6 19 7 8 0 44 6 12 4 46 139 14 57 Wednesday 14 226 6 19 7 8 0 43 6 59 5 51 14-9 14 38 Thursday 15 227 6 20 7 7 0 43 7 44 6 55 15-9 14 20 Friday 16 228 6 20 7 6 0 43 8 27 7 58 16'9 14 2 Saturday 17 229 6 20 7 6 0 43 9 9 9 0 17-9 13 44 Sunday .. 18 230 6 20 7 5 0 43 9 53 10 2 18-9 13 24 Monday . 19 231 6 21 7 4 0 42 10 40 11 4 19'9 13 4 Jf.JM. Tuesday 20 232 6 21 7 4 0 42 11 27 0 4 209 12 45 Wednesday 21 233 6 21 7 3 0 42 1 5 21-9 12 25 A.M. Thursday 22 234 6 21 7 2 0 42 0 19 2 3 22-9 12 5 Friday 23 235 6 21 7 1 0 42 1 12 2 58 23'9 11 45 Saturday 24 236 6 22 7 1 0 41 2 7 3 48 24*9 11 25 Sunday .. 25 237 6 22 7 o o 41 3 2 4 33 25'9 11 4 Monday .. 26 238 6 22 6 59 0 41 3 56 5 15 26-9 10 44 Tuesday 27 239 6 22 6 59 0 40 4 48 5 53 27*9 10 23 Wednesday 28 240 6 23 6 58 0 40 5 38 6 27 28*9 10 2 Thursday 29 241 6 23 6 57 0 40 6 26 7 0 0*3 9 41 Friday 30 242 6 23 6 56 0 39 7 14 7 33 13 9 19 Saturday 31 243 6 23 6 55 0 39 8 1 8 5 2-3 8 58 11 . 3 Phases of the Moon — SEPTEMBER 30 Days. > First Quarter .. 6th, 7h. 56m. a.m. I C Last Quarter .. .. 1 O Full Moon . . - . 13th, lh. 48m. a.m. | # New Moon . . . . 2' Sun's Indian Standard Time. Moon's Declina- Day of Day of tion Moon- Moon- A.ge at Day Week. the the True of the E unrise. g unset. j set. Noon. at Mean Month. Year. Noon. rise. A.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. Noon. P.M. 1 H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. D. IN e 23 6 55 0 39 8 49 8 39 3*3 8 OD Sunday 1 244 6 24 54 0 39 9 39 9 16 4*3 8 10 Monday 2 245 6 6 9 56 5*3 74 53 3 246 6 24 6 53 0 38 10 29 Tuesday .. 24 6 52 0 38 11 23 10 40 6*3 7 Wednesday 4 247 6 P.M 11 7*3 7 g 248 6 24 6 51 0 38 0 19 29 Thursday 5 25 6 50 0 37 1 16 8*3 g 46 Friday 6 249 6 A.M. 25 6 50 0 37 2 12 0 23 9*3 6 24 Saturday 7 250 6 49 0 37 3 6 1 23 10'3 6 2 8 251 6 25 6 Sunday .. 25 6 48 0 36 3 58 2 25 11*3 O 39 Monday 9 252 6 c 25 6 47 0 36 4 46 3 29 12-3 O 17 Tuesday .. 10 253 6 46 0 36 5 32 4 33 13*3 54 Wednesday 11 254 6 25 6 25 45 0 35 6 16 5 36 14*3 31 Thursday 12 255 6 6 44 0 35 7 0 6 40 15*3 g Friday 13 256 6 26 6 43 35 7 44 7 43 16'3 3 45 14 257 6 26 6 0 Saturday 34 8 31 8 46 17*3 3 22 15 258 6 26 6 43 0 Sunday .. o Dw 6 26 6 42 0 34 9 20 9 49 18 '3 Z Monday 16 259 33 10 12 10 52 19*3 2 36 Tuesday 17 260 6 26 6 41 0 27 40 0 33 11 6 11 54 20'3 2 1 Wednesday 18 261 6 6 P. K. 33 0 52 21*3 1 49 Thursday 19 262 6 27 6 39 0 A. M. 22*3 1 26 Friday 20 263 6 27 6 M 0 32 0 2 1 44 32 0 58 2 32 23 '3 1 Saturday 21 264 6 2: 6 3; 0 2'' 32 52 3 14 24*3 U 40 22 265 6 6 3( \ 0 1 Sunday . o 25-3 n U 16 266 6 2'F 6 3< J 0 31 44 3 53 Monday .. 23 s Ol 35 4 28 26 '3 0 7 Tuesday 24 267 6 2 1 6 3 > 0 31 4 23 5 2 27*3 0 30 Wednesday 25 268 6 243 6 3I 0 30 5 11 5 35 28*3 0 54 Thursday 26 269 6 21 3 6 33 0 6 32 0 30 5 58 6 7 29 '3 1 17 Friday 27 270 6 21 3 o8 31 0 30 6 46 6 41 0*6 1 41 Saturday 28 271 6 6 30 0 29 7 35 7 17 1-6 2 4 29 272 6 29 6 Sunday o9 29 8 26 56 2-6 2 27 Monday 30 273 6 6 29 0 12 Phases of the Moon— OCTOBER 31 Days. }> First Quarter .. 5th, 7h. 10m. p.m. | C Last Quarter ... .. .19th, llh. 6m. a.m. O Full Moon ..12th, lOh. 9m. a.m. | # New Moon ..27th, 3h. 45m. p.m. Indian Standard Time. Sun'r Day of Day o , Moon's Declina- Day of the Week. the the Sunrise. Sunset. True Moon- Moon- Age at tion Month Year. Noon. rise. set. Noon. at Mean A.M. P.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. Noon. h M. H. M. H . M. H. M. H. M. D. s. o Tuesday .. 1 274 6 29 6 29 0 29 9 18 8 38 3'6 2 50 Wednesday 2 275 6 29 6 28 0 29 10 13 9 25 4-6 3 14 Thursday 3 276 6 30 6 27 0 29 11 9 10 17 5'6 3 37 P.M. Friday 4 277 6 30 6 26 0 28 0 4 11 14 6'6 4 0 Saturday 5 278 6 30 6 26 0 28 0 57 7'6 4 24' A M. Sunday 6 279 6 30 6 25 0 28 1 49 0 13 8*6 4 47 Monday 7 280 6 31 6 24 0 28 2 37 1 15 9-6 5 10' Tuesday 8 281 6 31 6 23 0 27 3 22 2 16 10-6 5 33 Wednesday 9 282 6 31 6 22 0 27 4 6 3 18 11-6 6 56 Thursday 10 283 6 32 6 21 O 27 4 49 4 19 12-6 6 19 Friday 11 284 6 32 6 20 0 27 5 32 5 21 13*6 6 42 Saturday 12 285 6 32 6 19 0 27 6 18 6 24 14-6 7 4, Sunday .. 13 286 6 33 6 18 0 26 7 7 7 29 15'6 7 27 Monday 14 287 6 33 6 17 0 26 59 8 33 16'6 7 49> Tuesday 15 288 6 33 6 16 0 26 8 54 9 37 17*6 8 12' Wednesday 16 289 6 33 6 15 0 26 9 51 10 39 18"6 8 34 Thursday 17 290 6 34 6 14 0 25 10 49 11 35 19-6 8 56 P.M. Friday 18 291 6 34 6 13 0 25 11 45 0 26 20v6 9 18 Saturday 19 292 6 34 6 12 0 25 1 11 21-6 9 40 A.M. Sunday 20 293 6 35 6 12 0 25 1 38 1 52 22-6 10 2 Monday 21 294 6 35 6 11 0 24 1 30 2 29 23-6 10 23 ! Tuesday 22 295 6 35 6 10 0 24 2 19 3 o 24-6 10 45: Wodnesday 23 296 6 35 6 9 0 24 3 7 3 35 25v6 11 6 Thursday 24 297 6 36 6 8 0 24 3 55 4 8 26-6 11 27 Friday 25 298 6 36 6 8 0 24 4 42 4 42 27-6 11 48 Saturday.. 26 299 6 36 6 7 0 23 5 31 5 17 28'6 12 9 Sunday .. 27 300 6 37 6 7 0 23 6 22 5 55 29-6 12 29 Monday 28 301 6 37 6 7 0 23 7 14 6 37 0 9 " 12 50 Tuesday 29 302 6 37 6 6 0 23 8 8 7 24 i-9 13 10 Wednesday 30 303 6 37 6 6 0 23 9 4 8 14 2-9 13 30. Thursday 31 304 6 38 6 6 0 23 10 0 9 9 3-9 13 50 18 . 9 Phases of the Moon — NOVEMBER 30 Days. 4th, 4h. 42m. a.m. C Last Quarter . 18tt 3 First Quarter . . . . I . O Full Moon ..10th, 8h. 12m. P.M. | # New Moon . . 26tt Sun's Indian Standard rime. Vloon's Declina- ] )ay of ] Day of ] the the True Moon- Moon- Age at tion Day of the Week. Sunrise. Sunset. Noon, Mean Itlonth. Year. Noon. rise. set. i it A.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. Noon. P.M. L H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. D. S. 38 6 6 0 22 10 53 10 7 4*9 14 9 Friday 1 305 6 39 6 6 0 22 11 45 11 7 5.9 14 28 Saturday 2 306 6 P.M 5 0 22 0 33 6-9 14 48 3 307 6 39 6 Sunday .. A.M 0 22 1 17 0 6 7-9 15 7 Monday 4 308 6 40 6 5 4 0 22 2 0 1 6 8*9 15 25 Tuesday 5 309 6 40 6 6 4 0 22 2 42 2 5 9'9 15 44 Wednesday 6 310 6 41 41 6 4 0 22 3 23 3 10*9 16 2 Thursday 7 311 6 42 6 4 0 22 4 6 4 5 11-9 16 1 Friday 8 312 6 42 6 4 0 23 4 53 5 7 12*9 16 37 Saturday 9 313 6 43 6 3 0 23 5 44 6 11 13-9 16 54 Sunday 10 314 6 43 6 3 0 23 6 38 7 16 14'9 17 11 Monday .. 11 315 6 44 6 3 0 23 7 35 8 20 15-9 17 28 Tuesday .. 12 316 6 44 6 2 0 23 8 33 9 20 16-9 17 44 Wednesday 13 317 6 45 6 2 0 23 9 32 10 14 17*9 18 0 Thursday 14 318 6 45 6 1 0 23 10 29 11 3 18-9 18 16 Friday 15 319 6 46 6 1 0 23 11 22 11 47 19*9 18 31 Saturday 16 320 6 P.M. 17 321 6 46 6 1 0 23 0 26 209 18 47 Sunday A. 322 47 6 0 0 23 0 13 1 1 21*9 19 1 Monday 18 6 323 6 48 6 0 0 23 1 1 1 35 22-9 19 16 Tuesday .. 19 1 Wednesday 20 324 6 48 6 0 0 24 1 49 2 8 239 19 30 49 6 0 0 24 2 36 2 41 24*9 19 44 Thursday 21 325 6 0 0 24 3 24 3 15 25*9 19 57 Friday 22 326 6 49 6 327 50 6 0 0 24 4 16 3 52 26*9 20 10 Saturday 23 6 51 6 0 0 25 5 6 4 34 27-9 20 23 Sunday 24 328 6 51 0 0 25 6 0 5 19 28 9 20 35 Monday 25 329 6 330 52 6 0 0 25 6 57 6 8 29-9 20 47 Tuesday .. 26 6 53 6 0 0 25 7 54 7 3 1-2 20 58 Wednesday . 27 331 6 Thursday 28 332 6 53 * 0 0 26 8 49 8 1 22 21 10 Friday . 29 333 6 54 • 0 0 26 9 42 9 1 32 21 20 Satursday 30 334 6 54 6 0 0 27 10 30 10 1 42 21 31 14 . Phases of the Moon — DECEMBER 31 Days. 3» First Quarter .. 3rd, Oh. 58m. p.m. I C Last Quarter ..18th, 3h. 27m. a.m. O Full Moon ..10th, 8h. 40m. A.M. | f New Moon ..25th, llh. 19m. p.m. Indian Standard Time. Sun's Day of Day of Mx)on's Declina- Day of the Week. the the True Moon- Moon- Age at tion Sunrise. Sunset. Month. Year. Noon. rise, set. Noon. at Mean A.M. P.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. Noon. H. M. H M. H. M. H. M. H. M. D, s. f Sunday 1 335 6 55 6 0 0 28 11 17 11 0 52 21 41 Monday 2 336 6 55 6 0 0 28 11 59 11 58 6'2 21 50 P. ML Tuesday 3 337 6 56 6 0 0 28 0 40 72 21 59 A.M. Wednesday 4 338 6 57 6 0 0 29 1 20 0 56 8*2 22 8 Thursday 5 339 6 58 6 0 0 29 2 2 1 54 9-2 22 16 Friday 6 340 6 59 6 1 0 30 2 44 2 54 10-2 22 24 Saturday * 7 341 6 59 6 1 0 30 3 32 3 56 11-2 22 31 Sunday 8 342 6 59 6 1 0 30 4 24 4 58 12-2 22 38 Monday 9 343 7 0 6 1 0 31 5 19 6 1 13-2 22 44 ruesday 10 344 7 0 6 2 0 31 6 16 7 3 14*2 22 50 Wednesday 11 345 7 1 6 2 0 32 7 16 8 1 15-2 22 56 rhursday 12 346 7 2 6 3 0 32 8 14 8 53 16-2 23 1 ""riday 13 347 7 2 6 3 0 33 9 9 9 39 17*2 23 6 >aturday 14 348 7 3 6 3 0 33 10 2 10 21 18-2 23 10 unday 15 349 7 3 6 4 0 34 10 53 10 58 19-2 23 14 londay 16 350 7 4 6 4 0 35 11 41 11 33 20-2 23 17 P.l I. "uesday 17 351 7 4 6 5 0 35 0 6 21-2 23 20 A.M. Vednesday 18 352 7 5 6 5 0 36 0 29 0 39 22-2 23 22 Imrsday 19 353 7 5 6 6 0 36 1 17 1 13 23-2 23 24 'riday 20 354 7 6 6 6 0 37 2 5 1 48 242 23 25 aturday 21 355 7 7 6 7 0 37 2 57 2 27 25-2 23 26 unday 22 356 7 7 6 7 0 38 3 49 3 10 26-2 23 27 [onday 23 357 7 8 6 8 0 38 4 44 3 58 27-2 23 27 uesday 24 358 7 8 6 9 0 39 5 41 4 52 28-2 23 26 Wednesday 25 359 7 9 6 9 0 39 6 39 5 49 29-2 23 25 hursday 26 360 7 9 0 9 0 40 7 33 6 51 0-6 23 24 riday 27 361 7 10 6 10 0 40 8 25 7 53 1-6 23 22 aturday 28 362 7 10 (5 10 0 41 9 13 8 54 2-6 23 20 unday 29 363 7 11 6 10 0 41 9 57 9 54 3-6 23 17 onday 30 364 7 11 6 11 0 41 10 40 10 52 46 23 14 uesday 31 365 7 11 6 11 0 42 11 20 11 50 5-6 23 10 | 15 . . . . .. . JLjJl AIR > FOR 1 L9:36 • JULY. JANUARY. 5 LZ 19 : 19 26 If Sun. . If | Sun. . • 1 * 5 12 27 If i\/r JVL. If 6 13 20 27 If 6 13 20 | M. if Tu. .. If 7 14 21 7 14 21 28 29 i Tu. . . if w. .. 1 8 15 22 If 22 29 If lw. .. l 8 15 30 Th. .. 2 9 16 23 30 If Th. 2 9 16 23 24 31 If J .. F. .. 3 10 17 3 10 17 24 31 If F. .. s. .. 4 11 18 25 J 4 11 18 25 1 If If /UG1 LIST. FE BRUARY. q 16 23 30 Sun. If Z * 2 9 16 23 If . 24 31 Sun. . . 1 1 M. .. If 3 10 17 3 10 17 24 If 25 * M. If Tu. 4 11 18 Tu. .. 4 11 18 25 £ .. If 19 26 If 12 19 26 If w. .. # 5 12 w. .. 5 Th. .. # 6 13 20 27 If 6 13 20 27 If 28 Th. .. If F. .. If 7 14 21 If * 7 14 21 28 29 F. .. s. .. 1 8 15 1 21 \ | 1 8 15 22 29 MARCH. SE PTEMBI£R. Sun. . If b 13 20 8 15 22 29 If . 21 28 If Sun. . I M. .. If 7 14 16 23 30 M. Tu. .. .. M 3 9 10 17 24 31 If Tu. w. .. 1 2 8 9 15 16 22 23 zy 30 TV If 4 11 18 25 If * .. 10 17 24 If If Th. .. 3 5 12 19 26 18 25 If F. .. 4 11 13 20 27 If * If A 6 7 14 21 28 If s. . 5 OCTOBE 12 19 R. ZD If APRIL. 25 If 4 li 18 12 19 26 If Sun. . If 5 19 26 If Sun. • • If 1 20 27 If M. .. # 5 12 M. .. * 6 13 Tu. .. If 6 13 20 27 If 7 14 21 28 21 28 If Tu. .. If W. .. If 7 14 8 15 22 29 If 29 w. .. 1 # Th. .. 1 8 15 22 If 2 9 16 23 30 23 30 If Th. .. 2 9 16 F. 3 10 17 24 If * F. .. 10 17 OA Z4 31 If * * s. . 3 1 1 s. 4 1 11 18 25 i 1 NOVEMBER. MAY. 29 Sun. 1 8 ia 3 10 17 24 31 30 Sun. • 2 9 16 23 • 11 18 1 25 M. .. M. .. 4 3 10 17 24 If Tu. .. If 5 12 19 26 * Tu. .. 18 25 If w. .. 4 11 13 20 27 If * W. .. 6 Th. 5 12 19 26 7 14 21 28 . 27 * Th. . If F. 6 13 20 1 15 22 29 . 28 If If 7 14 21 2 I 16 23 30 * s. . 1 DECEMBER. JUNE. * # I u 21 If Sun. • if 1 U 21 28 ! Sun. M. * i 141 21 28 1 If I M * 1 \ 15 22 : 29 1 * . "Jf 15i 23 ! 2J ) If ffi - 22 30 * Tu. . 1 1 Tu. . 2 j 1 16 ; \ * w. 3\ •> U > 2:\ 3( ) If ffl 1 W - • . 21 1( ) « f 24 L 21 > * * . Th. . . \ , 1() r r 2'I 31I H * Th • . 1 I 11 L It I * F. 41 1 1 lil 2!> *' ffl I F. - > 12 2 1! > 21» * . . 11) 215 *f K . s. i > 1 2 :\ i 1 3 i 21 ) | 2' 1 \ * * . . j PREFACE THEpondents Editors have to thank many corres- who during the past year have sent them suggestions for the improvement of this book. The Indian Year Book is intended above all to be a book of reference, and its completeness and convenience of arrangement must necessarily depend to a great extent on the part taken in its editing by the members of the public who most use it. The help extended to the Editors by various and more particularly by the Director of officials, Information and Labour Intelligence, Bombay, and the Indian Commercial Intelligence Depart- ment, has again been readily given and is most gratefully acknowledged. Without such help it would be impossible to produce the Year Book with up-to-date statistics. Suggestions for the improvement or correc- tion of theYear Book may be sent to the Editors at any time, but those which reach them before January have a better chance of being adopted than later suggestions which only reach them after the work of revision has been partly completed. The Times of India, Bombay, April, 1935. , An Indian Glossary. corres- Babu.— (1) A gentleman in Bengal,Konkan , Abkari.— Excise of liquors and drugs. ponding to Pant in the Deccan and of a clerk or Hence used by Anglo-Indians Aohhut.— Untouchable (Hindi) Asuddiiar. (2) younger son paid accountant. Strictly a 5th or still Contribution son y ^gerthan Acreage contribution.— Government. of a Raja but often used of any into a term by holders of land irrigated by the heir, whilst it has also grown one over ^ord added to ofaddress=Esquire. There are, however, APHIRAJ.-Supreme ruler, whose sons are known ^spectively means paramount. or two Rajas "Maharaja." Ac, it r ihakur as— 1st, Kunwar; 2nd, Diwan ; 3rd, "officer" 1th, Lai ; 5th Babu. AFSAR.-A corruption of the English — AHIMSA. Non- violence. Babul. A common thorny tree, Arabica. Acacia — the bark of which is used for tanning, princely family Ahluwalia.— Name of a Bad mash. A bad character a rascal. — Ahlu, near Lahore. : resident at the village of Terminalia Tomentosa. BAGR.—Tiger or Panther. AIN.-A timber tree | (Buggalow), devotee, one of RAGHLA.-(l) A native boat Akali -Originally, a Sikh The common pond heron or paddy bird. Singh (who died hand founded by Gum Govind politico-religious (2) l7ol): now a member of the "Rattadur — Lit. " brave" or "warrior' Hindus and Mohammedans, army (dal) of reforming Sikhs. titfe i?s ed by both added to by Government — A KHAR A. A Hindu school of gymnastics. often bestowed other titles, it increases their honour but ; Akhundzada.— Son of a Head Officer. alone it designates an inferior ruler. ALIJAH — Of exalted rank. BAIRAGI— A Hindu religious mendicant. A a t tohol —Literally a Mahomedan ratpa or Bajri.— The bulrush millet, circle. for purposes of food-grain, Pennisetu* typhoideom; kind of athletic club formed common self-defence. syn. cambu, Madras. magistrate Ali Raja.— Sea King (Laccadives). BAKHSBJ.— A revenue officer or Tip AM. — Mango Bakhshish.— Cheri-meri (or Chiri-miri) (Bund). . VTTT a nqTT1P given in Sind to educated BAND.— A dam or embankment m ffir<£ trU'Ina community a Hindu principally of bankers, clerks caste consisting | BANDAR. —Monkey. fig-tree, Fiou and minor officials. Banyan.— A species of ' (corruptly Emir>.-A Mohammedan Bengalensis. amir personal name. Chief, often also a BARA Sing.—Swamp deer, Mariamma, the rain Amma.-A goddess, particularly India. Barsat.-(I) A fall of rain, (2) goddess of small-pox. South season. river for Anicut.-A dam or weir across a BARSATI.— Farcy (horse's disease). purposes, Southern India. irrigation of huts of Maho- Basti.— (1) A village, or collection ANJUMAN.-A communal gathering medans. (2) A Jain temple, Kanara. Batta.— Lit. discount and hence corruption of 4 allo\ *„onq— Believed to be a ' best variety of way of compensation. Alphonse, toe IVme of the ances by Bombay mango. Battak.—Duck. Written petition. ARZ, Arzi, Arz-dasht.— Bawarchi.— Cook in India, Syn. Mistri, A8AF.— A minister. Bombay only. Asprishya. — Untouchable lined with shops, Ind (Sanskrit). Bazar— (1) A street crop, Bengal, syn proper (2) a covered market, Burma. Aus ._The early rice ; Ahu, Assam. Bfoum or Begam.— The feminine Bhopal as •« Naw AVATAR.— An incarnation of Vishnu. '•'Nawab" combined in of Medicine Begum." Ayurveda.—Hindu science thorny shrub bearing a fruit Mr. BER —a like Baba.— Lit. " Father," a respectful ' I small plum, Zizy phub Jujuba. IUUI Honour." Irish1 M Your xav/..v*—.. ' 7~ . l^ZI^nTtolie^ — . An Indian Glossary. 3 —In Hindi Besar. (also Gujarati Vcsar). Chabutra. —A platform of mud or plaster- Woman's nose-ring. ed brick, used for social gatherings, Northern India. Bewar. — Name in Central Provinces for hifting cultivation in jungles and hill-sides ; Chadar. —A sheet worn as a shawl by men yn. taungya, Burma ; jhum, North-Eastern and sometimes by women. (Chudder.) [ndia. Chaitya. —An ancient Buddhist chapel. — Bhadoi. Early autumn crop, Northern India Chambhar (OHAMAR).—" Cobbler", "Shoe- eaped in the month Bhadon. maker." A caste whose trade is to tan Bhagat or Bhakta.—A devotee. leather. — Bhag-batai. System of payment of land — Champak. A tree with fragrant blossoms, evenue in kind. viicheliaChampa oa. — Bhaiband. Relation or man of same caste Ch ana.— Cr a m. >r community. Chand.—Mcon Bhaibandi.—Nepotism. Chandj.— (Pron. with soft d) Silver Chand i — Goddess Durga. ; —Sweeper, scavenger. Bhangi. (with palatal and short a) Bhang. — The dried leaves of the hemp plant, Chapati. —A cake of unleavened bread. Cannabis sativa, a narcotic. Chaprasi. —An oiderly or messenger, Nor- Bhanwar.— Light sandy syn. bhur. soil; thern India; syn. pattawala, Bombay; peon, Madras. Bhanwarlal. — of heir apparent in some Title lajput States. — Charas. The resin of the hemp plant. Bharal. — A Himalayan wild sheep, Ovis Cannabis sativa, used for smoking. AHURA. Bharat.—India. — Charkha. A spinning wheel. Charpai (charpoy).— A bedstead with four Bharata-Varsha.—India. legs, and tape stretched across the frame for a Bhendi. —A succulent vegetable (Hibiscus mattress. SOULENTUS). Chaudhri. Under native rule, a subordi- — BnoNSLE. —Name of nate revenue official ; at present the term is Maratha dynasty applied to the headman a or representative of a Bhup.— Title of the ruler of Cooch Behar trade guild. Bhugti.— Name of a Baluch tribe. Chauk, Chowk. A place where four roads meet. — Bhusa.— Chaff, for fodder. Bhut.—The of departed persons. spirit Chaukidar.— The rural policeman. village watchman and Bidri.— A class of ornamental metalwork Chauth. —The fourth part of the land rev- i which blackened pewter is inlaid with silver, enue, exacted by the Marathas in subject terri- amed from the town of Bidar, Hyderabad. tories. le — Bigha. A measure of land varying widely; Chavri (Choro standard bigha is generally flve-eighths of quarters. Gujarati).—Village head- a acre. " Vigha " in Gujarat and Kathiawar. Bihishti. — Commonly pronounced " Bhishti." Cheetah. Hunting leopard. — Pater-carrier (lit. " man of heaven "). Chela. A pupil, usually in connexion with— religious* teaching. Bir (Bid). — A grassland— North India, rujarat and Kathiawar. Also " Vidi ." Chhaoni. A collection of thatched huts or — barracks; hence a cantonment. Black cotton soil.-— A dark-coloured soil ery retentive of moisture, found in Central Chhatrapati.— One of sufficient dignity id Southern India. to have an umbrella carried over him. Board op Revenue.— The chief controlling Chhatri.— (1) An umbrella, (2) domed •venue authority in Bengal, the United Pro- building such as a cenotaph. inces and Madras. Chief Commissioner.— The administrative Bohra : —A sect of Ismaili Shia Musalmans, head of one of the lesser Provinces in British slonging to Gujarat. India. Bor.— See Ber. Chikor. —A kind of partridge, Caccabis — Brinjal. A vegetable, ena syn. egg-plant. Solanum Melon- OHUOAR. ; Chiku.— The Bombay name for the fruit — Bund. Embankment. of Achras Sapota, the Sapodilla plum of the Bunder, or bandar.— A harbour or West Indies. port, lso "Monkey." Burj.— A bastion in a line Chinar. A plane — tree, Platanus orien- of battlements. tals. Cad j an.— Palm leaves used for thatch. Chinkara.—The Indian gazelle, Gazella Chabuk.— A whip. bennetti, often called 'ravine deer/ An Indian Glossary. DARBAR.— (1) A ceremonial assembly, es- axis. Chital.— The spotted deer, CERVUS pecially one presided over by the Ruler of a State business is to (Thobdar —Mace-bearer whose hence (2) the Government of a Native State. guests on state occasions anSouTe'the arrival — of Chol am N ame in Southern India . for the Dargah. A Mahomedan shrine or tomb —of Sorghum, syn. a saint. large millet, Andropogon usually of Dari, Dhurrie.— A rug or carpet, jowar. , _ worn by cotton, but sometimes of wool. — Choli. A kind of short bodice Darkhast. A tender or application to rent — women. land. Chowrie.—Fly-whisk. of officials in various Darogha.—The title Chunam, chuna.—Lime plaster. departments now especially applied to sub- area in charge of— (1) A ; Circle. —The Con- or Deputy ordinate controlling Officers in the Police and servator of Forests ; (2) A Postmaster v sKteSSing ^il Departments. pS^te^SSeraf; (3) Engineer of the Public Works Superintend Department / g Darshan. Lit. " Sight " To go to a temple — idol is to make darshan — in medical to get a sight of the Civil Surgeon. The officer Also used in case of great or holy personages. charge of a District. Cognizable.— An offence for which the cul- Darwan. A door-keeper. — prit can be arrested by the police without a Darwaza.— A gateway. warrant. Dasturi.— Customary perquisite. of a Collector.—The administrative head byn. DAULA AND DAULAT.— State. Madras, Deb.— A Brahminical priestly title; taken etc. District in Bengal, Bombay, Deputv Commissioner. from the name of a divinity. charge Commissioner.-(D The officer in Debottar.— Land assigned for the upkeep Districts; (2) the of a Division or group of of Hindu worship, Stamps, of temples or maintenance head of various departments, such as or C. Cedsus Lebani Excise, etc. DEODAR.— A cedar, Compound.— The garden and open lano DEODARA. word attached to a house. An Anglo-Indian Deputy Commissioner. -The A^inistrativj Centra* perhaps derived from kumpan, a hedge. ' head of a District in the Punjab, Conservator.—The Supervising Officer in Provinces, etc. Syn. Collector. --^c in the »x fe v, of a Circle « Forest Departmeno. — magistrate AND COLLECTOR.—~.A charge * DEPUTY MAGISTRATE Deputy Council BiLLS.-Bills or telegraphic trans- jub0rdinate of subordinate t ht wuwwi, oi in* " Y" &^executive Collector, 1having ~"~-; n powers venue and ^ criminal) jowers rq fers drawn on the Indian Government by the and judicial iudicial (revenue (re| Assistant Commissione Secretary of State in Council. Equivalent to Extra 20's, non-regulation areas. Count.— Cotton yarns are described as a like in 30'b, etc., counts when not more than Dera.— Tent in N. India pound number of hanks of 840 yards go to the Derasar.— Jain Temple. Desai.— A revenue official under avoirdupois. nativj } WARDS.— An establishment for Court op disquali- (Maratha) rule. managing estates of minors and other the plains a Desh.— (1) Native country; (2)j fied persons. India (3) th opposed to the hills, Northern . karor.— Ten millions. above the Ghats. Crore, plateau of the Deccan any DAD A.— Lit." grandfather " (paternal) hooli- Desh-bhakta.— Patriot. ; venerable person. In Bombay slang a Indigenous, opposed to bidesh Deshi.— gan boss." Daffadar. —A non-commissioned native ^Deshmukh.— A petty official under natH officer in the army or police. (Maratha) rule. Daftar. — records. Office Desh-Sevika.— Servant (Fern.) of the counter D aft ari — Record-keeper . Female Volunteer the Disobedienl in Civil Dah or dao. — A cutting instrument I with| vement. m0 no point, used as a sword, and also as an axe, __ DEVA# A deity Assam and Burma. | a' girl dedicated to temple Devadasi.— Dak (dawk) — A stage on a stage coach route. bmigalo* God.Murli in Maharashtra. upke| Dawk bungalow is the travellers' days before rail- DEVASTHAN.-Land assigned for the maintained at such stages in religious founda ion of a temple or other ways came. Minister five or more Dew an ^ Vizier or other Firstor Mohammed; Daraiti, Dacoity.—Bobbery by an Indian Chief, either Hindu " Sardar under wh|«^ ' persons. ^nd equal in rank with is also used dental d and short a) other equivalents. The term DAL— (Pron. with body, see a Council of State. e.g., "Army," hence any disciplined with bi Akali Dal, Seva Dal. Dha.k —A tree, Butea frondosa, used for dyei DAL.— A term applied to various Ha t orange-scarlet cowers generic syn palas, Ben and also producing a gum ; K. . pulses. Chhiul, Central India; one-fortieth of a and Bombay: Kathiawar. am.— An old copper coin, khro " in Gujarat and I rupee. ; , ; An Indian Glossary. 5 Dhamni.- A heavy shighram or tonga drawn ] Farzandari or Fazandari. tenure in Bombay City. —A kind of land >y bullocks. Dharala.—Bhil, arrying sharp weapons. Koli, or other warlike castes — Fasli. Era (solar) started by Akbar, A.C. minus 572-3. Dharma.— Religion (Hindu). — Fateh. " Victory." — Dharmsala. A charitable institution pro- Fateh Jang.—" Victorious in Battle " (a ided as a resting-place for pilgrims or travellers, title of the Nizam). rorthern India. Dhatura. —A stupefying drug, DATURA Fatwa. —Judicial decree or written opinion of a doctor of Muslim law. Faujdari. — Relating to a FSTUOSA. Dhed. —A large untouchable caste in Gujarat, criminal proceedings. criminal court, Mahar Faujdari. — Under native Qrresponding to in Maharashtra and loleya in Karnatak. rule, the area under a Faujdar or subordinate governor ; now used Dhenkli.— Name in Northern India for the generally of Magistrates * Criminal Courts. sver used in raising water Dhobi. —A washerman. ; syn. picottah. — Financial Commissioner. The chief con- trolling revenue authority in the Punjab, Burma Dhoti. —The loincloth worn by men. and the Central Provinces. — Dm. Religion (Mahomedan). Fitton Gari.— A photon, Bombay. Derived District.— The most important adminis- from the English. ative unit of area. Gaddi, Gadi.— The cushion or throne of Division.— (1) A group of districts for ad- (Hindu) royalty. linistrative and revenue purposes, under a Gaekwar ommissioner; (2) the area in charge of a with" Maharaja " (sometimes Guicowar). Title added of the ruler of Baroda. — eputy Conservator of Forests, usually corres- It was once a caste name and means *' cow- onding with a (revenue) District (3) the area ; herd," i.e., the protector of the sacred animal rider a Superintendent of Post Offices; (4) a but later on, in common with " Holkar" and roup of (revenue) districts under an Executive '* Sindhia," it came to be a dynastic appel- ngineer of the Public Works Department. lation and consequently regarded as a title. Diwan (Sikh).—Communal Gathering. Thus, a Prince becomes " Gaekwar" on succeed- Diwali.— The lamp festival of Hindus. ing to the estate of Baroda; " Holkar," to that of Indore and *« Sindhia," to that of Gwalior. — Diwani. Civil, especially revenue, adminis- ation; now used generally in Northern (All these are surnames of which Gaekwar and idia of civil justice and Courts. Shinde are quite common among Marathas and — — Doab. The tract between two espe- even Mahars). rivers, that between the Ganges and Jumna. ally Ganja.— The unfertilised flowers of the Dom. —Untouchable caste in Northern India. cultivated female hemp plant, Cannabis sativa , used for smoking. Drug —A Mysore. hill-fort, Dry crop.—A crop grown without artificial — Gaur. Wild commonly called bison cattle, Ration. Bos GAURUS. Dry rate.—The rate of revenue for unirri- Gayal. — A species of wild Bos fron cattle, ited land. falis, domesticated on the North-East Fron Dun.— (Pron. "doon") A tier syn. mithan. valley, Northern ; pa. — Ghadr. Mutiny, Revolution. — Bkka. A small two-wheeled awn by a pony, Northern India. conveyance — Gharrie (Gari). A carriage, cart. — Elchi, Elachi. Cardamom. — Ghat, Ghaut. (1) A landing-place on a river (2) the bathing steps on the bank of a tank Elchi (Turk.)—Ambassador. (3) a pass up a mountain; (4) in European usage, a mountain range. In the last sense Elaya Raja.— Title given to the heir of the especially applied to the Eastern and Western iharaja of Travancore or Cochin. Ghats. Extra Assistant Commissioner. ityMagistrate and Collector. See De- — Ghatwal. A tenure-holder who originally— held his land on the condition of guarding the — Fakir. Properly an Islamic mendicant but neighbouring hill passes (ghats), Bengal. ben loosely used of Hindu mendicants also. — Ghazi. One who engaged in " Ghazv," a holy Famine Insurance Grant.— An annual pro- War, i.e., against kaflrs. Jion from revenue to meet direct famine penditure, or the cost of certain classes of Ghi, Ghee.— Clarified butter. blic works, or to avoid debt. Gingelly.— See Til. Farm an.— An tat. imperial (Mughal) order or Godown. — A store room or warehouse. An Anglo-Indian word derived from the Malay " gadang.' Farzand— Lit. means "child" with the de- rag words added such as "Farzand-e-dilband" Gopi.— Cowherd girl. The dance of the the case of several Indian Princes it means youthful Krishna with the Gopis is a favourite loved, favourite, etc. subject of paintings. , 6 An Indian Glossary. iron pinnacle placed on a pagoda — Hti.— An G0PURAM. A gateway, especially aPP"ed in Burma. Southern India. to the great temple gateways in — Hukka, Hookah.—The Indian tobacco pipe. Gosain, Goswami. A (Hindu) devotee ; lit. one who restrains his passions. Hukm. An order. — — Gosha. Name in Southern India for corner 4 parda Hundi. A bill of exchange. — women lit. u the word " Gosha : ' " means Idgah.— An enclosed place outside a town one who sits in " is the meaning where Mahomedan services are held on festivals or seclusion : of the word " Nashin " which is usuaUy added to known as the Id., etc. » Gosha " and " Parda " e.g., Goshanashm Ilakhe.—A department. (Ilakha in Marath: Pardanashin. and Gujarati Languages means Presidency.) — Gram. A kind of pea, Cicer arietinttm. biflorus Imam.— The layman who leads the congrega In Southern India the pulse Dolichos tion in prayer. Mahomedan. is known as horse gram. Grantha-Saheb.— Sikh holy book. I nam. Lit. 'reward.' Hence land hek — of revenue free oi at a reduced rate, often subject black eye with a Devasthan, Saranjam, Watan< ' Gunj.— The red seed creeper to service. See ' Abrtjs Preoatorius, a common wild Inundation Canal.— A channel taken ofl weight for minute quantities i used as the official high level from a river at a comparatively of opium 96th of a Tola. river is ie which conveys water only when the Gup, or Gup Shup.—Tittle tattle. dood. South- Gur, Goor— Crude sugar syn. jaggery, tanyet, Burma. ; Izzat. Prestige. — ern India ; jack Fruit— Fruit of Artooarpus Inte Gural.— A Himalayan goat antelope. Cema grifolia, ver. PHANAS. a oral. Kaohch a.—Unripe, mud-built, inferior. GuRDWARA. A Sikh Shrine.— Jaggery, jagri.— Name in Southern Indi Guru. (1) A — Hindu religious preceptor; for crude sugar ; syn gur. . (2) a schoolmaster, Bengal. Habshi.—Literally an Abyssinian. Now a revenue JAGIR. An assignment of land, or of th — of land held by a Jagirdar. term for anyone whose complexion is particularly dark. A term denoting dignity, applied t J AH. — —(commonly pronounced " Hadis ") highest class nobles in Hyderabad State. Hadith. Tradition of the Prophet. Jam (Sindhi or Baluch).— Chief. Also th Hafiz.— Guardian, one who has Quran by Jam of Nawanagar. heart. — Jamabandi. The annual settlement mad| under the ryotwari system. Haj— Pilgrimage to Mecca. Jamadar— A native officer in the army Hajam, Hajjam.—A barbar. ! police. — A Mahomedan Haj I who has performed ! Jangama. —A Lingayat priest. the haj. He entitled to dye his beard red. is Hakim. — A native doctor practising the ;< —Distraint attachment Japti. ; : corrupt of medicine. Zabti." Mahomedan system Jatha. —An association. Hakim (with long a).— Governor, ruler. (from Islam point of view). Jatka. — Pony-cart, South India. Halal— Lawful Island Used of meat of animal ceremoniously slaughter- Jazirat-ul- ARAB.— The Sacred co ed with a sawing motion of the knife, cf. Arabia, including all the countries which tain cities sacred to the Mahomedans Arab " Jhatka — Halalkhor. A sweeper or scavenger; lit. Palestine and Mesopotamia. Jhatka " Stroke— used of meat of anirc one to whom everything is lawful food. slaughtered with a stroke as opposed Hall— Current. Applied to coin of Native "Halal". s. v. States, especially Hyderabad. Hamal— (1) A porter or cooly, (2) a house — Jhil. A natural lake or swamp, Northe Assam. India ; syn. toil, Eastern Bengal and servant. Jihad.— A war undertaken by Mus Haq. —A right. mans. religious j Haruan— Untouchables. The". term origi- nally means " the people of God According to Jirga. —A council of tribal elders, Norl West frontier. Mr. Gandhi the term was suggested by certain of the class themselves who did rot care for the Jogi (Yogi). —A Hindu ascetic. description of " untouchable", and it was Josht.—Village astrologer. copied from the example of a poet of Gujarat. JOWAR.-The large millet, a very comm — Theera dating from the Andropogon SuR^hum, or soi food-grain, HEJIRA (Hijrah) hum vulgare syn. cholam and jola, in sou* Mahomed flight of to Mecca, June 20th, €22 A.]>. ; 1 ern India. Heera Lal.— A Hindu name (' Hira is j UDI __a revenue term in S. Division of diamond and ' Lal * is ruby.) Bombay Presidency. Hilsa.— A kind of fish, Clupea ilisha. exer Judicial Commissioner.— An officer Hoondi, Hundi. —A draft (banking.) ing the functions of a High Court in the Cent Provinces, Oudh, and Sind. TTolk AR. — See ' ' Gaekwar." . An Indian Glossary. Kachcha.—Unripe, mud built, inferior. — Khalasi. A native fireman, artil- Kaohbri, kachahri. — An sailor, office or office build - leryman, or tent-pitcher. lg, especially that of a Government official. Khalsa.— Lit. pure.' (1) Applied especi- Kadab, karbi.— The stalk of jowari (0. v.)— ally to themselves by the Sikhs, the word Khalsa valuable fodder. being equivalent to the Sikh community: Kafir.—Tnfldel, applied by Muslims to all (2) land directly under Government as on-Muslims. opposed to land alienated to grantees, etc., Northern India, and Deccan. Kaju, kashew.— The nut of Anaoardium KHAN.—Originally the ruler of a email Ocidentale, largely grown in tlie Konkan. Mohammedan state, now a nearly empty title Kakar. —The barking deer, Cervulus munt- though prized. It Is very frequently used rather as part of a name, especially by Afghans and ko. K akri. — Cu cu mbcr. Pa than s. Kalar, kallar.— Barren land covered with Khandi, candy. A weight especially used for cotton bales in Bombay, equivalent to 20 mds. lit or alkaline efflorescences, Northern India, KALI-YUGA.-| The Iron Khansama. —A butler. ftge> (ghort a)> Kharab .— Also " Kharaba." In Bombay of Kali. —Popular goddess, consort 1 any portion of an assessed survey No. which of Shiva. i (long a) being uncultivable is left unassessed. Kali.— Black soil. —The Mahomedan Confession of Kalima. J Khargosh. —H are. K am arb and, Cummerbund.— A waistcioth, or faith Kharif. — Any crops sown just before 01 Bit. during the main S. W. monsoon. Kanat. — The wall of a large tent. " Kanat " n Persia) — Underground Canal. Khas.— Special, in Government hands. Khas tahasildar, the manager of a Govern- Kangar. — A kind of portable warming-pan, ment estate. irried by persons in Kashmir to keep them- warm. — Khasadar. Local levies of foot soldiers, ;lves Afghanistan or N. W. Frontier. — Kankar. Nodular limestone, used for metal- Khas-Khas, Kub-Kus.— A grass with scented ng roads, as building stones or for preparation roots, used for making screens which are ' lime. placed in doorways and kept wet to cool a Kans. —A coarse grass which spreads and house by rosus. evaporation, Andropogon Sqtjar- •events cultivation especially in Bundelkhand ICCHARTTM SPONTANEUM. Khedda, kheda.— A stockade into which — Kanungo. A Kevenue Inspector. wild elephants are the operations for catching. driven ; also applied to Kapas.— Cotton. KmoHADi,kejjeree— A dish Karait.— A very venomous snake, Bun- LRUS CANDIDUS Or OAERULEUS. of cooked rice and other ingredients, and by Anglo-Indians specially used of rice with fish. Karbhari. — A manager. Also Dewan in — Khilat. A robe of honour. laller States in Maharashtra and Gujarat- Khutba.— The weekly prayer for Maho- Karez.— (Persian 'Kanat'.) Underground medans in general and for the reigning sov- nnels near the skirts of hills, by which water ereign in particular. gradually led to the surface for irrigation, pecially in Baluchistan. Khwaja. —A sometimes a name. Persian word for " master," Karkttn. —A clerk or writer, Bombay. Kincob, kamkhwab.— Silk textiles brocad- Karma.— The doctrine that existence is ed with gold or silver. nditioned by the sum of the good and evil tions in past existences. — Kirpan. A Sikh religious emblem; a sword. Karnam.— See Patwari. — Kisan. Agriculturist, used in North India " Ryot "in Maharashtra, etc. Kartoos. — A cartridge. Kodali Also " Kudali". —The implement like Kas.— The five " Kas " which denote the Sikh a hoe or mattock in common use for digging • 3 Kes, the uncut hair: Kachh, the short syn. mamuti, Southern India. iwers ; Kara, the iron bangle ;el knife ; and Kangha, ; the comb. Kirpan, the Konkan. tween the —The narrow strip of low land be- Western ghats and the Kasai. —A butcher. Kos.— A variable measure distance sea. Kazi.— Better written Qazi— Under native usually estimated at about two of miles. The a J?i? gLe adm 'Qistering Mahomedan law. distance between the kos-minars or milestones ider British rule, the kazi registers marriages on the Mughal Imperial roads averages a little &ween Mahomedans and performs other func- over 2 miles, 4 furlongs, 150 yards. Also means ns, but has no powers conferred the leathern water-lift drawn by bullocks in by law. Kharita.—Letter from an Indian Prince Gujarat and Kathiawar. i Governor-General. to — Kot. Battlements. Ihabardar. —Beware. — Kothi. A large house. Kotwal.— The head of the police in a town, under native rule. The term is still used in Hyderabad and other parts of India. a . 8 An Indian Glossary. in a Mahal.— (1) Formerly a considerable tract police station Kotwali.—The chief of country ; (2) now a village or Pa£ Jfa headquarters town. village for which a separate agreement is taken Kucha bandi — A barrier or gateway erected for the payment of land revenue; (3) a de- catch ele- across a lane. partment of revenue, e.g., right to^ phants, or to take stone ; (4) in Bombay a small unbelief in the Quran and Kufr.— Infidelity, Taluka under a Mahalkari. the Prophet. — KULE ARNI See PATWARI. . M — ah ant. The head of a Hindu conventual establishment. Kumbhamela.—The great fair at Hardwar rulers every 12 year Maharaja.— The highest of hereditarydistinc- ao called because when It is held Jupiter and Sun are In the sign Kumbhas, am.ng the Hindus, or else a personal bion conferred by (Aquarius). variations as under ' Kaja with the addition of ' Kumhar." Maharaj Kana: feminine is Maharani Kumbhar.— (M.) A potter. its (MAHA=great). — Ktjnbi. An agriculturist (Kanbi in Gujarat Maharaj Kumar. Son of a Maharaja. — Kurmi in N. India.) Kunwab or Kumar. The — heir of a Raja, Ai att atm —flit.) A great soul; applied to Kathiawar) men IhcT have transcended the limitations of (Every son of any chief in Gujarat and he flesh and the world. — Kuran. A big grass land growing grass fit A Hindu title denoting Mahamahopadhyaya.— for cutting. learned in Sanskritic lore. Kushti (U)., Kusti (M). —Wrestling. Mahsber, mahasir.— A large carp. Barpus- Kyarl— tand embanked to hold water for for (lit. * the big-headed rice cultivation. latifolia, pro Mahua—A tree, Bassia dried) — A Buddhist Kyaung. monastery, Burma. which ducing flowers used (when and seeds as,foo(f or which furnish always contains a school, fs of Central Asia, giving rain Nagarsheth.— The head of the trading guild in India only of Hindu J. E. Madras and Ceylon and Jain merchants in a city. through moisture lired in crossing the Bay of Bengal, and ing across the e quator into the low pressure Naib. — Assistant or Deputy. s of the Australasian Southern summit. . ^ M]?;~"~A in Southern India; (2) a native oflBcer of the leader » hen ce (1) a local chieftain Oplah (Mappila).—A fanatical Mahomedan lowest rank (corporal) in the Indian armv in Malabar. (In Bombay a head peon.) luslim teacher. — ouLVi or Matjlvi. A learned Musalman Nat. A demon or spirit, Burma. — udaliyar OR Mud-liar. A personal — Nawab. A title borne by Musalmans, — name, but implying steward of the corresponding roughly to that of Raja among 4 »er * s." Hindus. Originally a Viceroy under the Moghal Government, now the regular leading UEZZIN —Person employed to sound the title of a Mohammedan Prince, corresponding omedan call to prayer. M to Maharaja " of the Hindu. offassal, mofussil.— The outlying parts of [strict, Province or Nawabzada.— Presidency, as distin- Son of a Nawab. led from the headquarters (Sadr). — Nazar, nazarana. A due paid on succession or on certain ceremonial occasions. JJAWAR.— Custodian of Musalman sacred especially Saint's tomb. Nazim. — Superintendent or Manager. 10 An Indian Glossary. xr^rr a writs (1) Io Northern India, the Pakka, Pucca.—Ripe, mature, complete. gross produce of land taken Palas .— See Dhak. rent or share o"' the and Lower Madras In —A palanquin or S the landlord ; (2) Rnrma the difference Between the assumed crop and the estimate of its of the of production. cost bed- Palki. Pan. — The betel vine, Pipe Betel. Panohama.— Low caste, Southern India. litter. NevVAR.—Broad webbing woven across Panchayat.—(1) A committee for manage steads instead of iron slabs. ment of the affairs of a caste, village, town or , salted fish paste the panchayal Nga.pi —Pressed fish or (2) arbitrators. Theoretically made and consumed in Burma. has five (panch) members. largely Nilgao. —Blue Bull. A large antelope. Panda. —A Hindu priest, especially at holy — Nim ueem. A tree, Melia dyeing. Azadirachta the places. Pandit. — A used in Hindu title, strictly speaking berries of which are applied to a person versed in the Hindu scrip- Nirvana.— See Mukti. tures, but commonly used by Brahmans. li o NIK ah.—Muslim legal marriage. Assam applied to a grade of Inspectors Nishan. —Sign, Sacred Symbol carried in a primary schools. Supak procession. Pansupari— Distribution of Pan and hospitality. of Hyderabad, v.) as a form of ceremonial Nizam —The title of the ruler superior to Nawab. {q. Pawpaw fruit thfone Mohammedan Prince Papaiya.—Fruit-tree or its —A sub-division of a Native State, Carica Papaiya. NT/AMAT chiefly in corresponding to a British District, P ARAB.— A public place for the distributio charity. the Punjab and Bhopal. of water, maintained by Enhanced plal Non-agricultural Assessment.— assessed Parabadi.— A platform with a smaller pi la ™trft mWied when land already i form like a dovecot on a centre pole or i r"utlrTf diverted to use as a bunding built and endowed or maintained by charity animals an industrial concerns. site or for where grain is put every day for non-ooonkabib.— An offence for which the birds. arrested by the police without Parda, purdah.—(1) A veil or curtain culprit cannot be ; ( | the practice of keeping women secluded ; sy a warrant. ruler of Spitta. Nono (Thibetan).-The Non-ocoupanoy tenants. ™ith few statutory rights, beyond the terms [ vt^xt t>^nm ation t„ ceSn iSvmcestolhow Mexcept in Oudh, leases or agreements. A term formerly applied that the regulations A class of tenant, P ARD AN ASHIN.—Women who observe cially of Hindu servants, Northern India. — syces, &c, Pargana. Fiscal area or petty purdah Tardesi.— Foreign. Used in Bombay 1 esp sub-divisi( S? hSM of legislation was not in force in of a tahsil in Northern India, gos them. ravine, watercourse, or Pashm.—The fine wool of the Tibetan Nullah, nala.-A hence Pashmina cloth. drain. . Pushto.— Language of the Patha Pashto, Occupancy tenants. -A class of tenants wlSi spetia" rights in Central Provinces, in Paso. —A waistcJoth. clay. Dese United Provinces. Pat, put.— A stretch of flrm.hard Burmese tree Padauk— A well-known of which Pat'el. — A village headman, Central Inda rP^ROOARPUS sp.)from the behaviour Western India; syn. reddi, »outh«rn the arrival of the monsoon is prognosticated. jzaonbura, Aasam ; padhan Northern a (Patil in Ma.. — U nhusked rice. Eastern India Mukhi, Guzarat. Paddy. of horses ashtra.) PAGA.-(Persian Paigah) troop r nmontt the Marathas. Patidar. —A co-sharer In a village, Gujar strayed or stolen P^oL-A tracker of thieves of Pattawalla.