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Flight Standards Service


The Aviation Instructor’s Handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation main-
tenance instructors. It is developed by the Flight Standards Service, Airman Testing Standards Branch in
cooperation with aviation educators and industry. This handbook provides the foundation for beginning
instructors to understand and apply the fundamentals of instructing. This handbook also provides aviation
instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to the task
of conveying aeronautical knowledge and skills to students. Experienced aviation instructors also may find the
new and updated information useful for improving their effectiveness in training activities.

Chapters 1 through 5 concentrate on learning theory and the teaching process, emphasizing the characteristics
of human behavior and the importance of communication. Chapters 6 and 7 provide valuable tools for cri-
tiquing and evaluating student performance and enhancing instructional presentations with teaching aids and
new training technologies. Chapter 8 defines instructor responsibilities and emphasizes ways that instructors
can develop and portray a professional image to their students. Chapter 9 contains useful information that can
be applied when teaching in the aircraft, and also provides comprehensive treatment for teaching aeronautical
decision making (ADM) and judgment. Chapters 10 and 11 provide valuable information for planning instruc-
tional activity and continuing professional development. Occasionally, the word “must” or similar language
is used where the desired action is deemed critical. The use of such language is not intended to add to, inter-
pret, or relieve a duty imposed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).

This handbook supersedes AC 60-14, Aviation Instructor’s Handbook, dated 1977; AC 61-101, Presolo Written
Test, dated 1989; and AC 61-115, Positive Exchange of Flight Controls, dated 1995. It can be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9325, or from
U.S. Government Bookstores located in major cities throughout the United States.

The current Flight Standards Service airman training and testing material and subject matter knowledge codes for
all instructor certificates and ratings can be obtained from the Regulatory Support Division, AFS-600, home page
on the Internet.

The Regulatory Support Division’s Internet address is:

Comments regarding this handbook should be sent to U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation
Administration, Airman Testing Standards Branch, AFS-630, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125.

AC 00-2, Advisory Circular Checklist, transmits the current status of FAA advisory circulars and other flight infor-
mation and publications. This checklist is free of charge and may be obtained by sending a request to U.S. Department
of Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Office, SVC-121.23, Ardmore East Business Center, 3341 Q 75th Avenue,
Landover, MD 20785. The checklist is also available on the Internet at



Chapter 1—The Learning Process Repression........................................................1-15
Learning Theory .......................................................1-1 Retention of Learning..........................................1-15
Behaviorism...........................................................1-1 Praise Stimulates Remembering......................1-15
Cognitive Theory...................................................1-1 Recall is Promoted by Association..................1-15
Combined Approach..............................................1-2 Favorable Attitudes Aid Retention ..................1-15
Definition of Learning..............................................1-2 Learning with All Our Senses is Most Effective...1-15
Characteristics of Learning ......................................1-2 Meaningful Repetition Aids Recall .................1-15
Learning is Purposeful ..........................................1-2 Transfer of Learning...............................................1-16
Learning is a Result of Experience .......................1-3 Habit Formation ..................................................1-16
Learning is Multifaceted .......................................1-3
Learning is an Active Process ...............................1-3 Chapter 2—Human Behavior
Learning Styles......................................................1-3
Principles of Learning ..............................................1-5 Control of Human Behavior.....................................2-1
Readiness...............................................................1-5 Human Needs ...........................................................2-2
Exercise .................................................................1-5 Physical..................................................................2-2
Effect .....................................................................1-5 Safety.....................................................................2-2
Primacy..................................................................1-5 Social .....................................................................2-2
Intensity .................................................................1-5 Ego.........................................................................2-2
Recency .................................................................1-5 Self-Fulfillment .....................................................2-3
How People Learn.................................................1-5 Defense Mechanisms................................................2-3
Perceptions ............................................................1-6 Compensation ........................................................2-3
Factors Which Affect Perception.......................1-6 Projection...............................................................2-3
Physical Organism .............................................1-6 Rationalization.......................................................2-3
Basic Need.........................................................1-6 Denial of Reality ...................................................2-3
Goals and Values ...............................................1-6 Reaction Formation ...............................................2-3
Self Concept ......................................................1-6 Flight......................................................................2-3
Time and Opportunity .......................................1-7 Aggression.............................................................2-4
Element of Threat ..............................................1-7 Resignation ............................................................2-4
Insight ................................................................1-7 The Flight Instructor as a Practical Psychologist ............2-4
Motivation..........................................................1-8 Anxiety ..................................................................2-4
Levels of Learning....................................................1-9 Normal Reactions to Stress ...................................2-5
Domains of Learning...........................................1-10 Abnormal Reactions to Stress ...............................2-5
Cognitive Domain............................................1-10 Flight Instructor Actions Regarding Seriously
Affective Domain ............................................1-10 Abnormal Students ............................................2-5
Psychomotor Domain ......................................1-10
Practical Application of Learning Objectives .....1-11 Chapter 3—Effective Communication
Learning Physical Skills .........................................1-11
Physical Skills Involve More Than Muscles.......1-12 Basic Elements .........................................................3-1
Desire to Learn ................................................1-12 Source ....................................................................3-1
Patterns to Follow............................................1-12 Symbols .................................................................3-2
Perform the Skill..............................................1-12 Receiver.................................................................3-2
Knowledge of Results......................................1-12 Barriers to Effective Communication.......................3-3
Progress Follows a Pattern ..............................1-12 Lack of Common Experience................................3-3
Duration and Organization of Lesson .............1-13 Confusion Between the Symbol and the
Evaluation Versus Critique ..............................1-13 Symbolized Object ............................................3-4
Application of Skill .........................................1-13 Overuse of Abstractions ........................................3-4
Memory ..................................................................1-13 Interference............................................................3-5
Sensory Register..................................................1-13 Developing Communication Skills ..........................3-5
Working or Short-Term Memory ........................1-13 Role Playing ..........................................................3-5
Long-Term Memory ............................................1-14 Instructional Communication ................................3-5
Theories of Forgetting .........................................1-15 Listening ............................................................3-6
Disuse ..............................................................1-15 Questioning........................................................3-7
Interference ......................................................1-15 Instructional Enhancement ...................................3-7


..........................................................................5-7 Stems ......6-3 Conclusion......6-9 Group Success ...................5-2 Constructive...............................5-2 Specific ..........................6-2 Attention ........................6-13 Introduction .5-6 Written Tests..................5-2 Organized.........4-3 Evaluation Phase ............................................................5-7 Multiple-Choice ..................6-3 Types of Delivery ...................5-6 List Indicators/Samples of Desired Behavior.......5-7 Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items ................................................................6-6 All Students in the Group Must Buy Into the Characteristics of a Good Test..................................................4-3 Chapter 6—Critique and Evaluation Review and Evaluation........5-10 Description of the Skill or Behavior ......................................4-1 Explanation Phase ......................................................................................................6-7 Positive Interdependence................................................................................5-3 Individual Student Critique by Preparing the Teaching Lecture...5-4 Written Critique ....................5-7 Guided Discussion Method ..........................5-6 Types of Questions to Avoid .......................................4-3 Computer-Based Training Method .....................5-9 Principles to Follow.....5-1 Characteristics of an Effective Critique ......................................................................6-3 Lecture Method ..6-8 Positive Social Interaction Behaviors and Written Test Items .........................5-7 Supply Type ..........6-12 Guiding a Discussion—Instructor Technique ...........................5-5 Oral Quizzes ........5-9 Performance Tests ....................................................6-6 Targeted Objectives.......................................................................6-8 Access to Must-Learn Information..............5-5 Evaluation................................................................................................................6-2 Past to Present ...........................................................6-1 Organizing Material ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-2 Supervision Phases....................................................................4-4 The Instructor as a Critic......................5-10 Application ..............................6-2 Development ......5-6 Test Development.............................6-12 Student Preparation for a Guided Discussion..............................6-5 Clear.............................................................................5-2 Comprehensive ....................................................................................................................6-3 Simple to Complex...................................................................................................................................................................................6-9 Individual Accountability ...6-2 Motivation ........5-6 Determine Level-of-Learning Objectives.............6-4 Cooperative or Group Learning Method.....................................5-10 Conditions......................................5-6 Characteristics of Effective Questions .............6-5 Heterogeneous Groups ......................5-10 Presentation ..............5-9 Presolo Knowledge Tests.....................................................................................6-4 Formal Versus Informal Lectures...5-10 Performance-Based Objectives ...................................................5-3 Instructor/Student Critique .....5-7 Selection Type .......6-3 Known to Unknown ..........................4-2 Student Performance and Instructor Criteria ....6-1 Chapter 5—Teaching Methods Purpose of a Critique..................................................................................................................6-2 Introduction ....6-10 Debrief on Group Efforts ........6-3 Teaching Lecture ..............................................................5-6 Answering Questions from Students ....................Chapter 4—The Teaching Process Conclusion ...........6-13 Discussion ......................................................................6-4 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture .5-9 Preparation....................... Complete Directions and Instructions.6-12 Planning a Guided Discussion .........................6-14 vi ...............6-8 Opportunity for Success ..........................................6-3 Frequently Used .....................................5-7 Establish Criterion Objectives ...............6-5 Conditions and Controls..................................................................................................................................................................................................................5-7 Alternatives ...5-2 Thoughtful .5-3 Another Student ................................................................5-2 Objective...5-2 Flexible .........6-3 Most Frequently Used to Least Methods of Critique ........................................................................................................................5-3 Small Group Critique ..............6-3 Suitable Language .......................................................5-9 Developing a Test Item Bank .............................................5-5 Ground Rules for Critiquing .............................................................5-3 Student-Led Critique ..........................5-4 Self-Critique ..............................................................................6-4 Use of Notes ....................................................................................................................4-1 Demonstration-Performance Method ....................5-10 Other Uses of Performance-Based Objectives.............5-8 Matching ........................6-11 Use of Questions in a Guided Discussion ......................................6-2 Overview .................6-8 Sufficient Time for Learning ...................................................................................................................5-2 Acceptable .....................4-2 Demonstration Phase...........................................6-9 Recognition and Rewards for True-False ...........................................................................................6-9 Attitudes .................................................................................................