- -See Chaprasi. animals. — A mountain. Hyderabad State. Patwari. A — village kulkarni, accountant; syn. k Bombay Deccfi Pahar (Lit nam Madras; Kanara paigah —A tenure in talat't, Gujarat shanbhog, Mysore, ; "Paigah," i.e., mounted mandal, Assam tapedar, Sind. Jagir lor maintaining Coorg ; ; troops.) Assam former- Peon —See Chaprasi. (2) in P> ik P —d) A foot soldier free ; male above sixteen — Pbshkar. One who brings forward, sum- ly a^phed to every papers, etc., personal clerk. years. PAIli. — A grain measure. Wrestler. Pesheash. — A tribute or offering to a si PHLWAN, PAHLWAN.-Professional rlor. best variety and other patree —The name of the second PILAO (pulav).-A dish of rice «f Say v) by its pointed tip, the mango, distinguishable from the gredients and by Anglo-Indians specific and by with rice and spices. Iphus (q u\ed of chicken Colour bdng less yeUow and more green and red . An Indian Glossary. 11 —An Phulkari. embroidered sheet ; lit, Raja.— A Hindu Prince of exalted rank, but ower-work. inferior to "Maharaja". The feminine is Rani (Princess or Queen), and it has the varia- Piob, paisa. — A copper or bronze coir tions Raj, Rana, Rao, Rai, Rawal, Rawat, orth one farthing ; also used as a generic term Raikwar, Raikbar and Raikat. The form Rai >r money. is common in Bengal, Rao in S. AW. India. Pioottah. —A raising water in a lever for R aj Kumar— Son of a Raja. acket for Southern India; syn. irrigation, tienkul or dhenkuli, or dhikli, Northern India — Raj Rajeshwar. King of Kings. PlPAL.^Sacred fig tree. Ficus Religiosa. — Ramoshi. A caste whose work is to watch and ward in the village lands and hence used Pir.— A Mahomedan religious teacher or saint. for any chaukidar (g. v.) Actually a criminal tribe — Pleader. A class of legal practitioner. in Maharashtra. Pongyi. — A Buddhist monk or Burma priest, Rana. —A title borne by some Rajput chiefs, Postin, Posteen. —A coat or rug of sheep- equivalent to that of Raja. :in tanned with the wool on, Afghanistan. Rani.— The wife or widow of a Raja. Prabhat Pheri. — "Morning round,' Lit. Rann or Runn—Flat land flooded in the I parties going round early in the morning monsoon and incrusted with salt when dry, e.g., aging political songs. the Rann of Cutch. Prant. — An administrative sub-division in Ranza.—Mausoleum, shrine. aratha States, corresponding to a British Dis- ict (Baroda) or Division (Gwalior); also in Rao. —A title borne by Hindus, either equiva- lent to, or ranking below, that of Raja. athiawar. Prant or Prant Saheb. —Sub-Divisional Regar. — Name for a black soil in Central and Southern India, which is very retentive fficer ( in Bombay Presidency ). of moisture, and suitable for growing cotton. Presidency.— A former Division idia. of British — Regulation. A term formerly applied to certain provinces to show that the Regulations — Prince. Term used in English courtesy for or full code of legislation applied to them. Shahzada," but specially conferred in the se of 44 Prince of Arcot " (called also "Amain — Reh. Saline or the surface of the alkaline efflorescences on soil, Northern India. ircot "). Protected. — Forests over which —Forests intended to be main- Reserved. tained permanently. a consi- Rickshaw. — A one or two seat vehicle on irabie degree of supervision is exercised, but » than in the case of 'reserved' forests. two wheels drawn by used in the coolies, hills. Province.— One of the large Divisions Risaldar.— Commander of a troop of horses. of :itish India. Rom, Roz.—Nilgai. Puja.—Worship, Hindu. Rohu. —A kind of fish, La^eo rohita. —The priest attached to Pujari. a temple. Roti. —Bread. Pundit. —See Pandit. Roza.—Muslim fast during Ramazan. Purana. — Also 'old' Sanskrit Lit. (1) applied to Mausoleum (corruption of " rauza.") rtain Hindu religious books, (2) to a geologi- 1 4 group ' ; (3) also to 1 punch-marked ' Ryotwari. land revenue — The system of tenure in which ins. is imposed on the actual occupants of holdings. Purna Swaraj. — Complete independence. Sabha.—Assembly, Meeting, Council, Cong- — Purohit A domestic chaplain or spiritual ress. ide, Hindu. Sadhu. —A Hindu ascetic. Pwe. —An entertainment, Burma. Sadr, sudd er.— Chief (adjective). Hence the Pyalis —Bands of revellers who accompany headquarters of a District; formerly applied e Muharram processions. to the Appellate Courts. Sapa Jang—A long-handled Qilla.— A Fort. by Jat Sikhs. battleaxe carried Rabi. — Any crop sown after the main South- Safflower.— A thistle which yields a yellow est monsoon. dye from its petals and oil from its seeds Rag, Ragini.—Mode in Indian music. (Carthamus tinctorius), ver. kardai, kushanti. Ragi (Eleusine corocana).— A small millet — Saheb. The native Hindu term used to or ed as a food-grain in Western and Southern of aEuropean (' Mr. Smith " would be mentioned 4 dia ; syn. mania, Nagli Nachni. as " Smith Saheb," and his wife 44 Smith Mem-Saheb," but in addressing it would be Rail-gari.—Railway train. " Saheb," fem. 44 Saheba," without the name) ; occasionally appended to a title in the same Raiyat or Ryot.— Farmer. way as 44 Bahadur," but inferior (=master.) . A . 12 An Indian Glossary. of a person of consequence. Serow, sarau. — goat antelope, Nemor- Sahibzada.— Son HAEDTJS BUBALINTJS. P Syud.— f the Hindu dress brings the loincloth nearly lown to the On the Malabar coast, as feet. The folds are sometimes drawn in and tucked In Burma, the ends are In left loose in front. up behind. In the greater part of India women jhe greater part ot India, they are tucked up wear a bodice on the Malabar coast many do : — behind a fashion which is supposed to befit not, but merely throw a piece of cloth over the breast. In some communities petticoats, or [he warrior, or one end is gathered up in folds kfore and the other tucked up behind. The drawers, or both are worn. Many Mussalman (implest dress for the trunk is a scarf thrown ladies wear gowns and scarfs over them. The |>ver the left shoulder, or round both the shoul- vast majority of Mahomedan women are gosha jlers like a Roman toga. Under this garment and their dress and persons are hidden by a 13 often worn a coat or a shirt. When an veilwhen they appear in public : a few converts ndian appears in his full indigenous dress, he from Hinduism have not borrowed the custom. ! pears a long robe, reaching at least down to In Northern India Hindu women have generally he calves the sleeves may be wide, or long : adopted the Mussalman practice of seclusion. nd sometimes puckered from the wrist to the In the Dekhan and in Southern India they llbow. Before Europeans introduced buttons, have not. 1 coat was fastened by ribbons, and the fashion As a rule the hair is daily oiled, combed, I not obsolete. The Mahomedan prefers to parted in the middle of the head, plaited and •utton his coat to the left, the Hindu to the rolled into a chignon, by most women. Among ight. A shawl is tied round the waist over high caste Hindu widows sometimes shave he long coat, and serves as a belt, in which their heads in imitation of certain ascetics, or ne may carry money or a weapon, if allowed. monk? and nuns. Hindu men do not, as a !he greatest variety is shown in the head- rule, completely shave their heads, Mahomedans ress. More than seventy shapes of caps, in most cases do. The former generally remove ats, and turbans, may be seen in the city of the hair from a part of the head in front, over tombay. In the Punjab and the United the temples, and near the npck, and grow it in •rovinces, in Bengal, in Burma and in Madras the centre, the quantity grown depending Cones and cylinders, ther varieties prevail. upon the fancy of the individual. Nowadays omes and truncated pyramids, high and low, many keep the hair cropped in the European rtth sides at different angles : folded brims, fashion, which is also followed by Parsis and rojecting brims long strips of cloth wound : Indian Christians. Most Mussalmans grow ound the head or the cap in ail possible ways, beards, most Hindus do not, except in Bengal lgenuity culminating perhaps in the " parrot's and elsewhere where the Mahomedan influence — eak " of the Maratha turban all these fashions was paramount in the past. Parsis and Chris- ave been evolved by different communities tians follow their individual inclinations. Hindu nd in different places, so that a trained eye ascetics, known as Sadhus or Bairagis as dis- an tell from the head-covering whether the tinguished from Sanyasis, do not clip their earer is a Hindu, Mahomedan or parsi, and r hair, and generally coil the uncombed hair of 'hether he hails from Poona or Dharwar, the head into a crest, in imitation of the god Jimedabad or Bhavnagar. Shiva. — Fashion Variations. Fashions often vary Hindu women wear more ornaments than ithclimate and occupation. The Bombay others of the corresponding grade in society, sherman may wear a short coat and a cap, Ornaments bedeck the head, the ears, the nose, jnd may carry a watch in his pocket ; yet, as the neck, the arms, wrists, fingers the waist i6 Manners and Customs. source. Round his neck and about his ears motherhood is attained, and by some until and limbs are serpents, and he also wears a even later— and the toes. Children wear several peculiar necklace of skulls. In his hands are anklets. Each community affects its and a weapons, especially a trident, a bow, ornaments, though imitation is not uncommon. thunderbolt, and also a drum which he sounds Serpents with several heads, and flowers, like while dancing for he is_very fond of^this exer- the lotus, the rose, and the champaka, are amon g vehicle cise. sits on a tiger's skin, and his He the most popular object of representation is is awhite bull. His wife Parvati and his son gold or silver. Ganesha sit on his thighs. esoteric mean- An physieai a ing is attached to every part of his Caste Marks— Caste marks constitute personality. The three eyes denote an insight mode of personal decoration peculiar to Hindus, the moon, especially of the higher castes. The simplest into the past, present and future : months, mark is a round spot on the forehead It the serpents, and the skulls denote a personification represents prosperity or joy, and is omitted in vears and cycles, for Shiva is of time, the great destroyer. He is also wor- mourning and on fast-days. It may be red, represents or yellowish as when it is made with ground shipped as a Linga or phallus which sandalwood paste. The worshippers of Vishnu creative energy. draw a vertical line across the spot, and as —Ganesh or Ganpati, the con- Lakshmi is the goddess of prosperity, it is said Ganpati troller of all powers of evil subject to Shiva, is to represent her. A more elaborate mark on India. forehead has the shape of U or V, generally worshipped by all sects throughout the to with the central line, sometimes without it, Every undertaking is begun with a prayer him. He has the head of an elephant, a large and represents Vishnu's foot. The worship- abdomen, serpents about his waist and wrists, pers of Shiva adopt horizontal lines, made with piece of ms several weapons in his hands, and a sandalwood paste or ashes. Some Vaishnayas broken tusk in one hand. He is said to have stamp their temples, near the corners of the attack the moon for it off when he wanted to eyes with figures of Vishnu's conch and disc. his body ridiculing him. The different parts of Other parts of the body are also similarly are also esoterically explained. His vehicle is The material used is a kind of yel- marked. lowish clay. To smear the arms and the chest a rat. a favourite kind of energy of with sandalwood paste is Beads of Parvati— Parvati, the female names and toilet, especially in the hot season. Shiva, is worshipped under various sacred Basil, and berries of Rudraksna head of female super- Tulsi or worn forms. She is at the all elceocarpus ganUrus, strung together are natural powers, many of whom are her own round their necks by Vaishnavas and Shaivas, manifestations. Some are benign and beau- respectively. The Lingayats, a Shaiva sect, Kali, the tute- tiful, others terrible and ugly. suspend from their necks a metallic casket lary deity of Kalighat or Calcutta, is one of her their god. containing the Linga or phallus of fierce manifestations. In this form she is Bairagis, ascetics, besides wearing Rudraksha black: a tongue smeared with blood projects rosaries round their necks and matted hair, weapons, from her gaping mouth : besides her smear their bodies with ashes. Religious she carries corpses in her hands, and round ner mendicants suspend from their necks figures neck are skulls, Bombay also takes its name of the gods in whose name they beg. Strings from a goddess, Mumbadevi. Gouri, to annual whom their necks. of cowries may also be seen round offerings are made in Indian homes at an Muslim dervishes sometimes carry peacock's festival, is benign. On the other hand the small- feathers. epidemic diseases like the plague and goddesses or Hindu women mark their foreheads with a pox are caused by certain widows " mothers." red spot or horizontal line. High caste Hindu are forbidden to exhibit this sign of happiness, Vishnu, the second member of the as also to deck themselves with flowers or trinity, is the most popular deity next to Shiva. ornaments. Flowers are worn in the chignon He is worshipped through his several incarna- Hia Hindu women smear their faces, arms, and feet tions as well as his original personality. sometimes with a paste of turmeric, so that reclines home is the ocean of milk, where he serpent. they may shine like gold. The choice of the on the coils of a huge, many-headed colour for different purposes cannot At his feet sits Lakshmi, shampooing his legs. same always be explained in the same way. The From his navel issues a lotus, on which is seated averted member the trinity, in red liquid with which the evil eye is Brahma, the third of blows on the may be a substitute for the blood of the animal his hands are the conch, which he slaughtered for the purpose in former times. battlefield, and the disc, with which the headl In many other cases this colour has no such of his enemies are severed. Round his neck arc The Muslim dervish affects green garlands of leaves and flowers, and on hi! associations. represents the Sikh Akall is fond of blue, the Sanyasi breast are shining jewels. As Shiva can ana adopts orange for his robe, and no reason destruction, Vishnu represents protection, carry on the be assigned with any degree of certainty. his son is the god of love. To frorx mos- work of protection, he incarnates himself Shiva —India is a land of temples, every time to time, and more temples are dedicatee ques and shrines, and the Hindu finds at appeased. nowadays to his most popular incarnation! turn some supernatural power to be Rama and Krishna, than to his original per Shiva has the largest number of worshippers. Rama is a human figure with 83i He has three eyes, one in his forehead, a moon s sonality. top of bow in one of his hands. He is always orescent in his matted hair, and at the companied by his wife Site, often by his brcthe the riyer the coil a woman's face representing Lakshmana, and at his feet, or standing befor in the Ganges. His abode is the Mount Kailas him with joined hands, is Hanuman, the monke. Hlmalavas, from which the river takes its Indian Names. lieftain, who assisted him in his expedition treats her as his mother. So did the Rishi of gainst Havana, the abductor of his wife. old, who often subsisted on milk and fruits and Irishna is also a human figure, generally re- roots. To the agriculturist cattle are indis- resented as playing on a flute, with which he pensable. The snake excites fear. Stones, on larmcd the damsels of his city, esoterically which the image of a serpent is carved, may be cplained to mean his devotees. seen under many trees by the roadside. The principal trees and plants worshipped are the Brahma Is seldom worshipped : only a Sacred Fig or Pipal, the Banyan, the Sacred Juple of temples dedicated to him have yet Basil, the Bilva or Wood Apple, the Asoka, and sen discovered in all India. the Acacia. They are in one way or another Minor Deities — The minor gods and god- associated with some deity. The sun, the 3sses and the deified heroes and heroines who moon, and certain planets are among the hea- II the Hindu pantheon, and to whom shrines venly bodies venerated. The ocean and certain :e erected and worship is offered, constitute a great rivers are held sacred. Certain moun- gion. Many of them enjoy a local reputa- tains, perhaps because they are the abodes of on, are unknown to sacred literature, and are gods and Rishig, are holy. Pebbles from the orshipped chiefly by the lower classes. Some Gandaki and the Narmada, which have curious ! them, though not mentioned in ancient lite- lines upon them, are worshipped in many house- iture, are celebrated in the works of modern holds and temples. ints. Worship.— Without going into a temple, one The Jains in their temples, adore the can get a fair idea of image worship by seeing cred personages who founded and developed how a serpent-stone is treated under a tree. leir sect, and venerate some of the deities It is washed, smeared with sandal, decorated >mmon to Hinduism. But their view of with flowers : food in a vessel is placed before ivinity is different from the Hindu concep- it, lamps are waved, and the worshipper goes 3n, and in the opinion of Hindu theologians round it, and bows down his head, or pros- ley are atheists. So also the Buddhists of trates himself before the image. In a temple urraa pay almost the same veneration to larger bells are used than the small ones that rince Siddhartha as if he was a god, and are brought to such a place : jewels are placed deed elevate him above the Hindu gods, but on the idol : and the offerings are on a larger om the Hindu standpoint they are also scale. Idols are carried in public procession in heists. palanquins or cars. The lower classes sacri- Images —Besides invisible powers and dei- ficeanimals before their gods and goddesses. ;d limals, persons, the trees and Hindus venerate certain inanimate objects. This — Domestic Life. Of the daily domestic life of the people a tourist cannot see much. meration must have originated in gratitude, He may see a marriage or funeral procession. In ar, wonder, and belief in spirits as the cause the former he may notice how a bridegroom or all good or harm. Some of the animals are bride is decorated the latter may shock him .hides of certain gods and goddesses gle of Vishnu : the swan of Brahma : the the — for a : Hindu dead body is generally carried on a few pieces of bamboo lashed together a thin : acock of Saraswati Hanuraan, the monkey : cloth is thrown over it and the body is tied to Eama : one serpent upholds the earth, an- the frame. The Mahomedan bier is more il er makes Vishnu's bed : elephants support decent, and resembles the Christian coffin. e ends of the universe, besides one such Some Hindus, however, carry the dead to the imal being Indra's vehicle : the goddess burial ground in a palanquin with great pomp. irga or Kali rides on a tiger : one of Vishnu's The higher castes cremate the dead : others carnations was partly man and partly lion, bury them. Burial is also the custom of the le cow is a useful animal : to the Brahman Muslims, and the Parsis expose the dead in getarian her milk is indispensable, and he Towers of Silence. Indian Names. The personal name of most Hindus denotes a stone : small or tall, weak or strong : a lion, material object, colour, or quality, an animal, a snake, a parrot, or a dog : and to name a relationship, or a deity. The uneducated woman after a flower or a creeper. Thus, to a-n, who cannot correctly pronounce long take a few names from the epios, Pandu means nskrit words, is content to call his child, white, and so does Arjuna Krishna black: : kher, brother, uncle, or mother, or sister, Bhima terrible : Nakula a mongoose Shunaka : the case may be. This practice survives a dog Shuka a parrot Shringa a horn. Among : : )ong the higher classes as well. Appa Saheb, the names prevalent at the present day Hira ma Rao, Babaji, Bapu Lai, Bhai Shankar, is a diamond Ratna or Ratan a jewel Sonu : : ttacharya, Jijibhai, are names of this de- or Chinna gold Velli or Belli, in the Dra vidian : iption, with honorific titles added. It is languages, means white metal or silver. Men ssible that in early society the belief in the are often called after the davs of the week on birth of departed kinsmen lent popularity to which they were born, and hence they bear is practice. Nothing could be more natural the names of the seven heavenly bodies con- an to call a man white, black, or red : gold cerned. When they begin to assume the silver : gem, diamond, suby, pearl, or merely names of the Hindu deities, they practically i8 Indian Names. Acharya, Bhat, Bhattacharya, Upadhyaya, enter upon a new stage of civilisation. It changed in Bengal into Mukhopadhyaya, is doubtful whether the Animists ever venture the titles indicative of the Mukerji, are among to assume the names of the dreaded spirits Brahmanical profession of studying and teach- worshipped by them. To pronounce the name Among warlike classes, to invite him to do harm. If the ing the sacred books. of a devil is human like the Rajputs and Sikhs, the title Singh spirits sometimes bear the names of popular than the ancient were (lion) has become mere beings the reason seems to be that they human. Varma. The Sindti Mai, as in Gidumal, Driginally and has the same force. Raja means brave High-caste practices.— The high caste changed into Raya, Rao and Rai was a poli- Hindu on the other hand, believes that the more tical title, and is not confined to any casts. the otten the name of a deity is on his lips The Bengali family names, like Bose and Ghose, more merit he earns. Therefore he delibe- Dutt and Mitra, Sen and Guha, enable one rately names his children after his gods and to identify the caste of their bearers, because goddesses, so that he may have the oppor- the caste of a family or clan cannot be changed. tunity of pronouncing the holy names as fre- Shet, chief of a guild or a town, becomes Cbetty, quently as possible. These are also sonorous a Vaishya title, in Southern India. Mudaliyar and picturesque. Shiva is happy Vishnu is : Krishna and Nayudu, meaning leaders, are titles which a pervader Govinda is the cowherd were assumed by castes of political importance : : Keshava has fine hair : Rama is a delighter : under native rulers. Nayar and Menon are Lakshmana is lucky: Naiayana produced the the titles of important castes in Malabar. Ram, first living being on the primeval waters: Lai, Nand, Chand, are among the additions Ganesha is the Lord of Shiva's hosts Dinakara : made to personal names in Northern India. is the luminary that makes the day: Subrah- Suffixes like Ji, as in Ramji or Jamshedji, the manya is a brother of Ganesha. Sita is a Kanarese Appa, the Telugu Garu. the feminine ray Tara a star a of light Bai or Devi, are honorific. Prefixes like Babu, : furrow Savitri : : Radha prosperity : Rukmini is she of golden Baba, Lala, Sodhi, Pandit, Raja, and the ornaments: Bhama ot the giowing heart. Burmese Maung are also honorific. thou- Shiva and Vishnu has each got at least a sand names, and they may be freely drawn Professional names.— Family names some- upon and paraphrased in naming one s children ; times denote a profession in some cases they : and the whole Hindu pantheon is as crowded might have been conferred by the old rulers. as it is large. When a mother loses several Mehta, Kulkarni, Deshpande, Chitnavis, Mahal- children, she begins to suspect that some evil navis are the names of offices held in former spirit has conspired against her and in order times. One family name may mean a flour unattractive to the a to make her orf-spring seller, another a cane-seiler, and a third names, powers of darkness, she gives them ugly liquor-seller. To insert the father's name dunghill or such as Kure, rubbish, or Ukirda, between one's personal and the family name ig Martoba, the mortal. Women are named after a common practice in Western India. It is as Sarasvati, Ganga, Bhagirathi, Goda- When a family comes from a rivers, rare elsewhere vari or Kaveri, just as men are sometimes certain place, the sumx ' k\r* or 'wallah* is called after mountains. Manu counsels young added to the name of the place and it makes a with such a name, men not to choose a wife family surname in Western India. Thus we perhaps because a river is an emblem of devi- as a hill is an emblem may have Chiplunkars and Suratwallahs, or ousness and inconstancy, without these affixes we may have Bhavnagris, of stability. But the names of rivers have Malabaris and Bilimorias, as among Parsis. The Bunnans have a not been discarded. Monday, ' Thus Vasudev Pandurang Chiplunkar would be if a child is born on a rurious custom : i a Hindu, whose personal name is Vasudev, his name must begin with a guttural on Tues- family name its father's nume n.nduraug, and a labial, day with a palatal, on Thursday with derived from the village of Chiplun, is Chip- on Saturday with a dental. lunkar. In Southern India the village name precedes the personal name. The ovolution Family names.— When a person name a rises in of Musalman names follows the same lines importance, he adds to his personal was once the rule as Hindu names. But Muslims have no god family or caste name. It goddesses, and their names are derived be aJded to a or that the title Sharma might from their religious and secular history. These Brahman's name, Varma to a Kshatnyas, Shudra s. names and titles are often as long and pic- Gunta to a Vaishvas, and Dasa to a turesque as Hindu appellations. The agno- in the case of This rule is fairlv well observed mens Baksh, Din, Ghulam, Khwaje, Fakir, two titles, but the meaning of the the Kazi, Munshi, Sheikh, Syed, Begum, Bibi and first other two has changed. Dasa means a slave Khan Brahman cannot others as well as honorific additions like or servant, and the proudest have meanings which throw light on Muslim himself the servant of some disdain to call customs and institutions. The Parsis also Thus, although Kalidas, the famous trod the famous have no gods and goddesses, and their personal poet was a Shudra, Ramadas, names are generally borrowed from their sacred guru of Shivaji, was a Brahmin. The Vaish- made this fashion of calling one- and secular history. Their surnames fre- mivas have quently indicate a profession or a place, ai self a servant ot some god exceedingly popular, Hindus of Hindus in Western India. Batli- in the case of and in Western India high caste wallah,Readymoney, Contractor, Saklatwallah, this sect very commonly add Das to their Brahmans of Southern India add Adenwallah and others like them are tell-tale names The names. Shastn, Aiyar'or Aiyangar to their names. . — 19 Indian Art. In India there has never been so marked a sion of the thirteenth century. At old Delhi are separation between what are now known as fine examples in the Kutub Mosque and Minar. the Fine Arts, and those applied to industry The characteristics of the style are severity as was the case in Europe during the nineteenth of outline, which is sometimes combined with century. As, however, Industrial art forms elaborate decoration due, it is stated, to the the subject of a special article in this book, employment of Hindu craftsmen. The mosques the term Indian Art will here be confined to and tombs at Ahmedabad already show Hindu Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. influence but purer examples are to be found — Historical. The degree of proficiency at- at ; Jaunpore and Mandu. Indo- Saracenic tained in art by Indians prior to B. C. 250, can Architecture reached the climax of its develop- only be conjectured by their advancement ment during the reigns of the Moghul Emperors, in literature ; and by the indirect evidences Akbar, Jehangir and Shah Jahan. It eclipsed of indebtedness shown by the works of the in richness of material and refinement of taste historic period, to those which preceded them ; the building efforts of previous periods, its or direct records of artistic work of an earlier crowning example being the Taj Mahal at Agra. date than B.C. 250 do not exist. The chief The buildings erected during the Adil Shahi historic schools of architecture are as follows: dynasty at Bijapur at a slightly later date, Name. Dates. Locality of the best exhibit a certain Turkish influence, especially Examples. in the great tomb of Mahmoud. Though less Buddhist ..B.C.250— Ellora, Ajanta,Kali, refined and lacking the attraction of precious A.D.750. Sanchi. materials in their decoration, these splendid Jaina . ..A.D.1000— Ellora, Mount Abu, edifices are held in higher esteem by some 1300. Palitana. critics than those of the Moghals, on account Brahminical . . AD . . 5 DO to Ellora, Elephanta, of their simplicity, grandeur and fine proportions. the present Orissa, Bhuvanes- The era of great civil architecture in India was day. war, Dharwar. revived by the Mahomedan powers. Splendid Chalukyan ..A.D.1000 — Umber, Somnathpur, palaces and fortresses were built at Madras, 1200. Ballur. Delhi, Agra. Fattehpore-Sikri and Bijapur, and Dravidian ..A.D.1350— Ellora, Tan j ore, Ma- the example thus set was copied by the Hindu 1750. dura, Tinnevelly. princes at Jaipur, Udaipur and elsewhere in Pathan ..A.D.1200— Delhi, Mandu, Jaun- India. The application of great architectural 1550. pore. treatment, unequalled in extent elsewhere, is Jndo- Saracenic A.D.I 520 — Lahore. Delhi. Agra, to be seen in the Ghauts or steps enclosing lakes 1760. Amber, Bijapur. and on the banks of rivers. The most notable Buddhist Architecture is mainly exemplified constructional contribution of the Mahomedans by the rock- cut temples and monasteries found to Indian architecture was the introduction in Western India and in the Topes or sacred of the true arch and dome. mounds. The interior decorations, and exter- nal facades of the former, and the rails and Sculpture.—The use of sculpture and paint- ing in isolated works of art was practically gates surrounding the latter point unmistak- ably to their being derived from wooden struc- non-existent in India until modern times. One tures of an earlier period. The characteristic or two reliefs and certain gigantic figures may features of these temples are horse-shoe open- be quoted as exceptions, but taken generally it may be stated that these arts were employed ings in the facades to admit light, and collo- nades of pillars with richly ornamented caps in as the decorative adjuncts of architecture. the interior halls. Jaina Architecture is found No civil statuary, such as is now understood in its most highly developed form in the Dilwara by the term, was executed ; for no contempo- temples at Mount Abu. The rary portrait figures, or busts in marble, or ground plan bronze, have come down to us from the ruins consists of a shrine for the god or saint a ; porch, and an arcaded courtyard with niches of ancient India, as they have from those of for images. The characteristic of the style Egypt, Greece and Rome. Sculpture has been is grace and lightness, with decorative used exclusively as the handmaid of religion carvin^ and to this fact may be attributed the stereo- covering the whole interior, executed with great elaboration and detail. typed forms to which it became bound. The Constructional lavish use of sculpture on Indian temples often methods suggest that original types in wood have been copied in marble. exceeds good taste, and mars the symmetry and dignity of their mass and outline ; but for Brahminical, Chalukyan and Dravidian exuberance of imagination, industrious elabo- styles differ little in essential plan, all having a ration and vivid expression of movement shrine for the god, preceded by pillared por- Indian sculpture is pernaps without its equal ches. The outer forms vary. The northern elsewhere in the world. The most impressive Brahminical temples have a curved pyramidal specimens are the earliest, found in the Buddhist roof to the shrines, which in the southern or and Brahminical cave temples of Ellora, Aianta Dravidian 3tyle are crowned by a horizontal and Rlephanta. system of storied towers, and each story, de- The great Trimurthi in the last named of these temples ranks for creasing in size, is ornamental with a central mystery and expressive grandeur with the cell and figures in high relief. The Chalukyan greatest masterpieces of art. The outstanding style is affected by its northern and southern characteristics of Hindu sculpture are the neighbours, takine features from each without power displayed In suggesting movement; losing its own special characteristics of wtilch the fine sense of decorative arrangements of the star-shaped plan of the shrine, with the five- line and mass ; and an overpowering ingenuity fold bands of external ornament, is the prin- In intricate design. Mahomedan cipal feature. Pathan sculpture Architecture was in India, though not exclusively confined Introduced into India by the Mahomedan inva- to geometric forms as is that the 0f Indian Art. 20 branches is very ^thTMahiunedans. The pictures of both Arabian school, highly decorative more severe that ol tne oTthe Moghul school, although ' restrained as compared with j were not intended for exftiDi- in character, are often used in the to Findus Floral motifs rarely in to upon the walls of rooms according ornaments to tombs and palaces, but Western practice, and, when not used as^lus- Their geometric ornament manuscript books, t^sf of mosques. 9 ^Iton^and trations or decorations to hows °greTt°mgenuity and I wre preserved in portfolios. It is very si^ii- wonderful decorative use is Arabic and Urdu lettering in ad ™ V panels, and their human or of St P that up to the best period minting the reign of Jehangir, of Moghul European ideas extensively representation The P"nts were borders met with Sculp- Fn arrpSuresf and aSimal figires is rarely to be patronised by the Emperor. This broad eclec- a rule, kept SiSd and modelled relief is, asto the decora ticism of the Moghuls is in marked contrast to schoo of verflow ; and is mainly confinedlintels, or the the opinions of Mr. Havell and his Hon of mouldings, architraves, criticised the facilities relieve large exterior «itic? who have severely bands omamint which of of advanced training in Indian art schools ^nsoaces Buildings of purely Mahometan particular has adopted with greater restraint which Bombay in desigfand^workmanship show workmen have marked success. fhan tSose upon which Hindu but reign of Shah been emnloved and are more satisfactory ; MndPrn Painting.—As the artistic develop- celebrated windows are JahanExhibit**the high tide of arAhm?daLd the two combination of the his successor striking examples of a happy ment hi^ India7 so the reign of rapid decline. is a magnificent two styles and[Fattehpore Sikri Aurangzel.marks the period of its style of Akbar. of this are attributable to the ab- example of the mixed ThP causes this Emperor ; to sence of^ encouragement by Painting.—Much of the carved stonework of absence from the court at was as in ancient Ms long periods ^continuous wars upoS ancient Indian buildings with colour, but Delhi or Agra, entailed by of the ttreece and then decorated efforts to bring the whole the modern accepta- he wiged in his partly to the ^he onlv Paintings, in were Peninsula under his rule ; and tion of th term, ' now existing, which > fact ofthe school of Moghul painting becoming Moghul period, are those Foreign designer executed prior to the at Ajanta, stereotyped in its practice. 1 oeen noon the walls of the cave temples remarkable works nainters and craftsmen who had works Bagh, and\n Ceylon. These Attracted to India by the great during the first 600 were produced at intervals carried out by Akbar, Jehangir and Shah o 'the Christian era. They exhibit all the were years Jahan the country, and the r places left finer characteristic of the best Indian sculpture, successors. The indigenous ar^sts of expression due Jaken by no ^of small bSt with an added freedom left to themselves in the isolated courts vehicle employed. The schools in remote to the more tractable in the Deccan Indian princes, or collected in upon Ajanta Caves remained hidden > employed themselves mainly Sets jungles for nearly twelve hundred yea« , until works of a previous age, instead iney are repeating thV treatment. discovered in 1816. motifs for artistic anoidentallv when first of seeSng new oSnted in a species of tempora ; and but they At the time when the British Eastguild of India bought to light were well preserved owing to the well Pnmnanv ceased to be only a have greatly deteriorated and became a great administrative . copyists and the merehants in meant but misguided action of Nizam^ Govern- nower ^n 1757, very little vitality survived the neglect of the authorities. The country. During the Indent art of the , years done a great deal to history between ment have in recent administrative preservation and study of these mural centurT of its Mutiny, Plassey and the Indian Sleo ; wards the P the ' of Indian pamtmg occupied in Xtings The second period fSe - Companv'' was too fully Persian existence, extending its borders introduction of Swed its origin to the I Akbar- and the n^htingS its ever agists by the Moghul Emperor and setting g the internal economy of Moghul to be able to give much school establishment of the indigenous and toMl mfreasing territom was due to the encouragement care of his successors, Jehangir and Shah Jahar Ajanta Painters which attention^ conserving r,ror»tiPP which had any "^^"^S? survived. Without any Unfike the works of the Introducing western art scale, the Pictures SelfbeSto tatotton of derivative style were designed upon a large miniatures. They fnto the country. Greek and its Moghul school were were adopted for public and of the of architeSe were executed in a species of opaque water- Calcutta, Bombay and to nrivato buildings In upon paper or vellum, resembling produced missals some extent the illuminated the middle ages. by the monks in Europe during specimens in Some of the finest of the earlier this phase,of are of a religion, c haracter ; inula to the art allied development being closely of the caltgraphlst. As of Its range extended^ a portrait painters arose tradittoSal ornament and ~"^ in « or sympathy. As there remarkable school accurate thev had no knowledge notame for restrained but extremely sculptors in India capable of modelling harmonious were no drawing keen insicht into character, r Irving civil sculpture, the monuments to £Sn Sacv decorative feeling, and extraordinary and finish in the painting of detail. i SlstSsh public servants were all imported of this move- The artists of a Hindu off-shoot were less ment known as the Rajput school,and purely technical Kuv endowed with thewere the Moghul pain- aesthctk"qualities than ?e1s ; biitthey Sought to their work poetry and are not to be found in that of sent ment which Art. 21 ologists, no official interest was taken in artistic nical standard of the artists who produced the best works of the Moghul or Rajput schools, I education until the Government of India was transferred to the British Crown in 1859. In and, as time has passed, their outlook appears England itself, the first fifty years of the nine- to have shifted, and, while stemming the flood teenth century was a period of gross commer- of western influence, they appear to have drift- cialism and artistic degradation ; but with the ed into a backwater of Japanese conventions. advent of the International Exhibition of 1851 The Indian public has failed to give the school the eyes of the nation were opened to the value the support it was hoped they would afford and of art as applied to industry. the movement has had to depend for encourage- The Schools of Art then instituted ment mainly upon Europeans in England and India. throughout England were imitated in a timid and tentative manner in India; and were attach- Bombay School of Art.—The attitude to- ed to the educational system, which had been wards the development of art in modern India previously modelled upon a definitely European taken by its successive Principals Messrs. Lock- basis. The work of the Schools of Art in wood Kipling, Griffiths, Greenwood, and Cecil regard to industrial art is referred to else- Burns, was on wider lines than that favoured by where; and as several of them have confined Mr. Havell. In general the view this School of their activities almost exclusively to this Art has taken is that with European literature branch of the subject it is sufficient to dominating the system under which the edu- mention only the work of the Schools at Cal- cated classes in India are trained and with cutta and Bombay in the present article. The European ideas, and science permeating the Calcutta school, except for occasional experi- professional commercial, industrial, and political ments in the application of the graphic arts to life of the country, it is not possible for modern lithography, engraving and stained glass, has artists in India to work on purely archaic become a school of painting and drawing. That models; and that to copy these would be as at Bombay covers a wider field for in addition ; unprofitable as it would be for the artists of to classes for modelling, painting and design it Europe to harness themselves to the conven- possesses a special school of architecture and a ; tions of the Greek and Roman sculptors or to range of technical workshops, in which instruc- those of the mediaeval painters that with Euro- ; tion is given in the applied arts. It is pean pictures, often of inferior quality illustrat- in the principles underlying the instruction in ing every educational text book, and sold in the painting that the schools at Calcutta and Bom- shops of every large city, it is essential for the bay have taken almost diametrically opposite proper education of art students that they should roads to reach the end they both have in view, have before them the masterpieces of European namely, the revival of the art of painting in art and that, with the wide adoption of Euro- ; India by means of an indigenous school of Indian pean styles of architecture in India, it is neces- painters. Mr. Havell, who several years sary for a school of art to possess the best ago was the Principal of the Calcutta School, examples of ornament applicable to the great (he left India in 1907) banished from historic styles, for the purpose of study and refe- within its walls every vestige of European rence. There are certain basic principles eom- art; and claimed that the traditional art mon to the technique of all great art, such as of India, in its old forms, is not dead, but fine and accurate drawing in its widest sense, merely sleeping or smothered by the blanket composition and design, and the science ot of European culture laid upon it for the last colour harmony. 