..............................................................................9-1 How to Use a Lesson Plan Properly ............9-6 Video..............................10-7 Student Tells–Student Does....................................... Mock-Ups.......................................................................................................9-16 Flight Reviews.......................9-1 Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson......9-11 Emphasizing the Positive ..............................9-10 Aviation Instructor Responsibilities .............................9-11 Standards of Performance ......7-2 Precautions ....................7-9 Use of Distractions ................................................................9-4 Reasons for Use of Instructional Aids..10-5 The Telling-and-Doing Technique...........................................................................................7-4 Impatience ...............................................................9-5 Enhanced Training Material .....9-4 Training Technologies Operating Efficiency ..............8-6 External Resources ..........10-4 Lesson Plans ....7-7 Background........................................7-2 Flight Instructor Qualifications .9-17 Professionalism.......................10-1 Proper Language..............................9-8 Origins of ADM Training........................8-6 Use of Resources.................................................................8-10 Evaluating Student Decision Making................ Illness.............9-5 Supplemental Print Material.....................................10-5 Chapter 9—Techniques of Flight Instruction Purpose of the Lesson Plan ............................................9-3 Chapter 11—Professional Development Integrated Flight Instruction......................................10-3 Minimizing Student Frustrations...............................8-12 Syllabus Format and Content ......................................10-6 Instructor Tells–Instructor Does ........................................10-1 Safety Practices and Accident Prevention.........................................................9-9 Chapter 8—Instructor Responsibilities and The Decision-Making Process ......................7-9 Procedures ........9-7 Test Preparation Material ..................9-6 Passive Video.......................9-13 Evaluation of Student Piloting Ability .8-1 Implementing the Decision and Providing Adequate Instruction.........................................10-3 Additional Responsibilities .....................................9-18 Acceptance of the Student................................................................................................................................................................................9-7 Interactive Video.......................................8-10 Operational Pitfalls.....9-7 Models...................................................7-9 Aeronautical Decision Making.............................................................8-13 How to Use a Training Syllabus.........9-5 Chalk or Marker Board ....................................7-3 Unfair Treatment ......................8-5 Recognizing Hazardous Attitudes ....................................................................8-6 Workload Management ...................................9-4 Guidelines for Use of Instructional Aids...........7-6 Apathy Due to Inadequate Instruction ...................................................................................9-2 Student Does–Instructor Evaluates ...............8-11 Objectives and Standards ................................9-7 Computer-Based Multimedia......................................11-1 Development of Habit Patterns ..................................8-11 Course of Training.....7-6 Anxiety .......................................................................11-1 vii .8-12 Blocks of Learning ...........................................8-11 Personal Appearance and Habits ......9-5 Projected Material ...............................9-13 Pilot Supervision ........9-14 Flight Instructor Endorsements ....................................................................................................................9-3 The Instructor as a Safety Advocate......................................................................................9-11 Helping Students Learn...............................................................................................................................................9-2 Lesson Plan Formats .......8-3 Risk Management.......................9-15 FAA Form 8710-1...................................................................................................................8-5 Stress Management.................9-17 Aircraft Checkouts/Transitions........................................10-2 Self-Improvement.. and Fatigue.....8-4 Pilot Self-Assessment.................................. and Cut-Aways ..........7-1 Procedures .....................................................9-13 Practical Test Recommendations.......9-4 Instructional Aid Theory ...8-2 Evaluating the Outcome......................................9-12 Flight Instructor Responsibilities ...................................................................................................7-5 Worry or Lack of Interest .9-15 Additional Training and Endorsements.8-1 Choosing a Course of Action.................................7-3 Obstacles to Learning During Flight Instruction ..................Chapter 7—Instructional Aids and Accuracy of Flight Control ...............8-9 Obstacles to Maintaining Situational Pilot Proficiency .8-4 Factors Affecting Decision Making .........................................................................................................................9-17 Sincerity.......................................................................................................8-6 Internal Resources ...................................9-10 Professionalism Defining the Problem ........8-3 Assessing Risk....8-9 Situational Awareness.........9-8 Future Developments.................................................7-5 Physical Discomfort........9-16 Instrument Proficiency Checks.................................7-7 Positive Exchange of Flight Controls ..8-9 Awareness ........................................................................................................................10-6 Student Tells–Instructor Does .....8-12 Training Syllabus.......................................................................9-3 Growth and Development.....................9-5 Types of Instructional Aids ........8-11 Chapter 10—Planning Instructional Activity Demeanor...............................................

................................................11-3 Sources of Material........................................R-1 Industry Organizations.............................................11-2 Appendix B—Instructor Endorsements ........11-2 Commercial Organizations .......................11-2 Government ...............................................................................11-3 Glossary .........I-1 viii .................................... Aviation Safety Counselors .............11-4 Index..........11-1 Appendix A—Sample Test Items...........................................................11-4 Electronic Sources ...................................................................................A-1 Continuing Education .........B-1 Educational/Training Institutions.........................................11-3 References......................................................G-1 Printed Material .............................................

most do stands. learning Much of the recent psychological thinking and experi- principles. Even though psychologists ior. and depth of COGNITIVE THEORY training also apply. knowledge. derived from theories. to shape or aviation maintenance technicians (AMTs) need to control what is learned. many theories have attempted to student’s mind. and importance of having a particular form of behavior rein- adults can learn to solve complex problems. with stimuli. or feels. the behaviorist theory emphasizes positive rein- guide to educational psychology. This handbook is designed as a basic general. Learning BEHAVIORISM also may involve a change in attitude or behavior. mentation in education includes some facets of the ation instructors and developers of instructional pro. Instructors who LEARNING THEORY need more details should refer to psychology texts for Learning theory may be described as a body of princi. advanced training programs. learning process. objectives of the training. positive rein- including the ability to exercise judgment and solve forcement and rewards accelerate learning. Learning is not just a change in behav- explain how people learn. Behaviorism stresses the teenagers may learn to improve study habits. other than the student. Behaviorists believe that animals. tor provides the reinforcement. can be useful to avi. Children learn to identify objects at an early age. induce the desired behavior or response. ples advocated by psychologists and educators to it is important to keep in mind that behaviorism is still explain how people acquire skills. Various branches of learning theory are used in riences helps direct students toward specific learning formal training programs to improve and accelerate the outcomes. the instruc- acquire the higher levels of knowledge and skill. This is true in basic as well as more grams for both pilots and maintenance technicians. Two tive theories. cognitive theory. to be able to apply that knowledge to the learning and reinforce the behavior with appropriate rewards. widely used today. Pilots and forced by someone. and atti. In aviation training. and more important. including humans.To learn is to acquire knowledge or skill. There are several branches of cognitive theory. Key concepts such as desired learn- ing outcomes. learn in about the same way. This chapter forcement rather than no reinforcement or punishment. As an instructor. under- and educators are not in complete agreement. a better understanding of behaviorism. Unlike behaviorism. Other features of behaviorism are considerably more complex than this simple explanation. agree that learning may be explained by a combination of two basic approaches—behaviorism and the cogni. the cognitive theory focuses on what is going on inside the Over the years. because controlling learning expe- tudes. it is a change in the way a student thinks. Frequent. In environment. The challenge for the aviation instructor is provides the instructor with ways to manipulate students to understand how people learn. ly. addresses that branch of psychology directly con- cerned with how people learn. This theory problems. of the major theories may broadly be classified as the 1-1 . When properly integrated.

human characteristics. The combined approach is not simple. To define learning. learning the procedures. think. Each student is a unique individual whose past experiences affect readiness to learn and under- COMBINED APPROACH standing of the requirements involved. some means of LEARNING IS PURPOSEFUL measuring student knowledge. they both acknowledge the importance of reinforcing behavior and measuring changes. For example. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING Aviation instructors need a good understanding of the The social interaction theories gained prominence in general characteristics of learning in order to apply them the 1980s. lectual or attitudinal changes which affect behavior in This involves a number of cognitive processes. This provides a way competently present the assigned material. They stress that learning and subsequent in a learning situation. On the 1-2 . Learning occurs continuously throughout a person’s lifetime. Effective learning shares several common char- often limited to the kinds of knowledge or behavior acteristics. the assignment of learning certain inspection proce- manage. be purposeful. and the student cog. and may result in only minimum preparation. Evaluation is Figure 1-1. learning can be defined as internal structures which select and process incoming a change in behavior as a result of experience. The first says that the student’s brain has learning experience. Techniques for learning include direct modeling and verbal instruc- tion. Behavior. the learning situation also should demonstrates or models behaviors. The responses DEFINITION OF LEARNING differ because each student acts in accordance with what The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding he or she sees in the situation. Positive reinforcement is important. it is Most people have fairly definite ideas about what they necessary to analyze what happens to the individual. multifaceted. The need to evaluate and measure behavior remains because it is the only way to get a clue about what the student understands. an individual’s and television are some of the significant factors. and receive and process feedback on the results. viewpoint. Their goals sometimes are For example. based on experience. an Both the behavioristic and the cognitive approaches are instructor may give two aviation maintenance students useful learning theories. Although psychologists agree that there often are errors in evaluation. personal factors. and motivation. and producing internal and external responses. involving a matter of days or weeks. encoding and chunking information. A reasonable way to plan. but enable that student to realize the need and value of neither is learning. and film complex because. want to do and achieve. more subtle ways. an individual’s way of perceiving. A second student’s goal may only be to comply with the instructor’s assignment. background strongly influences the way that person the social environment to which the student is exposed learns. among other things. planning and monitoring performance. involve an active process. The combi- to measure behavioral outcomes and promote cognitive nation of an aviation background and future goals may learning. retention. particu- larly with cognitive concepts such as knowledge and understanding. then instruction must between the student and the environment. If learning is a change in behav- changes in behavior take place as a result of interaction ior as a result of experience. psychologists generally agree on expectancies. [Figure 1-1] quences. short term. In spite of numerous theories and including executive functions of recognizing contrasting views. This can material.information processing model and the social interac. and Each student sees a learning situation from a different behavior is necessary. Cultural riences that promote learning. motor responses. This process can be quite influences. ing. For example. The cognitive processes include attention. group dynamics. and conduct aviation training is to include the dures. To be effective. Thus. and nitively processes the observed behaviors and conse. performance. peer pressure. and doing may change as a result of a tion model. that can be measured by a paper-and-pencil exam or a performance test. feeling. be physical and overt. Both models of the cognitive theory have common principles. Thus. store and retrieve it. One student may learn quickly and be able to best features of each major theory. many common characteristics of learning. use it to produce behav. or it may involve complex intel- ior. and environmental events all work together to produce learning. Behavior is include a careful and systematic creation of those expe- modeled either by people or symbolically.