150 years, and needed but to be released from this incubus to regain its pristine vigour. Well Among the developments during Mr. Burns, administration were the founding of the Archi- equipped with literary ability; backed by in- tectural School, the extension of drawing classes tense enthusiasm for the views he held, he in the Government Schools, and the appointment imposed upon his students an exclusive and of an Inspector of Drawing to inspect and report severe study of the Moghul and Rajput schools of painting. He was fortunate in finding on the drawing classes in the schools. A Pottery Department was also started and a willing and equally enthusiastic friend in Mr. Abinandranath Tagore, an artist of was abolished in 1926. Mr. Burns retired in imagination and fancy, combined with a serious 1918 and was succeeded in 1919 by the present Director, Mr. W. E. Gladstone Solomon. devotion to his art. He with other Bengal K.I.H., R.B.C. painters, inspired by Mr. Havell's precepts founded, about thirty years ago, what has since Mr. Solomon entirely reorganised the courses become known as the Calcutta School of paint- of study. The Life Classes which were organised ing. In their early work the painters of this at the end of 1919 have been pronounced by school closely adhered to the conventions of competent judges as well up to the level of the Mosrhul and Rajput artists, whom they took Life Classes of the European Schools of Art. as their models ; and these early examples made But proficiency in technique forms only one side a great impression upon all European critics of the present system of training ; for even in who saw them. They were welcomed as the Europe, too much of the study from Life is quite first sign of a genuine revival of Indian painting, capable of negativing its own object. In India, based upon traditional lines, and it was con- where the decorative instinct is inherent, and fidently hoped that the movement would meet where the possibilities of freehand drawing are with the support it merited from Indians of all still understood, the danger of overdoing the classes. Interesting as many individual works Life Class is even more palpable. So side by of the school undoubtedly are the anticipations side with these realistic aids to study, and at which greeted its inception have scarcely been the same period, a class of Indian Decorative fulfilled by the Calcutta school. The painters Painting was inaugurated in the Bombay themselves have never reached the high tech- School of Art on a basis of scholarships 22 Indian Art. under the patronage of the Governor of inability to take part was not brought to the Bombay (Lord Lloyd). As this class specialises notice of the Committee, and that therefore the in Mural Painting it has long been popularly result of the competition could not be repre- The four known as the Class of Mural Painting. Thi? sentative of all the Indian Provinces. class has executed the decorations for many elected artists finished the decorative work had been engaged to execute at India public and private buildings, and painted the which they ceiling and panels of a specially constructed House and returned to India in 1932. But in two them were re-engaged to decorate Indian Room which was exhibited at Wembley 1933 of in 1924, aHd found a purchaser in England. the entrance hall of the building; in con- this considerable controversy has A great deal of controversy, which has sequence of the whole subject of the India House been characterised by its academic rather arisen on mural paintings and their claim to be repre- than its practical note, has centred round these a whole. This episode has new movements in art training in India ; but sentative of India as relief the differences on the the thrown into stronger the Bombay School of Art has retained in India between the Western and patronage and support of the public and the subject of art (who Eastern districts of the country a noticeable increase in the number of its students ; of the exclusionists' art propaganda, now number about 600 in all sections of the diminution tendency towards aligning art in Bengal School) has been continuous since it took its and a present line. It is significant that the wide- with the position which Bombay has occupied in in Art in West- this matter for the L-st two generations, is one spread revival of public interest of the salient svmptoms of the present situation ern India has synchronised with these activities. Another cause of public controversy, The School of Art has of late years enjoyed the (1935).was more local in character, had occurred patronage of successive Governors of Bombay which Sir Leslie Wil- near the end of 1932, when the Bombay Reor- and, largely due to the efforts of a ganisation Committee which had been appointed son, the Government of India inaugurated Government for purposes of competition of Indian Artists in 1927 for the by the Bombay the new retrenchment, advocated the closing dow n of the r decoration of wall spaces in The the Bombay School of Art, the abolition of its buildings at New Delhi. result of the compound of buildings and the utilisation of Competition whs notified in October 1928, school for a hospital. The Architectural when five artists of Bombay, and the the School was to be moved elsewhere. These Bombay and Lahore Schools of Art were com- draconian recommendations created a great missioned to paint Mural Decorations in the deal of public dissatisfaction, which expressed new Secretariat buildings. The Bombay School itself in public agitation, processions and a undertook the decoration of Committee Room meeting of protest. After full exami- crowded "A" (in the North Block) and the paintings, nation of this vexed question, the Governor of which were executed in oils on canvas^ were Bombay, Sir Frederick Sykes, who had taken keen finished, and successfully placed in position on interest during his administration, in the welfare the dome and walls by the middle of Sepcember of the School, personally announced in a speech 1929. These decorations were original compo- delivered at the School of Art on November 24, sitions of life size figures, svmt'Olising the mam branches 1933, that the institution was to be maintained periods of Indian Art, and the different of the Fine and Applied Arts. In April 1929. upon its present basis. Since the satisfactory the Government of Bombay converted the settlement of the question an important event to be recorded. The India Society of Bombav School into a Department independent deserves organised an Exhibition of Modern of the 'Director of Public Instruction, tne London Principal (Mr. W. E. Gladstone Solomon) being Indian Art in London, which was opened by the latter H H the Duchess of York at the New Burlington made Director. In October 1930 1934. The most organised an exhibition of the work of all Galleries on December 10, of Art m India instructive feature of this Exhibition was that Departments of this School was secured by means House, London. The Exhibition was very we the representation of India well of Regional Committees which collected pictures patronised by the public and extremely own districts Thui received by the art critics and the Press. Her and sculptures from their sections of the Exhibition devoted Majesty the Queen Empress graciously patro- the respective were compared, and the of the to Bombay and Bengal nised the exhibition and selected several paintings displayed. work from Western India received a most favourable welcome from most of the prominent While the Bombay School was engaged upon art critics and journals in England. The the work of mural decoration at New Delhi in a public Regional Committee of Bombay under the which is referred to above, 1928-1929, Indian patronage of Lord Brabourne, the Governor, competition for the selection of four Chairmanship of Sir Phiroze Sethna.and artists to proceed to England was announced by and the as its Hon. Secretary, successful with Mr. Kanaiyalal Vakil the Government of India. The a varied and fairly representative K<>> W had selected candidates were to study for a year at the collection of paintings, sculpture, and architec- after which College of Art, South Kensington ; tural drawing's. At the request of this Committee, decor- they were to be employed on the mural the Government of Bombay deputed Mr. Glad- ation of the interior of India HouRe, Aldwych. stone Solomon to supervise, arrange, and cata- The Bombav School was unable to compete, logue t he Bombay exhibits in London. The whole owing to 6s preoccupation with the ^ew Delhi the enterprise was a successful demonstration of decorations and four artists from Bengal were ideals of the Bombay School of Paint, J Committee appointed by the aims and selected bv a the long-standing ing, and since this Exhibition Government of India, which, though it included controversy as to the Bombay methods of art from Bombay (who were two representatives training has completely collapsed though it is ground not artists) has been criticised on the hardly to be expected that it will not occasionally were that several of the Bengal representatives reassert itself in sporadic outbursts hereafter. professional artists, that the Bombay School s — 23 Indian Architecture. The architecture of India has proceeded on Other Hindu Styles. own, and its monuments are unique lines of its The Dravidian style is the generic title among those of the nations of the world. An usually applied to the characteristic work of ancient civilization, a natural bent on the part the Madras Presidency and the South of India. of the people towards religious fervour of the It is seen in many rock-cut temples as at Ellora, contemplative rather than of the fanatical where the remarkable " Kylas is an instance sort, combined with the richness of the country of a temple cut out of the solid rock, complete, in the sterner building materials — these are not only with respect to its interior (as in the a few of the factors that contributed to making case of mere caves) but also as to its exterior. it what it was, while a stirring history gave it It is, as it were, a life-size model of a complete both variety and glamour. Indian architec- building or group of buildings, several hundred ture is a subject which at the best has been feet in length, not built, but sculptured in solid studied only imperfectly, and a really com- stone, an undertaking of vast and, to our prehensive treatise on it has yet to be written. modern ideas, unprofitable industry. The The subject is a vast and varied one, and it Pagoda of Tanjore, the temples at Srirangam, may be such a treatise never will be written in Chidambaram, Vellore, Vijayanagar, &c, and the form of one work at any rate. The spirit of the palaces at Madura and Tanjore are among Indian art is foreign to the European and few the best known examples of the style. can eDtirely understand it, while art criticism and analysis is a branch ot study that the Indian The writer finds some difficulty in following Fergusson's two next divisions of classification, has not as yet developed to its full extent. the V Chalukyan " of South-central India, Hitherto the best authority on the subject has been Fergusson, whose compendious work and the " Northern or In dt>- Aryan style." is that which will find most ready acceptance The differences and the similarities are appa- rently so intermixed and confusing that he is by the general reader. But Fergusson attempt- fain to fall back on the broad generic title of ed the nearly impossible task of covering the ground in one volume of moderate dimensions, — " Hindu " however unscientific he may there- and it is sometimes held that he was a man by stand confessed. Amongst a vast number of Hindu temples the following may be men- of too purely European a culture, albeit wide and eclectic, to admit of sufficient depth of — tioned as particularly worthy of study : Those Fergus- at Mukteswara and Bhuvaneswar in Orissa, insight in this particular direction. at Khajuraho, Bindrabun, Udaipur, Benares, son's classification by races and religions is, Gwalior, &c. The palace of the Hindu Raja however, the one that has been generally ac- cepted hitherto. He asserts that there is no Man Singh at Gwalior is among the most beauti- btone architecture in India of an earlier date ful architectural examples in India. So also are the palaces of Amber, Datiya, Urcha, Dig than two and a half centuries before the Christ- ian era, and that " India owes the introduc- and Udaipur. tion of the use of stone for architectural pur- Indo-Saraccnic. poses, as she does that of Buddhism as a state Among all the periods and styles in India religion, to the great Asoka, who reigned B.C. the characteristics of none are more easily 272 to 238." recognizable than those of what is generally Buddhist Work. called the " Indo-Saracenic " which deve- Fergusson's first architectural period is loped after the Mahomedan conquest. Under then the Buddhist, of which the great tope the new influences now brought to bear on it at Sanchi with its famous Northern gateway the architeccure of India took on a fresh lease is perhaps the most noted example. Then of activity and underwent remarkable modifi- we have the Gandharan topes and monas- cations. The dome, not entirely an unknown teries. Perhaps the examples of Buddhist feature hitherto, became a special object of architecture of greatest interest and most ready development, while the arch, at no time a access to the general student are to be found favourite constructional form of the Hindu 1 in the Chaitya halls or rock-cut caves of Karli, builders, was now forced on their attention by Ajanta, Nasik, Ellora, and Kanheri. A point the predilections of the ruling class. The with relation to the Gandhara work may be minaret also became a distinctive feature. alluded to in passing. This is the strong The requirements of the new religion, the European tendency, variously recognized as mosque with its wide spaces to meet the needs — Roman, Byzantine but most frequently as of organized congregational acts of worship Greek, to be observed in the details. The gave opportunities for broad and spacious foliage seen in the capitals of columns bears treatments that had hitherto been to some strong resemblance to the Greek acanthus, extent denied. The Moslem hatred of idolatry while the sculptures have a distinct trace of set a tabu on the use of sculptured represent- j I Greek influence, particularly in the treatment ations of animate objects in the adornment of drapery, but also of hair and facial expression. of the buildings, and led to the development From this it has been a fairly common assump- of other decorative forms. Great ingenuity tion amongst some authorities that Indian art came to be displayed in the use of pattern and owed much of its best to European influence, an of geometrical and foliated ornament. This assumption that is strenuously combated by Moslem trait further turned the attention of others as will be pointed out later. fche builders to a greater extent than before The architecture of the Jains comes next in to proportion, scale and mass as means of giving order. Of this rich and beautiful style the beauty, mere richness of sculptured surface most noted examples are perhaps the Dilwara and the aesthetic and symbolic interest of temples near Mount Abu, and the unique detail being no longer to be depended on to the 11 Tower of Victory " at Chittore. same degree. 24 A rchitecture. Foreign Influence. variations from the influences brought to bear There would appear to be a conflict between upon it and from the varied purposes to which archaeologists as to the extent of the effect on it was applied. Indian art produced by foreign influence under Agra and Delhi. the Mahomedans. The extreme view on the one Agra and Delhi may be regarded as th8 hand is to regard all the best of the art as having principal centres of the Indo-Saracenic style— Taj Mahal, for been due to foreign importation. The Gan- the former for the renowned tendency, Akbar's deserted capital of Fatehpur Sikri, dharan sculptures with their Greek the development of new forms and modes of his tomb at Secundra, the Moti Musjid and treatment to which allusion has been made, palace buildings at the Agra fort. At Delhi great Jumma Musjid, the Fort, the similarities to be found between the Maho- we have the North the tombs of Humayon, Sufdar Jung, &c, medan buildings of India and those of Minar. Two other great Africa and Europe, the introduction of the and the unique Qutb evidences centres may be mentioned, because in each minaret and, above all, the historical certain strongly marked indi- that exist of the presence in India of Europeans there appeared varieties support of vidualities that differentiated the during Mogul times, are cited in there found from the variety seen the theory. On the other hand those of the of the style foregoing view to be at Delhi and Agra, as well as that of one from opposite school hold the These are Ahmedabad in due to the prevailing European preconception that to the other. Bijapur on the Dekhan, both in that all light and leading must come by way Gujarat and of Europe, and the best things in art by way the Bombay Presidency. of Greece. To them the Gandharan sculp- Ahmedabad. ture, instead of being the best, is the worst At Ahmedabad with its neighbours Sirkhej in India even because of its Greek tincture. and Champanir there seems to be less of a depar- forms, a tendency to They find in the truly indigenous work beau- ture from the older Hindu not be seen in the adhere to the lintel and bracket rather than to ties and significances to to the arch, while the dome Greco-Bactrian sculptures, and point to those have recourse employed, was there never of Borobuder in Java, the work of Buddhist though constantly extent as elsewhere, or coif mists from India, wonderfully preserved developed to its full conclusion. The by reason of an immunity from destructive carried to its logical structuralmost famous work probably influences given by the insular position, as Ahmedabad is Jor the best examples of the art extant. the extraordinary beauty of its stone "jali"— showing the palm tree pierced lattice- work, as in It is probable that a just estimate of the merits or of the controversy, with respect to sculpture windows of the Sidi Sayyid Musjid. at any rate, cannot be formed tiJl time has Bijapur. obliterated some of the differences of taste The characteristics of the Bijapur variety of the style are equally striking. They are that exist between East and West. distinctively Mahomedan than To the adherents of the newer school the perhaps more in that undisputed similarities between Indo-Maho- those of the Ahmedabad buildings to a remarkable medan and Hindu buildings outweigh those here the dome is developed tomb of Mahmud— the and Western MahomedaD degree, indeed the between Indian " Gol Gumbaz "—is cited as shew- work, especially in the light of the dis-simi- well-known in any building They admit the ing the greatest space of floor larities between the latter. a single dome, not even changes produced by the advent of Islam, in the world roofed by Pantheon. The lintel also was but contend that the art; though modified, excepting the practically discarded in favour of the arch. yet remained in its essence what it had always here been, indigenous Indian. The minaret, the The Bijapur stvle shews a bold masculine largeness of structural concep- dome, the arch, they contended, though deve- quality and a unequalled elsewhere in India tion that is loped under the Moslem influence, were yet, in richness and delicacy it does not so far as their detailed treatment and crafts- though the work of the further North. manship are concerned, rendered in a mannei attempt to rival influences distinctively Indian. Fergusson is usually In kbls we recognize among other that of the prevailing material, the hard un- regarded as the leader of the former school In a similar while the latter and comparatively recent compromising Dekhan basalt. . school has at present found an eager champion manner the characteristics of the Ahmedabad work with its greater richness of ornamenta- in Mr. E. B. Havell, whose works, on the subject bound up with the nature of the Gujarat | are recommended for study side by side with tion are while at Delhi and Agra the freer those of the former writer. Mr. Havell prac- freestone, red racial method of choice of materials available— the local tically discards Fergusson's . classification into styles in favour of a chrono- and 1 whtie sandstones, combined with access greater to marble and other more costly materials- logical review of what he regards to a extent than did his famous precursor as being was no doubt largely responsible for the many recognizable characteristics of the archi- one continuous homogeneous Indian mode of easily architectural expression, though subject to tecture of these centre*. II. MODERN. The modern architect uial work of India Western ideas and methods have most strongly divides itself sharply into two classes. There spread their influence, chiefly, in the case of Master- architecture, through the medium of the De- is first that of the indigenous Indian ' builder " to be found chiefly in the Native partment of Public Works. The work of that Rajputana. department has been much animadverted States; particularly those in Second there is that of British India, or of upon as being all that building should not be, but, considering it has been produced by men all those parts of the peninsula wherever —, Architecture. 25 of whom itwas admittedly not the metier; and of the principal buildings in the new Capital who were necessarily contending with lack of was accordingly entrusted jointly to two expert training on the one hand and with de- famous British architects, neither of whom partmental methods on the other, it must be can be unduly influenced by either past conceded that it can shew many notable build- or recent architectural practice so far as ings. Of recent years there has been a tend- India is concerned. The building of .New ency on the part of professional architects Delhi is perhaps too recent an event for to turn their attention to India, and a number of the passing of a definite verdict. The work these has even been drafted into the service of Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker of Government as the result of a policy ini- abides the judgment of posterity. If that tiated in Lord Curzon's Viceroyalty. In time, work has had its severe critics, it has also therefore, and with the growth of the influence received the commendation of many. Trie of these men, such of the reproach against cream domes set on tall bases, rise from the building of the Eritish in India as was just the centre of the Secretariat buildings, and and was not merely thoughtlessly maintained surmounted by cupolas have reminded as a corollary to the popular jape against every- Bramarte's work in some of Rome, or the Pantheon, or thing official, may gradually be removed. If Wren's dome of St. Paul's. Below there are the this is so as to Government work progress should semi-circular entrances resembling Moghul door- be even more assured in the freer atmosphere ways the rows of comparatively ; small windows, outside of official life. Already in certain of some filled with pierced sandstone screens the greater cities, where the trained modern somewhat distract the eye, and seem to mar the architect has established himself, in private effect of sturdin ess prevailing throughout. The practice, there are signs that his influence is Secretariats were meant no doubt to usher the beginning to be felt. He still complains, how- visitor to New Delhi to the " piece de resistance" ever, that the general public of India needs of the architectural composition, the Viceroy's much educating up to a recognition of his House. Standing where it does, this building is value, both in a pecuniary sense and other- intended to dominate and necessarily arrests wise. the gaze of the visitor, while its massive end bays, with stepped entablature capped by saucered* To the work of the indigenous * master- fountains are said to give the architectural eye a builder " public attention has of recent years feeling of safety against spreading. This feeling been drawn with some insistence, and the sug- of security continues as the spectator's gaze gestion has been pressed that efforts should be travels down the unusual design of the metalled directed towards devising means for the pre- dome to the solid projecting bays that contain servation of what is pointed out—and now the statues of King George V and Queen Mary, universally acknowledged — —to be a remarkable which complete the composition. Some think survival almost the only one left in the \torld that the colour scheme avoids the "glaring of "living art," but which is threatened with disunity" in Moghul buildings when the white gradual extinction by reason of the spread of luminous marble was used with similar red Western ideals and fashions. The matter sandstone for here, the two sandstones, ; red and assumed some years ago the form of a mild cream are blended and co-ordinated. With controversy centring round the question of the regard to the interior decorations of New Delhi, then much discussed project of the Government strenuous efforts were made by those who of India's new capital at Delhi. It was urged believed in the enterprise as a point of focus that this project should be utilised to give the for the revival of Indian art to obtain for the required impetus to Indian art rather than Indian art schools and artists commissions to that it should be made a means of fostering carry out the Mural paintings required in the European art which needed no such encourage- new buildings. After a great deal of public ment at India's expense. The advocates of agitation on this subject in Bombay some com- this view appear for the most part to have been missions of this kind were given by the adherents of the "indigenous Indian" school Government of India, based on the results of a of archaeologists already mentioned, and to public competition. But in spite of the indubi- have based their ideas on their own reading of table success of many of the paintings, and the the past. They still muster a considerable proof furnished thereby of the Indian artist's following not only amongst the artistic public rapacities for this kind of work, nothing further of England and India, but even within the has been accomplished in the matter since the Government services. Their opponents, holding end of 1929. what appears to be the more official view both as to archaeology and art, have pointed to the The controversy of East and West, however I death " of all the arts of the past in other vital to the interests of the country's archi- countries as an indication of a natural law, and tecture, is too purely technical for its meriti deprecate as waste of energy all efforts to resist to be estimated by the general reader or dis- this law, or to institute what they have termed cussed here. Its chief claim on our attention " another futile revival" 1 The British in India lies in the fact that it affords an added interest they contend, should do as did the ancient to the tourist, who may see the fruits of both Romans in every country on which they planted schools of thought in the modern build- their conquering foot. As those were wont to ings of British India as well as examples of the replace indigenous art with that of Rome, so " master builders " work in nearly every native should we set our seal of conquest permanently town and bazaar. The town of Lashkar in on India by the erection of examples of the best Gwalior State may be cited as peculiarly rich of British art. This is the view which, as we have in instances of picturesque modern Indian indicated, appears to have obtained for the street architecture, while at Jaipur, Udaipur, moment the more influential hearing, and the Benares, etc., this class of work may be studied task of designing and directing the construction in many different forms both civil and religious. 26 Industrial Arts. Stone Work.—Carved stone work is the The ancient industrial arts of India formed principal form of decoration employed in two distinct groups. The first included those architecture , tne Hindu temples. In variety and scope it range , allied to, and dependent upon, devoted from the massive figures in the Buddhist ana second comprise those applied to articles Brahminical Cave Temples, and the detached weapons and to religious ritual ; military sculpture of the temples of Southern India, trappings, domestic accessories : and to personal to the delicately incised reliefs and elaborately ftd m intended fretted ornament of the Jain temples at Mount The articlea of the first group were Abu. A curious fact in relation to Hindu work position, and the for some fixed and definite have no rela- character of their is that priority of date appears to style of their design and the possible were dictated by that of the tion to artistic development. It is not workmanship to trace, as in the case of Greek, Roman and incorporated building with which they were progressive and Mediaeval craftwork, the regular Those of the second group were movable, steps from art in its primitive state to its cul- less constricted the range of their design was minating point and its subsequent decay. Styles and their workmanship was more varied. in India seem to spring into existence fully Examples of work in both groups are so numer- developed ; the earlier examples often exhibiting diversity ot ous and the arts comprise such a finer craftsmanship than those of a later date. application, that only a cursory survey can be review There can be little doubt that stone carving in attempted within the limits of a short wood in India was simply the application of the Although the design and treatment differ carvers* art to another material. The treat- groups, the materials used were often the two a very wide ment of stone by the Hindu craftsmen, even in the same. These materials cover buildings, reference to the constructive principles of their range but space only permits of bears a closer resemblance to the practice of the which work applied to the four materials upon most wood- worker than to that of the stone mason. Indian craftsman's skill has been the extensively displayed. These are stone, wood, The earlier wooden examples from which the were stone buildings and their decorations metal and textiles. derived have long since disappeared, but their each of these Before dealing separately with apparent. The keynote of Hindu a few words upon the principal Indian influence is materials symmetrical; distinctive styles design is rhythmic rather than stvles are necessary. The two than former may that of their eraftsmanship, vigour rather are Hindu and Mahomedan. The human does from refinement. In the carving of the be termed indigenous, dating as it and of animals great power of expressing of figure remote antiquity the latter was a variation ; shown, and this spontaneous feeling which was brought action is the great Arabian style, preserved despite the greatest elaboration Into India in the fourteenth century, and has is amazing Indian in and detail. The industry displayed is since developed features essentially labour appears to have daunted character. The art of both Hindus and Maho- no amount of out their and the require- the Hindu craftsmen in carrying medans is based upon religion expres- huge and intricate schemes of decoration. ments of religious ritual. The obvious stone carving on Mahomedan buildings of this is shown in the different motifs The sion allowed all na- except where Hindu carvers have been used for their ornament. In Hindu art than that and employed for deco a free hand, is much more restrained tural forms are accepted temples. The fact that geometrical rative purposes ; but in that of the Mahome on Hindu dictated natural forms are rejected and forms were almost exclusively used, dans, nearly all in the carv- lower relief and greater refinement forbidden. The basis of Mahomedan decora- of the designers is therefore mainly geometrical. In each ing while the innate good taste • tion ornament characteristics are strikingly prompted them to concentrate the of them, racial where its exhibited. The keynote of Hindu work is upon certain prominent features was heightened by the simplicity of the that ot exuberance, imagination and poetry ; effect The invention displayed intellect and good taste. rest of the building. Mahomedan, reticence, Patterns for Hindus are lavish, and often undiscnminat- in working out geometrical The ornamental ing in their employment of ornament the ; work screens, inlay, and other while won- Mahomedans use more restraint. In fact the details appears to be inexhaustible ; . derful decorative use has been made of Arabic maybe compared, without straining ; two styles their fram- the analogy, to the Gothic and classic styles in and Persian lettering in panels and Hindus re led To obtain a rich effect the Europe. In both styles the fecundity of ideas ing upon broken marvellous, and upon P the play of light and shade and invention in design are the same craftsmanship often reaches a very high su rfSces, the Mahomedans to attain the subjected end used precious materials veneering the sur- - standard. Hindu art had been polished marb e their buildings with throughout the ages to many foreign influences, faces of of mosaic have which they decorated with patterns but the artistic instincts of the people agate, onyx and other costly composed of jade, proved bo conservative that, whether alien Ideas came from the east or the these west, they SsAUhough the art of inlaying and work- hard stones was of Italian origin, It proved have often been absorbed, and are now stamped ?M in to the genius of the Recognition to be one eminently suited with a definite Indian character. wonderful exam- fact should relieve the anxiety Indian craftsman; and many of this of book rest*i, tab- penetration ples of their skill in the form of those critics who fear that the footstools, vases and sword handles into India at the lea, thrones, o< Western art and culture proficiency art of arVextant to show the height of present time will eventually rob Indian pree.oui attained. The treatment of ££V its national character. Industrial Ans. 37 stones by IndiaD jewellers may here be referred to. Sir George Bird wood states that " the In- ing, the — Metal Work. With the exception of weav- metal working industry employed dian jeweller thinks of producing the sumptu- and still employs the greatest number of artis- ous, imposing effect of dazzling variety of rich tic craftsmen in India. Copper and brass have and brilliant colours and nothing of the purity always been the two metals most widely used of his gems." This is true in a general sense for domestic purposes by Mahomedans and and "full many a gem of purest ray serene" Hindus. The shapes of many of these humble was utterly ruined by crude cutting and pierc- vessels are among the most beautiful to be found ing. But although as early as the sixteenth in the country. They exhibit that sense of and seventeenth centuries diamonds and pre- variety and touch of personality which are only cious stones from the Indian mines were taken given by the work of the human hand ; and the to Europe to be cut, many of the finest jewels shapes are those which grow naturally from the found their way back to the treasure houses of working of the material with the simplest Indian princes. Sir G. Watt has divided Indian implements. In the technical treatment of stone work into three great stages or types, viz. brass and copper Indian craftsmen have shown (1) from the excavation of Cave Temples and a taste and skill unsurpassed by those of other the construction of Buddhist topes; (2) the nations, except in the department of fine cast- building of Hindu Chalakyanand Jain Temples ing. ; In this, and in the working of gold and (3) the Pathan and Moghul Mosques, tombs silver, a higher standard of technical and con- and palaces. It is interesting to note that the structive exactness has been reached by the Schools of Art in India have given attention to metal workers of Europe and Japan. It may this industry. For instance the Bombay SchooJ be taken as an axiom that the more beautiful of Art has to its credit a number of public the shape of an article is, and this especially buildings adorned by means of its student applies to metal work, the less need stone-cutters. exists for the decoration of its surface. — Wood Work. With a fine range of tim- equally true that the highest test of craftsman- It is bers suitable for the purpose, wood has played a ship is the production of a perfect article with- great part in the construction and decoration out any decoration. The reason being that the of Indian buildings. Unfortunately, much of slightest technical fault is apparent on a plain the ancient wood work has been destroyed by surface, but can be hidden or disguised of the action of the climate and the teeming insec- one which is covered with ornament. The tivorous life of India ; and that which escaped goldsmiths and silversmiths of India were these enemies was wiped out by lire and the extremely skilful and industrious, but judged sword. It is therefore only possible to con- by this test their works often exhibit a lack of jecture the height of artistic development these care and exactness in the structural portion buildings and their decorations displayed by and a completely satisfactory example of per- the copies in stone which have been preserved. fectly plain work from the hands the gold and Few if any examples of a date earlier than the silversmiths of India is rarely toofbe sixteenth century are to be found. met with. Many of Much of the excessive and often inappropriate these, and specimens of a later date to be seen ornamentation of the articles that they produc- in towns and cities throughout the country, ed owed its application as much to the necessity are masterpieces of design and craftsmanship. of hiding defective construction The carved timber fronts and inner courtyards any purely decorative purpose. as it did to For many of houses in Ahmedabad, Nasik, and other generations, ornaments of gold and silver were parts of Western India are notable for their regarded in the light of portable wealth, a picture3queness and beauty the structural practice which naturally made for massiveness. beams, the overhanging balconies, with their These solid ornaments are most effective and screens and supporting brackets, being carved picturesque and, ; despite an enormous output in a manner which unites richness of effect with of elaborate and delicate work from their good taste and propriety. Of furniture, as the hands, the most valuable contribution of the term is now understood, few examples were Indian metal workers to the sum tota of man's in use in India before Europeans introduced artistic use of the precious metals will probably their own fashions. These were confined to be found to lie in a certain barbaric note which small tables aod stools, book rests, clothes distinguishes these pieces—a note not present chests and screens, the designs of which con- m the craft work ©f other countries. In the formed somewhat closely to the architec- design of Hindu gold and silver ornaments, tural style of the period. Many of these were religious symbols have been extensively used decorated with inlays of coloured woods, ivory The ornaments which bedeck the early sculp- and metal while in some cases the wooden tured figures, and those ; depicted in the paintings basis was entirely plated with copper, brass at the Cave Temples of Ajanta are precisely or silver. In Southern India, where close grained the same in design and use as similar articles sandalwood is grown, jewel cases and boxes are made at the present time, thus affording a enriched with carving executed with the atten- striking evidence of the inherent conservatism tion to detail and the finish generally associated of the Hindu people and its effect upon an in- with the carving of ivory. Coloured lac was dustrial art that freely used to decorate many articles of fur- makes a closer personal appeal than any other. niture, especially those turned on the lathe • Textiles.—-The textile industry is the widest and rich colour effects were obtained in this,' in extent in India and is that in which her perhaps the most distinctive and typically craftsmen have shown their highest achieve- Indian development of decoration as applied ments. Other countries, east and west of to wood work. Teak, shisham, deodhar, sandal- India have produced work equal at least wood, ebony, walnut, jun, nim and Madras red in stone, wood, and wood are among the chief woods used in India matched that of hermetal ; but none has ever weavers in cotton and for ornamental work. wool, or excelled them in the weaving of silken Industrial Arts. 28 world and been extended to serve the whole fabricsTsome of the prod 0' g^. ^I^ nf ttenffal are marvels of technical SlrfpJf teste while the plum bloom 0 skiu ana quality ^ the skilled handicraftsman has measure, become a machine-minder. in a great I* took gradual change ™bout one hundred years of men^ which places them in a class Weaving being riniT was the first applied, ano^ modern artistic ach eve- ofth old Cash^re shawls is an by themselves. essentially a process of to which machinery repeti- for the craftsmen of Europe fully nemselves to these altered was during the greater portion of science has brought power protected by the difficulties that to Period adjust India Fifty years immemorial ~f^SS practice. ^ state of perfection that tinned its ?oom weaving to such a ago this protective barrier wa s removed by the even than those the craftsmen filamente of a substance finer ooening of the Suez Canal, and our ancestors, are to o Dacca, which astonished ^ancash re India have since been struggling now produced in the mills of But of avoid the same fate which overtook those * and variety of texture , less time for beauty of surface ^iironn half a century before. With fabrics have ever^equalled no machine-made A nd ld - f^vtti^esZt^ changed conditions n\n finest Manfofthe most haadwork ^^^^ ^^ of the weavers textile work have disappeared, netition of the power loom. of killed by the com In other brancues 0 . the Indian craftsmen have, competition of European pouinned with before this period of Intense Ev^n new and nva had to meet the U already fnl » unknown toois. competition India does not hold craftwork had Sf art as applied to textiles observers interested in Indian so nre^minent a position as in that of weaving deterioration. The of the ^venteenth noticed evidences of its wwtananBhip The printed silks and calicoes deservedly he falling da off? both in design and practice and eighteenth centuries Western xiations, was attributed to the conservative Mgh place in the estimation of to the valuable leasons TthetrafTsmen : of internal d» whose craftsmen learnt many taste they markets, and to the long period from the technical skill, and artistic tapestries order which had deprived them of botn tne Hiqnlav Nothing approaching the an earlier age and the rulers of ages has been natronaee of the made in Europe in the middle nearest approach srimulatin^ contact with foreign craftsmen producede introduced in India. from The Persia; but Indian the finest ^" who had previouslv same period, an even P been ?o°?hes e isTn carpets. and rugs. .TJ^craftsmen Splendid^ courtlat Delhi and Agra. attracted greater to the degradation the in I*™* equalling craftwork of Europe have never succeeded in in colour or de^n had overtaken the work of their instructors either Swas due to entirely different ^ses I namely Attention design. *o the introduction of machinery. speedy prodnc- had been so concentrated upon mechaSLl accuracy and.commercial rion, characteristics has been possible. A volume made to hrrag w^SlSTreSSiied to give a detailed description nf 1 851 that efforts were at once more. Schools of sav one of them, and would leave many other lit and industry together once of Art and"nrns were fonnded throughout All these branches minor arts to be considered. into existence, were develop- England and the same system was copied m a of art came social and eco- ed and flourished in India when differen from nomic conditions were vastty - those of the present day. Like «mUar art istic crafts carried on in Europe up to the end of the executed by and whose pro- eighteenth century, they were were commercially successful, involved had not hand labour The processes been discovered by^scientifl^ but were tne is now understood by the phrase ; built up expe- outcome of generations of slowly them rience the now come to the effect upon .vol We changed conditions which have re o- iftffi? 