The student can learn only ing to apply the scientific method of problem solving from personal experiences. Each student has specific inten. self-reliance. This type of ed drill. determine what they learn as much as what the instruc- tor is trying to get them to learn. but it flight by rote. To be effective. problem cance. memory of past experiences. they can make them meaning. learning the subject at hand. there are distinctions between the two. them correctly to real situations. Under a skillful instructor. the student’s goals are of paramount signifi. Since learning is an individual process. Even when observing dent approaches the task with preconceived ideas and the same event. and appropriate. If an experience chal- lenges the students. Some may be shared by other students. requires involvement with feelings. and for many students. solving elements all taking place at once. Aviation instructors are faced with the other things as well. and problem some things and to ignore others. emotionally. outwardly. the instructor they are somewhat artificial. experience. intellectual skills. Mental habits are also ior. But if learning is a process of changing behav- by actually performing that task. cognitive strategies. therefore. They may be developing attitudes problem of providing learning experiences that are about aviation—good or bad—depending on what they meaningful. As an example. but learning takes place in different forms and in varying degrees of richness and depth. perhaps ences include flying them. personality. shop. two people react differently. For Student pilots learn to fly aircraft only if their experi. solving realistic problems. a class learn- cannot do it for the student. according to the manner in result of experience. they learn feelings. For example. emotional elements. they need to react and respond. such as verbal. clearly that process must be an active one. learned through practice. some experiences involve the Learning is multifaceted in still another way. perhaps only inwardly. Other classifications refer to ways to relate new learning to the student’s goals. students may be learning ing and memory. learning. conceptual. student aviation mainte. Therefore. Each stu- have had identical experiences. This aspect of learning will become more evident later in this hand- book when lesson planning is discussed. along with descriptive terms like surface or LEARNING IS A RESULT OF EXPERIENCE deep learning. dents remember something just because they were in thing to memory. While whole person while others may be based only on hear. aviation instructors need to find solving. may include verbal elements. and no two people ing and sensory perception at the same time. conceptual elements. However. and attitudinal changes. For example. All learning is by experience. motor. varied. the class also engages in verbal learn- knowledge is a result of experience. For instance. students to learn. or they can learn to recite certain principles of learning is sometimes referred to as incidental. these ideas change as a different things from it. The fact that these items were not included in Students learn from any activity that tends to further the instructor’s plan does not prevent them from influenc- their goals. because they can quote the correct answer verbatim. the classroom. a student’s information students’ memory and muscles. Students may learn career or a lifetime. much more than expected if they fully exercise their minds tions and goals. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS thoughts. they are underestimating processing technique. and emotional. social interaction 1-3 . A person’s But in doing so. they may learn students can learn to say a list of words through repeat. and physical Students do not soak up knowledge like a sponge activity. In the process of Psychologists sometimes classify learning by types.other hand. The list is seemingly endless. The instructor cannot assume that stu- in which all the students have to do is commit some. may have a great impact on the total development of ful only if they understand them well enough to apply the student. the learning process which the situation affects their individual needs. Neither can the instructor It seems clear enough that the learning of a physical assume that the students can apply what they know skill requires actual experience in performing that skill. knowledge cannot exist apart from a person. or airplane when the instructor presented the material. Their individual needs and attitudes may ing the learning situation. and feelings. learning and may learn the method by trying to solve real problems. Learning style is a concept that can play an important role in improving instruction and student success. It is LEARNING IS MULTIFACETED concerned with student preferences and orientation at If instructors see their objective as being only to train their several levels. However useful these divisions may be. If students are to use sound judgment and develop decision-making skills. their goals may be carefully planned for a the potential of the teaching situation. or intel- nance technicians learn to overhaul powerplants only lectually. perceptual. they LEARNING STYLES need learning experiences that involve knowledge of Although characteristics of learning and learning styles general principles and require the use of judgment in are related. per- Previous experience conditions a person to respond to ceptual elements. it is more effective than a learning experience absorbs water.

Dependent students require a lot of guidance. the student’s picture is developed slowly. other advisory services. as required. decisions. silent students usually are char- through reading and graphic displays. and previous training affect learning style. and sentations. The key point is that all students are different. These students tend Some students are fast learners and others have diffi. Testing practices which demand comprehen. university. while others may prefer a verbal explanation recognized. Instructors who can recognize student learning style dif- Two additional information processing classifications ferences and associated problems will be much more describe deep-elaborative and the shallow-reiterative effective than those who do not understand this concept. learn. For example. This is some. personality also affects how students training programs should be sensitive to the differences. and comfortable with the academic environ- dents process information. separate hemispheres of the brain do not function inde- pendently. and other dis- dents have more success if they hear the subject matter concerting behaviorisms. and independent students tend to be older. Theories abound concerning right. learners. they dive right in with • Reflective/impulsive enthusiasm and are prone to make quick. However. dents require only a minimum amount of guidance and ence. For example. In real life. The term dominance is probably mislead. analytical. visual students learn readily bragging. Participant students normally have a desire to learn and enjoy attending Information processing theories contain several other class. to focus on the instructor. The existing learning environment also influences al perspective. secure. In addition. with the face. obviously priate lesson plans and provide guidance. In addition. and objective. As an example. and are frequently involved in joking. They tend to be uncertain in • Holistic/serialist problem-solving exercises. direction. In con. Some generalizations about these classifications indi- ognize a face. specialization than others on standardized tests. Thus. Any external stimulation. especially through the use of analogies. showing off. Attention seekers have a strong social orientation references while others depend more on auditory pre. Among these are collaborative. and auditory stu. the right hemisphere may rec. those with right-brain dominance are cations of student learning styles. In contrast. The more independent stu- culties. the serialist student focuses more narrowly and provided by a school. and external stimulation. and. Also. ety. these instructors will be prepared to develop appro- sion. holistic/serialist theory. acterized by helplessness. the holist strategy is a top- down concept where students have a big picture. Detailed information on testing procedures. today’s culturally diverse soci. often have depressed feelings about the future. and logically. as well as curriculum design and instructor techniques. intu- other information on learning styles. and avoidant students do not take part in class useful classifications. and emotional. vulnerability. thoroughly. as already mentioned. intelligent. Those with left-brain dominance tions are derived from research on tendencies of under- are more verbal. creative. These students seek overall comprehen. 1-4 . these classifica- itive. In general. The opposite applies to • Dependent/independent impulsive students. experi. dents learn.tendencies. and the instructional methods used are all ing style. This is a bottom-up strategy. Like most of the characterized as being spatially oriented. is included later in this handbook. and anxious-dependent students usually score lower ing when applied to brain hemipheres. described. counseling. Some common examples include: Students with a reflective-type personality may be • Right/left brain described as tentative. and competi- are involved. and As indicated. styles. sharing of the same idea. glob. Typically. must do better than their peers.or left-brain domi- The social interaction concept contains further classifi- nance. students also learn by feel. Learning style differences certainly depend on how stu. including international students. must be consid- ered. tive students who are grade conscious and feel they times called kinesthetic learning. sequential steps where the overall educational/training establishment. where hands-on activities students who enjoy working with others. or encourage students to adopt a deep-elaborative learn. most students find it neces- sion. rather than a regurgitation of facts. Discouraged students would be a more appropriate word. while the left associates a name to go cate that compliant students are typically task oriented. and some- times faulty. Some rely heavily on visual ment. learning style. motivation. or other needs well-defined. in the activities and have little interest in learning. significant factors which apply to how individual stu. They are not overly concerned number of adjectives may be used to describe learning with how the lesson is presented. sary to adapt to a traditional style learning environment trast. the graduate students. learning style may or may not be compatible. Another difference is that some learn more easily when an idea is presented in a mathematical Other studies identify more categories that are easily equation.