7 tWhem^taof custom Mifv of for an instant tionised industrial art in Europe during the county nw'asney™ supposed an industry, last century. tw a School of Art could lead as completely mis- rn India theh- function was The invention steam engine, and the of the and scientiflc application of mechanical power ^search to industry in Europe, mark the^djvid- modern ndu s trial *ere and revive those which i inc line between ancient this were living, but to Not only on its technical side been to is art changes has so but the effect of these work itself and the alter the character of the Commlssk)n need for some State-aided the craftsmen. In place and commercial or- an rit which animated the and system of industrial of the ancient ideal of variety to design ; industrial arts w, h an «x- R anisation of the > . treatment, which meant a limited ojtpnt, and artistic instnic uniformity and unlimited landed scheme of technical ^.\reco^ed If the modern one of tion for the craftsmen has output has been substituted. The capitalist are given by tne craftsman : the OK* assiitance and encouragement has displaced the master to the inaian Tmnerial ano \ocal Governments , small workshop specia sa- i will quickly nfsed factory, the ; labour have taken the place cXmon ^strial art in India which has ri on and division of eJoud of depression, among the artisans ; the emerge from the past into the of general proficiency it fora century been separated hung over tenction of the designer has snnliffht of prosperity. markets have ?om that of the craftsman ; local , 29 Archaeology. The ancient monuments of India are as varied That they possessed a well developed system as they are numerous. Until a few years ago, of writingis evidenced by the discovery of over the earliest known were the brick and stone a thousand tablets engraved with well-executed erections of the Maurya period, a group of mounds animal devices and pictographic legends in an at Lauriya Nandangarh, illustrative of the Vedic unknown script. The method of disposal of funeral customs and assignable roughly to the the dead at Moheajo-daro is uncertain but at 7th or 8th century B.C., and some rough stone Harappa two types of burial have been met walls at the ancient city of Rajagriha of about with, namely, complete burials along with the same period. The absence of structures of funerary pottery, and " pot burials." Only an earlier period was then supposed to be due 27 of the latter have been examined and these I to the fact that all previous architecture had were found to contain skulls and human bones been of wood and had completely perished. The and are seemingly fractional burials. I recent excavations, however, at Mohenjo-daro, This Indus Valley culture has now been traced I in Sind and at Harappa in the Punjab, have as far as Rupar in the Ambala District, relatively I completely revolutionised ideas on this subject close to the ! watershed of the Sutlej and proved that as far back as the 3rd or 4th and Jumna and it is therefore highly improbable millennium B.C. and probably much earlier still, I that this civilization was confined to the India was in possession of a highly developed Indus Valley and there can hardly be any civilization with large and populous cities, reasonable doubt that future researches will well built houses, temples and public buildings trace it into the valley of the Ganges. Of the of brick and many other amenities enjoyed at long period of more than 2,000 years that that period by the peoples of Mesopotamia and separates the pre-historic monuments Egypt. Both at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa referred to above from the historic period there are the remains of some 5 or 6 cities super- of India, little or nothing is yet known but imposed one upon the ruins of another. there is every hope that this gap in our know- ledge may be filled in by further excavations. The structures that have so far been exposed Prom the time of the Mauryas, i.e., 3rd century at Mohenjo-daro belong to the three latest cities B.C., the history of architecture and the forma- on the site. Those of the third or earliest are tive arts of India is clear and can be traced with the best in style those of the first the poorest. relative precision. ; The financial stringency Most of the structures are dwelling houses or caused by the world economic depression caused shops, but there are others which appear to almost the suspension of excavation in these — have been temples and one of particularly areas. — massive proportions is a large bath, surrounded Monumental Pillars. The monuments — by fenestrated galleries and halls. All were which have come down to us from the Maurya built of well burnt brick and most of them were period, include, besides the caves to be referred of two or more storeys with staircases giving to below, the wooden palisade (4th century B.C.) access to the upper rooms. In and around the which surrounded the ancient city of Patali- ruins have been found many minor antiquities putra (modern Patna), and of which a large including gold and silver jewellery, engraved section has been exposed, the rock and pillar seals of stone and ivory and paste copper im- edicts of Asoka (Circa 250 B.C.), the remains plements and vessels, terracotta figurines and of a large pillared hall constructed by the same toys, shell ornaments and potteries both painted emperor at Pataliputra, a number of brick and plain. stupas and a monolithic rail which originally surmounted an Asoka stupa at Sarnath near These discoveries establish the existence in Benares. Altogether thirteen pillars of Asoka Sind and the Punjab during the 4th and 3rd are known besides the Elephant capital millennia B.C. of a highly developed city life of a 14th at Sankisa and a fragment of a 15th ; and the presence, in many of the houses, of wells at Benares Ten of them bear his inscriptions. . and bathrooms as well as an elaborate drainage Of these the Lauriya-Nandangarh column in By stem betoken a social condition of the citizens the Champaran District, Tirhut, is practically at least equal to that found in Sumer and supe- uninjured. The capital of each column, like rior to that prevailing in contemporary Baby- the shaft, was monolithic, and comprised three lonia and Egypt. The inhabitants of these members, viz., a Persepoutan bell, abacus, cities lived largely no doubt by agriculture and and crowning sculpture in the round. By far It is a point of interest that the specimens of the best capital of Asoka's time was that ex- wheat found at Mohenjo-daro resemble the humed at Sarnath near Benaue^. The four common variety grown in the Punjab to-day. lions standing back to back on the abacus are Besides bread, their food appears to have carved with extraordinary precision and ac- Included beef, mutton, and pork, the flesh of curacy, and originally supported a wheel sym- tortoises, turtles and gharial, fresh fish from the bolizing the law of piety preached by the Indus and dried fish from the sea coast. Among Buddha. Several pieces of this wheel were found their domesticated animals were the humped and are now preserved in the Archaeological Indian bull, the buffalo, a short horned bull, Museum at Sarnath. Of the post-Asotan period the sheep, pig, dog and elephant. Besides one pillar (B.C. 150) stands to the no*th-east of a;old and silver they used copper, tin, Besnagar in the Gwalior State, another in front bronze and lead they were familiar with the of the cave of Karli (A.D. 70), and a third at ; arts of spinning and weaving and with the culti- Eran in Central Provinces belonging fo the 5th vation of cotton and had attained a high degree Century A.D. All these are of stone, but there of proficiency in the jeweller's and potter's arts. is one of iron also. It is near the $atb Minar Archceology. 30 Sir John Marshall's recent explorations have , at Delhi, and an inscription on it speak* of its conclusively shown, its outer casing of stone, having been erected by a king called Chandra 150 (A.D. d7o the railing and the gateways were at least identified with Chandragupta II-. respectively. Other famous dynasty. It wonderful and 200 years later, 413) of the Gupta is Buddhist stupas that have been found are those a bar to find the Bindus at that age forging 44 of Sarnath, Bharhut between AUahabad of iron larger than any that have been forged and not and Jubbulpore, Amravati m the Madras even in Europe to a very late date, Presidency, and Piprahwa on the Nepalese frequently even now." Pillars of later style m the frontier. The tope proper at Bharhut has are found all over the country, especially entirely disappeared, having been utilised Madras Presidency. No less than twenty exist for building villages, and what remained of the in the South Kanara District. A Particularly removed to the Calcutta Museum. at Muda- rail has been elegant example faces a Jain a temple The bas-reliefs on this rail which contain short bldri, not far from Mangalore. An interesting Iron inscriptions and thus enable one to identify discovery was lately made concerning the t he scenes sculptured with the Jatakas or Birth Pillar at Dhar, Central India. The Pillar is value. large sized Stories of the Buddha give it a unjqiie like that at New Delhi, one of those which The stupa at Amravati also no longer exists, products of ancient Indian metal workers and portions of its rail, which is unsurpassed have excited the admiration of metal- modem merit, are m three in point of elaboration and artistic The Pillar is now broken lurgists. now in the British and Madras Museums The pieces, measuring together more than 43 feet stupa at Piprahwa was opened by Mr. W. C. in length, and there is reason to believe that a the Peppe in 1898, and a steatite or soap-stone re- fourth piece 7 feet long has disappeared. unearthed. were uncertain liquary with an inscription on it was date and purpose of the Pillar The inscription, according to many scholars, _ until a recent discovery which is of an inscription Bhoja of Dhar, speaks of the relics being of the Buddha himself of the time of the Paramara King were found and enshrined by his kinsmen, the Sakyas. It A D 1018-60, fragments of which the site of a this interpretation is correct, we have here in a Dhar mosque which occupies school established by that King. Ihis one of the stupas that were erected over the ashes grammar of Buddha immediately after his demise. is held tofix the period when the pillar was made. ninth monastery lately brought to A light at Nalanda the site of one of the ancient — Caves. Of the rock excavations which are universities, contained 75 bronze or copper and one of the wonders of India, nine-tenths belong Buddha and Brahma- to Western India. The most important groups stone images representing Karli, nical gods and goddesses. Bronze statues pre- of caves are situated in Bhaja, Bedsa, viously found at Nalanda had been secured Kanheri, Junnar, and Nasik in the Bombay of Presidencv, Ellora and Ajanta in Nizam s from a Pala king at Bengal at the request Balaputra of the Sailendra dynasty of Siivarn- Dominions, Barabar and Nagarjuni 16 miles that north of Gaya, and Udayagiri and Khandagir nadvipa (Sumatra), and it was surmised those statues were either made at Nalanda by 20 miles from Cuttack in Orissa. The caves Javanese artists or brought from Java. The belong to the three principal sects into which discovery of the new lot of bronze statues a m ancient India was divided,viz., the Buddhists, Monastery which has nothing to do with the Hindus and Jainas. The earliest caves so far dis : Sumatran king is held finally to disprove this covered are those of Barabar and Nagarjuni conclusion and to show that all the bronze which were excavated by Asoka and his grand- images discovered at Nalanda were the work son Dasaratha, and dedicated to Ajivika3, a of local metal-casters. naked sect founded by Mankhali putta Gosala. The next earliest caves are those of Bhaja, Pitalkhora and cave No. 9 at Ajanta and Topes —Stupas, known as dagabas in Ceylon No. 39 at Nasik. They have been assigned and commonly called Topes in North India, to 200 B.C. by Fergusson and Dr. Burgess. were constructed either for the safe custody of relics hidden in a chamber often near the But there is good reason to suppose from Sir John Marshall's recent researches and base or to mark the scene of notable events in Buddhist or Jain a legends. Though we know from epigraphic considerations that they are specimen considerably more modern. The Buddhist cavea that the ancient Jainas built stupas, no extant. A notable are oi two types— the chaiiyas or chapel caves o/ Jaina stupas is now structure of this kind which existed until recent and viharas or monasteries for the residence of times, was the Jaina stupa which stood on the monks. The first are with vaulted roofs and Kankali Tila site at Muttra and yielded a largo horse-shoe shaped windows over the entrance number of Jaina sculptures now deposited in and have interiors consisting of a nave and side aisles with a small stupa at the inner circular end' the Provincial Museum at Lucknow. Of those I belonging to the Buddhists, the great Tope of They are thus remarkably similar to Christian The second class consist of a hal Sanchi in Bhopal is the most intact and entire basilicas. of its class. It consists of a low circular drum I surrounded by a number of cells. In the late* there was a sanctum in the centre oi tb« supporting a hemispherical dome of lessdiameter. 1 viharas ! Round the drum an open passage for circum- is back wall containing a large image of Buddhaj Hardly a rhaitvn is found without one or morr I ambulaUon aua th? whole is enclosed oy a mas- viharas adjoining it. Of the Hindu cave tem- , sive stoue railing with lofty gates facing the ples tnat at Elephanta near Bombay is perhapi cardinal points. The gates are essentially Sivj wooden ia character, and are carved, inside and the most frequented. It is dedicated to out, witi elaborate sculptures. The original and is not eariier than the 7th century A.D, stupa, wlich was of brick and not more than But by far the most renowned cave-temple m half the present dimensions, was apparently the Hindus is that known as Kailasa at Ellord of a complete structura erected b> Asoka at the same time as his lion- It is on the model It also l rock. crowned pillar near the south gate, but as temple but carved out of solid Archaology 3J dedicated to Siva and was excavated by the i temples at Aihole in Bijapur, the latter of which Rashtrakuta king, Krishna I, (A. D. 768), cannot be later than the eighth century A.D. who may be seen in the paintings in the still The only common characteristic is flat roof3 ceilings of the upper porch of the main shrine. without spires of any kind. In other respects Of the Jaina oaves the earliest are at Khanda- they are entirely different and already here we giri and Udayagiri ; those of the mediaeval type, mark the beginning of the two styles, Indo- in India Sabha at Ellora ;and those of the latest Aryan and Dravidian, whose differences become period, at Ankai in Nasik. The ceilings of many more and more pronounced from the 7th cen- of these caves were once adorned with fresco tury onwards. In the Indo- Aryan style, the paintiDgs. Perhaps, the best preserved among most prominent ones tend to the perpendicular, these are those at- Ajanta, which were exe- and in the Dravidian to the horizontal. The cuted at various periods between 350-650 A.D. salient feature of the former again is the cur- and have elicited high praise as works of art vilinear ttf eple. and of the latter, the pyramidal Copies were first made by Major Gill, but most tower. The most notable examples of the first of them perished by fire at the Crystal Palace kind are to be found among the temples of Bhu- In 1866. The lost ones were again copied, by baneswar in Orissa, Khajuraho in Bundelkhand, John Griffiths of the Arts School, Bombay, half Osia in Jodhpur, and Dilwara on Mount Abu. of whose work was similarly destroyed by a fire One of the best known groups in the Dravidian at South Kensington. They were last copied style is that of theMamallapuram Baths, or by Lady Herringham during 1909-11. Her Seven Pagodas,' on the seashore to the south ' pictures, which are in full scale, are at present They are each hewn out of a block of Madras. exhibited at the Indian Section of the Victoria and are rather models of temples of granite, and Albert Museum, South Kensington, and than raths. They are the earliest examples of have been reproduced in a volume brought out typical Dravidian architecture, and belong to by the India Society. Another group of caves the 7th century. To the same age has to be where equally interesting though less well pre- assigned the temple of Kailasanath at Conjee- served paintings exist is found at Bagh in veram, and to the following century some of the | Gwalior State. These caves form the subject temples at Aihole and Pattadkal of the Bijapur of a monograph issued by the India Society. District, Bombay Presidency, and the mono- temple of Kailasa at Ellora, referred to — Gandhara Monuments. On the north-west above. frontier of India, anciently known as Gandhara, lithic Of the later Dravidian Btyle the great temple at Tanjore and the Srirangam temple are found a class of remains, ruined monasteries near Trichinopoly are the best examples. and buried stupas, among which we notice for the first time representations of Buddha and the Buddhist pantheon. The free use of Corinthian Intermediate between two main styles thfcse comes the architecture of the Deccan, called capitals, friezes of nude Erotes bearing a long garland, winged Atlantes without number, and Chain kyan by Fergusson. In this style the a host of individual motifs clearly establish the plan becomes polygonal and star-shaped instead influence of Hellenistic art. The mound at of quadrangular and the high-storeyed spire ; Peshawar, locally known as Sbah-h-ki-Dheri, is converted into a low pyramid in which which was explored in the horizontal treatment of the Dravidian is 1909, brought to light several interesting sculptures of this combined with the perpendicular of the Indo- school together with a reliquary casket, the 4ryan. Some fine examples of this type exist : most remarkable bronze object of the Gandhara at Dambal, Rattihali, Tilliwalli and Hangal in period. The inscription on the casket left no Dharwar, Bombay Presidency, and at Ittagi douht a» to the mound being the stupa raised and Warangal in Nizam's Dominions. But over a portion of the body relics of Buddha by the it is in Mysore among the temples at Hallebid Indo Scythian king Belur, and Somnathpur that the style is found Kanishka. They were presented by Lord Minto's Government to the in its full perfection. Buddhists of Burma and are now enshrined at Inscriptions.— We Mandalay. To about the same age belong the tions, of which numbers now come te inscrip- have been brought to stupas at Mamkyala in the Punjab opened by light in India. They have been engraved on Ranjit Singh's French Generals, Ventura and varieties of materials, but principally on sUne Court, In 1830. Some of them contained f*oms> and copper. ! The earliest of these are found | of Kanishka. There was brought to light at incised in two distinct kinds of alphabet, known Taxila during the winter of 1932-33 what proved as Brahmi and Kharoshthi, the latter being con- to be the largest monastery so tar unearthed in fined to the north-west of India. The Brahmi north-west India. In it there was an inscription was read from left to right, and from it have been dated in the year 134 of an unspecified era and evolved all the modern vernacular scripts of roughly corresponding with the year 76 A D India. The Kharoshthi was written from right The record is regarded as important because of to left, the assistance it gives in dating Gandhara and was a modified form of the ancient Aramaic alphabet introduced into the Punjab sculptures in various parts. during the period of the Persian domination in the 5th century B.C. It was prevalent up to Structural Temples.— Of this class the the 4th earliest examples are century A.D., and was supplanted by the Varaha temple at the Brahmi. The earliest Deogarh District Jhansi, another temple at dateable inscriptions are the celebrated edicts of Asoka tc which a Sanchi the brick temples at Bhitargaon in the reference has been made above. Ore group of aistrict of Cawnpore. and the temples at Tigowa these has been engraved on rocks, and JJachna, Eran and Bhumara all of which belong an- to other on pillars. They have been 'ound from the Gupta period and a later one at Tigowa in Shahbazgarhi 40 miles north-cast cf Peshawar the Central Provinces. In South India two -mrp Pvnmnioo viz. Lad .nore examples t „ i7L we .have T w vu to mmiva Nigliva in the rne Nepal JNepal Tarai, iron Girnar larai, fron Uirnar in n i Khan and Durga Kathia war to Dhauli in Orissa, from Kalsi in the I Archceology. 3? Mysore show- Saracenic architecture assumed," which the LowerHimala^aTto Siddapur in heio says Fergusson, " that of Ahmedabad mavf ine bv the the vast extent of territory way probably be considered to be the most elegant. Rock Edicts to by him. The reference in his Princes, Antio- It is notable for its carved stone work ; and the the five contemporary Greek and worK of the perforated stone windows in Sidi Philadelphus chus IL of Syria, Ptolemy Sayyid's mosque, the carved niches of the interesting and fixe so forth is exceedingly me minars of »any other mosques, the sculptured date of his coronation, j> r* 9fiQ as the Mihrabt and domed and panelled roofs is so ed in Nepal Tarai, now settles, .^^S* luroSdeT pillar inscription beyond all douDt, exquisite that it will rival anything of the sort which was for long executed elsewhere at any period. No other ?he birth-place of Buddha style is so essentially Hindu. In complete con- ^ record is the disputed. Another noteworthy of architecture pillar. The pillar trast with this was the formdynaity of Bija- inscription of the Besnagar by tbe Adil Sbahi but Sir John employed had been known for a Ions time, There is here relatively little trace of the mscriptmn pur M^rshall was the first to notice M Hindu forms or details. The principal buildings > erection of this column on it. It records the are the Jami Masnd, honour of the now left at Bijapur Mahal, Ibrahim Kauza which was a Garuda pillar, in Gagan Mahal, Mihtar oneVliodoros, son of g^rvludeva by Kmg Antial and mosque and the Gol Gumbaz. Like their who is described as an envoy is of herein called predecessors, the Pathans of Delhi, the Moghuls kidas of Taxila. Heliodoros great building race. Their style, first that though a Greek were a during the reign of Akbar I thagavata, which shows presumably a began to evolve itself he had become a Hindu and in a combination of Hindu and Muhammadan Vaishnava Another inscription worth noticing features.. Noteworthy among the emperor s connection is that of and the and especially in this tomb of Humayun, this cave, buildings are the rave No 10 at Nasik. The donor of and was palaces at Fatehpur Sikri and Agra. 01 Saka S Usravad^rwho calls himself an Indo-Scytlxian, is therein having granted three hundred a spoken of as Jehangir's time his thousand kine tomb of Itimad-ud-daula Brahmans structures. "The force and i mosque at Lahore and are the most typical originality of the the ??S sixteen villages to gods and thou- style gave way under Shah Jahan to a delicate annually fed one hundred And it and as having elegance and refinement of detail. another instance o sand Brahmans. Here is Thus lor was during his reign that the mostat Agra, the , splendid of having embraced Hinduism. Mahal farpiffner Moghul tombs, the Taj economical and religious the the^ToUtical soci the different periods the tomb of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, was con- structed. The Moti Masjid in Agra Fort is history y of'India at records and are the in c?[p tions are invaluable pure and elegant monu- which we are forlorn ana another surpassingly only light but for ment of his time Archajological Department. -As the blind.* . arch- This begins in - Saracenic Architecture.— after the per- aeological monuments of India must attract India with the inline occupation w^re ThPir first mosques 13th of ^ century Mtoinato constructed the attention of all intelligent oi liic would naturally feel desirous visitors, to know something Department. The they work temples and some- of the Archaeological primarily two-fold, con- materials of Hindu and Jaina this Department is slight alterations The of exploration. None Umes with comparatively * Arhai-din-ka-jhompra at Ajmer servation, and research and mSsaue called efforts appear to have been made near the Qutb Minar are instances of but spasmodic directions till 1870 when a^d that architecture by Government in these fws kind The Muhammadan and under thev established the Archaeological Survey of TlJl varied at different periods and local, ine India and entrusted it to General (afterwards rh« various dynasties, imperial Alexander Cunningham, who ^ as also the of Delhi waB massive Sir) earlv Pathan architecture Director-General , of Archaeology. The characterised by first andat th. same time was of the local Sur The Mutb next advance was the Initiationthree years after, richness of ornamentation. elaborate Ala-ud-din vevs in Bombay and Madras Car and tombs of Altamsh and The work of these Surveys, however, was res- Of the knaj-qi Khilil are tvpical examples. antiquarian research and descrip- in Jaunpur with tricted to sty* we have three mosques State, a tion of monuments, and the task of conserving *^eral tombs. At Mandu in the Dhar fitful efforts of the sprang up, old buildings was left to the Surd form of Saracenic architecture Hoslmn. s local Governments, often without expert «iiid. and we have here the Jami Masjid, ;M ft£al ance or control. It was only in 1 878 that^the Lb, Jahaz Mahal and Hindola of India under Lord Lytton awok< the secular and Government the most- notable instances of to this deplorable condition, and sanctioned Pathan, fh ecclesiastical styles of the Ma wa then sum of 3! lakhs to the repair of monuments ic a Muhammadans ol Bengal again developed Gaur teem United Provinces, and soon after appointed a own style, and Paadua, Malda, and type, the conservator, Major Cole, who did useful work fo, this set in, and ni. with the ruins of the buildings of Masjid of three vears Then a reaction important of which are the Adina \adam I and that of the Director-General wen Sikandar Shak, the Eklakhi mosque , abolished. The first systematic step towards re Rasul Masjid, and bo forth. The Bahman I conservator JogiSg official responsibility in dynasty Gulbarga and Bidar were also great matters was taker by Lord Curzon's Government of builders, aid adorned their capitals with impor- the eight Archaaolopica of these is ^hoelLbm^ seven of placed them on a perma tant buildings. The most striking Circles that now obtain, which differs the great mosque of Gulbarga, the whole Sen footing and united them together unde from all masques in India in having provision hem > of a Director-General, i central area covered over so that what in others the control , ^vemments ou also made for subsidising local would be an open courtM is here roofed by sixty- of imperial funds, when necessary. Tbe Ancier three small domes. Of the various forms - 33 lonuments Preservation Act was passed for the archaeological section of the Indian Museum he protection of historic monuments and relics at Calcutta, small museums at the Taj, and at specially in private possession and also for State the Forts at Agra, Delhi and Lahore, the Central ontrol over the excavation of ancient sites and Asian Antiquities Museum at New Delhi and raffle in antiquities. Under the direction of Sir has erected local museums at the excavated onn Marshall, Kt., O.I.E., late Director-General sites of Taxila, Sarnath, Nalanda, Mohanjo-daro )t Archaeology, a comprehensive and systematic and Harappa with the object of keeping the ampaign of repair and excavation has been small movable antiquities recovered at these rosecuted, and the result of it is manifest in sites in close association with the structural he present altered conditions of many old and remains to which they belong, so that they istoric buildings and in the scientific excava- may be studied amid their natural surroundings ion of buried sites such as Taxila, PataJi- and not lose focus and meaning by being utra, Sanchi in the Bhopal State, Sarnath near transported to some distant place. tenares, Nalanda in Bihar, Pharapur in Bengal The epigraphical material dealt with by the nd Nagarjunikonda in Madras and in the Indus Archaeological Survey has enabled the history r alley at Harappa in the Punjab and Mohenjo- and chronology of the various dynasties of India aro in Sind. Of all these works those of most to be established on a firmer basis and in greater eneral interest are the Mohenjo-daro excavations, detail. The "Epigraphia Indica" is now in the here the Archaeological Department have 21st volume, a revised edition of the Asoka nearthed remains of prehistoric cities dating inscriptions has been recently published while the ack to 3000 B.C. and further. The Archaeologi- companion volume of post Asokan Brahmi al Survey has devoted considerable attention to tie organization and development of museums inscriptions is under preparation. A volume as of non-Asokan Kharoshthi inscriptions was entres of research and education. It maintains published two years ago. Indian Time. For many years Indian time was in a state of "Now if India were connected with Europe laotic confusion. What was called Madras or by a continuous series of civilised nations with ,ail way time was kept on all the railways: and their continuous railway systems all of which had ich great centre of population kept its own local adopted the European hour-zone system, it would me, which was not based on any common be imperative upon India to conform and to adopt ;ientitic principle and was divorced from the the second suggestion. But as she is not, and andards of all other countries. It was with as she is as much isolated by uncivilised States view to remedying this confusion that the as Cape Colony is by the ocean, it is open to overnment of India took the matter up in her to follow the example of that and some )04, and addressed to the Local Governments, other similarly situated colonies and to adopt id through them to all. local bodies, a long the first suggestion. tter which reviewed the situation and made iggestions for the future. The essential points "It is believed that this will be the better this letter are indicated below : solution. There are obvious objections to "In India we have already a standard time, drawing an arbitrary line right across the hich is very generally, though by no means richest and most populous portions of India, and so as to bisect all the main lines of communi- liversally, recognised. It is the Madras local me, which is kept on all railway and telegraph cation, and keeping times differing by an hour aes throughout India and which is 5h. 21m. on opposite sides of that line. India has be- )s. in advance of Greenwich. Similarly, come accustomed to a uniform standard in the angoon local time is used upon the railways Madras time of the railways and the substitu- tion for it of a double standard would appear id telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. to be a retrograde step ; while it would, in all lead of Greenwich. But neither of these andards bears a simple and easily remembered probability, be strongly opposed by the railway lation to Greenwich time. authorities. Moreover, it is very desirable that whatever system is adopted should be "The Government of India have several times followed by all Europeans and Indians alike; and Jen addressed by Scientific Societies, both in it is certain that the .double standard would idia and in England, and urged to fall into line puzzle the latter greatly ; while by emphasising ith the rest of the civilised world. And now the fact that railway differed from local time, Royal Society has once more returned to the e it might postpone or even altogether prevent tack. The Committee of that Society which the acceptance of the former instead of the Ivises the Government of India upon matters •nnected with its observatories, writes: — ' The latter by people generally over a large part of India. The one great advantage which the second )mmittee think that a change from Madras time possesses over the first alternative is, tnat under > that corresponding to a longitude exactly 5£ the former, the difference between local and >urs east of Greenwich would be an improve standard time can never exceed half an hour: ent upon the existing arrangements ; but that whereas under the latter it will even exceed an r international scientific purposes the hourly hour in the extreme cases of Karachi and Quetta. ne system, making the time 5 hours in advance But this inconvenience is believed to be smaller Greenwich in the west, and 6 hours in advance than that of keeping two different times on the the east of India would be preferable.' Indian system of railways and telegraphs. Indian Time. 34 "Standard time will thus have been fixed for rail- , " It is proposed, therefore, to put on ail the the Indian railway and telegraph clocks in India by 8m. ways and telegraphs for the whole of purposes, Empire. Its general adoption for all 50s. They would then represent a time 5 i a matter which which while eminently advisable, is hours faster than that of Greenwich, each would be known as Indian Standard Time, must be left to the local community in and the difference between standard and case." local would be time at the places mentioned below It i3 difficult to recall, without a sense of approximately as follows, the figures represent- bewilderment, the reception of this Proposal that the ing minutes, and F. and S. meaning bv various local bodies. To read no* the fears standard time is in advance of or behmd local if Standard Time was 38 that were entertained time respectively:— Dibrugarh 51 S -Shillong adopted is a study in the possibles .of.human S., Calcutta 24 S., Allahabad 2 F. Madras 9 F., local error The Government scheme left would Lahore 33 F., Bombay 39 F., Peshawar 44 bodies to decide whether or not they Karachi 62 F., Quetta 62 F. Calcutta decided to retain its own " This standard time would be as much as 0 4 adopt it. time njstoU at Mandalay locaftime, and to-day Calcutta and 55 minutes behind local time railway twenty-four minutes m advance of Standard and Rangoon, respectively; and since the Time. In Bombay the first reception of the that oi system of Burma is not connected witir own, proposal was hostile; but on reconsideration the of India, and already keeps a time its Chamber of Commerce decided in favour of it suggested namely, Rangoon local time, it is not n s did the Municipality Subsequently the be adopted L that Indian Standard Time should opposing element in the Municipality fought proposed, however, that in- which the Municipal clocks in Burma. It is by stead fusing Rangoon Standard Time as at h?a side resolution, time which is thirty-nine in advance of were put at Bombay present, which is 6h. 24m. 47s minutes behind Standard Time On the 1st should be Greenwich, a Burma Standard Time the railway and telegraph on the Burmese railways and tele- January 1906 all put at Indian Standard adopted all in advance clocks in India were graphs, which would be cue hour hours ahead of Time; in Burma the Burma Standard Time Time, or 6^ former of Indian Standard with Sine universal. Calcutta retains its Greenwich time, and would correspond bring Calcutta time ; but in Bombay local time is 9^7° 30' E longitude. The change would which are nwntamed both with reSed only in the clocks Burma time into simple relation and would hv the Municipality and in the establishments Enseal and with Indian time, .telegraphic com- JfsSSSewSSoxmndnB. Elsewhere Standard (anions other things) simplify Time is universal. munication with other countries. TIDAL CONSTANTS. given as below : — B M. add 1 35 mb Rangoon River Entrance ^ 39 < Gibraltar sub 1 Penan g ftf14^ Malta .... i » '3 26 Singapore Karachi f 4 27 Hongkong Bombay " 0 34 Shanghai 99 3 e Gca Yokohama au,d add 40 Point de Guile sub. 4 - m sub, Valparaiso Madras add 4 0 Buenos A yres Calcutta " >> 0 add 41 I Monte Video ngoon Town] •• = 35 Coinage, Weights and Measures. As the currency of India is based upon the The scale used generally throughout Northern rupee, statements with regard to money are India, and less commonly in Madras generally expressed in rupees, nor has it been and Bombay, may be thus expressed one maund found possible m all cases to add a conversion | 40 seers, one seer==16 chittaks or 80 tolas into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold , The actual weight of a seer varies greatly from ralue of the rupee (containing 165 grams of district to district, and even from village to pure silver) was approximately equal to 2s )r one-tenth of a £, and for that period it is' village, but m the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy (the exact weight of the rupee) ;asy to convert rupees into sterling by striking and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., and the >ff the final cipher (Us. 1,000=£100), But maund 82-28 lb. The standard is used in ifter 1873. owing to the depreciation of silver official reports. is compared with gold throughout the world, Retail.— For calculating retail prices, the here came a serious and progressive fall in the universal custom in India i3 to express them in xchange, until at one time the gold value of terms of seeis to the rupee. Thus, when prices he rupee dropped as low as Is. In order to change what varies is not the amount cf money ircvide a remedy for the heavy loss caused oO be paid for the same quantity, but the quanti- o the Government of India in respect of its ty to be obtained for the same amount of money. old payments to be made in England, and In other words, prices in India are quantity lso to relieve foreign trade and finance from prices, not money prices. When the figure of tie inconvenience due to constant and un- quantity goes up, this of course means that the oreseen fluctuations in exchange, it was re- price has gone down, which is at first sight olved in 1893 to close the mints to the free perplexing to an English reader. It may oinage of silver, and thus force up the value however, be mentioned that quantity prices f the rupee by restricting the circulation, are not altogether unknown in England, espe- 'he intention was to raise the exchange value cially at small shops, where pennyworths of f the runee to Is. 4d.. and then introduce a many groceries cau be bought. Eggs, likewise oid standard at the rate of Us. 15=£1. From are commonly sold at a varying number for the' 899 onwards the value of the rupee was shilling. If it be desired to convert quantity laintained, with insignificant fluctuations, prices from Indian into English denominations t the proposed rate of Is. 4d. until without having recourse to money prices (which 'ebruary 1920 when the recommendation of would often be misleading), the following scale fie Committee appointed in the previous year may be adopted— based upon the assumption lat the rupee should be linked with gold and that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value ot with sterling at 2s. instead of Is. 4d. was of the rupee remains constant at Is. 4d. 1 seer } iopted. This was followed by great fluctua- per rupee=(about) 3 lb. for 2s., 2 seers per ons. (See article on Currency System). rupee=(about) 6 lb. for 2s., and so on. — Notation. Another matter in connection The name of the unit for square measure- ith the expression of money statements ment in India generally is the bigha, which i terms of rupees requires to be explained, varies greatly in different parts of the country. he method of numerical notation in India But areas have been expressed in this work [tiers from that which prevails throughout either in square miles or in acres. urope. Large numbers are not punctuated Proposed Reforms.— Indian weights and i hundreds of thousands and millions, but in measures have never been settled upon an khs and crores. A lakh is one hundred organised basis suitable for commerce and lousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore trade characteristic of the modern age. They one hundred lakhs or ten millions (written vary from town to town and village to village it a3 1,00,00,000). Consequently, according in a way that could only work satisfactory i the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of so long as the dealings of towns and villages ipees (Us. 1.00,000) may be read as the equi- were se5f-contained and before roads and rail- dent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the equi- ways opened up trade between one and the Uent of (about) £6,667 after 1899, while a other. It is pointed out that in England a ore of rupees (Us. 1,00,00,000) may similarly hogshead of wine contains 63 gallons and a t read as the equivalent of £1,000,000 before hogshead of beer only 54 gallons ; that a bushel 173, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 of corn weighs 46 lbs. in Sunderland and 240 lbs. ter 1899. With the rupee at Is. 6d. a lakh in Cornwall; that the English stone weight equivalent to £7,500 and a crore is equiva- represents 14 lbs. in popular estimation, but nt to £750,000. only 5 lbs., if we are weighing glass, and eight — for Coinage. Finally, it should be mentioned instances meat, but 6 lbs. for cheese. are multiplied in India by at least Simijar at the rupee is divided into 16 annas, a frac- as many times as India is bigger than Eng- ra commonly used for many purposes by land. If we take, for >th rndians and Europeans. The anna was i "f „ instance, the maund rmerly reckoned as lid., Hr may now be ?®?? mm at [° Q co ™ mon , T V 5 lg lt over a 8h a„ °JnA u l . asidered as exactly corresponding to Id. J?f , tha n Ven Clty e a !£y as? ifnS ny m mau n ds , a *\(? there are J articles TV i , le anna is again sub-divided into 12 pies. ™, iJ « * v ?£ ! to weigh. If . . we consider the maund as be- „, . . A M , Weights.—The various systems of weights tween district and district the state of affairs ed in India combine uniformity of scale is worse. Thus in the United Provinces alone, immense variations in the weight of units, the maund of sugar weighs 48* seers ii 36 Coinage, Weights and Measures. ,40 in Committee of 1913.— The whole problem Cawnpore, 40 in Muttra, 72* in Gorakhpu was again brought under special consideration Saharanpur, Agra, 50 in Moradabad, 43i in by the Government of India in October, 191 6, 50 in Bareilly, 46 in Fyzabad, 48 m Shah; when the following committee was appointed r iehaiinnr. 51 in Gosbanaunae. The maund from the Bengal to inquire into the entire subject anew wfiThroughont all India Mr. C. A. Siiberrard (Pretident). the Factory or railway m*und of 82-2/7 lbs. to Mr. A. Y. G. Campbell. 10 oz. 11 drs., the Bombay maund of 74 lbs. Mr. Rustomji Fardoonji. maundof 28 lbs., which apparently answers This Committee reported, in August 19l& to the Forest Department maund m use at the weights to ne v maund, which in favour of a uniform system of Fuel Depot, and the Madras adopted in India based on the 180 gram tola. some authorities estimate at 25 lbs. and others there The report says:— Of all such systems at 24 lbs. and so on. widespread and best .-These are merely is no doubt that the most Committees of Inquiry known is that known as the Bengal or of thu Indian multiplied indefi- typical instances which are v detail Railway weights. The introduction nitely. There are variations ol every system invokes a more or less considerable part oi India of weights and measures in every ! change of system in parts of the United Pro- contoion The losses to trade arising rom the of thmgb vfnces (Gorlkhpur, Bareilly and neighbourm and the trouble which this state causes are heavy. Municipal and com^ the problem of the Punjab areas), practically the whole of Madras (rural portions of Arnntsar an part bodies are continually returning to with a view to devising a practical of reform. erninentT The Supreme and Provincial Gov- S have made various attempts during North-West Frontier ^& scheme neichbouring districts), of Bombay (boutl SSmbay city'and Gujarat), and thj Province Burma ha system of its own which tr« of universal at present a separate To years past to solve the problem be Permitted t units of weights and measures and commerce committee think it should .— systems recommended are and trade agitated about the question retain. The have for the past century. The ?dian rwlwaya For India. and Government departments adopted _a 8 khaskhas = i chawal standard tola (180 grains), seer ( 80^ tolas) and 8 chawals = 1 ratti maund (40 seers) and it was hoped that this 8 rattis = — l masha which 1 tola would act as a successful "lead through- 12 mashes or 4 tanks — l chatak would gradually be followed by trade has not 5 tolas out the empire, but the expectation 16 chataks = 1 seer been realised. 40 seers _ = i maund India considered the For Burma The Government of -s 1 large ywe Question in consultation with the pro- 2 small ywes whole q in 1890-1894 and various 4 large ywes = 1 pe wmdai G^eSSmentB different times been 2 pes _ 1 mu special steps have at The Gov- pesor2£ mu8 _ 1 mat taken in different parts of India. conmnttee 5 = l ngamu ernment of Bombay appointed a 1 mat = [vis 1 tikal for the 2 ngamus In 1911 to make proposals for reform = 1 peiktha Bombay Presidency.Their final report has of 180 grains"/ equal not been published,but they presented m ^Thftola is the tott» which has been the rupee weight, The viss has recently bee 1012 an interim report brief, it points Oxed at 3* 60 lbs. or 140 tolas. issued for public discussion. In impossibility of Proceeding Government out the practical the whole Government Action.-The by compulsory^ measures afiecting tions of trade and sociaUife would»° n about the desired reform so buccjws- d « v Ji ^!r°^^^gt liquid measu, tmi in bringing g fully as a " lead » supplied by local legislation ^vls^bletos^ based on practical experience of coherence, »avoir faire, or the The means want of capaci > ^of co t ie y large pointed maia sta , aIldardi9edryM4 , len h provinC e S . a# decided ^ Similar n nofc tQ adopt a ^ operation among the people at As re < tB tney to this conclusion. The Committee pom tea sUndard mentioned unc out that a good example of the results that Weights", * near the comnien- will follow a good lead « apparent m the l ast Wie oi i * arti le this having mem been reco , where a Khandesh District of the Presidency, a Dy ma jority of the Weights the District Officer, Mr. during the course of three Simcox, years, peopll to adopt throughout the rorm weights and measures W^ualiy, . induce*! the distnet un - the^^^ r es Corami ttee ^ ^^ and support of the At ?^ same time they fco asglst having Local Yimous recch Gove provjjioM provincial ..legist being a tola of 180 grains, dui stated that u suo In this case a n riardlaaUon fj> and recommending the committee abstained from In o^iilSn develops strongly quent > op measures should SuetSv lanlisatl011 0 f weights : that the same weights and be adopted over the whole f erring that a new Presidency system parted in any c ; area u<»cr the ^ ! ^ e t of India will be take * no legi9lat ion, but prepare to un at present they c n 8tep WQU d be prematt possible similar to £ should be as nearly as i aider tm»v* j b.e<«t eyetem already prevailing there. 37 The Peoples of India. It is essential to bear In mind, when dealing lower by the Chamar. Probably the result of the with the people of India, that it is a continent i intermixture, in varying proportions, of the Indo- rather than a country. Nowhere is the complex [ Aryan and ©ravidian types. The head-form is character of Indians more clearly exemplified long with a tendency to medium the complexion than m the physical type of its inhabitants. ; varies from lightish brown to black ; the nose No one would confuse the main types, such as ranges from medium to broad, being always Gurkhas, Pathans, Sikhs, Rajputs, Burmans, broader than among the Indo- Aryans ; the Nagas, Tamils, etc., nor does it take long to carry stature is lower than in the latter group and the differentiation much farther. The typical usually below the average according to the scale. Inhabitants of India— the Dra vidians— differ al- The higher representatives of this type approach together from those of Northern Asia, and more the Indo- Aryans, while the lower members are nearly resemble the tribes of Malaya, Sumatra in many respects not very far removed from Mid Madagascar. Whatever may be their the Dravidians. The type is essentially a ttigm, it is certain that they have settled in the mixed one, yet its characteristics are readily jountry for countless ages and that their present definable, and no one would take even an physical characteristics have been evolved upper class Hindustani for a pure Indo- Aryan ocally. They have been displaced in the Nortb- or a Chamar for a genuine Dravidian. The sv est by successive hordes of invaders, including distinctive feature of the type, the character Iryans, Scythians, Pathans and Moghals, and in which gives the real clue to its origin and stamps he North- East by Mongoloid tribes allied to the Aryo Dravidian as racially different from hose of Burma, which is India only in a modern the Indo- Aryan is to be found in the proportions lohtical sense. Between these foreign elements of the nose. ,nd the pure Dravidians is borderland where The Mongolo-Dra vidian, or Bengali type he contiguous races have intermingled. of Lower Bengal and Orissa, comprising the The people of the Indian Empire are divided Bengal Brahmins and Kayasthas, the Maho- >y Sir Henry Risley (Caste, Tribe and Race, ndian Census Report, 1901 ; the Gazetteer medans of Eastern Bengal, and other groups of peculiar to this part of India. Probably a blend ndia, Ethnology and Caste, Volume I, Chapter of Dravidian and Mongoloid elements, with a ) into seven main physical types. There would strain of Indo- Aryan blood in the higher groups. e eight if the Andaman ese were included, but The head is broad complexion dark hair on tiis tiny group of Negritos may be disregarded. face usually plentiful; ; stature ; medium; nose The Turko-Iranian, represented by the medium, with a tendency to broad. This is one laloch, Brahui and Afghans of Baluchistan of the most distinctive types in India, and its and ie North- West Frontier Province. members may be recognised at a glance through- Probably >rmed by a fusion of Turkiand Persian elements, out the wide area where their remarkable apti- iwhich the former predominate. Stature above tude for clerical pursuits has procured them lean; complexion fair; eyes mostly dark employment. Within its own habitat the type but jcasionally grey hair on face plentiful extends to the Himalayas on the north and to ; head ; road, nose moderately narrow, Assam on the east, and probably includes the prominent, ad very long. The feature in these bulk of the population of Orissa the western people ; lat strikes one most prominently limit coincides approximately is the porten- with the hilly ds length of their noses, and it is probably country of Chota Nagpur and Western Bengal. ns peculiarity that has given rise to the tradi- Dn of the Jewish origin of the Afghans The Mongoloid type of the Himalayas, Nepal, Assam, and Burma, represented bv the The Indo- Aryan occupying the Punjab, Rai- Kanets of Lahul and Kulu ; the Lepchas of itana, and Kashmir, and having as Darjeeling and Sikkim the Limbus, Murmis and its charac- " stlc members tne Rajputs, Xhattris, and Gurungs of Nepal ; the Bodo of Assam ; and the its. This type, which is readily distinguish- Burmese. The head is broad ; complexion dark, e fr ,? ^ m he T urko-Iranian, approaches most with a yellow tinge ; hair on face scanty ; stature )sely to that ascribed to the traditional short or below average ; nose fine to broad, face Aryan lonists of India. The stature is mostly tall • characteristically flat; eyelids often oblique. mplexion fair ; eyes dark ; hair on face plenti- i, head long; nose narrow, and prominent The Dravidian type extending from Ceylou to the valley of the Ganges, and pervading it not specially long. Madras, Hyderabad, the Central Provinces, most The Scytho-Dra vidian, comprising the Mar- of Central na Rrahmans, the Kunbis, and the India and Chota Nagpur. Its most Coorgs Western India. Probably formed by a mix- characteiistic representatives are the Paniy^ns of Malabar and the Santals of Chota Nagpur. re of Scythian and Diavidian elements. This Probably the original type of the pe is clearly distinguished from the population Turko- of India, now modified to a varying extent by mian by a lower stature, a greater length of the admixture of Aryan, Scythian, and Mongo- ad, a higher nasal index, a shorter nose, and a loid elements. In typical specimens verorbito- nasal index. All of these the stature characters is short or belovt mean the complexion very sept perhaps the last, may be due ; to a varying dark, approaching black hair ?ree of intermixture with the ; plentiful, with an Dravidians. In occasional tendency to curl; eyes dark; head j higher groups the amount of crossing seems long nose very broad, sometimes depressed at have been slight; in the lower : Dravidian the root, but not so as to make the face appear ments are more pronounced. rhe flat. This race, the most primitive of the India n Aryo-Dra vidian or Hindustani types, occupies . the oldest geological formation in md in the. United Provinces, in parts of Rah India, the medley of forest> clad ranges, terraced tana, and in Bihar and represented in its un- plateau, and undulating plains ' strata by the Hindustani Brahman which stretch and in its roughly speaking, from the Vindhyas to I Cai e 38 Town and Country. these deposit which is here treated as Dravidian • of the Oomorin. On the east and the west 1 Dravidian is typical characteristics tend to thin and disap- peninsular area the domain of the pear, but even among them traces of the original further north conterminous with the Ghats, while stock survive in varying degrees. it reaches on one side to the Aravalhs, and on Where the The areas occupied by these various types do the other to the Rajmahal Hills. not admit of being defined as sharply as they have been unchanged by original characteristics people, must be shown on an ethnographic map. 1 hey contact with Indo-Aryan or Mongoloid melt into each other insensibly and although : the type remarkably uniform and distinctive. one ethnic at the close of a day's journey from is pure Dravidian Labour is the birthright of the tract to another, an observer whose attention T)uars oi whether hoeing tea in Assam, the the subject would realise of Eastern had been directed to Cevlon, cutting rice in the swamps physical characteristics Bengal or doing scavenger's work m the streets clearly enough that the undergone an appreciable Singapore, he is of the people had of Calcutta, Kangoon and I unable to say at recognizable at a glance by his black skm, his change, he would certainly be proportion of what particular stage in his progress the trans- squat figure, and the negro-like had taken place. his nose. strata of the vast social formation In the upper I TOWN AND COUNTRY. Ireland 50.8 per cent, in Canada 53.7 per cent, India— if m The progress of urbanisation in has been in the U. S. A. 56.2 per cent, and England there has been any progress at all- years, the and Wales 80 per cent. v-rv slow during the past thirty than one per whole increase being a little more population i The greatest degree of growth has been in the rent The percentage of the urban number of towns with a population of whichfrom. to the total is only 11, which howevei shows an 20 000 to 50,000, the total population of : increase of 0.8 per cent, since the last'Census, to of the pre- is now nearly double that of towns of 50,000 due partly to the natural increase 100 000. All classes of towns have increased partly to migra- existing urban population and population, except those with populations The percentage of urban in tion from rural areas. of between 5,000 and 10,000 and those having population ranges from 3.4 in Assam to 22 6 industrial and the most urbanised of the under 5,000. Thus the large in Bombay which is semi-industrial towns have benefitted at the the nrban major provinces. Compared to this, ! ^SlnTranceT^ per«nt. ; in Northern [ expense of the smaller towns. AC °™ G T° DISTRIBUTION O, POTATION Percentage of .total 1931. 1921. Population. Class of Places. '31 '21 '11 '01 '91 Population. Places. Population. Places. 100 100 L0! 699,406 352,837,778) 687,981 318,942,480 100 100 Total Population 685,665 286,467,204 89 59.8 90.6 90.1 90. Rural Areas 696,831 313,852,351 11 10.2 9.4 9.9 9. 38,985,427 2,316 32,475,276 Urban Areas Towns having 100,000 35 8,211,704 2.71 2.6 2.2 2.2 2 38 9,674,032 and over Towns having 50,000 to 3,517,749 1.3 1.1 .9 1.2 1 . 65 4,572,113 54 100,000 Towns having 20,000 to 5,968,794 2.3 1.9 1.8 1.7 1 268 8,091,288 200 50,000 Towns having 10,000 to 6,220,889 2.1 1.9 2 2.2 1. 543 7,449,402 451 20,000 Towns having 5,000 to 88E 6,223,011 2 2 1.9 2 2. 98" 6,992,832 10,000 Towns having under 691 2,333,121 .6 I . < .61 .( 6741 2.205,760 5,000 . [ndian fms 268,870, Trinidad and lonago Migration. Of the population of the British Guiana 130,540, Fiji 75,117 and nine as born Empin only 730,546 were enumerated 595,078 smaller numbers in Tanganyika, Jamaic Of these There a in other parts of the world. Zanzibar, Uaanda and Hong Kong. European birth about 11.001. Indians scattered ^ are of Asiatic birth, 118,089 of nuinbers from Indm and 17 379 others. The emigration balance of under 2.000 in various other parts of th< nti approximately 2.5 million, the 9.0(H) in the Brit. is! • npire and probably about migration being against India. \aX The total number of Indians in t Outside t Nearly all of these migrants are resident ™ K .pire outside fndiais 2,300 000. 25,0 of the British Empire. There are KmU mv there are about 100,00035 Indians, 000 in Dn other parts ; V/uteh Hast Indies, ! 1 the Union of South and sina ler nn about ! 65,50() Indians in '"luinmi, 7.500 in Madagascar Africa of whom 142,979 are found in Natal. Kast Africa, the U. b, other overseas her< in Portuguese There are 20.759 in Kenya: the of si?;c are Maun- LVrsia, Iraq and other countries, Indian communities in order The Peoples of India. 40 RELIGIONS. gion) or Sikh added to a number of affrays and The subject of religion is severely contro- coloured by at least to one homicide. Speaking broadly, versial in India, where often it is Empire of every hundred persons in the Indian and racialism. As the Year Book 68 are Hindus, 22 Mahomedans, 3 Buddhists, politics aims at being impartial, all disputed inferences 3 follow the religion of their tribes, one is a Chris- Dr. Hutton, are excluded. As a matter of fact, Of the remaining 2 one is refers tian and one a Sikh. the Commissioner for the latest census, Christian, parties equally likely to be a Buddhist or a to an excess of zeal on the part of al a Jain, much less to register as many adherents as possible m view and the other most probably possibly either a based probably a Parsi and just as of the possibility of a communal franchise Jew, a Brahmo, or a holder of indefinite behels. on the census returns. " So high did feeling The enumerated totals of the Indian religious run over the return of religion in the Punjab , a man are set out in the following table : he says, " that disputes as to whether was Adi Dharmi (Adherent of the original reh- Actual Proportion Variation number per per cent, in 1921. 10,000 of (Increase + Religion. (OOO's population in Decrease ). 1911-1921. — omitted .) 1921. 239, 195 6,824 + 10*4 Hindu » 468 15 + 92- Arya 4 ,336 124 + 33-9 Sikh ' 1. 25-2 36 + 6-2 Jain 12 ,787 365 + 10*ft Buddhist Iranian [Zoroastrian (Parsi)j Musalman 110 ,678 ,297 3 2,216 179 + I'M + + 32-5 M Christian 24 1 + 10*9 Jew ,280 236 —15-3 571 16 -f- 3,072- MYweUan^ and religions not returned) and the large Burma, Madras, Rajputana, Central India A feature of the above table is easily Hyderabad also returned a considerable nurabe increase in the number of those returned as under this head. More than ^lf. Sout of« "miscellaneous". This is explained by the reside in grouped all those total number of Christians fact that the latest census JJw India including the Hyderabad State. who returned their religion as Adi-Hmdu, continent under " miscellaneous remainder are scattered over the Adi-Dravida, etc., the Fun; at the larger numbers being returned in the centre Bihar and Orissc The Hindus largely predominate in Presidency the United Provinces, Bengal, an and south of India, and in the Madras Burma, Bombay and Assam. The Parsis rn Jews are chiefly residents of the Bombay of the popula- tnev are no less than 88 per cent, tion. Hindus are in the majority in Assam. sidency. Provinces, the and Orissa, the United nj Bihar Bombay- Christians.— The Chrfcttan community Central India tracts, Rajputana and 6* millions of persons in indi Muhammadans monopolize the North-\V est numTr7ji2t population. in Kashmir or 1 79 per cent, ot the Frontier Province, Baluchistan and constitutes an increase of 32. 5 per cent, o ver t excess in the Punjab and are considerably in about last census of which 20 per cent is ascribed and Eastern Bengal and Sind. They form per conversions during the decade 1021-.il N ai 32 per cent, of the population of Assam, 15cent 60 per cent, of Christians are returned from tl cent, in the United Provinces and 10 per States, and the col Buddhists are almost entirely Madras Presidency and its in Hyderabad. The munity can claim 35 persons in every l.OWJ confined to Burma where they are 84 per cent, Sikhs are localized dlatriots 32 population Ot the British as 2< per eonol \WM of the population. The :uul as large a proportion in the Punjab and the Jains in Rajputana, Lis Cochin and 31 .5 per cent, in Iravaneorc m Aimer-Merwara and the neighbouring States ' t were classed as following Tribal where the Christians are s. •altered Those who Provinces and larger States of India, the lunj Religions are chiefly found in Bihar and Orissa, but Bengal and Bihar and Orissa. the Central Provinces and Assam, MAIN STATISTICS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. two censuses and in the last 50 years :- The Census of India was taken on the night I last Burma and on that of 2oth 1921 1911 1881 of February 24th in in India. The total population of Mia as thus | to to to Bdttft^Terri- , ascertained la 352,887,778, viz 1931. 1921. 1931 81,310,845 tory 271,526,933 and Indian States British + 39 rdvmg an increase of 21,070,742 in Whole India + 10.6 + 1.2 Territory and 9,224,556 In Indian States. Provinces . + 10.0 + 1.3 + 36 The following table shows the Percentage States + 12.8 +1.0 + 46 population at the of variation in the country's The Peoples of India. rHCM co os co CM CD rH OS th is" th O rH ls> cm co cm OS © o 5 ++- ++ +++ + + + + ++ CO ++ "H H< o -h o CM iO IS> rH ° « cm' co O CD 00 CM CM >o CO ++ ++ + + ++ 1 I i + 1 CD O rH 00 CD CM CO CO rH IS» O t> oo co' 00* u0 rH oVo o is" rH CD* rH +++ ++ +++ + + + + 1 ++ 00 Is- GO Hi OrH CO CO rH 00 OS I> CO cTof ic rH O j CM ClOO CM CO 00 tain go rH I> OS rH CO 00 OS rH rH 00 IS. CO CO 00 CO rH CO CM lONH rH rH <*> 00 iOCM OS O O CO OS rH O uo rH 00 CO CM N ,761 ,045 lO CO rH CO O OS t> ocTm~rH cs no cocm"co" rH O OS CO 00 OS 00 OS 176, O CO O CO CO iO CM o HOCO CO os is- t> CO rH rH~00 CM rH © rH i> CO CO rH CO CM iC 00 C5iOO ,702 ,206 ,004 ,698 138 O o 00 u0 IS. rH OS W OS GO OS rH © CD rH O OS CO 00 iO rH OS oo »o o OS t- rH CO O rH rH H< OS l>- 535, 490, cnTlo W0 CM O 1^- GO HH 00 rH rH co"co CM rH cM"nT rH CM 00 CM CO CO 1^ CO IS OS CM ©© CM CM rH CM CO iO CO t^CO CM oo i> i> co*©" CO CM CD CO~rH l> CO rH l> C0~CD O oo 00 m i& rH rH CO O CD CO — CO i I rH CM l> rH rH rH ICS CM rH rH CCHH* CMCM iO O O 00 (MOO -H CM CM GO CO CM OO GO OS OS CO OS o oy 1 K5 c fl o . o <3 5? £3 «w , -J3 "H 03 r- f/J i il§ ^ 5«DCO C&fc-N H«Pj ONH vfj 1> + + + +- 4-4-4- . ++ +++ +++ 4-4-4- 0 01 00 CD O^ 1.3 6.8 5.1 6.6 2.2 3.0 1.0 5.5 6.5 7.1 4.6 0.5 HOO oid OWN 13.5 16.8 74.2 + + 4-4- 4- ++ + 11 + + +I 4-4-4- + 1 i | | 1 1 The Peoples of India. 43 cu CM CM rH © ^t os co CM t+i CO co os rfi 0 CO GO HH GO O t> tO tQ CM m 30 os >h cs t> to CM GO to ,O fl CO rH rH CM £ M ^ o C O - +++ + + + + + + +++ +++ r- « 1 .2 cS O to rH to O CM CO to to CO GO F- cm j- h^" os HH to rH rH CM "ShJ ° *0 c3 ,rH as (M + + + +++ +++ +++ . CU CU • GO 4^,3 CO O CO 8 +3 rH Population of Principal Towns OOM t^OrH r^OO GO 3"© ^ N <» <*P*> 00 t- > ?THi» H'a g«g g^g 0 . — The Peoples of India. 43 AGE AND SEX. The table below show distribution of 10,000 males arid females of the Indian population by 10-ycarly oups at the last two censuses : 1931. 1921. 1931. 1921. i.ge-group. Age-group. Males. Fe- Fe- Fe- males. Males. Males. Fe- males. Males. males. males 0—1 2,802 2,889 2,673 2,810 40—50 968 891 1,013 967 10—20 2,086 2,062 2,087 1,896 50—60 561 545 619 606 20—30 1,768 1,856 1,640 1,766 60—70 269 30—40 281 347 377 1,431 1,351 1,461 1,398 70 and over. 115 125 160 180 Mean age . 23.2 22.8 24.8 24.7 The mean age in India is only 23.02, as be made for the heavy mortality of the influenza igainst 30.6 in England and Wales. The rate years. It is in the towns that the highest )f infant mortality in India in the decade infantile mortality is found. L921-31 shows an appreciable reduction on the The table below shows the rates from 1925 to 1930 for presidency :ate of the previous decade, even if allowance towns and certain provincial capitals. INFANTILE MORTALITY RATES PEE, 1,000 LIVE-BIRTHS DURING. City. 1925. 1926. 1927. 1928. 1929. 1930. Bombay 357 255 316 314 301 298 Calcutta 326 372 340 276 259 268 Madras 279 282 240 289 259 246 Llangoon 352 320 294 341 321 278 [iUcknow 260 287 256 301 269 329 Lahore 222 241 201 204 214 187 tfagpur 258 302 254 299 291 270 Delhi 183 238, 201 210 259 199 Special causes contribute to the high mortality has been going on since the beginning of this >f infants in India. century. This shortage of females is charac- r ns ™ c of he P°P ulation of India as compared Owing to the custom of early marriage, co- to +that of most European countries. . labitation and child-birth commonly take place The female infant is definitely better equipped by )efore the woman physically mature and this, is nature for survival than the male, but in India ombined with the primitive and insanitary the advantage she has at birth is probably Qethods of midwifery, seriously affects the neutralised in infancy by comparative neglect lealth and vitality of the mother and through and in adolescence by the strain of bearing ler of the child. If the child survives the pre- children too early and too often. A good deal latal and natal chances of congenital debility "t recent work on sex ratios has tended to the tfid the risks of child-birth, it is exposed to the view that an increase in masculinity is an indi- Rogers of death in the early months of life cation Of declining population, but this is not ftp diarrhoea or dysentery. According to the the case in M eul ivo Health OJIicer of Bombay city, by ratio India, as a, whole. The all-India 901 females per L,000 males for Muslims is ar the greater number of infantile deaths m arc bo infantile debility and malformation, nchiding and 95 females per 1,000 males for Hindus. 1 The only provinces in which there is actually premature birth, respiratory diseases an excess of women over men are Madras and Mng next, then convulsions, then diarrhoea Bihar and Orissa, though the Central Provinces an 1,4/ . 1,000 of the population are . than 40 hall males and 434 females. against 82 ton years ago and less provinces in i century ago. Burma leads the ' female literacy The country taken as a whole, proper exec- literacy for In that province the matter of ; absent in India high order, is a is comparatively literacy, even if not of a very in Kerala. Cochin State has more than on and all classes, habit traditional in both sexes both DOVS and girls bring tan-id in the monas- Irate female to ..very two literateMalabar every Ihirman vdlage Travancore only a little less while ^ males a Uttie ML ha ^ terie* of which almost nearly one to every three, Coorg Cochin, Travancore and feig has at least one. three, Baroda a little literacy. than one to every Baroda follow Burma in the order of growth and Mvsore one to every live. Besides th< Cochin State, in spite of a very rapid — The Peoples of India. 47 difficulty, still very strongly in most pro- felt [hundred and twelve out of every 10,000 males vinces, of getting good wonu-n teachers, one of and 28 out of every 10,000 females are literate (he most serious obstacles to the spread of in English, and both sexes taken together 12:5 female education is the early age of marriage, out of 10,000. Viewed in relation to the various which causes girls to he taken from school ! religions and communities, the figures are as hei'i we they have reached even the standard of the primary school leaving certificate. Treated in communal or religious groups, the Number ureal est progress has been made by Sikhs, per 10,000 Jains, Muslims and Hindus, in that order, but aged 5 the leading literate communities arc the Par sis, lleligion. and overs Jews, Burmans, Jains and Christians. The who are following table analyses the position of the literate in Indian communities in respect of literacy : English. Number All religions (India) 123 - per 1,000 Hindus 113 Religion. Sikhs who are 151 literate. Jains 306 Buddhists 119 Zoroastrians (Parsis) 5,041 All religions (India) 95 Muslims 92 Hindus 84 Christians 919 Sikhs 91 Jews 2,636 Jains 353 Tribal 4 Buddhists 90 Others 28 Zoroastrians (Parsis) 791 Muslims 64 Territorially, Cochin State le^ds in literacy Christians 279 in English with 307 per 10,000 Coorg follows ; Jews 416 with 238, Bengal (211) and Travancore (158) Tribal 7 coming next. Others 19 Languages. In the whole Indian Empire — English Language. — Literacy English 225 languages were returned at the census, in language is still less in India and is confined dialects, as has been previously explained, mostly to the town-dwelling population. Two not having been separately considered. The principal languages are given in the following statement:— Totalnumber of speakers Number per 10,000, (000's omitted.) of total population. Language. 1931 1921. Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females. 37,743 33,804 50,210 46,504 2,090 1,990 27,517 25,952 25,239 24,055 1,523 1,527 13,291 13,083 11,874 11,727 736 770 10,573 10,317 9,296 9,095 585 607 10,073 10,339 9,284 9,490 558 00 s 8,799 7,040 8,961 487 414 7,271 6,627 0,0:10 0,025 403 390 5,690 5,510 5,253 5,12] 315 5,485 5,709 4,952 5,192 304 336 5,610 5,240 4,967 4,585 311 308 Burmese 4,332 4,522 4,135 4,288 240 266 Malayulam 4,533 4,605 3,736 3,762 257 271 Lahnda (or Western Punjabi) 4,603 3,963 3,050 2,602 255 2 3 The Peoples of India. 48 of a considerable amount of dMCUSSion ana central ^deana a g conscious change in their speech, suggestion during the last intelligible toone another, and this of * mutually ffljmaBKSS82liah*9 San*."-. exceed in number the strength of any other T«j; n n-nA if wa add nnn to Infirmities —These are classes under four individual language in India, and if we ,. , ., , Rajasthani, main heads— insanity, deaf-mutism, blindness these two languages Bihari and shows and leprosy. The appended statement each which so resemble Hindi as to be frequently re- the number of persons suffering from turned under that name in the census schedules infirmitv at each of the last six censuses and the we get well over 100 millions of speakers of tongues wmcn nave some wusiuw«-v which have considerable affinities- —— — proportion - - tion.— per hundred thousand of the popula- and cover a very large area of northern and j^^7^^5^Fratio per hundred thousand OP THE POPULATION. Innrmity. 1911. 1901. 1891. 1881. I 1921. 66,205 74,279 81,132 120,304 88 305 ~Tll006~ 35 Insane ; 28 26 23 27 34 197,215 199,891 153,168 196,861 230,895 189,644 86 Deaf-mutes 64 52 75 66 60 443,653 3*4,104 458,868 526,748 601,370 479,637 229 Blind 152 142 121 167 172 131,968 • 109,094 97,340 128,244 T 147,911 102,513 Lepers 35 33 46 42 32 833,644 670.817 856,252 937,063 Total 860,099 407 272 267 '229 315 Between the man who cultivates [land and the in the There had been a continuous decline ] often a-, of man who nominally owns it there are interests total number as well as in the proportion- number of intermediate holders of some persons recorded as afflicted up to 1901. ltiis land If a coni- partly to a progressive or other in the produce of the Fall has been ascribed land under of the diagnosis parison is made between the area of improvement in the accuracy number of agriculturists actually in the pre- crops and the and partly to an actual decrease cultivation in British India, it is owing to the improve- engaged in valence of the infirmities, agriculturist there are 2.9 acres the people that for each ment in the material condition of in . the case of cropped land of which 0.65 of an acre is better sanitation and (especially of special crops to of blindness) to the increasing number of cures irrigated The cultivation cent, of the populations medical and occupies under two per with the aid of modern agriculture, the greater effected concerned in pasture and surgical science. In the decade ending 1901 whom are engaged in the production of relatively high mortality of the afflicted part of fewer than special the Forestry employs in the two severe famines must have been a tea. shown at that cultivation. considerable factor in the decline In recent years there has been an increase in compilation adopted census, but the method of of people living on the production in 1901 and in the previous census was defective, the number of physical force, that is, of the persons and transmission and certainly in 1901, many light, electricity, motive power etc. Silk notice in ^e course heat, afflicted must have escaped manufacture of chemical Compared with the year 1891, spinning and weaving, of tabulation. products, and the manufacture of tobacco have there was a slight decrease in the total number afflicted in 1911, the pro- proved more popular than before. Transport o persons recorded as attracted more men, while the use persons falline by road has portion per hundred thousand internal transport has decreased, ratio as well of water for from 315 to 267. The increase in to harbours being used more freely for external as in numbers since then is attributed transport by sea. About five million persons increased accuracy of enumeration. are enuaued' in organised industry. It is noteworthy that less than one million that the Occupation.— It isa well known fact on agricul- people, who man, the army, the Navy, the majority of the people in India live „,,,,.. the police, the services, etc., manage the number ., latest census puts down ir country; in ture administration of this vast exploitation of animals the ruled by one of those engaged in the " :;:»<> odd millions are vegetation at l():j.:«H),0()0, while those ..lb. r words, Ml J ims million servants of the state. engaged in industry number 15,400,000.workers Tin re has of late boon increasing unemploy- •ihout 67 per cent, of the country's especially among the educated classes. former and 10 per cent, ment, „. "mploveil in the attempt to include these in the last census the latter. This docs not however mean \n but significant in ha- nol met with success, it is are ~°}vnt f'. that all the 1 03 millions 1 join the. compheat ed and nohed | i\ that graduates of Madras University in land in India are po ir0 department on Ks. 10 per mensem and to persons familiar only | to a degree, incredible are held fortunate in getting even that. western Europe. with the simpler tenures of The History of India in Outline. No history of India can be proportionate Alexander the Great. md the briefest summary must suffer from the That great soldier had crossed the Hindu Kush lame defect. Even a wholesale acceptance as in the previous year and had captured Aornos, listory of mythology, tradition, and folklore on the Upper Indus. In the spring of 326 he vill not make good, though it makes pic- crossed the river at Ohind, received the sub- uresque, the many gaps that exist in the early mission of the King of Taxila, and marched listory of India : and, though the labours of against Porus who ruled the fertile country Qodern geographers and archaeologists have been between the rivers Hydaspes (Jhelum) and .mazingly fruitful, it cannot be expected that Akesines (Che nab). The Macedonian carried hese gaps will ever be filled to any appreciable all before him, defeating Porus at the battle of xtent. Approximate accuracy in chronology the Hydaspes, and crossing the Chenab and nd an outline of dynastic facts are all that Ravi. But at the River Hyphasis (Bias) his he student can look for up to the time of weary troops mutinied, and Alexander was Jexander, though the briefest excursion into forced to turn back and retire to the Jhelum he by-ways of history will reveal to him many where a fleet to sail down the rivers to the sea lluring and mysterious fields for speculation, was nearly ready. The wonderful story of here are, for example, to this day castes that Alexander's march through Mekran and Persia elieve they sprang originally from the loins of to Babylon, and of the voyage of Nearcbus being who landed " from an impossible boat up the Persian Gulf is the climax to the narrative a the shores of a highly improbable sea and of the invasion but is not part of the history le great epic poems contain plentiful state of India. Alexander had stayed nineteen Lents equally difficult of reconciliation with months in India and left behind him officers todern notions of history as a science. But carry on the Government of the kingdoms om the Jataka stories and the Puranas, to he had conquered : but his death at Babylon, mch valuable information is to be obtained, in 323, destroyed the fruits of what has to be id, for the benefit of those unable to go to regarded as nothing but a brilliant raid, and lese and other original sources, it has been within two years his successors were obliged stilled by a number of writers. to leave the Indian provinces, heavily scarred The orthodox Hindu begins the political by war but not hellenized. story of India more than 3,000 years before irist, with the war waged on the banks of the The leader of the revolt against Alexanders imna between the sons of Kuril and the generals was a young Hindu, Chandragupta, ns of Pandu. Recent excavations by the who was an illegitimate member of the Royal rchaeological Department in the Indus Valley Family of Magadha. He dethroned the ruler Harappa in the Punjab, but more particularly of that kingdom, and became so powerful Mohenjo Daro in Sind, carry us back even that he is said to have been able to place rther. They have uncovered sites of cities 600,000 troops in the field against Seleucus, aring the marks and containing the relics of a to whom Babylon had passed on the death of gh civilisation stated by the Department to be Alexander. This was too formidable an oppo- imerian. The excavations are proceeding sition to be faced, and a treaty of peace was ider special direction and have excited the concluded between the Syrian and Indian eate3t interest in scientific circles throughout monarchs which left the latter the first para- e world, but the general critic omits several of mount Sovereign of India (321 B.C.) with his ose remote centuries and takes 600 B.C., or capital at Pataliputra, the modern Patna and ereabouts as his starting point. At that time Bankipore. Of Chandragupta's court and ad- ich of the country was covered with forest, but ministration a very full account is preserved e Aryan races, who had entered India from the in the fragments that remain of the history rth, had established in parts a form of civiliza- compiled by Megasthenes, the ambassador n far superior to that of the aboriginal savages sent to India by Seleucus. His memorable d to this day there survive cities, like Benares, reign ended in 297 B.C. when he was suc- mded by those invaders. In like manner ceeded by his son Bindusara, who in his turn 5 Dravidian — invaders from an unknown land, was succeeded by Asoka (269 231 B.C.) who to overran the Deccan and the Southern recorded the events of hia reign in numerous rt of the Peninsula, crushed the aborigines, inscriptions. This king, in an unusually 3 at a much later period, were themselves bloody war, added to his dominions the king- ;dued by the Aryans. Of these two civiliz- dom of Kalinga (the Northern Circars) and then ; forces, the Aryan is the better known, and becoming a convert to Buddhism, resolved the Aryan kingdoms the first of which there for the future to abstain from conquest by mthentic record is that of Magadha, or Bihar, force of arms The consequences of the con- the Ganges., It was in, or near, this power- version of Asoka were amazing. He was not kingdom that Jainism and Buddhism had intolerant of other religions, and did not en- sir origin, and the fifth King of Magadha, deavour to force his creed on his " children ", nbisara by name, was the friend and patron But he initiated measures for the propagation Gautama Buddha. The King mentioned of his doctrine with the result that 44 Buddhism" 8 a contemporary of Darius, autocrat of wlu -.h had hitherto been a merely local sect in sia (521 to 485 B.C.) who annexed the the valley of the Ganges, was transformed into lus valley and formed from his conquest one of the greatest religions of the world Indian satrapy which paid as tribute the greatest, probably, it measured by the number — the dvalent of about one million sterling. De- of adherents. This is Asoka's claim to be re- ed history; however, does not become pos- membered ; this it is which makes his reign e until the invasion of Alexander in 32B B.C. an epoch, not only in the history of India, but 50 The History of India. in that of the world." The wording of his death in 648 his throne was usurped by a 1 edicts reveal him as a great king as wen as a Minister, whose treacherous conduct towards ; great missionary, and it is to be hoped that the an embassy from China was quickly avenged;, excavations now being carried on in the ruins and the kingdom so laboriously established ^ into a state of internecine strife which of his palace may throw yet more light on his lapsed | character and times. On his death the Maurya lasted for a century and a half. kingdom fell to pieces. Even during his reign there had been signs of new forces at work The Andhras and Rajputs. on the borderland of India; where the inde- pendent kingdoms of Bactria and Parthia had In the meantime in Southern. India tb> been formed, and subsequent to it there were Andhras had attained to great prosperity and frequent Greek raids into India. The Greeks carried on a considerable trade with Greece* in Bactria, however, could not withstand the Egypt and Rome, as well as with the East.l overwhelming force of the westward migration Their domination ended in the fifth century of the Yueh-chi horde, which, in the first cen- A.D. and a number of new dynasties, of which tury A.D., also ousted the Indo-Parthian kings the Pallavas were the most important, began; from Afghanistan and North- Western India. to appear. The Pallavas made way in turn for the Chalukyas, who for two centuries re- The first of these Yueh-chi kings to annex a mained the most important Deccan dynasty, part of India was Kadphises II (A.D. 85—125), one branch uniting with the Cholas. Bui who had been defeated in a war with China, the fortunes of the Southern dynasties are so but crossed the Indus and consolidated his involved, and in many cases so little knownjj power eastward as far as Benares. His son that to recount them briefly is impossibly Kanishka (whose date is much disputed) left Few names of note stand out from the record a name which to Buddhists stands second only except those of Vikramaditya (11th century) to that of Asoka. He greatly extended the and a few of the later Hindu rulers who made boundaries of his empire in the North, and a stand against the growirig power of Island made Peshawar his capita). Under him the of the rise of which an account is given below, power of the Kushan clan of the Yueh-chi In fact the history of mediseval India is singii; reached its zenith and did not begin to decay larly devoid of unity. Northern India was m until the end of the second century, concurrently a state of chaos from about 650 to 950 A.D* with the rise in middle India of the Andhra dy- not unlike that which prevailed in Europe ol nasty which constructed the Amaravati stupa, that time, and materials for the history oi " one of the most elaborate and precious monu- these centuries are very scanty. In the absenci ments of piety ever raised by man." of any powerful rulers the jungle began tC gain back what had been wrested from it: The Gupta Dynasty. ancient capitals fell into ruins from which k Early in the fourth century there arose, at some cases they have not even yet been dis- Pataliputra, the Gupta dynasty which proved turbed, and the aborigines and various foreigi of great importance. Its founder was a local tribes began to assert themselves so success chief, his son Samudragupta, who ruled for fully that the Aryan element was chiefly con' some fifty years from A.D. 326, was a king of fined to the Doab and the Eastern Punjab political a tne greatest distinction. His aim of subduing It is not therefore so much for the all India was not indeed fulfilled but he was for the religious and social history of this anar able to exact tribute from the kingdoms of chical period that one must look. Aud tb< — the South and even from Ceylon, and, in addi- greatest event if a slow process may be cal^ tion to being a warrior, he was a patron of the ed an event — of the middle ages was the trail arts and of Sanskrit literature. The rule of sition from tribe to caste, the final disappeai his son, Chandragupta, was equally distin- ance of the old four-fold division of Brahmans guished and is commemorated in an inscription Kshattriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras, and th pure and im on the famous iron pillar near Delhi, as well as formation of the new division of In the writings of the Chinese ]>i!grim Fa-hien pure largely resting upon a classification a who pays a great tribute to the equitable occupations, but this social change was onl administration of the country. It was not a part of the development of th6 Hindu reU until the middle of the fifth century that the gion into a form which would include in it fortunes of the Gupta dynasty began to wane— embrace __ the many barbarians and foreignei in face of the onset of the White Huns from in the country wno were outside it. The g Central Asia— and by 480 the dynasty had dis- political event of the period was the rise of appeared The following century all over Rajputs as warriors in the place of the Ksha India was one of great confusion, apparently zvas. Their origin is obscure but theyappoan marked only by the rise and fall of petty king- the 8th century and spread, from their tm 1 ' Oudh, int doms, until a monarch arose, in A. D. 606, original homes in llajputana and Central Himi capable of consolidating an Empire. This was the Punjab, Kashmir, and the the Emperor Harsha who, from Thanasar near layas, assimilating a number of fighting clar Ambala, conquered Northern India and ex- and binding them together with a commo tended his territory South to the Ncrbudda., code. At this Emperor dom — which , time Kashmir was a small kinj exercised an influence on Ind Imitating Asoka in many ways, this vet H felt no embarrassment in paying adoration wholly disproportionate to its size. The on] in turn to Siva, the Sun, and Buddha at a great other kiimdom of importance was that public ceremonial." Of his times a graphic Kanaui— in the Doab and Southern Oudri- picture has been handed down in the work of which still retained some of the power- to whk " Master of the Law," Hinen Tsiang It had reached in the days of Harsha, and < a Chinese to China ar by name, Harsha was the last native para - which the renown extended 1 mount sovereign of Northern India ; on his! Arabia. The Mughal Empire. 