For the instructor. the instructor can do little. or exciting learning experience if anything. for a student to recall a torque when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling. tion of the student. and this simplifies the instructor’s job. A stu- outside responsibilities. it should contain ele- ments that affect the students positively and give them Over the years.PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Whatever the learning situation. ing. If teaches more than a routine or boring experience. If students have a strong example. they make more progress than if recting bad habits and reteaching correct ones. Getting students ready to learn is usually the Unteaching is more difficult than teaching. and lay the foundation ready to learn. a shop period. Students do of instructional aids to improve realism. PRIMACY Primacy. often creates a strong. If. Experiences that produce feelings of week earlier. It states that learning is strengthened It is easy. for example. motivate not learn to weld during one shop period or to perform learning. or futility are recency when they carefully plan a summary for a unpleasant for the student. they do not learn well if they see no reason for learn. or flight crew duty can make the teaching task difficult. that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute. although difficult. evaluate. It is the basis of ing. educational psychologists have identi- a feeling of satisfaction. Today. INTENSITY Under certain circumstances. fied several principles which seem generally applicable to the learning process. Readiness implies a degree of student should be started right. or worries weigh too dent is likely to gain greater understanding of slow heavily on their minds. for example. The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered. the instructor will have a difficult task cor- learning something. with the difficulty of an aircraft maintenance problem. for all that is to follow. anger. Every time practice occurs. reading about them. The instructor repeats. The approaching reality as closely as possible. but it is usually and that learning is weakened when associated with an impossible to remember an unfamiliar one used a unpleasant feeling. value used a few minutes earlier. the state of being first. Usually it is better to tell stu. all learning comes from perceptions which are within their capability to understand or perform. or if their personal problems seem insoluble. Every they lack motivation. Instructional Aids and Training Technologies. the more difficult it is to remember. or reempha- dent is likely to feel inferior and be frustrated. confusion. classroom use. and a definite reason for technique. is Initially. Impressing students course of instruction. functional. to inspire in students a readiness to learn. In contrast to flight instruction and EXERCISE shop instruction. sizes important points at the end of a lesson to help the student remember them. make sure that this RECENCY process is directed toward a goal. impression. They learn by applying what they have been told and explores the wide range of teaching tools available for shown. interests. The instructor must provide opportunities for students to practice and. When students are should be positive. they meet the instructor at least halfway. Conversely. a maintenance student learns a faulty riveting purpose. the classroom imposes limitations on The principle of exercise states that those things most the amount of realism that can be brought into teach- often repeated are best remembered. The first experience single-mindedness and eagerness. dramatic. at the same time. the stu. or a postflight attempts to teach landings during the first flight. restates. for instructor’s responsibility. The aviation instructor should use imagination in drill and practice. directed to the brain by one or more of the five senses: 1-5 . a clear objective. the EFFECT further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact The principle of effect is based on the emotional reac. If. crosswind landings during one instructional flight. flight maneuver. flight and stalls by performing them rather than merely crowded. Instructors recognize the principle of defeat. and apply new con. Chapter 7. They provide additional insight into what makes people learn most effectively. The human memory is fallible. learning continues. mind can rarely retain. an instructor ground school lesson. READINESS almost unshakable. and challenge students. or understanding. this Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn. A vivid. classroom instruction can benefit from a wide variety cepts or practices after a single exposure. The principle of intensity implies students may have little interest in learning. if their schedules are over. it means that learning must be right. critique. frustration. The principle of recency often determines the sequence of lectures within a Instructors should be cautious. and means that what is taught must be right the first time. For the student. HOW PEOPLE LEARN dents that a problem or maneuver.

since this knowledge will assist in pre- and some are external. Just as the food one eats and the air one breathes become part of the physical self. must be able to see. PERCEPTIONS Perceiving involves more than the reception of stimuli Helping people learn requires finding ways to aid them from the five senses. even though the perceptions which evoke these meanings Goals and Values result from external stimuli. Spectators at a ball because perceptions are the basis of all learning. Psychologically. it is nec- essary to work with this life force. hearing. All perceptions are affected by this need. experience and sensation which is funneled into one’s Knowledge of the factors which affect the perceptual central nervous system is colored by the individual’s process is very important to the aviation instructor own beliefs and value structures. game may see an infraction or foul differently depending on which team they support. but also by many other factors. the instructor must rec- aviation maintenance technician. dicting how the student will interpret experiences and instructions. The self is a person’s past. have also found that learning occurs most rapidly when feel. per. it is both physical and psychological. The meanings which are derived from perceptions are influenced not only by the Perceptions depend on one’s goals and values. hear. and taste. sounds. but the com- bination of sight and hearing accounts for about 88 percent ceive. Real meaning comes only from within a person. information is received through more than one sense. A person has physical barriers which keep out of all perceptions. smell. Perceptions result when a person in developing better perceptions in spite of their gives meaning to sensations. A person whose perceptual apparatus distorts reality is [Figure 1-2] denied the right to fly at the time of the first medical examination. pressing need is to pre- serve and perpetuate the self. will be resisted or denied. we are what we per- Figure 1-2. such as blinking at an arc weld or flinching from a hot iron. Likewise. and future combined. A The physical organism provides individuals with the student’s self-image. described in such terms as con- perceptual apparatus for sensing the world around fident and insecure. and respond adequately while they are in the air. To teach effectively. People base their actions defense mechanisms. The experienced maintain and enhance the self. Every individual’s experience. a person has perceptual barriers that block those sights. Pilots. ognize that anything that is asked of the student which ceives an engine malfunction quite differently than may be interpreted by the student as imperiling the self does an inexperienced student. Since a person’s basic need is to on the way they believe things to be. those things that would be damaging to the physical being. The precise FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PERCEPTION kinds of commitments and philosophical outlooks There are several factors that affect an individual’s which the student holds are important for the instruc- ability to perceive. Those • Goals and values things which are more highly valued and cherished are • Self-concept pursued. • Element of threat Self-Concept Physical Organism Self-concept is a powerful determinant in learning. Most learning occurs through sight. for example. present. for example. and feelings which pose a psychological threat. those which are accorded less value and • Time and opportunity importance are not sought after. Basic Need A person’s basic need is to maintain and enhance the organized self. Some are internal to each person tor to know. has a great influence on the total 1-6 . A person’s most fundamental. • Physical organism • Basic need Goals are also a product of one’s value structure. so do the sights one sees and the sounds one hears become part of the psy- chological self. Psychologists them. touch.sight.

there is a tendency to reject addi. The field of vision is reduced. speeds this learning process by teaching the relationship of perceptions as they occur. plane with a fixed-pitch propeller. students tend to limit their attention to the threatening Insight will almost always occur eventually. unless some experience student realize the way each piece relates to all other in normal flight has been acquired. Many factors. During the initial practice of steep turns. the student tends to logical one. If a student’s experiences tend to Learning is a psychological process. The effective dict self-concept.perceptual process. it is essential to keep each student con- attempt. This mental relating learning. of unsatisfactory reports or reprisals may seem logical. generated fear. power set- affect the rate of learning. If a stu. To ensure that this A student could probably stall an airplane on the first does occur. when an individual is frightened and all the for a person to become an electrician by trial and error. As a result. some things depends on other perceptions which have preceded these learnings. are less defen. In general. Even with such pieces of the total pattern of the task to be learned. it is possible example. in power setting. If a situation seems over- whelming. Learning ceptions are recognized and taken into account. however. instruc. Flight instruction provides many clear examples of this. at the Element of Threat same time. Instruction. That is. The effectiveness of the use ting. and on the availability of INSIGHT time to sense and relate these new things to the earlier Insight involves the grouping of perceptions into perceptions. self-concept affects the ability to actually per. closed. Creating insight is one of the instructor’s major responsibilities. Anything an instructor by the student into larger blocks of learning. engine speed. the RPM will increase lengthening an experience and increasing its frequency when the throttle is opened and decrease when it is are the most obvious ways to speed up learning. they does that is interpreted as threatening makes the student develop insight. and demonstrations. Trying to frighten a student through threats remain receptive to subsequent experiences. fear adversely affects perception by and grouping of associated perceptions is called insight. learning becomes more less able to accept the experience the instructor is trying meaningful and more permanent. affected by all of these factors. narrowing the perceptual field. and airplane attitude are all related. time and practice are needed to relate the new sensations and experiences associated with stalls in As an example. RPM changes can also result although this is not always effective. For this reason. perceptual faculties are focused on the thing that has just as one may become a lawyer by reading law. In fact. So long as the stu- by introducing psychological barriers which tend to keep dent feels capable of coping with a situation. airspeed. Therefore. problem when there are more anchor points for tying emotional. It is a major responsibility of the 1-7 . however. Confronted with threat. regardless of previous experience. Forgetting is less of a to provide. stantly receptive to new experiences and to help the not really be learned. cal needs of the student. in from changes in airplane pitch attitude without changes addition to the length and frequency of training periods. and perception is themselves positively. of a properly planned training syllabus is proportional to the consideration it gives to the time and opportunity factor in perception. sequence and time are necessary. the student feels unable to handle all of the A negative self-concept inhibits the perceptual processes factors involved. They may also inhibit the experience is viewed as a challenge. As perceptions increase in number and are assembled regard outside visual references. for the instructor to facilitate the learning process by tions. ability to properly implement that which is perceived. not necessarily a support a favorable self-image. during straight-and-level flight in an air- order to develop a perception of the stall. Students who view enced by the way a student perceives. and a threat exists. avoiding any actions which may inhibit or prevent the attainment of teaching goals. On the other hand. meaningful wholes. Obviously. knowledge of how a change in any one of The element of threat does not promote effective them may affect all of the others. but is not effective psychologically. instructor can organize teaching to fit the psychologi- tional training. Teaching is consistently Time and Opportunity effective only when those factors which influence per- It takes time and opportunity to perceive. thus promoting the development of the student’s insight. on the other hand. Stalls can. experience. whether or object or condition. it is important sive and more receptive to new experiences. and mental faculties. Thus. a student pilot may focus attention on the altimeter and completely dis. insights together. for not instruction is provided. It adversely affects all the student’s physical. each new the student from perceiving. True learning requires an understanding of how each of these factors may affect all of the others and. dent has negative experiences which tend to contra. A good instructor realizes that behavior is directly influ- form or do things unfavorable.