51 With the end of the period of anarchy, the 1 fn the reign of his successor, Mahmud (1398- political history of India centres round the 1413), the kingdom of Delhi went to pieces and I Kajputs. One elan founded the kingdom of India was for seven months at the mercy of the Glujarat, another held Ma'wa, another (the I Turkish conqueror Taimur. It was the end of Shauhans) founded a kingdom of which Ajmer the fifteenth century before tbe kingdom, under was the capital, and so on. Kanauj fell into Sikandar Lodi, began to recover. His son, ;he hands of the Rathors (circ 1040 A.D.) and Ibrahim, still further extended the kingdom ;he dynasty then founded by that branch of that had been recreated, but was defeated by he Gaharwars of Benares became one of the Babar, King of Kabul, at Panipat, near Delhi, nost famous in India. Later in tbe same in 1526, and there was then established in entury the Chauhans were united, and by India the Mughal dynasty. lti3 one of them could boast that he had con- quered all the country from the Vindhyas to the limalayas, including Delhi already a fortress The Mahomedan dynasties that had ruled in capital other than Delhi up to this date 1 hundred years old. The sen of this con- were of comparative unimportance, though [ueror was Prithwi Raj, the champion of the linclus against the Mahomedans. some great men appeared among them. In With his Gujarat, for example, Ahmad Shah, the founder leath in battle (1192) ends the golden age of of Ahmtdabad, showed himself a good ruler he new civilization that had been evolved out and builder as well as a good soldier, though »f chaos ; and of the greatness of that age here is a splendid memorial in the temples his grandson, Mahmud Shah Begara, was a greater ruler—acquiring fame at sea as well nd forts of the Rajput states and in the two as on land. In the South various kings of the reat philosophical systems of Sankaracharya ninth century) and Ramanuja (twelfth cen- Bahmani dynasty made names foi themselves especially in the long wars they waged on the ury). The triumph of Hinduism had been new Hindu kingdom chieved, it must be added, at the expense of that had arisen which had its capital at Vijayanagar. Of importance buddhism, which survived only in Magadha at also was Adil Khan, a Turk, who founded (1490) be time of the Mahomedan conquest and the Bijapur dynasty of Adil Shahis. It was peedily disappeared there before the new faitb. one of his successors who crushed the Vijaya- nagar dynasty, and built the great mosque for Mahomedan India. which Bijapur is famous. The wave of Mahomedan invaders that The Mughal Empire. ventualjy swept over the country first touched idia, in Sind, less tnan a hundred years after As one draws near to modern times it be- ie death of the Prophet in 632. But the comes impossible to present anything like a rst real contact was in the tenth century coherent and consecutive account of the growth hen a Turkish slave of a Persian ruler found- of India as a whole. Detached threads in the 1 a kingdom at Ghazni, between Kabul and story have to be picked up one by one and fol- jtndahar. A descendant of his, Mahmud lowed to their ending, and although the sixteenth (67-1030) made repeated raids into the heart century saw the first European settlements in India, capturing places so far apart as j India, it will be convenient here to continue jiltan, Kanauj, Gwalior, and Somnath in the narrative of Mahomedan India almost to athiawar, but permanently occupying only the end of the Mughal Empire. How Babar j part of the Punjab. Enduring Mahomedan gained Delhi has already been told. His son lie was not established until the end of the Humayun, greatly extended his kingdom, but velfth century, by which time, from the little was eventually defeated (1540) and driven rritory of Ghor, there had arisen one Mahomed into exile by Sher Khan, an Afghan of great hori capable of carving out a kingdom stretch- capabilities, whose short reign ended in 1545 g from Peshawar to the Bay of Bengal, The Sur dynasty thus founded by Sher Khan « rithwi Raj, the Chauhan ruler of Delhi and lasted another ten years when Humayun having jmer, made a brave stand against, and once snatched Kabul from one of his brothers, was Seated, one of the armies of this ruler, but strong enough to win back part of his old king- as himself defeated in the following year, dom. When Humayun died (1556) his eldest ahomed Ghori was murdered at Lahore son, Akbar, was only 13 years old and was con- 206) and his vast kingdom, which had been fronted by many rivals. Nor was Akbar well >verned by satraps, was split up into what served, but his career of conquest was almost ere practically independent sovereignties. uninterrupted and by 1594 the whole of India |f these satraps, Qutb-ud-din, the slave ruler North of the Nerbudda had bowed to his j! Delhi and Lahore, was the most famous, authority and he subsequently entered the id is remembered by the great mosque he Deccan and captured Ahmednagar. This lilt near the modern Delhi. Between his great ruler, who was as remarkable for hia le and that of the Mughals, which began in religious tolerance as for his military prowess, •26, only a few of the many Kings who gov- died in 1605, leaving behind him a record that oed and fought and built beautiful build- has been surpassed by few. His son, Jehangir gs, stand out with distinction. One of these who married the Persian lady Nur Jahan* »s Ala-ud-din (1296-1310), whose many ex- ruled until 1627, bequeathing to an admiring ertions to the south much weakened the indu Kings, and who proved himself to be a poster ity some notable buildings — the tomb of his father at Sikandra, part of the palace of pablc administrator. Another was Firoz Agra, and the palace and fortress of Lahore, iah, of the house of Tughlaq, whose adminis- [lis son, Shahjahan, was for many years itiou was in many respects admirable, but occu- pied with wars in the Deccan, but found time aich ended, on his abdication, in confusion. to make his court of incredible magnificence 52 The History of India. wars between 1795 and 1811 England took all and to build the most famous and beautiful of Holland's Eastern possessions, and the Dutch tombs, the Taj Mahal, as well as the fort, have left in India but few traces of their civU all palace and Juma Masjid at Delhi, lhe lisation and of the once powerful East India quarrels of his sons led to the deposition of Shahjahan bv one of them, Aurangzeb, m 1658. Company of the Netherlands. This Emperor's rule was one of constant The first English attempts to reach India intrigue and fighting in every direction, the date from 1496 when Cabot tried to find the most important of his wars being a twenty-five North-West passage, and these attempts were'i years' struggle against the Marathas of the repeated all through the sixteenth century.' Deccan wno, under the leadership of Shivaji, became a very powerful faction in Indian The first Englishman to land in India is said bigoted attitude towards to have been one Thomas Stephens (1579) who politics. His was followed by a number of merchant adven- Hinduism made Aurangzeb all the more turers, but trade between the two countries j to establish his Empire on a firm basia anxious hold his really dates from 1600 when Elizabeth incor- in the south, but he was unable to porated the East India Company which had many conquests, and on his death (1707) the been formed in London. Factories in India Empire, for which bis three sons were fighting were founded only after Portuguese and Dutch could not be held together. Internal disorder position had b^en overcome, notablv in the and Maratha encroachments continued during sea fight oflf Swally (Suvali) in 1612. The the reigns of his successors, and in 1739 a fresh first factory, at Surat, was for many years danger appeared in the person of Nadir Shah, the most important English foothold in the the Persian conqueror, who carried all before East; Its establishment was followed by him. On his withdrawal, leaving Mahomed others, including Fort St. George, Madras; Shah on the throne, the old intrigues recom- (1640) and Hughli (1651). In the history menced and the Marathas began to make the of these early years of British enterprise in most of the opportunity offered to them by India the cession of Bombay (1661) as part of. puppet rulers at Delhi and by almost uni- the dower of Catherine of Braganza stands out versal discord throughout what had been the as a land-mark it also illustrates the weak- Mughal Empire. There is little to add to the : ness of the Portuguese at that date, since in history of Mahomedan India. Emperors continu- return the King of England undertook to pro- ed to reign in name at Delhi up to the midale of tect the Portuguese in India against their the 19th century, but their territory and power foeg— the Marathas and the Dutch. CromweUj had long since disappeared, being swallowed up by his treaty of 1651, had already obtained either by the Marathas or by the British. from the Portuguese an acknowledgment of England's right to trade in the East; and European Settlements. that right was now threatened, not by the Portuguese, but by Sivaji and by the general Accordingly, io The voyage of Vasco da Gama to India in disorder prevalent in India. its attention tc 1498 was what turned the thoughts of the 1686, the Company turned power, and announced Portuguese to the formation of a great Empire acquiring territorial policy of civi In the East. That idea was soon realized, for its intention to establish such a from 1500 onwards, constant expeditions were and military power, and -create and secun sent to India and the first two Viceroys in such a large revenue as may be the foun- sure Englisl India— Almeida and Albuquerque— laid the dation of a large, well-grounded, time to come. JNol foundations of a great Empire and of a great dominion in India for all of this announcement for son* trade monopoly. Goa, taken in 1510, became much came be made in Benga J Portuguese India and remains time, and no stand could the capital of I .depredations of Aurangzeb. Tn< to this day in the hands of its captors, and the against the I of Calcutta (1690) could not b: countless ruins of churches and forts on the foundations ! Charnock until after a humiliat | shores of Western Iudia, as also farther East laid by Job j at Malacca, testify to the zeal with which the ing peace I had been concluded with tha to the difficulties in whicl Portuguese endeavoured to propagate their Emperor, and, owing defend the Company found itself in England, ther \ religion and to the care they took to There were great soldiers was little chance of any immediate change fo their settlements. i — I union of the old East Indi and great missionaries among them Al- the better. The 1 new one which had bee: buquerquc, da Cunha, da Castro in the former Company with I the But formed in rivalry to it took place in 1708, an | class, St. Francis Xavier in the latter. fodowed somp vears peaceful development the glory of Empire loses something of its for ! lustre when it has to be paid for, and the con- though Bombay was always exposed by sea t from the pirates, who had man stant drain of men and money from Portugal, attacks 1 necessitated by the attacks made on their strongholds within easy reach of that pon to attacks from the Marathai possessions in India and Malaya, was found and on land 1 Calcutta most intolerable. The junction of Portugal The latter danger was fell also in dangers were numerous and sti with Spain, which lasted from 1580 to 1640, Internal also tended to the downfall of the Eastern Em- more to be feared. More than one mutln plate among the troops sent out froi pire and when Portugal became independent took again, it was unequal to the task of competing England, and rebellions like that led b in the East with the Dutch and English. The lveigwin in Bombay threatened to stifle tt The public health, vrt Dutch had little difficulty in wresting the infant settlements. of mortality was at turn greater part of their territory from the Portu- bad and the rate guese, but the seventeenth century naval wars appalling. To cope with such conditio! were needed, and the Compar with England forced them to relax their hold strong men respect peculiarly fortunate; tl upon the coast of India, and during the French was in this a The French Wars. 53 ong list of its. eervants, from Oxenden aDd | threatened by that ruler who demanded they Vungier to Hastings and Raffles, contains should surrender a refugee and should cease nany names of men who proved them- building fortifications. They refused and elves good rnlers and far-sigbted statesmen, he marched against them with a large army. he finest Empire-builders the world has I Some of the English took to their ships and mown. j made oft down the river, the rest surrendered and were cast into the jail known as the Attempts to compete with the English were " Black Hole." From this small and stifling nade of coarse. Bat the schemes of the room 23 persons, out of 146, came out alive Emperor Charles VI to secure a share of the the next day. Clive who was at Madras, ndian trade were not much more successful immediately sailed for Calcutta with Admirial han those made by Scotland, Denmark, Watson's squadron, recaptured the town iweden, and Russia. By the French, who (1757), an 3, as war with the French had been ounded Pondicherry and Chandernagore to- j proclaimed, proceeded to take Chanderna- rards the end of the 17th century, much more | gore. The Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula then took fas achieved, as will be seen from the the side of the French, and Clive, putting oilowing outline of the development of i forward Mir Jafar as candidate for the Nawab's 3ritish rule. throne; marched out with an army consisting of 900 Europeans. 2,000 sepoys and S pieces The French Wars. of artillery against the Nawab's host of over 50,000. The remit was the historic battle of When war broke out between England and Pla?sey (June 23) in which Clive, after hesi- France in 1744, the French had acquired a j tating on the coarse to te pursued; routed trong position in Southern India, which had ! the Nawab. Mir Jafar was put on the throne [•ecome independent of Delhi and was divided at Mursbidabad, and the price of this honour — nto three large States Hyderabad, Tanjore, was put at £2,340,000 in addition to the grant — nd Mysore and a number of petty states : to tne Company of the land round Calcutta mder local chieftains. In the affairs of these now known as the District of the twenty-tour Itates Dupleix, when Governor of Pondicher- Parganas. In the year after Plassey, Clive y, had intervened with success, and when was appointed Governor of Bengal and in iadras was captured by a French squadron, that capacity sent troops against the French uider La Bourdonnais (1746) Dupleix wished j in Madras and in person led a force against o hand it over to the Nawab of Arcot— the Oudh army that was threatening Mir leputy of the Nizam's who ruled in the Car- Jafar, in each case with success. From 1760 latic. The French, however, kept Madras, to 1765 Clive was in England. During his spelling an attack by the disappointed Nawab absence the Council at Calcutta deposed Mir s well as the British attempts to recapture it. Jafar and, for a price, put Mir Kasim in bis .Tie treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle restored Madras place. This ruler moved his capital to o the English. The fighting had shown the Monghyr, organized an army, and began to ndian powers the value of European troops, intrigue with the Nawab Wazir of Oudh. He nd this was again shown in the next French soon found, in a dispute over customs dues, far (1750-54) when Clive achieved enduring an opportunity of quarrelling with the English ame by his capture and subsequent defence and the first shots tired by his followers were f Arcot. This war arose from Dupleix sup- the signal for a general rising in Bengal. orting candidates for the disputed succes- About 200 Englishmen and a number of sepoys ions at Arcot and Hyderabad while the were massacred, but his trained regiments tnglish at Madras put forward their own nomi- were defeated at Gheria and Oodeynullah, and ices. One of Dupleix's officers, the Marquis Mir Kasim sought protection from the Nawab (e Bussy, persuaded the Nizam to take into j of Oudh. But in 1764, after quelling a sepoy Is pay the army which had established his mutiny in his own camp by blowing 24 ring- •ower, aud in return the Northern Circars, leaders from the guns, Major (Sir Hector) •etween Orissa and Madras, was granted to the i Munro defeated the joint iorces of Shah A lam, French. This territory, however, was cap- the Mughal Emperor, and the Nawab of Oudb ered by the English in the seven years' war i in the battle of Buxar. In 1765 Clive (now 1756-63). Dupleix had by then been re- Baron Clive of Plassey) returned as Governor; ailed to France. Lally, who had been sent "Two landmarks stand out in his pclicy. First, j o drive the English out of India, captured he sought the substance, although * not the p ort St. David and invested Madras. But name, of territorial power, under the fiction he victory which Colonel (Sir Eyre) Coote of a grant from the Mughal Emperor. Se- ron at Wandiwash (1760) and the surrender cond, he desired to purify the Company's •f Pondicherry and Gingee put an end to the service, by prohibiting illicit gains, and by 'rench ambitions of Empire in Southern India, guaranteeing a reasonable pay from honest 'ondicherry passed more than once from the sources. In neither respect were his plans •ne nation to the other before settling down carried out by his immediate successors. But o its present existence as a French colony in our efforts towards a sound administration oiniature. date from this second Governorship of Clive as our military supremacy dates from his vie- Battle of Plassey. tory at Plassey." Before Clive left India, I in 1767, he had readjusted the divisions of While the English were fighting the third Northern India and had set up a system of •Tench war in the South thev became involved Government in Bengal by which the" English o grave difficulties in Bengal, where Siraj-ud- received the revenues and maintained the I >aula had acceded to power. The head- army while the crimiraJ jurisdiction was vested iuarters of the English at Calcutta wore in the Nawab. The performance of bis se« j 54 The History of India. " merchants" of the Company into an ad- cond task, the purification of the Company's and ministrative Civil Service. This system was service, was hotly opposed but carried oat. He died in 1774 by his own hand, the House subsequently extended to Madras and Bombay, . is better known for his intro- of Commons having in the previous year cen- Lord Cornwallis orders trom England, of the Per- sured him, though admitting that he did render duetion, on " great and meritorious services to his country." manent Settlement in Bengal. (See article, on Land Revenue). A third Mysore war was Warren Hastings. waged during his tenure of office which endedJ The dual system of government that Clive in the submission of Tipu Sultan. Sir John j had set up proved a failure and Warren Hastings Shore (Lord Teignmouth), an experienced was appointed Governor, in 1772, to carry out Civil Servant, succeeded L.ord Cornwallis, and/ the reforms settled by the Court of Directors in 1798, was followed by Lord Wellesley, the, which were to give them the entire care friend of Pitt, whose projects were to change, and administration of the revenues. Thus the map of India. Hastings had to undertake the administrative Lord Wellesley's Policy. organization of India, and, in spite of the fac- tious attitude of Philip Francis, with whom he The French in general, and "the Corsican" fought a duel and of other members of his Coun- in particular, were the enemy most to be cil, he reorganized the civil service, reformed dreaded for a few years before Lord Wellesley the system of revenue collection, greatly im- took up his duties in India, and he formed the proved the financial position of the Company, scheme of definitively ending French schemes and created courts of justice and some sem- in Asia by placing himself at the head of a blance of a police force. From 1772 to 1774 ht great Indian confederacy. He started by ob- was Governor of Bengal, and from 1774 to 1775 taining from the Nawab of Oudh the cession o£ he was the first Governor-General, nominated large tracts of territory in lieu of payment uader an Act of Parliament passed in the overdue as subsidies for British troops, he then previous year. His financial reforms, and the won over the Nizam to the British side, and, forceii contributions he enacted from the after exposing the intrigues of Tipu Sultan rebellious Chet Singh and the Begam of with the French, embarked on the fourth Oudh, were interpreted in England as acts Mysore war which ended (1799) in the fall ol of oppression and formed, together with his ac- Seringapatam and the gallant death of Tipu, tion in the trial of Nuncomar for forgery, the Part of Mysore, the Carnatic, and Tanjorc basis of his seven years' trial before the House roughly constituting the Madras Presidencj of Lords which ended in a verdict of not guilty of to-day then passed to British rule. The on all the charges. But there is much more five Maratha powers the Peshwa of Poonaj — for which his administration is justly famous. the Gaekwar of Baroda, Sindhia of Gwalior,; The recovery of the Marathas from their defeat Holkar of Indore and the Raja of Nagpur— at Panipat was the cardinal factor that in- had still to be brought into the British fluenced his policy towards the native states. net. The Peshwa, after being defeated by One frontier was closed against Maratha inva- Holkar, fled to British territory and signed sion by the loan of a British brigade to the the Treaty of Bassein which led to the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, for his war against the third Maratha war (1802-04) as it was re- Rohillas, who were intriguing with the garded by Sindhia and the Raja of Nagpur at Marathas. In Western India he found himself a betrayal of Maratha independence. In this committed to the two Maratha wars (1775-82) the most successful of British campaigns in owing to the ambition of the Bombay Govern- India, Sir Arthur Wellesley (the Duke of ment to place its own nominee on the throne of Wellington) and General (Lord) Lake carries the Peshwa at Poona, and the Bengal troops all before them, the one by his victories of Aligad; that he sent over made amends, by the con- Assaye and Argaum and the other at as Colo-I quest of Gujrat and the capture of Gwalior, for and Laswari. Later operations, such ! the disgrace of Wadgaon where the Marathas uel Monson's retreat through Central India,] overpowered a Bombay army. In the South- were less fortunate. The great acquisitions] where interference from Madras had already of territory made under Lord Wellesley proved led (1769) to what is known as the first Mysore I so expensive that the Court of Directors, beH war a disastrous campaign against Hyder Ali coming impatient, sent out Lord Cornwallis ai and the Nizam— he found the Madras Govern- | second time to make peace at any price. Hej ment again in conllict with those two poten- ] however, died soon after his arrival in India,') tates. The Nizam he won over by diplomacy, j and Sir George Barlow carried on the goveruj but against Hyder Ali he bad to despatch a ment (1805-7) until the arrival of a stronger Bengal army under Sir Eyre Coote. Hyder I ruler, Lord Minto. He managed to keep thd Ali died in 1782 and two years later a treaty peace in India for six years, and to add to Brlj was made with his son Tipu. It was in these tish dominions by the conquest of Java and acts of intervention in distant provinces that Mauritius. His foreign policy was marked by Hastings showed to best advantage as a great another new departure, inasmuch as he opened and courageous man, cautious, but swift in relations with the Punjab, Persia, and Afgh« action when required. He was succeeded nlstan, and concluded, a treaty with Ranjit after an interregnum, by Lord Corn wall is Singh, at Lahore, which made that Sikh ruiex (1786-93) who built on the foundations of civil the loyal ally of the British for life. % administration laid by Hastings, by entrusting criminal jurisdiction to Europeans and es- The successor of Lord Minto was Lord Mcira who found himself obliged almost at once tc tablishing an Appellate Court of Criminal Judicature at Calcutta. In the Civil Service declare war on the Gurkhas of Nepal, who had he separated the functions of the District Col- been encroaching on British territory. Aftei " initial reverses, the English, under General lector and Judge and organized the " writers Afghan Wars. 55 Ochterlony, were successful and the Treaty of as the legislation of the country, was placed Sagauli (1816) was drawn up which defines in the bands of the Governor- General in British relations with Nepal to the present day. Council, and authority was given to create a j For this success Lord Moira was made Marquis Presidency of Agra. Before his retirement Ben- j of Hastings. In the same year he made prepa- tinck assumed the statutory title of Governor- rations for the last Maratha war (1817-18) General of India (1834), thus marking the pro- ; which was made necessary by the lawless con- gress of consolidation since Warren Hastings in duct of the Pindaris, gangs of Pathan or Rohilla 1774 became the first Governor-General of Fort origin, whose chief patrons were the rulers of William. Sir Charles Metcalfe, being senior Native States. The large number of 120,000 that member of Council, succeeded Lord William he collected for this purpose destroyed the Pin- Bentinck, and during his short tenure of daris, annexed the dominions of the rebellious office carried into execution his predecessor's |Peshwa of Poona, protected the Rajput States; measures for giving entire liberty to made Sindhia enter upon a new treaty, and I the press. compelled Holkar to give up part of his terri- tory. Thus Lord Hastings established the Afghan Wars. British power more firmly than ever, and when he resigned, in 1823, all the Native States out- With the appointment of Lord Auckland as side the Punjab had become parts of the poli- Governor-General (1836-42) there began a new system and British interests were per- era of war and conquest. Before leaving tical manently secured from the Persian Gulf to London he announced that he looked with ex- Singapore. Lord Amherst ultation to the prospect of " promoting educa- followed Lord tion and knowledge, and of extending the bless- Hastings, and his five years' rule (1823-28) ings of good Government and happiness to are memorable for the first Burmese war and the capture of Bharatpur, The former opera- millions in India ; " but his administration was tion was undertaken owing to the insolent de- almost exclusively comprised in a fatal expedi- tion to Afghanistan, which dragged in its train mands and raids of the Burmese, and resulted the annexation of Sind, the Sikh wars, and the in the Burmese ceding Assam, Aracan, and the inclusion of Baluchistan in the protectorate coast of Martaban and their claims to the lower of India. The first Afghan war was under- provinces. The capture of Bharatpur by taken partly to counter the Russian advance Lord Combermere (1826) wiped out the in Central Asia and partly to place on the repulse which General Lake had received throne at Kabul the dethroned ruler Shah there twenty yeai s earlier. A disputed success- Shuja in place of Dost Mahomed. The latter ion on this occasion led to the British inter- object was easily attained (1839) and for two vention. years Afghanistan remained in the military occupation of the British. In 1841 Sir Social Reform. Alexander Burnes was assassinated in Kabul and Sir William Macnaghten suffered the same A former Governor of Madras, Lord William fate in an interview with the son of Dost Ma- Bentinck, was the next Governor-General. homed. The British Commander in Kabul, His epitaph by Macaulay, says " He abo- : Gen. Elphinstone, was old and feeble, and lished cruel rites ; he effaced humiliating after two months' delay he led his army of distinctions ; he gave liberty to the expression 4,500 and 12,000 camp followers back towards of public opinion his ; constant study was India in the depth of winter. Between Kabul to elevate the intellectual and moral and Jallalabad the whole force perished, either character of the nations committed to his at the hands of the Afghans or from cold, and charge." Dr. Brydon was the only survivor who reached the latter city. Lord Ellen borough succeeded Some of his financial reforms, forced on him Lord Auckland and was persuaded to send an from England, and his widening of the gates army of retribution to relieve Jallalabad. by which educated Indians could enter the One force under Gen. Pollock relieved Jallala- service of the Company, were most unpopular bad and marched on Kabul, while Gen. Nott, at the time, but were eclipsed by the acts he advancing from Kandahar, captured Ghazni took for the abolition of Sati, or widow-burn- and joined Pollock at Kabul (1842). The ing, and the suppression — with the help of bazaar at Kabul was blown up, the pri- Captain Sleeman— of the professional here- soners rescued, and the army returned to India ditary assassins known as Thags. In 1832 he leaving Dost Mahomed to take undisputed annexed Cachar, and, two years later, Coorg. possession of his throne. The drama ended The incompetence of the ruler of Mysore forced with a bombastic proclamation from Lord him to take that State also under British ad- Ellenborough and the parade through ths ministration—where it remained until 1881. Punjab of the (spurious) gates of Somnath His rule waa marked in other ways by the des- taken from the tomb of Mahmud of patch of the first steamship that made the pas- Ghazni. sage from Bombay to Suez, and by his settle- ment of the long educational controversy in Sikh Wars. favour of the advocates of instruction in English and the vernaculars. Lord William Bentinck left India (18415) with his programme of reforms Lord Ellen borough's other wars the con- — quest of Sind by Sir Charles Napier and the unfinished. The new Charter Act of 1833 had brought to a close the commercial business of suppression of an outbreak in Gwalior were — followed by his recall, and the appointment the Company and emphasized their position as of Sir Henry (1st Lord) Hardinge to be Gover- rulers of an Indian Empire in trust for the nor-General. A soldier Governor-General was Crown. By it the whole administration, as well not unacceptable for it was felt that a tria 56 The History of Indian of streDgth wasimminent between the British of a department of public instruction and4> and the remaining Hindu power in India, the initiated more practical measures than thosei Sikhs. Ranjit Singh, the founder of the Sikb devised by his predecessors. It was his mis- Kingdom, had died in 1839, loyal to the end to fortune that the mutiny, which so swiftly" the treaty he had made with Metcalfe thirty followed his resignation, was by many critics; years earlier. He left no son capable of ruling, in England attributed to his passion for and the khalsa, or central council of the Sikh change. army, was burning to measure its strength with the British sepoys. The intrigues of two Sepoy Mutiny. men, Lai Singh and Fej Singh, to obtain the supreme power led to their crossing the Sutlej Dalhousie was succeeded by Lord Canning and invading British territory. Sir Hugh in 1856, and in the following year the sepoys j Gough, the Commander-in-Chief, and the Gov- of the Bengal army mutinied and all the ] ernor-General hurried to the frontier, and valley of the Ganges from Delhi to Patna rose within three Weeks four pitched battles were in rebellion. The causes of this convulsion^ — fought at Mudki, Ferozeshah, Aliwal and are difficult to estimate, but are probably to^ be found in the unrest which followed the pro- Sobraon. The Sikhs were driven across the Sutlej and Lahore surrendered to the British, gress of English civilisation ; in the spreading, but the province was not annexed. By the of false rumours that the whole of India was; to be subdued in the confidence the sepoy terms of peace the infant Dhuleep Singh was ; recognized as Rajah ; Major Henry Lawrence troops had acquired in themselves under Bri* was appointed Resident, to assist the Sikh tish leadership; and in the ambition of the Council of Regency, at Lahore ; the Jullun- educated classes to take a greater shade in the dur Doab was added to British territory; the government of the country. Added to this, Sikh army was limited ; and a British force there was in the deposed King of Delhi, Baha- dur Shah, a centre of growing disaffection.. wp.s sent to garrison the Punjab on behalf of the child Rajah. Lord Hardinge returned to Finally there was the story— not devoid of England (1S48) and was succeeded by — truth that the cartridges for the new Enfield of Indian rifle were greased with fat that rendered them Lord Dalhousie, the greatest proconsuls. unclean for both Hindus and Mahomedans,, And when the mutiny did break out it found Dalhousie had only been in India a few the Army without many of its best officers months when the second Sikh war broke out. who were employed in civil work, and the In the attack on the Sikh position at Chillan- British troops reduced; in spite of Lord wala th« British lost 2.400 officers and men Dalhousie's warnirgs, bel( w the number he besides four guns and the colours of three regi- considered essential for safety. On May lflfl ments : but before reinforcements could arrive the sepoys at Meerut rose in mutiny, cut down from England, bringing Sir Charles Napier as a few Europeans, and, unchecked by the large Commander-in-Chief, Lord Gough had re- European garrison, went off to Delhi where stored his reputation by the victory of Gujrat next morning the Mahomedans rose. From which absolutely destroyed the Sikh army. that centre the mutiny spread through the As a consequence the Punjab was annexed and North-Western Provinces and Oudh into Lower became a British province (1849), its pacifica- Bengal. Risings in the Punjab were put down tion being so well carried out, under the two by Sir John Lawrence and his subordinates Lawrences that on the outbreak of the Mutiny who armed the Sikhs, and with their help re- eight years later it remained not only quiet but duced the sepoys, and Lawrence was subse- loyal/ In 1852 Lord Dalhousie had again to em- quently able to send a strong body of Sikhs to bark on war, this time in Burma, owing to the aid in the siege of Delhi. The native armies ill-treatment of British merchants in Rangoon. of Madras and Bombay remained for the most The lower valley of the Irawaddy was occupied part true to their colours. In Central India, from Rangoon to Prome and annexed, under the the contingents of some of the great chiefs name of Pegu, to those provinces that had joined the rebels, but Hyderabad was kepr, been acquired in the first Burmese war. Bri- loyal by the influence of its minister, Sir Salar tish territories were enlarged in many other Jung. directions during Lord Dalhousie's tenure of office. His " doctrine of lapse" by which The interest of the war centres round Dilhl, British rule was substituted for Indian in Cawnpore and Lucknow, though in other places States where continued misrule on the failure massacres and fighting occurred. The siege of began on June 8 when Sir Henry Barnard of a dynasty made this change possible, came Delhi Into practice in the cases of Satara, Jhansi, and occupied the Ridge outside the town. Barnard Nagpur (which last-named State became the died of cholera early in July, and Thomas Reed, Central Provinces) where the rulers died with- who took his place, was obliged through illness out leaving male heirs. Oudh was annexed to hand over the command to Archdale Wilson. with a reinforce- on account of its misrule. Dalhousie left In August Nicholson arrived the meantime the many other marks on India. He reformed ment from the Punjab. In added to the administration from top to bottom, found- rebel force in Delhi was constantly ed the Public Works Department, initiated by the arrival of new bodies of mutineers, and the losses heavy : the railways, telegraphs and postal system, and attacks were frequent victims completed the great Ganges canal. He also cholera and sunstroke carried off mr.ny detached the Government of Bengal from the on the Ridge : and when the final assault was charge of the Governor-General, and summoned made in September the Delhi army could only representatives of the local Governments to parade 4,720 infantry, of whom 1,960 were siege guns made the deliberations of the Government of India. Europeans. The arrival of batteries on Septem- Finally, in education he laid down the lines it possible to advance the . The Sepoy Mutiny. 57 er 8, and by the 13th a breach was made, perity will be our strength, in their content- | >n the following day three columns were led ment our security, and in their gratitude our o the assault, a fourth being held in reserve, best reward." Peace was proclaimed in July iver the ruins of the Kashmir Gate, blown in by 1859, and in the cold weather Lord Canning tome and Salkeld, Col. Campbell led his men and went on tour in the northern provinces, to richolson formed up his troops within the walls, receive the homage of loyal chiefs and to assure iy nightfall the British, with a loss of nearly them that the ** policy of lapse " was at an end. ,200 killed and wounded, had only secured a A number of other important reforms marked )otbold in the city. Six days' street fighting the closing years of Canning's Viceroyalty. flowed and Delhi was won ; but the gallant The India Councils Act (1861) augmented the icholson was killed at the head of a Governor-General's Council, and the Councils torming party. Bahadur Shah was taken of Madras and Bombay by adding non-official risoner, and his two sons were shot by Captain members, European and Indian, for legislative Fudson. purposes only. By another Act of the same year, High Courts of Judicature were consti- Massacre at Cawnpore. tuted. To deal with the increased debt of At Cawnpore the stpoys mutinied on June 27 India Mr. James Wilson was sent from England nd found in Nana Sahib, the heir of the last to be Financial Member of Council, and to 'eshwa, a willing leader in spite of his former him are due the customs system, income tax, rofessions of loyalty. There a European l'icense duty, and State paper currency. The >rce ot 240 with six guns had to protect 870 cares of office had broken down the Viceroy's on-combatants, and held out for 22 days, sur- health. His successor, Lord Elgin, lived only sndering only on the guarantee of the Nana a few months after his arrival in India, hat they should have a safe conduct as far as and was succeeded by Sir John (after- Jlahabad. They were embarking on the wards Lord) Lawrence, the *" saviour of the oats on the Ganges when fire was opened on Punjab," hem, the men being shot or hacked to pieces efore the eyes of ttieir wives and children and Sir John Lawrence. be women being mutilated and murdered in lawnpore to which place they were taken back. The chief task that fell to Sir John Lawrence !heir bodies were thrown down a well just was that of reorganising the Indian military efore Havelock, having defeated the Nana's sy3tem, and of reconstructing the Indian army. i>rces, arrived to the relief. In Lucknow a The latter task was carried out on the prin- mall garrison held out in the Residency from ciple that in the Bengal army the proportion uly 2 to September 25 against tremendous of Eurcpeans to Indians in the infantry and dds and enduring the most fearful hardship? cavalry should be one to two, and in the ?be relieving force, under Havelock and Out- Madras and Bombay armies one to three the : am, was itself invested, and the garrison was artillery was to be almost wholly Europeans. ot Anally delivered until Sir Colm Campbell Tha re-organ is at ion was carried out in spite of rrived in November. Fighting continued for financial difficulties and tne saddling of Indian 8 months in Oudh, which Sir Colin Campbell revenues with the cost of a war in Abyssinia nally reduced, and in Central India, where with which India had no direct concern but ; >ir Hugh Rose waged a brilliant campaign operations in Bhutan were all the drain made gainst the disinherited Rani of Jhansi— who on the army in India while the re-organising — Jed at the head of her troops and Tantia process was being carried on. Two severe — famines in Orissa (1866) and Bundelkhahd 'opi. Transfer to the Crown. — and Upper Hindustan (1868-9) occurred, while Sir John Lawrence was Viceroy, and ho laid down the principle for the first time in Indian With the end of the mutiny there began a history, that the officer of the Government 5 * lew era in India, strikingly marked at the out- would be held personally responsible for taking et by the Act for the Better Government of every possible means to avert death by starva- ndia (1858) which transferred the entire ad- tion. He also created the Irrigation Depart- oinistration from the Company to the Crown. ment under Col. (Sir Richard) Strachey. Two 3y that Act India was to be governed by, and commercial crises of the time have to be noted. a the name of, the Sovereign through a Secre- One seriously threatened the tea industry in ary of State, assisted by a Council of fifteen Bengal. The other was the consequence of nembers. At the same time the Governor- the wild gambling in shares of every descrip- Jeneral received the title of Viceroy. The tion that took place in Bombay during the Suropean troops of the Company, numbering years of prosperity for the Indian cotton in- ibout 24,000 officers and men were— greatly dustry caused by the American Civil War. — Renting the transfer amalgamated with the Royal service, and the Indian Navy was abo- The Share Mania/' however, did no perma nent harm to the trade of Bombay, but was; ished. On November 1, 1858, the Viceroy on the other hand, largely responsible for the announced in Durbar at Allahabad that Queen series of splendid buildings begun in that city /ictoria had assumed the Government of India, during the Governorship of Sir Bartle Frere. md proclaimed a policy of justice and religious j Sir John Lawrence retired in 1800, having deration. A principle already enunciated passed through every grade of the service, from n the Charter Act of 1833 was reinforced, and an Assistant Magistracy to the Viceroyalty, til of every race or creed, were to be admitted Lord Mayo, who succeeded him, created an is far as possible to those offices in the Queen'e Agricultural Department and introduced the service for which they might be qualified. system of Provincial Finance, thus fostering Lhe aim of the Government was to be the bene- the impulse to local self-government. Ho also at of all her subjects in India—" In their pros* laid the foundation for the reform of the salt 58 The History of India. administration is memorable for the freedom duties, thereby enabling his successors to abo- given to the Press by the repeal of the Ver- lish the inter-provincial customs lines. Un- nacular Press Act, for his scheme of local self- happily his vast schemes for the development government ^hich developed municipal insti- of the country by extending communications tutions, and for the attempt to extend the of every kind were not carried out to the full jurisdiction of the criminal courts in the Dis- by him, for he was murdered in the convict tricts over European British subjects, inde- settlement of the Andaman Islands, in 1872 pendently of the race or nationality of the Lord Northbrook (Viceroy 1872-6) had to exer- This attempt, which created^ ] chiefly in the province of presiding judge. cise his abilities a feeling among Europeans in India of great finance. A severe famine which threatened hostility to the Viceroy, ended in a compromise Lower Bengal in 1874 was successfully warded olf by the organization of State relief and the in 1884. Other reforms were the re-establish- . ment of the Department of Revenue and Agri-J importation of rice from Burma. The follow- culture, the appointment of an Education Com- ing year was notable for the deposition of the with a view to the spread of popular and mission Gaikwar of Baroda foi mis-government, for the tour through India of the Wales (the late King Edward VII). of the Duke of Edinburgh to India when Prince of instruction on a broader basis, and the The visit tion Lord Baring, now by the Finance Lord Cromer) of a number toms duties. Lord Dufferin, who succeeded! Mayo was Viceroy had given great pleasure tc Lord Ripon in 1884, had to give his attention I « aboli-x Minister (Sir Evelyn- of those with whom he had come in touch, and more to external than internal affairs : one oM had established a kind of personal link between his first acts was to hold a durbar at Rawalpindi India and the Crown. The Prince of Wales for the reception of the Amir of Afghanistan] tour aroused unprecedented enthusiasm for and which resulted in the strengthening of British! loyalty to the British Raj, and further en- relations with that ruler. In 1885 a third* couragement was given to the growth of this Burmese war became necessary owing to the* spirit when, in a durbar of great magnificence truculent attitude of King Thibaw and his in- held on January 1st, 1877, on the famous Ridge trigues with foreign Powers. The expedition^ at Delhi, Queen Victoria was proclaimed Em- under General Prendergast, occupied Mandalay*| press of India. The Viceroy of that time, without difficulty and King Thibaw was;; Lord Lytton, had, however, to deal with a exiled to Ratnagiri, where he died on 16thl situation of unusual difficulty. Two successive His dominions of Upper; December 1916. years of drought produced, in 1877-78, the Burma were annexed to British India on thda worst famine India had known. The most 1st of January, 1886. strenuous exertions were made to mitigate its effects, and eight crores of rupees were spent The Russian Menace. in importing grain ; but the loss of life \*as Of greater importance at the time were the. estimated at 5i millions. At this time meet a possible, and as iti also Afghan affairs once more became measures taken to probable, attack on India by- then appeared a prominent. Russia. These preparations, which cost, over two million sterling, were hurried on Second Afghan War. because of a collision which occurred be.* tween Russian and Afghan troops at Penjdeb, The Amir, Sher Ali, was found to be intriguing during the delimitation of the Afghan frontier with Russia and that fact, coupled with his towards Central Asia, and which seemed likely repulse of a British mission led to the second to lead to a declaration of war by Great Britain. Afghan War. The British forces advanced by War was averted, bat the Penjdeh incident, three routes— the Khyber, the Kurram, and had called attention to a menace that was to — the Bolan and gained all the important van- be felt for nearly a generation more ; it had tage points of Eastern Afghanistan. Sher All also served to elicit from the Princes of India fled and a treaty was made with his son Yakut) an unanimous offer of troops and money in case Khan, which was promptly broken by the of need. That offer bore fruit under the next murder of Sir Louis Cavagnari, who had been Viceroy, Lord Lansdowne, when the present sent as English envoy to Kabul. Further oper- Service Troops was orga- ations were thus necessary, and Sir P. (now system of Imperial Lansdowne's rule also the nised. Under Lord Lord) Roberts advanced on the capital and defences of the North- Western Frontier were, defeated the Afghans at Charasia. A rising of strengthened, on the advice of Sir Fredenclr, the tribes followed, in spite of Sir D. Stewart s (now Earl) Roberts, who was then Comman- victory at Ahmed Kheyl and his advance from der-in-Chief in India. Another form of pre- Kabul to Kandahar. A pretender, Sirdar cautionary measure against the continued Ayub Khan, from Herat prevented the estab- aggression of Russia was taken by raising the lishment of peace, defeated Gen. Burrows' annual subsidy paid by the Indian Govern- brigade at Maiwand, and invested Kandahar. ment to the Amir from eight to twelve He was routed in turn by Sir P. Roberta who lakhs. made a brilliant march from Kabul to Kanda- har. After the British withdrawal fight lug On the North- Eastern Frontier there occurred continued between Ayub Khan and Abdur (1891) in the small State of Manipur a revolu- Rahman, but the latter was left undisputed tion against iho Raja that necessitated an Amir of Afghanistan until his death in inquiry on the spot by Mr. Quinton, the Chief 1901. Commissioner of Assam. Mr. Quinton, the commander of his escort, and others, were In the meantime Lord Lytton had resigned treacherously murdered in a conference and (1880) and Lord Ripon was appointed Viceroy retreated. This dis- by the new Liberal Government. Lord Ripon'a the escort iguominiously Lord Curzon's Viceroyalty. 59 race to British arms led to several attacks od (he arms and work on strategic railways traffic rontier outposts which were brilliantly de- Fas pushed forward. The fact that in seven sated. Manipur was occupied by British years he only spent a quarter of a million upon roops and the government of the State was repressive measures and only found it necessary ^organised under a Political Agent. Lord to institute one blockade (against the Mahsud .ansdowne's term of office was distinguished Waziris) is the justification of this policy of y several other events such as the passing of compromise between the Lawrence and For- he Parliamentary Act (Lord Cross's Act, ward schools of thought. In J 901 the trans- 892), which increased the size of the Legisla- Indus districts of the Punjab were separated te Councils as well as the number of non- from that Province, and together with the po- fficials in them : legislation aimed at social litical charges of the Malakand, the Khyber, nd domestic reform among the Hindus :and Kurram, Tochi and Wana were formed into y tie closing of the Indian Mints to the free coin- the new North-West Frontier Province, under ge of silver (1893). a Chief Commissioner directly responsible to the Government of India. 'That year also Frontier Campaigns. witnessed the death of Abdur Rahman, the Lord Elgin, who succeeded Lord Lansdowne Amir of Afghanistan, and the establishment l 1894, was confronted at the outset with a of an understanding with his successor Habib- eficit of Rs. 2i crores, due to the fall in es- ullah. In 1904 the attitude of the Dalai Lama trange. (In 1895 the rupee fell as low as of Tibet being pro-Russian and anti-British, #. Id.) To meet this the old five per cent, im it became necessary to send an expedition to ort duties were reimposed on a number of Lhasa under Colonel (Sir Francis) Younghus- ommodities, but not on cotton goods : and band. The Dalai Lama abdicated and a treaty ithin the year the duty was extended to was concluded with his successor. iece-goods, but not to yarn. The re-organisa- ion of the Army, which involved the abolition In his first year of office Lord Curzon passed f the old system of Presidency Armies, had the Act which, in accordance with the recom- ardly been carried out when a number of risings mendations of the Fowler Commission, prac- ccurred along the North-West Frontier, In tically fixed the value of the rupee at 1*. M. t — 895 the British Agent in Chitral which had and in 1900 a Gold Reserve fund was created. »me under British influence two years pre- The educational reforms that marked this iously when Sir H. M. Durand had demarca- Viceroyalty are dealt with elsewhere : chief ;d the southern and eastern boundaries of among them was the Act of 1904 reorganising — fghanistan was besieged and had to be res- the governing bodies of Indian Universities. lied by an expeditionary force. Two years Under the head of agrarian reform must be Eter the Wazirs, Swatis, and Mohmands at- mentioned the Punjab Land Alienation Act, icked the British positions in Malakand, and designed to free the cultivators of the soil from le Afridis closed the Khyber Pass. Peace the clutches of money-lenders, and the insti- us only established after a prolonged cam- tution of Agricultural banks. The efficiency aign (the Tirah campaign) in which 40,000 of the Army was increased (Lord Kitchener oops were employed, and over 1,000 officers was Commander-in-Chief) by the re-armament ad men had been lost. This was in itself a of the Indian Army, the strengthening of the eavy burden on the finances of India, which artillery, and the reorganisation of the trans- r as increased by the serious and widespread port service. In bis relations with the Feuda- imine of 1896-97 and by the appearance in tory Chiefs, Lord Curzon emphasized their idia of bubonic plague. The methods taken position as partners in administration, and he 3 prevent the spread of that disease led, in founded the Imperial Cadet Corps to give a ombay, to rioting, and elsewhere to the military education to the sons of ruling and ppearance in the vernacular aristocratic families. In 1902 the British press of iditious articles which made it necessary Government obtained from the Nizam a per- ) make more stringent the law dealing with petual lease of the Assigned Districts of Berar ich writings. in return for an annual payment of 25 lakhs. The accession of King Edward VII was pro- Lord Curzon's Viceroyalty. claimed in a splendid Durbar on January 1, 1903. In 1904 Lord Curzon returned to With famine and plague Lord Curzon also; England for a few months but was re-appoint- r ho succeeded Lord Elgin in 1899, had to deal, ed to a second term of office, Lord Ampthill, a 1901 the cycle of bad harvests came to an Governor of Madras, having acted as Viceroy ad ; but plague increased, and in 1904 deaths during his absence. The chief act of this second •om it were returned at over one million. Of term was the partition of Bengal and the crea- he many problems to which Lord Curzon tion of a new Province of Eastern Bengal and irected his attention, only a few can be men- Assam oned here : — a reform, designed to remove the some indeed claim that his great- systematic neglect of the trans-Gangetic areas 8t work in India was not to be found in any of Bengal, which evoked bitter and Diolongetf ne department but was in fact the general criticism. In 1905 Lord Curzon "resigned, caring up of the administration which he being unable to accept the proposals of Lord chieved by his unceasing energy and personal Kitchener for the re-adjustment of relations sample of strenuous work. He had at once between the Army headquarters and the Mili- ) turn his attention to the North-West Fron- tary Department of the Government, and ier. The British garrisons beyond our boun- being unable to obtain the support of the ITome ary were gradually withdrawn and replaced Government. Lord Curzon was succeeded by y tribal levies, and British forces were con- Lord Minto, the grandson of a former Gover- centrated in British territory behind them as nor-General. It was a stormy heritage to which support. An attempt was made to check Lord Miijto succeeded, for the unrest whicj) 6o The History of India. had Ions been noticed developed in one Still more serious trouble occurred in Septem-- open sedition. ber, 1914, when a riot at Budge-Budge among a direction into number of Sikh emigrants returned from Canada^ Outside Bengal attempts to quell the disaffec- gave a foretaste of the revolutionary plans en- tertained by those men. The sequel, revealed j tion by the ordinary law were fairly successful. But scarcely any province was free from dis- in two conspiracy trials at Lahore, showed that! " Ghadr" conspiracy was widespread and order of some kind and, though recourse was the had been consistently encouraged by Germany; had to the deportation of persons without reason assigned under an Act of 1818, special Acts India after the War. had to be passed to meet the situation, viz :— an Explosives Act, a Prevention of Seditious Post-war India has a strange and baffling Meetings Act, and a Criminal Law Amendment history. In 1919 Englishmen troubled little Act which provides for a magisterial inquiry about affairs in the East : they were engrossed by in private and a trial before three judges of the the settlement of peace and the refusal of the High Court without a jury. Concurrently with United States either to ratify the Treaty of these legislative measures steps were taken to Versailles or to join the League of Nations. extend representative institutions. In 1907 however, the eyes not only of the to In 1930, a Hindu and a Mahomedan were appointed Empire but of the entire world were set the Secretary of State's Council, and m1909 British upon India, when Mr. Gandhi and his followers a Hindu was appointed for the first time to the for the second time attempted to make the Vicerov's Council. The Indian Councils Act non-co-operation movement effective. of 1909 carried this policy farther by reconsti- tuting the legislative councils and conferring Ideas rule the world. India had participated upon them wider powers of discussion. The in the " war to end war". It was a war waged executive councils of Madras and Bombay in defence of Belgium and it ended in a peace were enlarged by the addition of an Indian ostensibly proclaiming the sanctity of national member. aspirations throughout the world. For the sake of nationalism the structure of Europe had beew As regards foreign policy, Lord Minto 'a broken into fragments. What then was to \M Viceroyalcy was distinguished by the conclu- India's share in the spoils of peace ? The sion (1907) between Great Britain and Russia disturb Montagu-Chelmsford Eeforms did not satisfy of an agreement on questions likely to extremist opinion. They were the result of an the friendly relations of the two countries id agreed policy at home, and an agreed policy Asia generally, and in Persia, Afghanistan and meant concessions to reactionary opinion. Tibet in particular. Two expeditions had to be undertaken on the North-West Frontier, The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms worked, against the Zakka Khels and the Mohmands and in some Provinces they worked well. Ben and ships of the East Indies Squadron were cause they worked well, it was never possible frequentlv engaged off Mas Vat and in the to withhold reforms. Because experience rej Persian Gulf in operations designed to check the vealed their shortcomings, it was imperative traffic in arms through Persia and Mekran to that greater reforms should be made. Lord the frontier of India. Morley and Lord Minto expressly denied that their reforms allowed Parliamentary institutions^ Visit of the King and Queen. Yet the logical conclusion of these reforms waa Sir Charles (Lord) Hardinge was appointed to the Montagu-Chelmsford Report, which definitely in established Parliamentary institutions, and that succeed Lord Minto in 1910. His first year report prepared the way to Dominion Statue] India was marked by the visit to India of the the war we find the Viceroy and Emperor and the Queen, who arrived at Ten years after Kin<* by methods Bombay on December 2, 1911. From there Mr. Gandhi working different foi the same end. they proceeded to Delhi where, in the most magnificent durbar ever held in India, the coro- Yet to one living through those fevered yeari nation was proclaimed and various boons, in- the issues were not always clear. Mahomedai cluding an annual grant of 50 lakhs for popular and Hindu aspirations did not always coincide education, were announced. At the same cere- The evil mischances that persuaded Turkey U mony His Majesty announced the transfer of the associate with the Central Powers in th( capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi ; the European War sorely tried Mahomedan loyalty reunion of the two Bengals under a Governor- The Khilafatist movement assumed great propor in-Council: the formation of a new Lieutenant- tions and the consequence was war for Kin* Governorship for Behar, Chota Nagpur and ; ; Amanullah, who had just ascended the throne a Orissa and the restoration of Assam to the Afghanistan, believed that India was in opei charge of a Chief Commisaioner. revolt. He decided, therefore, to invade tin In August, 1913, the demolition of a lavatory country. The Afghan War was unfortunatel; attached to a mosque in Cawnpore was made the a prolonged campaign, and increased the sena occasion of an agitation among Indian Mahome- of post-war exhaustion in this country. A fe\ dans and a riot in Cawnpore led to heavy loss years later King Amanullah visited India on ai His country had entered th< of life. Of those present at the rict, 106 were errand of peace. put on trial but subsequently released by the comity of nations, and he would tour Europe asai enlightened monarch. In 1928 he returned to Viceroy before the case reached the Sessions, and His Excellency was able to settle the his country, which, however, he was destine* soon to The pace of his reforms had beei mosque difficulty by a compromise that leave. was acceptable to the local and other too rapid for his country. He abdicated li ^labomeflans, favour of his brother Inayatullah, who abdicate* The Round Table Conference. himself a few hours later. It was not until was Dominion Status, but invited representatives General Nadir Khan was elected King in the of India to a Round Table Conference in London : summer of 1929 that peace came to the unhappy he stood where the moderates and half the land but the keenness with which India followed ; Congress had stood two years before. Mean- the progress of the revolution showed how while, Congress became still more extremist. closely were the fortunes of the two countries In January 1929, Mr. Gandhi announced that associated. if India was not given Dominion Status within a year, he would lead the campaign for Indepen- The appointment of Lord Reading to be dence. He kept his word, and the Lahore Viceroy in 1921 was a landmark in Indian Congress of December 1929, under the guidance history. Throughout his tenure of office there of Pandit Jawharlal Nehru rather than Mr. was opposition and disorder. The Duke of Gandhi, voted in favour of Independence. Connaught came to open the new council and ; the Swarajists did their utmost to boycott the The new struggle began in earnest in March, visit. The Prince of Wales came a year later 1930. Mr. Gandhi first decided to break the Salt on a non-political visit ; but his arrival in Laws. He made an imposing march from Bombay was the signal for severe rioting. Ahmedabad to the coast, where he ceremoniously Mr. Gandhi's weapons of attack were boycott manufactured salt that could not be taxed. and the wearing of Khaddar. Khaddar, as Non-co-operation was in full swing. For a an Indian cloth, weakened the importation of short time Bombay was virtually a Congress foreign cloth. The boycott was directed not City. There were numerous arrests. only against British goods, but against the entire The Statutory Commission meanwhile pub- machinery of Government. In 1923 Lord lished its report, but it met with violent Reading's certification doubled the Salt-Tax, criticism in India. A new scheme to consult thus showing that the Legislative Assembly had Indian opinion on constitutional reforms was no real control over finance. The responsibili- evolved in the shape of a Round Table Con- ties of the Assembly were few. Since the ference to which representatives of British India, Government could override its decisions, its the Indian States and the British parties were lecisions became irresponsible. In the Pro- invited. The Princes, at first, assumed the duces, however, there was less irresponsibility, lead. They stood for a Federal Government ind consequently the members of the Legislative in which the States and British India should Councils were often the alMes of Government. be partners. At once the extremists, who had But it took time for Indian opinion to realise intended to ignore the Conference, showed the ihat the Legislative Councils, however imperfect, keenest concern. The Conference, despite all ;vere the instruments of order and good govern- evil prognostications, represented the voice of nent. Some years later, the boycott broke India. iown. Mr. C. II. Das, one of Mr. Gandhi's chief ieutenants, decided to associate with theLegisla- In February 1931 the Round Table Conference ure— ostensibly to destroy the reforms, but delegates returned to India on the understand- ing that there was to be a second Round Table ictually because he and many others had grown ired of a policy of mere negation. The downfall Conference in London, but that meanwhile >f non-co-operation was further signalled by certain problems, such as that of separate com- he election of a great Swarajist, Mr. V. J. Patel, munal electorates, were to be worked out among — 0 be President of the Legislative Assembly an themselves in India. The first thing they did on their return was to attempt to persuade •ffice which he held until the summer of 1930. Congress to call off the Civil Disobedience When Lord Irwin succeeded Lord Reading Movement and participate in the Conference. 1 1926, the prospects of peace improved. It Congress, however, were in bitter mood many /as ordained by Statute that a Commission ; local committees even did their best to prevent tiould examine the Indian Reforms within ten the decennial census in February from being an ears of the inception of the Government of accurate index to the state of the population. ndia Act. In 1927 both the British Government There were a number of feverish conferences nd the Government of India agreed that the between Lord Irwin, Mr. Gandhi, and Sir Tej ommission should be appointed as early as Bahadur Sapru. Mr. Gandhi and other pro- ossible. Accordingly, in the autumn, it was minent Congress leaders were released from nnounced that Sir John Simon and other mem- prison specially to confer with Government ers of Parliament should be members of a officials and the conferences were conducted in ew Statutory Commission. Their appoint- a friendly and informal fashion. The upshot lent was the occasion of a new outburst, was the signing of the Irwin-Gandhi Pact at either Mr. Gandhi's followers nor the moderates Delhi in March which provided on the one hand 'ould support the Commission. It was to be for Congress to call off the civil disobedience oycotted from the start. The chief complaint movement, the no-tax campaign, the boycott of as that all the members of the Commission British goods, and other cognate activities, and ere Europeans. The Congress party, and even on the other hand for Government to extend an le moderate*, demanded in its place a Round amnesty to political prisoners, to permit the able Conference and the promise, if not the manufacture of salt on the coast, and make a amediate offer, of Dominion Status. The number of similar concessions. Dycott, however, was not very effective. One f one the Provincial Councils decided to co- When in April Lord Willingdon arrived in )erate with the Simon Commission the Legisla- : India to take up his duties as Viceroy and te Assembly, almost alone among the Legisla- Governor-General, Lord Irwin left the country res, stood consistently for boycott. Yet it is amid many tributes to his statesmanship. Lord ?nificant that before the Simon Commission Willingdon's first few months were spent in id published its report, the Viceroy not only preparing the way for the second Bound Table uiounced that the goal of Government in India l Conference, the opening of whjch was f}j?ed! foj 62 The History of India. November. At first Congress refused to partici- and subsequently at Ottawa the Indian delega- Government had broken the tion to the Conference headed by Sir AtuJ pate, alleging that Irwin-Ga*ndhi agreement, but after much waver- Chatterjee were given the freest possible handj ing Mr. Gandhi set sail for England at the end of and the agreement which they concluded embo^ August. The Conference almost broken down dies only such measures as are in the bes| prolonged discussiol over the communal problem. Mr. Gandhi was interests of India. After frankly dissatisfied and landed in India on it was endorsed by the Central Legislature. December 28 hinting at a renewal of the civil Discussions relating to the future constitution disobedience campaign. Early in January 1932 of India were in progress throughout the yeara the struggle began again. Mr. Gandhi and the The publication of what is known as CommunM Congress leaders were imprisoned. Award marked a new stage in the task dm devising a suitable machinery for the governana The Viceroy soon made it clear that there of India. The award settled the proportion could be no compromise with those who were of representation in the country's legislature determined to persist in a fresh campaign of for various communities and special interests civil disobedience and proclaimed his determina- In November the third Round Table ConferenM tion to use to the full the resources of the State met in London, the session lasting till the end. in fighting and defeating a movement which of the year. would otherwise remain a perpetual menace to orderly Government and individual liberty. The year 1933 saw the publication of the Whiti His Excellency's policy quickly met with success. Paper embodying the proposals of His MajestyJ The arrest of the principal leaders of the campaign Government or constitutional advance in f was followed up. with the imprisonment after India (See Round Table Conference Chapter trial of over 30,000 followers of the Congress. It served to thrust India into the forefro* The special Ordinances devised to deal with the of British politics. At no other period perhaj menace were renewed for another six months, in recent times has India figured so largely in being replaced at the end of the year by more Britain, which was flooded by die-hail permanent legislation which the Legislative propaganda against "the danger of forcM Assembly and the Council of State endorsed, democracy down the throats of the dumb million the former by a surprisingly good majority. All of India." the Provincial Councils passed complemen- With the complete stultification of the Congr el tary legislation embodying Ordinance regula- anj tions to suit local conditions. Thus by the end following the collapse of civil disobedience, inances had ceased to exist, the shifting of interest to London where *W of the year the Ord Committee was in sessiaj Joint Parliamentary their place being taken by legislation for a activifl limited period. Nothing showed the rally of examining the White Paper, political in the country was at a standstill. To make xfl the country against, civil disobedience better the for this there was a great upheaval in socii than these measures. sphere. The plight of the depressed classes The economic position of the country continued (called Harijans by Mr. Gandhi) attracted mud aggressive measure to be abnormal throughout the year and attention, thanks to the Government refused to contemplate any relaxa- adopted by Mr. Gandhi, his two fasts, releai tion of that stern policy of rigorous economy from jail and whirlwind tour of the countrl in public expenditure outlined in 1931. The Although there was much orthodox opposition policy was reflected in the to the admission of untouchables into cas? success of that aspects budget of 1933-34, though public opinion in temples and other demonstrational with the absence movement, the upper J classes' cog the country was disappointed the uplift of any relief from taxation, particularly in view science was roused to activity and directed M salaries wards the amelioration of the general conditi^ of the partial restoration of the cut in the of the Services. An outstanding feature of of the untouchables. the year was the rapid improvement in India s credit notwithstanding the economic stress. For the first time in history, Mount Ever« from the air. An aeroplaa Government floated three loans, one in sterling was conquered financed by Lady Houston achievi and two in rupees, of the total amount of Rs. 58 expedition crores. The last of these was oversubscribed this marvel which, apart from its spectacuW valrt in about four hours though it gave a return nature, is believed to be of great scientific succeeded A climbing expedition which followed, noweve of only 5 J percent. Government also attempt owing to unkin floating debt. had to abandon the in substantially reducing their weather. j An event of great importance during the India's increasing status among the nations i year was the tariff agreement between India by the privile* the world was exemplified and Great Britain at the Ottawa Conference- accorded to her of negotiating direct with In the entirely new circumstances created by Foreign Power (Japan) for a commercial treat; the departure of the British Government from from .la pa: the old policy of universal free trade and by To meet the stifling competition vourj India decided to cancel the most-fa I the substitution for it of a tariff coupled with I nation treatment to Japan, whereupon the latt the grant of preference to countries, the Govern- retaliated bv placing a boycott on Indian cotto I mcnt of India were invited to send a delegation The tug-of-war ended as the result of a serf ' to the Imperial Conference primarily to consider conversations at Simla and Delhi betwe< and discuss with representatives of Great Britain of representatives of the Indian and Japane the question whether it would be in the interests Governments. Equally important was the xlt of both countries to enter into a tarilf agreement J delegation from Lancashire, why involving the reciprocal grant of preferences naid by a agreement wi also was productive of an to each other's products. In the negotiations, and discussions which took place first in London [ Bombay millowners for the regulation of tra The History of India. 63 id — avoidance of cut-throat competition an Mr. Gandhi announced his decision to leave ;reement which was later ratified by the Indian that body, with a view partly to enable it gislature. to function independently and unobsessed by his personality and partly to devoting his The good will engendered by this (Lees-Mody) time and energy to an intensive rural uplift !<•-!was followed ud and an Indo-British trade programme. This has been described as a xeement was concluded in 1 934. The operation subtle move on the part of Mr. Gandhi to this and the Ottawa Agreements helped consolidate his position among the masses. dian commerce and industry by facilitating Not to be outdone by Mr. Gandhi, the Govern- Of exchange of commodities and' merchandise ment of India sanctioned one crore of rupees tween India and Britain a-nd other parts of to ameliorate the condition of the agricultural e Empire. A policy of economic nationalism population. gan to be adopted by almost all European igitries which imposed exchange and quota The year witnessed a keen and bitter con- fictions on foreign imports/ As a result troversy over the Communal Award, Hindu this Indian exports to Italy, Germany protesting it was unjust and Muslims insisting mmania and Turkey suffered a great deal. on retaining it. Between the two, the Congress chose to remain neutral. This attitude Nevertheless India turned the corner and displeased both, and a section of Hindu Congress- the time of writing seems within sight of men formed a separate party and ceaselessly momic revival, if not prosperity. The budget strove to upset the Award. • J U:>4-:i5 actually showed a surplus all- owing for the full restoration of salary cuts Another outstanding feature was the publi- a a slight reduction cation of the report of the Joint Parliamentary in the income-tax res. Committee which examined British and Indian witnesses (officials and non-officials) on the Government's proposals contained in the White Politically, 1934-35 was a year of peace. Paper. The report differed . Gandhi yielded to the insistent demands White little from the peace followers and formally called off civil Paper and formed the basis of the India Bill which, at the time of writing, is being obedience which had been dead for months, discussed by the House of Commons in Com- e elimination of this negative policy mittee. Both the Committee's to a constructive programmed report and the Right Wing Bill raised a storm of protest in India lgressmen revived the old Swaraj Partv. They , where the proposed reforms were regarded by most people, (tested the- elections to the Assembly and including the Liberals, as inadequate, but a small red signal success, winning 45 seats. Their imph is all the more striking because of section of opinion was in favour of working the scheme to get the best out of it and to rivalry between them and another wing of pave the way for a further instalment of Congress which had quarrelled with the political reform. fmt body on the Communal Award. Various ses have been suggested for their success, most important, of which was the wave of The Indian Princes created some surprise by refusing to accept the proposals as they stood pnental loyalty to an institution which had and demanding a number of chanses. A* section m up its barren programme and following of public opinion regarded — removal of the Government ban— resumed their decisions as a aormal functions. withdrawal from the proposed federation, but the Princes repudiated this interpretation and protested that they only asked for changes 'he Indian National Congress met in October which would safeguard their status, privileges 1 after threeand a half years of naction. and treaty rights. 64 The Government of India. to India and it became a political and administrative^ The impulse which drove thejBritisb Government body holding its territories in the directiog i trust for th« was not conquest but trade. The con- Crown. The same Act vested evolution from . of Indiarepresents the slow and military administration wiairemcnts. of the entire civil ditions established to meet trading of legislation in the Governorj years before-.the and sole power On September 24, 1599 a few Akbar, the mer- General-in-Council, and defined more clearltf deaths of Queen Elizabeth and extent of the control to be exd association for the nature and chants of London formed an over the subordinate governments direct trade with tended the purpose of establishing charter of incorpo- After the Mutiny, there was passed, in 1858, an the East and were granted a Act transferring the Government of India frojj The Government of this Company in This Act madj ration with a Gene the Company to the Crown. England was vested in a Governor change in the administration m ral Court of Proprietors and a Court of Direc- no important Governor-General, as represent) The factors and affairs of the Company India, but the known as the Vet Committee of both Houses of Parlia- was made No attempt in this connection to limit the it. The Joint Select Committee in their flew open to the Indian Legislature, which 1 issued an exhaustive Report on the Bill stiu retains a concurrent ch was passed in a form practically identi (though not an overriding) power of legislation for the with that recommended by the Joint Com- ;ee,and received the Royal Assent on the ?* tj18 provinces in general and of individual provinces ; but the 1 December 1919. rules under the Act provide specifically for he Divisions.—British India the for admi exercise of this right in certain specified rative purposes is divided into 15 pro provincial matters, and the theory each with its separate Local Govern - upon ses, which the Act proceeds assumes that it or administration. In ten of the a convention will be established and zuices— the three Presidencies of Madras, rigorously observed abay and Bengal, the United Provinces which will confine intervention by the Indian Legislature Agra and Oudh, the Punjab, Bihar and in provincial affairs to matters so sa. the Central Provinces, Burma, Assam specified. the North West Frontier Province— the a! Government consists of a Governor, an Finance.— The "revenues of India"— cutive Council of not more than or, rather, their sources— are four definitely divided ibers, and two or more Ministers. between the Central and Provincial Govern- Burma, ments; the Provincial Governments have ;h was excluded from the original scheme, brought into line with it in 1922. An now almost complete control over the of Parliament was passed, constituting administration of their " allocated M ma a Governor's Province, revenues, they have power to sup- with a plement ernor, an Executive Council and Ministers them by raising loans on the a Legislative Council elected on security of these revenues, and their a right, subject ' democratic franchise, which gave the in certain cases to the !to women. The remaining provinces were Governor-General's sanction, to initiate new I inclusive of the N. W. Frontier Province, taxation measures is formally recognised. 3tly administered by Chief Commissioners, It was found impossible to devise any are technically mere agents of the Central scheme of allocation of revenues between ernment of India. No change was made C entraI a fld >he Act of 1919 in the system of adminis- T 3 . which Provincial Governments did not leave the former with a ion in these six minor provinces but the deficit. This deficit is to be mefr in part itier Province was, after the Burma by an annual contribution from seven of edent, made a Major Province in 1932. the eight Governors' provinces, the province yarchy. — In ten nine provinces the exe- of Bihar and Orissa, owing to the compara- tive exiguousness and inelasticity of its /e Government is a dual organism which own i itsunity to the Governor. One half revenues, having been exempted from this contri- ie organism consists of the Governor and bution. The aggregate sum thus due from the xecutive Council, all of whom are appointed provinced to the Government of India at the he King. This body is responsible for the outset was Rs. 983 lakhs, of which Madras Inistration of those subjects which are contributed Rs. 348 lakhs, the United erved." The other half of the executive Provinces Rs. 240 lakhs, the Punjab Rs. Dism is the Governor acting with the ad- 175 lakhs, and the other four provinces of Ministers who are appointed by him, sums ranging from Rs. 15 lakhs to Rs. office during his pleasure, and must 64 lakhs. The annual contribution was in be no case to be subject ed members of the Provincial Legislative to increase in icil. To the Governor acting with Mi- the future, and if reduction of the aggre- rs is entrusted the administration gate were found possible by the Government of .nsferred " subjects. of India, reductions were to be made in fixed proportions from the quota of the ie Object.—The framers of the Act several provinces. The Provincialcontributions 919 had a twofold object in view. Their were gradually foregone and finally extinguished ary object was to devise a plan which by the Government of India in the years of its d render possible the introduction by successive annual prosperity Budgets before the jssive stages of a system of responsible commencement of the world wide economic rnment in British India in modification depression in 1929. e previous system under which the Govern- » in India both central and provincial, — Responsibility. The first steps towards ved their mandates from the British responsibility were to transform the Provincial ament acting through the Secretary of Legislative Council into a body of sufficient size 3 'or India, the Cabinet Minister responsi- and with a sufficiently large elected majority bo Parliament for the administration (which the Act fixes at 70 per cent, as a of m affairs. minimum) to represent adequately public opinion in the province, and to create an ie Provinces.— Starting from the pre- electorate. The first franchise rules gave tnat it was in the provinces that the first the vote to about 5,000,000 of the adult male jantial steps must be taken towards the population, and have enabled the Legislative lopment of a system of responsible govern- Council of any "Governor's province" to i the framers of the Act of 1919 provided extend to the franchise women. 66 The Government of India. and eomposition of each ol the Pr0vincia l^oupeils| The following table shows the strength Madras Bo mbay B engal United Provinces Punjab Bihar and Orissa Central Provinces Aesam Burma North- West "Frontier Province of Indian and British members exeffl number The figures for officials in this tahle are maxima Bihar and Orissa where two of the tn# in every case, and where less than the maximum in M members are British officials. number of officials is nominated to any Flprtorates.—The electorates m each p$ Council, m the number of nominated non-officials must be part on a bag are only vince are arranged for the most increased in proportion ; e.g., if there which is designed to give separate represent! officials (nominated and ex-ojficio) on tne communities, M 16 tion "to the various races, be seven United Provinces Council, there must special interests into which the diverse elemef The official members naturally range the* nominated non-officials. of the Indian population of the who have seats ex-officio are the memberstorn -in selves. Although there are minor variatij Executive Council, who are at present Madras, from province to province, a table showfi number, the statutory maximum in their character in one province (Bengal) w three in Bihar and Orissa Bombay, and Bengal, provinces give a sufficiently clear idea of the geDef and two in each of the remaining position. an eqi^al These Executive Councils contain No. of No. of Memoes Electorates of returnable bji this Class. Electorates of Class of Electorate. this Class. 