and helping the student acquire and Everyone wants to avoid pain and injury. the desire for personal comfort In certain instances. self-esteem. ing to pursue it.instructor to organize demonstrations and explana. which help prevent injury or loss of life. cally it is not as effective in promoting efficient learn- Every person wants the approval of peers and superi- ing as positive motivation. or to act correctly in an emer- Motivation is probably the dominant force which gov. suitably rewarded. to attract and hold. Slumps in learning are often diately apparent. such as physical or mental distur- ance should be avoided. Interest can be stimulated and maintained by build- ing on this natural desire. should be avoided with all but the most overconfident dent aware of those applications which are not imme. or it may be can be a strong motivational factor. Although these lessons will pay dividends during Positive motivation is essential to true learning. tangible or The attractive features of the activity to be learned also intangible. While negative moti. advances will be more rapid and motivation will be strengthened. Fortunately. either the acquisition of and good fortune. detect and counter any lapses in motivation. are to be financial. Insecure and unpleasant training sit- ceived. is a basic motivational factor for vating force for students. The instructor should strive to maintain motivation at the highest possible The desire for personal comfort and security is a form level. If they understand that each task will be useful in Negative motivation may engender fear. and be per. bances or inadequate instruction. students must believe that their efforts will be the overall training program and. This belief can be a powerful moti- possessions or status. later instruction. erns the student’s progress and ability to learn. This is espe- cially true when the student knows that the ability to MOTIVATION make timely decisions. In addition. most people engaged in a task believe that success is possible under the right combination of circumstances The desire for personal gain. These rewards must be constantly helps the student develop a favorable self-image. Motivation does not time and effort to drill and practice on operations remain at a uniformly high level. this self-image may be submerged or security. For motivation to be effec. characteristi- Another strong motivating force is group approval. ious to learn skills which may be used to their advan- tage. their attention is easier the many kinds of experiences that have been per. Students nor- maintain a favorable self-concept are key steps in fos. or public recognition. Most students enjoy the feel- Positive motivation is provided by the promise or ing of belonging to a group and are interested in achievement of rewards. satisfaction of their fellow students. An individual may be motivated foster this motivation by the introduction of percep- to dig a ditch or to design a supersonic airplane solely tions which are solidly based on previously learned by the desire for financial gain. It may be affected by which do not directly contribute to competent perform. is based on sound principles. 1-8 . achievement of a favorable self-image. they will be more will- ceived by the student as a threat. An instructor can effectively all human endeavor. These rewards may be personal accomplishment which will give them prestige among or social. Motivation which can be used to advantage by the instructor includes the Every person seeks to establish a favorable self-image. vation may be useful in certain situations. and to direct practice. Pointing out the relationships as they occur. and impulsive students. dents want secure. Each additional block of learning should help Students are like typical employees in wanting a tangi. the self-concept. ronment. Likewise. the instructor should be alert to of motivation which instructors often forget. ors. they may involve financial gain. If they recognize that what they are learning ter opportunities to understand the interrelationship of may promote these objectives. It is important for the instructor to make the stu. the devotion of too much due to declining motivation. whether they this confirmation progresses and confidence increases. training goals. preparing for future activities. uations inhibit learning. subtle and difficult to identify. and the in feelings of insecurity or despondency. This promotes student confidence in tive. Lessons often have objectives which are not obvious at first. or public recognition. As apparent to the student during instruction. pleasant conditions and a safe envi- tions. All stu. factual information that is easily recognized by the student. providing a secure and nonthreatening environment in which to learn. Motivation may be negative or positive. so that the student has bet. desire for personal gain. formulate insight which contributes to the ultimate ble return for their efforts. the desire for group approval. mally are eager to learn operations or procedures tering the development of insight. gency. at the same time. the student may not appreciate this Negative motivation in the form of reproofs or threats fact. outside influences. Students are anx- obvious.

A later in more detail. in the future. is that level at which make a turn in flight. or new learning tasks to be undertaken controls. and one at which the instructor is too often willing to stop. (4) add sufficient rudder pressure in failing to apply what has been learned to future learn- the direction of the turn to avoid slipping and skidding. The other segments may be items or skills pre- With proper instruction on the effect and use of the flight viously learned. but may not necessarily enable the student to make taught. what has been learned. The procedure may include several steps such as: other elements of piloting performance is characteristic (1) visually clear the area. the student can consolidate these old and new perceptions into an insight on how to Levels of learning may be classified in any number of make a turn. Four basic levels have traditionally been includ. without understanding or being able to apply a correct turn on the first attempt. 1-9 . For example. (3) apply aileron control violates the building block concept of instruction by pressure to the left. has been learned with other segments or blocks of learning. Progressively higher levels of learning are under.LEVELS OF LEARNING ing straight-and-level flight. the student becomes able to associate an element which edge of the function of airplane controls. a flight instructor may explain to a begin. and has prac- application of what has been learned. When the student understands the procedure for enter- standing what has been taught. which should be the useful to the student if there is never an opportunity to objective of aviation instruction. This understanding is basic to effective learn- the ability to repeat something which one has been ing. [Figure 1-3] been learned. The student who has achieved this level of Figure 1-3. Learning is progressive and occurs at several basic levels. and experience in controlling the airplane dur. ing tasks. which is usually inefficient. of what has been learned with other things previously the student has developed the skill to apply what has learned or subsequently encountered. The lowest level is in flight. left and directing subsequent instruction exclusively to turn. This will not be very The correlation level of learning. (2) add a slight amount of of piecemeal instruction. or if the student has no knowl. has had turns demonstrated. At this point. This is a major level of learning. understanding of the procedure for turning the airplane ed in aviation instructor training. student who can verbally repeat this instruction has learned the procedure by rote. It power to maintain airspeed. the student has developed an ways. Discontinuing instruction on turn entries at this point ning student the procedure for entering a level. and correlation ticed turn entries until consistency has been achieved. This is referred to as rote learn- ing. The building block concept will be covered and (5) increase back pressure to maintain altitude. achieving the skill for ing a turn.

Each of the domains has a hierarchy ficulty. or review a training syllabus Besides the four basic levels of learning. measur- ing educational objectives in this domain is not easy. R. D. Dr. psychologists have developed several additional lev- els. educational objectives in the cognitive Simpson also is generally acceptable. In aviation. most rely on indirect inferences. and values. Typical activities involving these 1-10 . domains.R. The listing of the hierarchy of objectives is often called a taxonomy. important in aviation. described by Dr. Like the Bloom taxonomy. a The affective domain may be the least understood. Is it knowledge only.J. A taxonomy of educational objectives is a systematic classification scheme for sorting learning outcomes into the three broad categories (cognitive. is one of the best known educational domains. For example. and psychomotor) and ranking the desired outcomes in a developmental hierarchy from least complex to most complex. and psychomotor domain attempts to arrange these objectives in an order of dif- (physical skills).learning in turn entries. has developed the reviewing meteorological reports. objective level in this domain may also be illustrated by learning to correctly evaluate a flight maneuver. but none are as popularly recognized as the Bloom and Krathwohl tax- onomies. beliefs. These classifications consider what is to be AFFECTIVE DOMAIN learned. [Figure 1-5] of educational objectives. listening to a preflight briefing. chomotor domain (physical skills). Although a number of tech- niques are available for evaluation of achievement in the affective domain. for example. Benjamin Bloom. Krathwohl. domain (knowledge). Since the affective domain is concerned with a stu- dent’s attitudes. [Figure 1-6] domain refer to knowledge which might be gained as the result of attending a ground school. but this is not like a simple pass/fail test that can be used to evaluate cognitive edu- cational objective levels. Krathwohl’s hierarchy beliefs. It contains additional levels of knowledge and under- standing and is commonly referred to as Bloom’s tax- onomy of educational objectives. PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN Figure 1-4. personal beliefs. affective. and values) contains five educational objective levels. Bloom’s hierarchical taxonomy for the cogni. affective domain (attitudes. The highest educational performance of chandelles and lazy eights. educational for depth and completeness of training. how is a positive attitude toward safety evaluated? Observable safety-related behavior indi- cates a positive attitude. reading about Psychomotor or physical skills always have been aircraft systems. A similar system for specifying attitudinal ing objectives includes three domains: cognitive objectives has been developed by D. the most important of the learning skill? One of the more useful categorizations of learn. COGNITIVE DOMAIN The cognitive domain. DOMAINS OF LEARNING repair an airplane engine. the taxonomy developed by E. [Figure 1-4] Figure 1-5. or taking part in ability to correlate the elements of turn entries with the computer-based training. There are several taxonomies which deal with the psy- tive domain (knowledge) includes six educational objective levels. and values). and physical skill. Krathwohl’s hierarchical taxonomy for the affective domain (attitudes. However. a change in attitude. or a combination of knowledge and in many ways.

write the word “learning” ly is teaching a concept. and skill learning objectives com- monly used in advanced qualification programs for air- line training. These additional levels of learning are the basis of the knowledge. the main objective or purpose of most instruction typical.J. To provide a real illustration of physi- LEARNING PHYSICAL SKILLS cal skill learning. On a separate sheet of paper. [Figure 1-7] Instructors who are familiar with curricula develop. They also can be tied to the practical test standards to show the level of knowledge or skill required for a particular task.Figure1-6. are pertinent. Thus. a generalization. as cog- nitive learning. all three domains of learning. physical skill is much the same. skills include learning to fly a precision instrument approach procedure. The student also needs to have a well-developed. programming a GPS receiver. The process of learning a psychomotor or included in Chapter 4 of this handbook. and psychomotor. cog- nitive. try the following exercise: Even though the process of learning is profound. E. Simpson’s hierarchical taxonomy for the psy- chomotor domain (physical skills) consists of seven educa- tional objective levels. in many ways. As physi- cal tasks and equipment become more complex. A list of action verbs for the three domains shows appropriate behavioral objec- tives at each level. if 1-11 . A compara- tively high level of knowledge and skill is required. Expanded coverage of the concept of performance-based objectives is or a skill. ment will recognize that the action verbs are examples of performance-based objectives. or using sophisticated maintenance equipment. Figure 1-7. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES The additional levels of learning definitely apply to aviation flight and maintenance training. the requirement for integration of cognitive and physical skills increases. affective. an attitude. attitude. 15 times with your left hand or with your right hand. posi- tive attitude. A listing such as the one shown here is useful for development of almost any training program.

or how to execute fin- lesson objective to the student’s intentions and needs and. rapid improvement in the early stages. Students will more than likely experience a learn- useful after the skill has been partially mastered. It is perhaps as important for students to know the skill were developed and attitudes were changed. In other cases. practice is necessary. little progress was made. students need to have a clear impression of what they are to do. step-by-step example. and then learn it much more readily they learned those skills that appealed correctly. Even demonstrating how to do it would not result in that person learning the skill. There is another bene- fit of practice. To improve. The first trials are slow. usually follow the same pattern. Mistakes are frequent. such as PHYSICAL SKILLS INVOLVE learning complex aircraft maintenance skills. tion is lacking. verbal instructions mean more. either in person or in a video presentation. and coordina- only recognize mistakes. not likely to make the effort and consequently will con. Whereas a long. learn or improve was missing. the point has been emphasized that the best shown below. 1-12 . than to learn correctly in the first place. such as the one Logically. PROGRESS FOLLOWS A PATTERN ing rate will not increase unless there is a deliberate intent The experience of learning to write a word with the to increase it. an outside expert may be are left handed. but the read. one must not skill learning. then the curve vide a clear. Learning to per- form various aircraft maintenance skills or flight maneu- vers requires this sort of practice. while a muscular sequence was being learned. students might be surprised at how more difficult to unlearn a mistake. flight MORE THAN MUSCLES maneuvers. Having a model to levels off and may stay level for a significant period of follow permits students to get a clear picture of each time. students can discover their own errors quite easily. In learning some simple skills. During classroom instruction. In any case. or flight crew duties. The student needs coordination between muscles and visual and tactile senses. [Figure 1-8] and how to do it. As the student gains proficiency in a skill. emphasizing the steps and techniques. but also make an effort to cor. The person who lacks the desire to improve is provides clues for improvement in subsequent trials. it is wrong hand probably confirmed what has been con- unlikely that any improvement occurred unless there was sistently demonstrated in laboratory experiments on a clear intention to improve. specific comments are more meaningful and Figure 1-8. The skillful instructor relates the such as how to hold the pencil. but each trial rect them. It should be obvious wrong. Shorter initial way to make students aware of their progress is to learning time and more rapid progress in improving the repeat a demonstration or example and to show them skill normally occurred. builds on the student’s natural enthusiasm. In flight or maintenance training. The student modifies different aspects of the skill tinue to practice errors. detailed explanation is confusing before the student begins per- forming. One to their own needs (principle of readiness). There is way to prepare the student to perform a task is to pro. KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS ity of your writing as you go along. but not know how to correct it. Obviously. A person may read dozens of books a year. Try to improve the speed and qual. in so doing. when they are right as when they are wrong. mistakes are not The above exercise contains a practical example of the always apparent. ing plateau at some point in their training. A student may know that something is multifaceted character of learning. Further improvement may seem unlikely. where the desire to the standards their performance must ultimately meet. PERFORM THE SKILL After experiencing writing a word with the wrong hand. the that. ger and hand movement. and should not be allowed to practice mistakes. other instructor provides a helpful and often critical function things were happening as well. This is step in the sequence so they understand what is required a typical learning plateau. The perception changed as in making certain that the students are aware of their the sequence became easier. the instructor provides the demonstration. Concepts of how to perform progress. They DESIRE TO LEARN should be told as soon after the performance as possi- Thinking back over their past experiences in learning to ble. In any case. In the preceding learning exercise. Conversely. consider how difficult it would be to tell someone else how to do it. PATTERNS TO FOLLOW Graphs of the progress of skill learning. It is perform certain skills.

the increasing proficiency does not necessarily mean that learn. longer periods of practice are profitable. No matter what is actions would be particularly useful to the beginning happening at the time. a storage capability. that accepts input (stimuli) from an external source. can be used to predict eventual stu. in learning motor skills. temporarily remain or rapidly fade. frustration may be minimized. or perhaps process is called precoding. As beginning student reaches a point where additional shown in figure 1-9 on the following page. The sensory register processes inputs or stimuli from the environment within seconds. atly made aware of the alarm and preset responses tively to help eliminate errors. It provides a check on teach. Another consideration is the problem of whether to SENSORY REGISTER divide the practice period. eration is the length of time devoted to practice. even habitual. First. a prerequisite for or categorization into systematic chunks. students devote weeks and months in school learning For example. and processes If an instructor were to evaluate the fifteenth writing of what is determined by the individual to be relevant. process is usually called coding or chunking. MEMORY ing plateau. This second condition leveling off process. the working memory is immedi- someone watch the performance and critique construc. practical suggestions are more WORKING OR SHORT-TERM MEMORY valuable to the student than a grade. is normal and should be involves the question of transfer of learning. a primary consid- which states that memory includes three parts: sensory. If the coding The final and critical question is. interest may have the job. An example is sensory even assign it a grade of some sort. but may even be system operates somewhat like an advanced computer harmful. the student must learn the skill so well increasing progress. However. when the sensory register student. the word “learning. the skill. instructor should prepare the student for this situation to avert discouragement. that information is more likely to make an to overhaul an aircraft engine is a good example. The sorting making constructive criticism. In the initial stages. and motivation declines. errors increase. a is appropriate to use the skill. The ate it against some criterion or standard. Memory is an integral part of the learning process. and long-term systems. Early evaluation is Within seconds the relevant information is passed to usually teacher oriented. each dependent on the preceding one. The observations on retention in the short-term memory. DURATION AND ORGANIZATION OF LESSON Although there are several theories on how the memory works. new abilities. Other skills input is dramatic and impacts more than one of the five are composed of related subgroups of skills. and then fail to apply these abilities on its. and an output function. The answer depends on the nature of ual’s preconceived concept of what is important. the student could profit by having detects a fire alarm. A key limitation of the working memory is that it takes 5–10 APPLICATION OF SKILL seconds to properly code information. The instructor could is set to recognize certain stimuli and immediately judge whether the written word was legible and evalu. or the student may need a more efficient method for present. As a student gains experience. The briefly discussed later in this chapter. Learning senses. To solve this problem. Can the student use process is interrupted. which is expected after an initial period of rapid improvement. the total practice is not only unproductive. or a plateau. the working or short-term memory where it may ing effectiveness. that information is lost after what has been learned? It is not uncommon to find that about 20 seconds. contains a processing apparatus. None of these precoding to recognize a fire alarm. inte. Learning information by the sensory system. begin to take place. may be consolidating levels of skill. dis- EVALUATION VERSUS CRITIQUE cards what is considered extraneous. The point is that. depending on the dent learning proficiency. 1-13 . a widely accepted view is the multi-stage concept In planning for student performance. When this point is reached. impression. ment and quickly processes it according to the individ- grated sequence. and can help the teacher individual’s priorities. other factors can influence the reception of steps. Perhaps even the related instruction should be broken down into segments. if the to pack a parachute is a good example. transmit them to the working memory for action.” only limited help could be given This is a selective process where the sensory register toward further improvement. Several common steps help locate special problem areas. Some skills are composed of closely related However. and second. If the student is aware of this learn.A learning plateau may signify any number of conditions. the student may have reached capability lim. These include which the evaluations are based also can identify the rehearsal or repetition of the information and sorting student’s strengths and weaknesses. Keep in mind that the apparent lack of that it becomes easy. student must recognize the types of situations where it ing has ceased. A working or short-term. or The sensory register receives input from the environ- it may be advantageous to plan one continuous. two conditions must be waned. For example.

Of course. rote memorization is subject of the memory systems are intimately related. For process of relating incoming information to concepts the stored information to be useful. usually about a significant step in the learning process. However. Decelerate such as time. The coding should Methods of coding vary with subject matter. images. For exam- ogy of events. They may consist of the use of acronyms. This sensory memory is distinct and separate from working means learning the information by a rote memoriza. As indicated. A seven-digit telephone number is an example. Information processing within the sensory register. semantics. must have been expended during the coding process in working or short-term memory. It also is subject to limitations. 1-14 . Variations of the coding process are practically endless. but typi- have provided meaning and connections between old cally they include some type of association. the In this brief discussion of memory. and. An example of a accomplished. the netic compass errors. all tion process. in many cases. it may appear that time limitation may be overcome by rehearsal. it should be noted that the Accelerate long-term memory is a reconstruction. with practice. a tennis ball at a high rate of speed and with accuracy.Figure 1-9. In addition. The coding process is more useful in a nearly identical to long-term memory functions. personal inac- South curacies. and long-term memory includes complex coding. or an individually ple. learning situation. working or short-term memory. biases. LONG-TERM MEMORY ual experiences. Many of to imperfections in both the duration of recall and in the functions of working or short-term memory are its accuracy. If initial coding is not properly rhymes or mnemonics is common. and recall functions. sorting. not a pure recall North of information or events. storing. Memory also applies to psychomotor skills. seven bits or chunks of information. Therefore. This is not the case. This is why two people who view the same event will often have totally different recollections. the chronol. Use of and new information. The working or short-term memory is not only time Developing a logical strategy for coding information is limited. it also has limited capacity. This is when actual learning begins to What then is distinctive about the long-term memory? take place. a tennis player may be able to serve developed structure based on past experiences. recall will be distorted and it may be useful mnemonic is the memory aid for one of the mag- impossible. The letters “ANDS” indicate: easier the recall. recoding may be described as a This is where information is stored for future use. The more effective the coding process. or short-term memory. some special effort or knowledge already in memory. In fact. the coding process may involve recoding to adjust the information to individ.