1 42 46 Non-Muhammadan " 34 39 Muhammadan . . • • • • * * 3 P Anglo Tndian (in 'the technical* VW 'ot persons of mixed 1 European and Asiatic descent). Landholders University Commerce and Industry Total special int all but which are designed to represent Of the 94 constituencies in Bengal, University and ests such as Landholders, Universes, R nine (those representing the Commerce and Industry) «e arranged on a terri- consists of a ters or Commerce being h constituencies, and those which ^} ^^K^T^ are based oj L torial oasis, i.e., each constituency racial distinction— Muhammadan, Europej prescribed qualifi- " group of electors, having the Sikh, ete.-being known generi as vote in a consti- cations which entitle them to a constituencies. . a particular tuency of that class, who inhabit" Muhammadan Qualifications.-The qualifl The normal area for a Voters' area consequently for caj constituency is a tion ? for electors (and or •'non-Muhammadan" province tc provto large and popu- date') vary in detail from , district (or where districts are of variations in the laws l case of rural constitu- chiellv on account lous half « district) in the of assessm encies and, in the case of urban constituencies, Sapiens which form the basis Generally spe towns. Some property values. of income or a group of adjacent municipal by them- ina both in rural and urban areas the francl urban constituencies as measo larie towns form eight "b'a^ca on a property qualification Belves, madan of and eeparate constituencies, course, being A M and two " Muhammadan ^ the City of Calcutta jrovideB coterminous iWkfSSS£ the latter, , with the revenue or of its equivalent, or of municipal taxes, but in all minimum bv the payment of a prescribed of income t or provinces of I retli and men of . nensioned or discharged oliicers former. ar army are entitled to the vote, irrosp. runs a re Throughout the electoral rules there ive of the amount of their income various .kinds of general classification of the property. categories, those constTtuencics into two broad — — The Government of India. 67 POWERS OF PROVINCIAL LEGISLATIVE COUNCILS. In origin the legislative authority in British enacting, legislation. It is true that the non- idia was a meeting of the Governor- official element in the Provincial 3neral (or, in the case of the Presidencies Councils as constituted by Lord Morley's Act of 1909 had Madras and Bombay, of the Governor) with acquired a considerable measure of control over 3 Executive Council, " for the purpose of legislation, in view of the fact that in most delation." When met for this purpose there pro- vinces that Act and the rules framed under it lie added to the Executive Council certain placed the non-official members in a slight additional members," at first very few in majority over their official colleagues ; but for mber, and those few all nominated by the various reasons this control, even in the sphere >vernor-General or the Governor, as the case of legislation, can hardly be described as ght be. A Council so constituted had origin- definite popular control, and over matters outside the y no powers or duties beyond those immedi- legislative sphere the Councils had no control- jly arising out of the discussion of the parti- ling voice at all. lar legislative measure which at the time was sraging its attention, and its functions were The Changes.—The most important changes lfined strictly to the discussion and enactment made by the Act of 1919 in the powers of the legislative^ measures. In course of time the Provincial Councils were— mber of " additional " members, and the Yi) the power to vote (and consequently )portion of these who were non-official In- to withhold) supplies; ns, were steadily increased, the principle of stion was gradually substituted for nomina- (ii) a greatly enhanced freedom of initiation Q as the means of selecting non-official mem- m the matter of legislation ; and s, and the functions of the Councils (in) power to frame their own rules of were proce- ended so as to include the right of interpella- dure in matters of detail, subject to the Gover- 1, of the discussion of matters of general nor s concurrence. )lic interest, and of criticising and discussing buderet proposals of the Executive Govern- Afurther right which the Councils will acquire after four years from the time of their Qt. This extension of the powers of the commence, merit is the right to elect their own mcils was in the main the result of the M Mor- President ftlinto Act M At the outset the President is nominated by the of 1909. The Indian Councils Governor, but from the start every Council of 1892 had given power to discuss the has an elected Deputy President, 'ihe Governor Iget but not to divide the Council upon it. d Morley's Act went further ana" provided (who formerly was ex-offico President of his Legislative Council) no longer has any t notwithstanding the terms of the Indian direct ncils Act of 1861 which had restricted the connection with its proceedings. The first- rers of all Councils to the discussion of lagis- named of these newly acquired powers is of sufficient importance to require a ve measures, the Local Government might detailed ex- planation of its scope, which can best be te rules authorising the discussion of the given ual financial statement, of any matter of m the terms of the Act itself (section 72d). jral public interest, and the asking of ques- 72d.—(1) The provisions contained in' this s under such conditions and restrictions as section shall have effect with respect to business ht be imposed by the rules, and these rules and procedure in governors' legislative councils. gnised the right of the Councils to vote on (2) The estimated annual expenditure and ions thus submitted for their discussion revenue of the province shall be laid in the form other results of the Act of 1909 were of a statement before the council in each year litely to recognise the principle of election and the proposals of the local government for he means of selecting non-official members the appropriation of provincial revenues and ill Councils (although the method adonted other moneys in any year shall be submitted to mainly that of indirect election), a consider- the vote of the council in the form of demands increase in the number of both non-official for grants. The council may assent, or refuse official members, and the setting up in every its assent, to a demand, or may reduce the 'ince of a non-official (though not, save in one amount therein referred to either by a reduction ince, an elected) majority. A further import- ot the whole grant or by the omission or reduc- though indirect, result of the Morley-Minto tion of any of the items of expenditure of which was the appointment of an Indian member the grant is composed : he Executive Council of the Governor- Provided that 3ral and to such Provincial Executive icils as were then in existence and (a) the localgovernment shall have power, in subse- itly created. relation to any such demand, to act as if it had been assented to, notwithstanding the Id System.— But although the Legislative with- holding of such asseni or the reduction of icils (which, originally created in two pro- the amount therein referred to, if the demand relates 39only in addition to the Governor-General's to a reserved subject, and the governor Native Council, existed in 1919 in nine certifies that the expenditure provided for by the mces) had steadily acquired a more and de- mand is essential to the discharge of his res- »representative character and a large share ponsibility for the subject ; and e normal functions of a legislative assembly (6) the governor shall have power in cases of merally understood, they still remained in emergency to authorise such expenditure as T up to the passing of the Act of 1919 mere may be 111 his opinion necessary for the safety jtions to the Executive Government of the or tranquillity of the province, inces for he purpose of advising on, or for the carrying and on of any department ; and The Government of India. 68 the official of any constant endeavour on the part of for the appropriation no proposal accommodate its (c) for any purpose half of the Government to such revenues or other moneys pol cy to the wishes of its ministerial colleagues shall be made except on the recommendat on of and to to the council. and of the majority of the legislature, tc the the governor communicated avoid situations which involve resort ; . shall in the face of popular (3) Nothing in the foregoing sub-section enforcement of its decisions the res- require proposlls to he submitted to the council .- opposS, are not intended totheobscure last resort of expenditure possibility to Parliament in Sating to the following heads of admmifation Contributions payable by the local govern- fie Governor in Council for-the nia the right ot i m of reserved subjects and (i) Council and ment to the Governor-General , Majesty's Government, and of the Secretary of (w) Interest and sinking furd charges on ay down and| loans and (Hi) ; Expenditure of which the amount is State as a member thereof, require the observance of any they regard as having the support and in the last resort of the to British P/^ e w of Parl^ment f. electorate. ^ prescribed by or under any law and ; to trans- regard Salaries and pensions of persons appoint- Transfer of Control.— "With ) very different. His Majesty or ferled subTects the position is ed by or with the approval of of contro Council and Here there has been an actual transfer ^ of State in by the Secretary British Parlia- court of the from the British elector and the Salaries of judges of the high ^gtaat^eConnal (v) ment to the elector and the l ^^ general. province and of the advocate- in the Indian province. The PJop ncia s r If any question arises whether any proposed of administration are grouped into not relate member the Executive appropriation of moneys does or does each of and iust as consistmg o expenditure,- the decision Coinffi has charge of a portfolio to the above heads of subjects or a* of the governor shall be final. a specified list of "reserved" directly r* In the light partments," so each Minister is F*pcutive and Legislature.—explain those par^ possible to more ponsible for the administration of of ttoe facts ft to now provincial cular transferred "departments aw which between the reaponsihJg exactly the relationship The included in his portfolio But legislature. pxpcutive and the provincial lies, not, as in the case of a member of the Ex* has already-been dualIharacWr of tlfe former . ^cation cutlve Council, to the Government o Indto E mentioned, and the corresponding and the Secretary of State and Parliament bu, of provincial subjects into "reserved Council of whicl " transferred " categories. The rules under the the Provincial Legislative to which he h he is an elected member and from act IvSe a list of 20 subjects which are trans- Governor selected by the Governor as commanding a fenedto the administration of the likely to command the support of the majority acting with Ministers, the more important of Medical Ad- of that body. He holds office during the Govej ; > wh ch are Local Self-Government, Education (with nor's pleasure, but his retention of office ministration, Public Health, contingent on his ability to retain the conhdene certain reservations), Public Works Agricul- Development .of {ndustries. ture Excise, and " comprise all those in The " reserved subjects " (as distinct from " cen- " provincial oyer transfers theflist of of "the Legislative Council ") subjects which are not transferred. supplies and leg si tral subjects, both as regards Machinery.—No change was made by the and methods tion, is almost entirely free from the restnetio Act of 1919 in the machiaery necessarily qualify it, co just noticed which Of administration by the Governor in Council " reserved " subjects It is tin trol over the > Council Board, as Council 1 decisions are taken at the , within the power of the Provincial before, by a majority vote, and the Governor of o* insist on the pursuit of a policy to overrule such a vote in tran^ierrc is entitled, as before, phoire in the administration of circumstances if he disagrees from certain specified P the Governor m } subjects by withdrawing its confidence >u w[th it. For such decisions responsible to the Minister who departs from that policy- Council remains, as before, bestowing it only on a successor who will folic State and Parliament;.and on ques- Slate this power Is dependent < I Secretary of its and ; tions of legislationand supply he has the power tne^rSvincial elector in virtue of hw freedc of enforcing them despite opposition by a.major- the composition of the L^lat to control itv of the Legislative Council. But, the whole ' Council bv the use whir-h he makes of h.s voj existence of a large some qua spirit of the Act and the Vo doubt this statement requires every Provincial accepted as litera non official elected majority, in flcation before it can be Legislative Council is an determining the policy to be important factor in pursued by Hie Se SStoi for technically, the authority cnarg administration of transferred half of the Government in its adminis- iect« is "the Governor acting with M} n ™ A further and not not the Minist tration of reserved subjects. in the appointed under this Act," less important factor is the existence aSting on tbeir own initiative, and, further < Executive course subject Government, side by side with the Governor, who is not, of appointed from Legislative Conn Counc of two or more Ministers , who removal from office by the members of the legislature with responsibility the elected with, and fs charged persona'ly though they are not charged by law responsi- the peacVand tranquillity of his proviD in fact are legally absolved from, any and indeed bound,entitled, the trans- and would be bility for decf.ions on matters outside of a department fr recommend the removal ferrcd sphere, will necessarily be able, and in fact transferred list if he found the legisiat by the their opinions felt its admin- str at are expected, to make bent on P^suing a policy in Council. But their colleagues in the Executive lead to .which !fi This judgment, was incompati doubtless ESese factors, while they will — The Government of India. 69 rith the maintenance of peace and tranquillity; that the rules 8° vern tag the al- r et the powers of control vested in the Legis- itive Council over the transferred sphere are SfoH^TO location of these revenues and balances should be framed so as to make the ndoubtedly great, and it was the opinion at existence of such friction impossible. They advise that, if the 11 events of the Joint Select Committee that Governor, in the course of preparing >gislature and Ministers should be allowed either or an r> exercise them with the greatest possible ?w . T 18 llkeI subsequent budget, find , t0 be a serious or pro- •eedom. " If after hearing all the arguments," ir»LfT« tracted difference of ? . opinion between the Ex- bserved the Committee, "Ministers should ecutive Council and his Ministers decide not to adopt his advice, then in the on this sub- ject he should be empowered at opinion of the Committee the Governor should once to make an allocation of revenue and balances ordinarily allow Ministers to have their way the reserved and transferred between fixing the responsibility upon them, even subjects which if should continue for at least the whole it may subsequently be necessary for life of him to the existing Legislative Council. The Com- vote anv particular piece of legislation It mittee do not endorse the suggestion is not possible but that in India, as in all that cer- other tain sources of revenue should be allocated to countries, mistakes will be made by Minister* and certain sources to transferred acting with the approval of a majority of the subjects, but they recommend that Legislative Council, but there is no way of the Gov- ernor should allocate a definite learning except through experience proportion and ^enne* say, by way of illustration, the realisation of responsibility." ?L two-thirds to reserved and one-third to trans- Provision of Funds —The terms of the ferred subjects, and similarly a proportion, 3t leave the apportionment of the provincial though not necessarily the same fraction venues between the two halves of the execu- of the balances If the Governor desires assist- te for the financing of reserved and transferred ance m making the allocation, he should be bjects respectively to be settled by rules allowed at his discretion to refer the Jrely providing that rules may be made " question for to be decided to such authority as the Gover- ;he allocation of revenues or moneys nor-General shall for the appoint. Further, urpose of such administration • i.e ' the Committee are of opinion that it should the idministration of transferred subjects by the , be n T0 the first that until an agreement xovernor acting with Ministers Probably ii? whichi°^ J ^ > both sides of the Government will equallv } best description available of the method support has been reached, or until an allocation opted by the rules for the settlement of this has been made by the Governor, -tter is the recommendation of the the total Joint ect Committee whose proposals have been fn^T*, °! ^ e differenfc expenditure heads u in the budget of the province for the preceding owed with one modification only to enable financial year shall hold good. f Governor to revoue at any time, at the ire of his Council and Ministers an «' e Committee desire that the relation order h. 1 of illocation" or to modify it in accordance the two sides of the Government in this matter h their joint wishes. The passage is as in all others, should be or such mutual sym- ows : pathy that each will be able to assist and in- fl The Committee have given much attention other, nf nce. for fche common good the work of the but not to exercise control over it. The the difficult question of the principle on budget should not be capable of being used eh the provincial revenues and balances a means a* for enabling Ministers or a majority uld be distributed between the two sides of the Legislative Councii to direct the the provincial governments. They policv are of reserved subjects; but on the other dent that the problem can readily be solved hand the Executive Council should be helpful the simple process of common sense # to and Ministers in their desire to develop the de- onable give-and-take, but they are aware partments entrusted to their care. On the this question might, in certair 8 circum- Governor personally will devolve the task tces, become the cause of much fric- of holding the balance between the in the provincial government, and legitimate they needs of both sets of his advisers." THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT. he structural changes made by the Act of ture. it has already been government outside body was, in origin, like allobserved that this I ) in the system of Governors' provinces " are of compara- bodies other legislative in India, the Governor-General's y minor scope, though the spirit of the cutive Council with the Exe- requires, as has already been shown, addition of certain additional members" appointed to assist iderable modification of the relationship the Executive Council in Jrto subsisting the formulation of between the Provincial legislation. Despite its steady Jrnments on the one hand and the Govern- and growth in size influence, and despite the introduction b of India and the Secretary of State in IP.l r»r» f hex i-wf knn I rriv, 1 1 , L»^ U ( h m0re „ ; torn, independent t ^ la ged representative /u of the central legisla- a legislature with all the° inherent nower, P ordinarily attributed to euch a body eaveTueb 70 The Government of India. specifically withheld by the terms of] Burma as arc Delhi the Act. It consists of two Chambers. The " Council of State " contains 60 members, of 34 whom 34 are elected (including one member to represent Berar, who, though technically Since the area which returns perhaps 80;, nominated, is nominated as the resuL ot members to a Provincial Council is the same,I nominated, of as the area which returns perhaps 12 members^ elections held in Berar) and 26 to the Legislative Assembly—namely, the- whom not more than 20 may be officials The that "Legislative Assembly" consists of 144 entire province in each case— it follows on the direct election system this area must members, of whom 105 are elected (including in the case of the Council of State, one Berar be split into constituencies which are mucfc larger than the constituencies for the local- member who, though actually elected, as tech- generally correct tor nically nominee). Of the 40 nominated a Councils, and just as it is say that the normal area unit for those rural: members, not fewer than one third are required to be non-officials. The members constituencies for the latter which are arranged Executive Council on a territorial basis is the district, it may ba of the Governor-General's case oi the are not ex-officio members of either said that the normal area unit in the Legislative Assembly the Division (the technK Chamber, but each of them has to be appointed is cal term for the administrative group and can of district! a member of one or other Chamber, vote only in the Chamber of which he is a mem- controlled by a Divisional Commissioner). . ^ member the Executive Council Franchise.— The general result of thj ber. Any of The may, however, speak in either Chamber. first .franchise arrangements under the Act » body of The President of the Upper Chamber is a thus that there is in each province a, electors qualified to vote for, and stand for eley. nominee of the Governor-General, as also, for the and that a select-, first four years after the constitution of the tion to, the Provincial Council, qualified to vote Chamber, was the President of the Legislative ed number of these voters are m tjj Assembly. But after that period the Lower stand election to those seats for and for to tn* Chamber elected its own President, and it Legislative Assembly which are assigned candidatulf elected its own Deputy-President from the outset. province. The qualifications for the same uij The normal lifetime of each Council of State is for the Legislative Assembly are as for cana*l five years, and of each Legislative Assembly each province, mutatis mutandis, simul- except thai three years but either Chamber, or both ; dature for the Provincial Council, taneously, may be dissolved at any time by the in all provinces, so long as the candidate can within the pr# G overnor-General show that he resides somewhere particular Election.— The method of election for vince, no closer connection with his is insisted upon. both Chambers is direct, and although the constituency number of electors is considerably smaller than The franchise for the Council of State differ great in character from that for the Provincial Cound for the Provincial Councils, it is a Assembly. The concern * advance on the very restricted and for the most and the Legislative Act and rules was to secur of the part indirect franchise established under the the framers unicameral central legis- for the membership of this body a character a Act of 1909 for the Senat lature which no longer exists. Generally speak- closely as possible approximating to a Chamber Elder Statesmen " and thus to constitute ing, the electoral scheme for the Lower of of performing the function is on the same model as that for the Pro- body capable of revising Chamber. With this objei vincial Councils already described except that, true alternative to a hi for voters in addition and as an firstly, the property qualification qualification— adopted as a rough a (and consequently for candidates) is higher property enfranchising only persons in order to obtain manageable constituencies, readv method of the country— the rules admit as qui and past service with the colours is not per se a stake in certain personal attributes wnicn t a qualification for the franchise, and secondhj, fications to connote the possession of some pa that the constituencies necessarily cover a likely experience or a high standard considerably larger area than constituencies administrative the attainment. Examples of for the Provincial Council. The distribution intellectual of eith qualifications are past membership of seats in both Chambers, and the arrangement Legislature as now constitute are on a provincial basis; Chamber of the of constituencies, or of the Provincial Counc predecessor, that is a fixed number of the elective seats in or of its of high office in local bodies (distr! each Chamber is assigned to representatives the holding and corporations), ma representatives boards, municipalities of each province, and these Universiti as- bership of the governing bodies of are elected by constituencies covering an m recogniti signed area of the province. _ j • and the holding of titles conferred learning and literature. The following table shows the allotment of of Indian classical of the elective seats: Power*.— The powers and duties Indian legislature differ but little in charac M central " sphere from those of 1 within the provincial Councils within their proyinc Madras same right Bombay sphere, and it has acquired the voting supplies for the Central Governmt Bengal made United Provinces But as no direct attempt has yet been at the ceni Punjab Introduce responsible government been avowe Bihar and Orissa the step in that direction having consequer Central Provinces confined to the provinces and as of India rem* Assam /vsaniu the Executive Government • • • • Ulv responsible as a whole for the proper fti Forth- West Frontier Provinccl ; w The Government of India. 71 merit of its charge to the Secretary of State and ln relationship with the Indian 1]S Parliament, it follows that the powers rf^fl conferred on provincial Governors to disregard an adverse than m restricte <* ICSS their operation the provinces ; that is to . ^ vote of the Legislative Council on legislation say, thev or cover the whole field and are supplies are, as conferred on the not confined in Governor- their application to categories of subjects. THE INDIA OFFICE. C mak s no structura! changes t„T£ In the part. played ! . < ed K:mgdoni and with the assistance of by the India Office in t55iY« VtUden the administration alterations have of Indian affairs. been effected in the ^ Slight this change, it! is now » S in England. Sr Concurrently with possible to defray from . ???hf 3f F aD( * the Secretary teDUr ? o 0f offlce of the members \ of State's Council, and some fnn f S orfr en d °ff S the Salaries of the H* ° f ^ ,. ^f. Secretary of e Pa/uamentary Under-Secretary, ^ relaxations have been made in the the C0St f sa,aries of In dia and that ^h 'ormerly tZf of the Office inbound statutory Offi ci their procedure Xtr?hi,t«wa ? and S eneral maintenance which is to the e ercise 01 its administrative , . general. But provi- as distinct ions now exist which will undoubtedly from purely ^ agency S S™?* functions as tin e e n Ve a a terial effect on the activities WilL'S? « m? 1 ?! 6 Jihe apportionment to British ;? *l2 n£? ^ )i tne Office as it is . now constituted. A Hteh ft th C08 0f the India 0ffice as commissioner for India has been appointed J/il^ it exists after ^ the transfer J of functions to the for High Commissioner has he purpose of taking over, as the been completely effect- 'L^ e ndia n£° Ve nm nt of India that PortioS Office J ? functions direct agent ed of which is of the nature of Fnlt^ gency, as distinct from administrative then the salaries of the High 8 ' 11 be the only . ^^ Commissioner expenses in the J.?d Kingdom chargeable to Indian revenue*. man super- tt d control. The process of separation ™? 1 staff and functions for the purpose at t3I e arrives, however, was the only ?basis for settlement, an estimate L and for five , MS ransfer will necessarily be somewhat substantial beginning has been made of this slow, but Pa fro S 1920-21, the cost of the India Office J7 ™ Bntfeh revenues has been fixed at lS?/ which includes by hand- 136,500/., i ig over to the direct control the salaries of the of the High Com- lissioner the large departments r 0f State and of the Parliamentary .rned with the ordering and supply which are con- UndfA , r -Secretary, and a contribution of 40,000*.,L of stores wnich has for Qd stationery in England for some years been made bv the Government Ur y rdS lDdia ex P*iditure, as the X,S members Jtired \ with the payment of pensions to of Indian services resident in resuTt n f reccmmenda Er ^ tions of the Welby 111 Commission ^"Uiuiission. mr^ZZZ^l The Governor-General PERSONNEL AND PROCEDURE. and the " Executive ferred to the Viceroy. l}i8 Council are appointed by the The Members of Coun- own No limit time is specified for of If 66 T0dl * ^ 1Ce a^y a * a Cabinet-ordinarify -" r? k to discuss Questions I fc flU^S « nf Y%1UDCl1 ' °V°K -, Th ffiCe but custcm nas toed it ™ ' are seven Executive Mem- heSe Members hold respec- SwhiPh?L J v- er tbe Vlc °y desires to Put before them, or wh.cb a member who has been 1 over-ruled by the pIv rcly thS ;, ? the portfolios Viceroy has asked to be referred of Education, to Council jnd Home Finance Commerce & Health ; and Railways ; If there is a difference of opinion in the Council dustnes and Labour Law. The Viceroy ° f the majorit ordinarily h* own member in charge of Foreign affairs. acts ; hnr tTv* V y prevails ™ »n J* considers t™™ythec matter that over-rule a majority if he is of such grave im- l y StCred by a Chief C0mi^« : 1 nPrw ner if h « with portance as to Justify such a step. the assistance of a Eailway Board Each depart* a .administrative purposes grouped ; of J L? «° e 18 iD» the ^fcordinate chlrge 1 a Secretary, whose position corresponds ~ er of the Railways Department e Commander-in-Chief may also be and . UCh 01 a Permanent Zder' practice always is, 8eE*f S'eSl**- f St m tne United kingdom; an "Ordinary" mem- hS with but iE?f2 ?-S of the Council. these differences— that the Secretarv He holds charge of the is present though does not speak, at Cou?£5 Xj e ShS?,?f*i ^ B raI,? e Pernors of Madras become "extraordinary" meetings at which cases under his cognisance S Th r ^ h India which the Governor-General UU Cl1 meet8 Within tbeir *"*J- Council may assemble at any appoints . place all ail mlit™ matters Department a W( e k and di9CUSSCS mth of, importance arising in his ' - ' ^ practice it meets only in iJtm« istmas, a etm Delhi and Simla T °£ 7 two in Calcutta after when the Viceroy is usually in dencein the Bengal Capital. y & m g lK ; that he has the right of Vicero n which be considers concurrence should be obtained that the Vicerov's bring. y? 8 P cciai notice any case to action the Departmental Membef of e ai that hls tenure of o fflc e is usually 1 t Wn each Mem- e a rtment at ^nL u 1S ?a ? P rf?Cly ( limited Vto three l? years. The Secretaries hnvp nnister Itoister e SfI t of State, *S and e P09iti0n of has the final ^ Secretaries, together with the in ordinary ordinary clerical departmental matters establishments. y 8t 0n of special Importance,' The Secretaries and Under ft mo?r tte r ! whlch lt is Proposed to ln Secretaries are often, though by no means o n « 8 fT h Vte delusively, members of the Indian ° f - a LocaJ Government, Civil i : nr,iir °ii ordinarily ir be referred matter originating in one to the Viceroys department Wa«JkS? S rjl- £VlC6 of the Provincial i ?^own °. f Dment 1 5 of India ton as distinct from that a B ther must Governments, and officers le lattPr and»n^» ?£ referred serving under the Government the event of the Depart- of India III ?? not*?'i bs ft being able borrowed from the Provinces, or. in to agree, the case is re- the case of Specialist recruited direct by contract. — The Government of India. 72 THE DIVISION OF FUNCTIONS. 19. Control of production, supply and is effective pro- The keynote of the scheme distribution of any articles in respect of which and the establishment oi autonomy declared by vincial immediate measure of responsibility m the control by a central authority is in Council tne status rule made by the Governor-General provinces all of which are raised to or by or under legislation by the Indian This demanded a of Governors in Council. in the public I and no legislature to be essential sharp division between Imperial interest. subjects are functions. The following vinrial reserved to tl'e Government of India, witn tne 20 Development ol industries, m cases Provincial authority SSSlS tiiat all others vest in the where such development by a central order of the Go vernor - General , Governments: is declared by in Council, made after consultation with the 1. Defence of India, and all matters (a) Governments con- connected with His Majesty's Naval, Mihtary, local Government or local and Ah Forces in India, or with His Majesty s ' cerned expedient in the public interest. or with any other force Indian Marine Service and armed Control of cultivation and manufacture 21. raised in India, other than military opium, and sale of opium for export. Governments. of ponce wholly maintained by local imported 22. Stores and stationery, both (b) Naval and military works cantonments. and indigenous, required for Imperial Depart- naturalisa- 2 Exte nal relations, including ments. India. tion and U.ens, and pilgrimages beyond 23. Control of petroleum and explosives. 3. Relations with States in India. 24. Geological survey. 25. Control of mineral development, m 4. Political charges. to the Governor- Communications to the extent described so far as such control is reserved 5. General in Council under rules made or :— under the following heads, namely sanctioned by the Secretary of State, and regul* tramways (a) railway and extra-municipal tion of mines. classified as provincial in so far as they are not 26. Botanical Survey. of this subjects under entry 6 (d) of Part 11 27. Inventions and designs. Schedule; 28. Copyright. (b) aircraft and all matters connected there- Emigration from, and immigration into 99 with and and inter-provincial migration. be British India, inland waterways, to an extent to (c) criminal pro declared by rule made by the Governor-General 30. Criminal law, including in Council or by or under legislation by the cedure. Indian legislature. 31. Central police organisation. ammunition. 6. Shipping and navigation, including 32. Control of arms and navigation on inland water- shipping and subject 33. Central agencies and institutions ways in so far as declared to be a central and research (including observatories), promoi in accordance with entry 5 (c). professional or technical training or Light-houses (including their approaches) of special studies. 7. beacons, lightships and buoys. inclul Ecclesiastical administration 34. Port quarantine and marine hospitals. 8. European cemeteries. 35. Survey of India. Ports declared to be major ports by rule 9 Archaeology. Council oi 36. made by the Governor-General in legislature. 37. Zoological Survey. by or under legislation by the Indian 38. Meteorology. in- 10. Posts, telegraph and telephones, 39. Census and statistics. cluding wireless installations. 40. AU-Iudia services. duties, income- to any provinci 11. Customs, cotton excise 41. Legislation in regard all-India revenues. in Pi tax, salt, and other sources of subject in so far as such subject is stated to be subject 12. Currency and coinage. II of this Schedule and a Indian legislature, eais at on by the 13. Public debt of India. nmvors relating to such subject reserved Savings Banks. Governor-General in Coun_ 14. fogW^n to the 15 The Indian Audit Department and ex- cluded Audit Departments as defined in rules V Territorial changes, other provincial, and than rot declaration of law in connect Act. framed under section 90-D (1) of the therewith. law, lucluding laws regard irg ord< 16. Civil and liabilities, 43 Regulation of ceremonial, titles, status, property, civil rights precedence, and civil uniform. f and civil procedure. acquired by Commerce, including banking and 44. Immovable property 17. at the cost of, the Governor-Gen insurance. maintained assocla In Council. 18. Trading companies and other 45. The Public Service Commission. tions. 73 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA. His Earl of Willingdon, E., g.m.s.t. PERSONAL STAFF OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. Private Secretary.—^. C.M.G. C. Mieville, cs.l. v^ v.D Ut "?^ 0nel ( The Bengal ^ ^ ny Co1 -) A Duncan, - Nagpur Rly. Battalion (A.F I )• - Asst. Private Secretary. — C. B. Duke, i.c.S. Lt.-Col. (Hony.G. L. Commandant, 2nd Battalion, M. Col.) Peters, VD & S M Rlv Military Secretary. — Colonel A. H. H. Muir Railway Rifles (A.F.I.). ' * y ' ).B.E., 2/llth Sikh Regiment. Honorary Indian Aides-de- Camp. —Lieut.- Colonel Thakur Amar Singh, Personal Assistant. — W. H. P. de la Hey Commandant, ' S 0l0nel Snamb haji Rao Bhonsle 5™? ^ l.B.E. * 1 O.B.E., Adjutant- General, Gwalior Army Briga- • dier Rahmatulla Khan, Thakur, Surgeon.— Lieut.-Colonel W. Ross Stewart, General Staff I.B., C.H.B., F.R.CS. (Edin.), I. M.S. Officer, Jammu and Kashmir State Forces- Lieut.-Colonel Mirza Kadar Beg, Sardar Bahadur Assistant to Surgeon. .M.D. — J. A. Rogers, M.R.C.S., r Commanding 1st Hyderabad Imperial Service Sardar-Major (Hony. Captain) Mit Jwf V Singh Sardar Bahadur, i.o.M., late 53rd Sikhs- Comptroller of the Household. —Major J. Risaldar-Major Karam Singh, Bahadur, i.d s m Britain Jones, The Black Watch (Royal ate 15th (D.C 0 .) Lancers Risaldar- Major ; lighlanders). n Ca P tam ) Mohi-ud-din Khan, Sardar ( l' ^Z — Aides-de-Camp. Captain J. K. Beattie, Bahadur, c.i.E., i.d.s.m., loyal Artillery; Captain R. G. Daubenv, i.p.; Lancers Subedar-Major (Hony. Captain) Dalpat ; late 31st (D C O ) 'light Lt. Singh, Sardar Bahadur, i.o.M., late 9th Jat J. C. E. A. Johnson; Captain r. B. Still, 5 /12th Frontier Force Regiment; Regiment; Subedar-Major (Hony. Captain) 'aptain R. B. Freeman-Thomas, King's Own Gulab Shah, Sardar Bahadur, 3/10th Baluch r orkshire Light Infantry. Regiment; Risaldar- Major (Hony. Captain) Jaffar Hussam, H. E. the Indian Sony. Aides-de- Camp. — Risaldar-M a j o r Governor-General's Lieut.) Mehtab Singh, Governor- Sheikh Jaizuddm i.d.s.m., 9th Royal Deccan general's Body Guard Risaldar Major (Hony. Horse Subedar Major (Hony. Capt.) ; aptain), Muhammad Zaman Probyn's Horse. Smgh, Sardar Bahadur, ; Bhikham m.c, i.d.s.m. Honorary — Aides-de-Camp. Lieut.-Colonel Honorary Surg eons. —Col. H. C. Winckworth Sony. Colonel) L. B. Grant, t.d., The Simla R.a.m.c; Col. W. T. McCowen, mb c s i m • s Rifles (A.F.I.) ; Captain A. G. Maundrell, R.i.m., Colonel D. Ahem, D s.o., late r.a.m.c ;" Colonel ieut.-Colonel (Hony. Colonel) F. C. Temple, E. W. C. Bradfield, c.i.e., o.b.e m b m s .I.E., v.D., The Chota Nagpur Regiment f.r.cs., i.m.s. Colonel A. H. Proctor ; Vso l.F.I.) ; Lt.-Col. (Hony. Colonel) W. H. m.d f.r.cs. e., i.m.s. Colonel J. P. Cameron,' ; tioobert, The Nagpur Regiment' (A.F.I)- cs.i c.i.e., e.r.cs., i.m.s.; Major W. L ieut.-Colonel (Hony. Colonel) D. R,. C. Hartley' L. iretz, M.B., r.a.m.c; Colonel G. A D* .S.o., The (Bombay) Field Artillery Harvey, C.M.G., late r.a.m.c Lt -Col A (A.F.I.) • G Tf' ; ieut.-Colonel (Hony. Col.) R. S. Weir, v.D., Russell, c.B.E., m.d., i.m.s; Lt -Col ommanding, A H* The Allahabad Contingent. Dick, O.B.E., M.B., Ch.B. (Edin.), F.R.C.S., IMS* ieut.-Colonel (Hony. Colonel) A. M. Robert- Honorary Assistant Surgeons.— G a n » a >n, m.c, v.D., Commanding 1st Battalion Prasad Rawat (United engal Nagpur Railway Regiment (A.F.I.) R. By. Rao Bahadur A. • Provinces)- M ieut.-Colonel (Hony. Colonel) W. T. C. Huffam^ Mudahyar Lakshamanswami Avergal, b.a., m.d. (Madras™ b.e., m.c, V.D., Commanding, The Bombay M D. R. David, m.b., cm. (Mad) fbtV attalion (A.F.I.) ; Lieut.-Colonel (Hony. Edin.), (Burma); Rai Bahadur t)r. Mathra )lonel) A. B. Beddow, v.D., Commanding, (Punjab) Dr. Da? Dabiruddin Ahmad ; o bp irma Valley Light Horse; Lieut.-Colonel (Bengal) G. R. Goverdhan, lony. Colonel) T. Lamb, v.D., The Bengal Provinces); Khan ; i, m. Bahadur i>. J. Asana ffftiS 'tillery (A.F.I.) Lieut.-Colonel (Hony. Colo- & s., F.G.P.S., (Bombay), m .! ; 1). E. K. Glazebrook, The Rangoon Major J. M. x-weira, Pereira' Battalion I. M. d. (B. tfnder Secretary, P. Mason, I.C.S. and Joint Secretary, Secretary, Political, The Hon'ble Sir Bertrad Assistant Secretary W. B. Gardner, Glancy, k.cs.i., c.i.e. Indian Soldiers' Board, J. Secretary, Foreign, H. A. F. Metcalfe, C.S| Personal Assistant to Secretary, Rai Bahadur C. I.E., M.V.O. Joint Secretary, R. E. L. Win-ate. C.I.E. Se^W^Principal Supply Officers' Committee C.I.M LO A.c Deputy Secretary. Foreign, O. K. a roe, ( (India).— Captain T. I. Bate, Superintendents, Rai Bahadur 8. S. Ghosh, (on Deputy Secretary,. Political. Major C. (J. Prld /rave) A. P. West, (on leave) R. W. Simpson, Additional Deputy Secretary, V. Xarahari Raj Mukherjee. M J. A. Staggs, (otfg.), P. N. M.A. Under Secretary, H. Trevelyan, i.c.s. I (Offg.) Assistant Secretary. A. F. Emmer. I.S.4 Military Finance Branch. (On leave), Rai BahadJ It. A. K. Hill, Financial Adviser, A. Maeleod, CLE I.c.s. <:e , S. C. Biswas (Olf-.:.). C. lironun; JJrpMfV Financial Adeisrx, .1. Militant \dvker-in-Chicf, Indian Slates ForW m.b!e., A. H. Wilson, b.a., P. E. Barker, J. B. Hope. Brigadier H. Campbell, C.B., D.S.o., M.V.O. V. Natesan, M.A., (Junior), . l The Government of India. .-' 75 >tvjj Officer to the Military Adviser-in-Chief, ' I Deputy Director Traffic 7r*.„*>*» \ ( 2ra ™Portation), Jn.l.an States Forces, Major H. C. James, m.c. Sahib Z H Khan Khan at^ ^ | ' Superintendents, E. Leicester, i.s.o. (on leave) Rai Bahadur Ramji l)as Dhamejah, k.p., (on !5 ' (Fimnce) K ^ Bahadur &Z > deputation) Dewar (on deputation), Rai Sahib Ve A. K. Kaul, Rao Sahib B. 11. Subramaniam, t0r> Mech Engineering, T. G. G. A. Heron I. S. Gonsalves, M. O. Dover, Supervisor of Railway (on leave) Sardar Sahib Sundar Singh Chhabra, A.J. Courtney, (on deputation), (olfg.), S. N Labour, K. Assistant Secretary, H. Hassan M Chatterjee, M.A., (offg.) J. M. Mathews, (olfg W. C. C Smith ), Timber Advisory Officer, T. A. Coates, (offg.), U. N. Biswas, m.a., C. W. Scott, i p s ' Officer on Special Duty, ' Mfg.), A. N. B. Nisar, m.a., (olfg.), and L M. E. Bartley ' H. Spinks, (olfg.). ChW Controller of Standards, J. M. D. Wrench, Department of Commerce. Deputy Chief Controller of Standards, ecretary, The Hon'ble T. A. Stewart, i.c.s. Assistant Chief Controller L Swain H of Standard^ [ S.' oint Secretary, H. Dow, CLE., I.C.S. deputy Secretary, H. Chief Mechanical Draftsman, S. Malik, i.c.s. T T Tamho Chief Struc. Draftsman J. ecretaryIndian Accountancy Tannan, i.e.s., Bar-at-Law. Bd., M L Superintendents, J. s v. S. Edwards s P nn«,% n /m ™ Secretary, Rai Sahib Ladli Pershad B.A. (on leave), Rai Sahib A. JNT Puri B.A., LL.B. (Olfg.). ssistant Secretary, G. Corley Smith, Assistant-in-charge, M.b.e. Diwanchand E™J ineer l Lighthouse Department > and Chief Inspector of Lighthouses in British Legislative Department India, J. Oswald, M. inst. c.e. Laneel0t Graham autical Advisers to the Government of India *BrSLa^. K.OxV,i;o.«,, - Capt. E. V. Whish, o.b.e., r.i.m., (Retd.). Uef Surveyor with the Government of India Engr. Capt. J. S. Page, r.i.m. feretory, G. H. Spence, c.l.E i c s igineer, Lighthouse Department and Inspector WJtyhthouseS in British India, A. N. Seal, Assistant Secretary, A. W. Chick iuary to the Government of India, N. Superintendents, L. E. James, Mukerii '