First. the ability to instinctively perform certain Each of the theories implies that when a person for- maneuvers or other tasks which require manual dexter. experiences after graduation from school causes a per- LEARNING WITH ALL OUR SENSES IS son to forget or to lose knowledge. Further. it is ity and precision provides obvious benefits. simply unavailable for recall. and is not easily retained. some research indi- The repression theory does not appear to account for cates that three or four repetitions provide the maxi- much forgetfulness of the kind discussed in this chapter. an consciousness. interference. repression. gets something. material not well learned suffers most fuller understanding and greater chance of recall is from interference. Each repetition gives the student an opportunity to gain ting is repression due to the submersion of ideas into the a clearer and more accurate perception of the subject to subconscious mind. communica. similar material seems to the eyes and ears. mum effect. Although we generally receive what we learn through ference may be drawn. DISUSE PRAISE STIMULATES REMEMBERING The theory of disuse suggests that a person forgets Responses which give a pleasurable return tend to be those things which are not used. Practice provides an opportunity for learn- but not intentionally. The difficulty is unless they are of special interest or application. ability of retention fall off rapidly. Apparently the memory is there. The following sugges- tions with air traffic control facilities. new MOST EFFECTIVE events displace many things that had been learned. and remembering. and any form of negativism in the acceptance retained several years after graduation. REPRESSION MEANINGFUL REPETITION AIDS RECALL Freudian psychology advances the view that some forget. It is subconscious and protective. Material thor- As implied. In contrast. after which the rate of learning and prob- but it does tend to explain some cases. This theory might explain how the range of itive or rewarding objectives. ly is beyond recall. For exam. is readily available for recall. The high school or repeated. Teach thoroughly and with meaning.This may be accomplished with very little thought. it allows the pilot more time to concentrate on lem is how to make certain that the student’s learning other essential duties such as navigation. but does not cause it. Material that is unpleasant or pro. Experimental As discussed earlier. but mere repetition does not guarantee duces anxiety may be treated this way by the individual. In other words. tends to facilitate its later recall by the student. ing. Unique or disassociated facts tend to be forgotten locked in the recesses of the mind. For RETENTION OF LEARNING a pilot. This is instructor is to help students use their memories effec. achieved. tions can help. retention. People learn and remember only what they wish to get something because a certain experience has over. The most effective motivation is based on pos- intervened. it is not actually lost. FAVORABLE ATTITUDES AID RETENTION INTERFERENCE The basis of the interference theory is that people for. including disuse. At the same time. know. one of the major responsibilities of the oughly learned is highly resistant to forgetting. The instructor’s prob- ple. which are remembered are those used on the job. Absence of praise or recognition tends to dis- college graduate is saddened by the lack of factual data courage. The follow- A consideration of why people forget may point the ing discussion emphasizes five principles which are way to help them remember. at least two conclusions about inter. perceptions. be learned. From experiments. suggested by experimental studies and it also was tively. When several senses respond together. cannot be ignored. each bit of information or action studies show. and visual scan. for example. Meaningful learning goes THEORIES OF FORGETTING deep because it involves principles and concepts anchored in the student’s own experiences. Rather. Since the things of a response tends to make its recall less likely. Strategies designed to aid students in retention pointed out in the sections on skill learning. But RECALL IS PROMOTED BY ASSOCIATION the explanation is not quite so simple. 1-15 . Without motivation there is little chance for shadowed it. that a hypnotized person which is associated with something to be learned can describe specific details of an event which normal. a and second. ning for other aircraft. Meaningful and recall of information from the long-term memory learning builds patterns of relationship in the student’s are included later in this chapter. rote learning is superficial associated phenomenon. forgetting. Several theories account generally accepted as having a direct application to for forgetting. summoning it up to consciousness. a per- son concludes that forgetting is the result of disuse. other senses also contribute to most interfere with memory more than dissimilar material. or that the learning of similar things has recall.

there is transfer does occur. The significance of this ability for an expanding base upon which to build for the future. the practice of slow flight (skill • Provide meaningful learning experiences that build A) helps the student learn short-field landings (skill students’ confidence in their ability to transfer learn- B). • Make certain that the students understand that what rior to just listening. If learning skill transfer. For example. • Use instructional material that helps form valid While these processes may help substantiate the inter. This means new learning and habit patterns sequence. but students actively engaged in the if the teacher deliberately plans to achieve it. HABIT FORMATION It seems clear that some degree of transfer is involved in all learning. dures from the outset of training to provide proper habit ty have differing success in certain areas. may even be appropriate. either positively or negatively. there is a consider. Therefore. tors should plan for transfer by organizing course mate. This suggests activities that challenge them to an airplane (skill A) may hinder learning to make an exercise their imagination and ingenuity in applying approach in a helicopter (skill B). This is true because. training. A hinders the learning of skill B. the instructor is that the students can be helped to able amount of additional literature on retention of achieve it. The following suggestions are representa- learning during a typical academic lesson. it is the instructor’s Many aspects of teaching profit by this type of transfer. Students passively listening to a • Plan for transfer as a primary objective. be done. positive beginning of training than to correct faulty ones later. Use materials that ference theory of forgetting. the rate of retention drops signif. but no one disputes the fact that in the present. Avoid learning of two skills. After the tive of what educational psychologists believe should first 10–15 minutes. that the learning of skill B may affect the retention or proficiency of skill A. already knows and how that knowledge can be applied ficult to determine. Prepare them to seek other applications. It is much easier to foster proper habits from the transfer may hinder the learning of some. Each phase should help the student learn are based on a solid foundation of experience and/or old what is to follow. the more likely they feres with the current learning task. This points to a need to know a student’s past experience and what has already been Due to the high level of knowledge and skill required in learned. Negative patterns. Consider the are to see its relationship to new situations. As in all lecture have roughly a five percent retention rate over areas of teaching. instruc. with the transfer of learning. Overlearning aided by things learned previously. is learned can be applied to other situations. they are still concerned make relationships clear. As knowledge and skill increase. students understand the material. positive transfer occurs. TRANSFER OF LEARNING During a learning experience. 1-16 . the chance for success is increased a 24–hour period. However. If the learning of skill A helps to unnecessary rote learning. This clearly reiterates the point that active learning is supe. ning of any learning process is essential to further learn- viously learned experience. It should be noted their knowledge and skills. since it does not foster learn skill B. learning. transfer may help others. Remember.Along with these five principles. practice in making a landing approach in ing. except for certain The formation of correct habit patterns from the begin- inherent responses. the student may be • Maintain high-order learning standards. responsibility to insist on correct techniques and proce- It may explain why students of apparently equal abili. aviation for both pilots and maintenance technicians. training traditionally has followed a building block rials and individual lesson materials in a meaningful concept. all new learning is based upon pre. The more thoroughly the it is sometimes apparent that previous learning inter. People interpret new ing and for correct performance after the completion of things in terms of what they already know. concepts and generalizations. learning process have a much higher retention. icantly until about the last 5–10 minutes when stu- dents wake up again. In lesson and syllabus development. primacy is one of the fundamental principles of learning. negative transfer occurs. Everything from intricate cognitive processes to simple motor skills depends on what the student The cause of transfer and exactly how it occurs is dif. On the other hand.

• Under the conditions of modern life. work may be a source of satisfaction and. • The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work nisms is essential for organizing student activities and is as natural as play and rest. learning is a change of behav. Depending on condi- tions. The instruc- tor’s challenge is to know what controls are best for the existing circumstances. icant of which is probably the satisfaction of ego. it will be avoid- The relationship between the instructor and the stu- ed. to what degree—should be based on distributed in the population. While these partially used. The successful instructor sibility. Without the instructor’s active intervention. It • Under proper conditions. Shirking responsibility and lack of ambi- directs and controls the behavior of the students and tion are not inherent in human nature. Every student works toward a goal of some kind. CONTROL OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR it will be performed voluntarily. instructor must know why people act the way they do. they have implications for the aviation instructor plish the task of helping to bring about this change. To successfully accom. the average person may be success itself. The average person does promoting a productive learning experience. Students expect the instructor to exercise control in the pursuit of goals to which they are certain controls. not only to accept. much. ingenuity. the intellec- Some interesting generalizations have been made tual potentialities of the average person are only about motivation and human nature. On the other hand. The instructor should create an • Commitment to goals relates directly to the reward atmosphere that enables and encourages students to associated with their achievement. if so. the most signif- help themselves. To students. the • The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of students may become passive and perhaps resistant to imagination. to authority as a valid means of control. 2-1 . dents has a profound impact on how much the students learn. if possible. of directing the students’ actions to modify their behav- ior. more than trial and error. This is a part of the process usually the consequences of experience. The controls the instructor exercises—how tion of common problems is widely. not inherently dislike work. and they tend to recognize and submit committed. but also to seek respon- form of personal recognition. the as well.As indicated in Chapter 1. assumptions are typically applied to industrial manage- ior resulting from experience. when work is a form of punishment. how far. and creativity in the solu- learning. ment. the instructor usually is a symbol of • Most people will exercise self-direction and self- authority. not narrowly. They are guides them toward a goal. A knowledge of basic human needs and defense mecha. it may simply be a grade or other learns.

the need to be included in conversa- hierarchy of human needs. During the 1950s. A hungry or tired stu- needs. power. most at fault. rest. [Figure 2-1] tion and other pilot-related activities could induce the spouse to learn how to fly. of course. Maslow’s hierarchical categorization bility rests squarely on the instructor’s shoulders. At the theories on human needs have been published. and the basic category. these basic assump. Instructors should make every effort to help new students feel at ease and to reinforce their decision to pursue aviation. The raw material is there. their need for association and belonging will be more pronounced. Murray. Since students are usually out of their normal surroundings during flight training. they were nance where safety is a major concern. they seek to satisfy their social as well as many others. and antagonistic. training. Meanwhile. Henry A. Some of their needs and need is satisfied. Instructors should with students depends. SOCIAL tified as needs for achievement. and to give Maslow organized human needs into levels of impor. appreci- Figure 2-1. If the remains a popular and acceptable concept. Abraham needs. such as status. several other recognize the student’s vast. recognition. affiliation. which he called needs. to realize the potentialities of the student. These needs consist of at least two types: those that relate to one’s self-esteem. seen as a force related to behavior and goals. They originally were called a hierarchy of social need might apply to the spouse of a professional human motives. Regardless of the label. In 1938. psy. human motives. the physical needs. When individuals are physically comfortable and do dependence. in most cases. or any other tasks. How to mold a solid. The responsi. Until these needs are satis- fied. productive relationship self-expression. and receive friendship and love. it no longer provides motivation. An example of the tance. deprivation. published a catalog of needs. threats. and are labeled by some as the security chologist. a U. 2-2 . HUMAN NEEDS The instructor should always be aware of the fact that SAFETY students are human beings. Thus. ingenuity must be used in discovering how chologists have not adopted any particular one. Among the motives that Murray discussed were what he iden. and of all mankind. and the needs that relate to one’s reputation. on the instructor’s monitor their students to make sure that their basic knowledge of students as human beings and of the physical needs have been met. These are to belong. drives are discussed in the following paragraphs. not feel threatened.S. student is perceived as lazy. and knowledge. such as self-confidence. have been studied by psychologists and The safety needs are protection against danger. categorized in a number of ways. PHYSICAL tions imply that the instructor’s methods of control are At the bottom of the pyramid is the broadest. healthy. drives. to associate. competence. they are real. however. In this case. unresponsive. The needs of students. acquired). Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs is frequently depicted as a pyramid with the lower-level needs at the bot- ation. tection from the elements. This is were described as being either primary (biological. untapped potential. uncooperative. and respect of associates. a person cannot concentrate fully on learning. and desires they continually try to satis- dent may not be able to perform as expected. but psy- same time. Once a fy in one way or another. independence. These needs and student behavior is influenced by them. EGO The egoistic needs usually have a strong influence on the instructor-student relationship. achievement. the person strives to satisfy the needs of the next higher level. especially true in flight training and aviation mainte- innate) or secondary (learned. and succor (the need to be taken care of). indifferent. The egoistic need may tom and progressively higher-level needs above each other be the main reason for a student’s interest in aviation in ascending order. but are now commonly referred to as a pilot. and pro- have the responsibility of controlling it. Each person is shaping and directing of it lie in the hands of those who first concerned with a need for food.An instructor who accepts these assumptions should In the intervening years since the 1950s.

SELF–FULFILLMENT COMPENSATION At the apex of the hierarchy of human needs is self. In some cases. Aiding another in realizing regard themselves as unattractive may develop excep- self-fulfillment is perhaps the most rewarding accom. may say they would rather spend their evenings study- ing aircraft systems than anything else. In able to themselves. ers or attribute their motives.” they are reactions to unpleasant situations. added. A student may develop a who-cares-how-other-people-feel attitude to cover up feelings of loneliness and a hunger for acceptance. healthy learning environment. PROJECTION therefore. ing flight. Maslow included vari. The athlete who fails to make DEFENSE MECHANISMS the team may feel sure the coach was unfair. In general. “Everybody are subconscious. In this type of environ- ment. and for being creative in emphasizing a more positive one. Since behavior. The excuses seem real and justifiable to the individual. To take flight physically. some confu. moreover. in fact. REACTION FORMATION Sometimes individuals protect themselves from dan- gerous desires by not only repressing them. mistakes. and impulses to others. to alleviate feel- ings of guilt. If students cannot accept the real reasons for their anism which is now commonly called repression. it is not always easy to differentiate between scious technique for justifying actions that otherwise defenses which are closely related. Students who challenge to the instructor. more than one name has been they can make those excuses plausible and accept- attached to a particular type of defense mechanism. With compensation. or reject criticism. DENIAL OF REALITY Occasionally students may ignore or refuse to acknowledge disagreeable realities. tionally winning personalities to compensate. individuals sincerely believe in their [Figure 2-2] excuses. Several common defense mechanisms may apply Students often escape from frustrating situations by tak- to aviation students. They may turn away from unpleasant sights. Freud described a mech. When true rationalization sion often occurs in identifying the different types. ego-protecting will cheat on an exam if given the chance. This includes realizing one’s own potential the presence of a weak or undesirable quality by for continued development. and to protect their sense of personal RATIONALIZATION worth or adequacy. students relegate the blame for their Fulfillment of needs can be a powerful motivation in own shortcomings. In summary. characteristics. defenses to soften feelings of failure. students often attempt to disguise fulfillment. Rationalization is a subcon- addition. They also may try to the broadest sense of that term. defense mechanisms is projecting blame. When students say. takes place. With projection. People use these projecting. they may rationalize. or the ten- The concept of defense mechanisms was introduced by nis player who examines the racket after a missed shot Freud in the 1890s. FLIGHT Figure 2-2. but actual- ly developing conscious attitudes and behavior patterns that are just the opposite. would be unacceptable. desires. but. can devote more attention to their studies. Students plishment for an instructor. ferred but more attainable objective instead of a more Self-fulfillment for a student should offer the greatest preferred but less attainable objective. 2-3 . refuse to discuss unpop- ular topics. Thus. students experience fewer frustrations and. and transgressions to oth- complex learning situations. This device permits then. almost automatic. Originally. instructors should strive to help students they would rather be doing almost anything except air- satisfy their human needs in a manner that will create a craft systems study. other defense mechanisms have gradually been them to substitute excuses for reasons. reduce tension by accepting and developing a less pre- ous cognitive and aesthetic goals in this highest level. physical or mental.

If stu. in some cases. or daydreaming. following paragraphs are primarily concerned with Moreover. displacement. Anxiety also Since defense mechanisms involve some degree of is a factor in maintenance training because lives may self-deception and distortion of reality. involving the possibility of deep psychological prob- lems. partly because students are taught to skills necessary to cope with a crisis while others do repress their emotions in the interest of safety. change in personality. may stop trying to achieve their goals altogether. Mental flight provides behavior ceases to be a subconscious adjustment mech- a simple and satisfying escape from problems. anism and becomes. an ineffective way of sat- dents get sufficient satisfaction from daydreaming. tion with certain ideas. slam a door. The most obvious and apparent A PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGIST cause for this form of resignation takes place when. a death in the family. As already implied. They become aggressive against indications may include social withdrawal. Less obvious in a number of ways. such as fantasy. When carried to extremes. a divorce. Instructors Anxiety is probably the most significant psychological should recognize that most defense mechanisms fall factor affecting flight instruction. In this event. sonal crisis or other stressful event is usually the cause. the world of fantasy and the world It may be difficult for an instructor to identify excessive of reality can become so confused that the dreamer can. Drug or swear. repression. The solve problems. flight instructors must also be able to evaluate student personality to effectively More information on these and other defense mecha. student defense mechanisms and have some knowledge of aggressiveness may be expressed in subtle ways. they may see their actions as childish. Physical symptoms such as a Everyone gets angry occasionally. refuse to participate in can help by using common sense and talking over the the activities of the class. In a classroom. The main objective should their own group. The ated with a potentially serious mental health problem. because defense mechanisms operate on a flight instruction and student reactions. is referred to as fantasy. develop and use techniques appropriate for instruction. or disrupt activities within problem with the student. mental flights. or an inability to concentrate. regression. or a universal human emotion. they are not subject to normal con- them satisfactory excuses for removing themselves scious checks and controls. instead. 2-4 . they may be associ. nisms. not. timely and skillful help is needed. This is true because within the realm of normal behavior and serve a useful flying is a potentially threatening experience for persons purpose. reliance on defense mechanisms by a student. damaged by inept measures. From that a number of additional considerations which will assist point on. instructor to be an accomplished psychologist. Angry people may shout. RESIGNATION the instructor should recommend that the student use Students also may become so frustrated that they lose the services of a professional counselor. learning is negligible although the student in learning to analyze students before and during each may go through the motions of participating. They related behavioral problems. and introjection. A perceptive instructor may ask irrelevant questions. THE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR AS they accept defeat. who are not accustomed to being off the ground. If students cannot deal directly with be to restore motivation and self-confidence. It should the cause of their frustration. they isfying a need. or give in to the heat of emotions alcohol abuse also may become apparent. Therefore. This mechanism. or even a failing grade on an important test may trigger harmful AGGRESSION defensive reactions. they do not depend on consistently doing it right the first time. However. or airplane. there are dered and lost in the more advanced phases. when carried to the extreme.students may develop symptoms or ailments that give subconscious level. depression. For example. lesson. An instructor needs to be familiar with typical Because of safety concerns or social strictures. such extreme behavior is relatively Some people seem to have the proper attitude and infrequent. Once an individual realizes from frustration. After a cooling-off period. emo- tional insulation. interest and give up. in severe cases ed to the problem. shop. fear of falling is universal in human beings. general lack of interest may point to a problem. Anger is a normal. after completing an early phase of a course without While it is obviously impossible for every flight grasping the fundamentals. they alleviate symptoms. preoccupa- something or somebody. They may no longer believe it profitable or even possible to go on. they may vent their be noted that the human psyche is fragile and could be aggressiveness on a neutral object or person not relat. not causes. but a per- not distinguish one from the other. and as a result. More frequent than physical flights are there is a conscious reliance on one of these devices. angry outbursts. can be ANXIETY obtained from a good psychology text. a student becomes bewil.

ate laughter or singing. They range aspects of the surroundings. dures. Their thing to correct the situation which has caused their responses may be random or illogical. and others. from a hesitancy to act to the impulse to do something even if it’s wrong. and by teaching them to cope with reason for careful instructor evaluation. with care. In addition. the following numerous other physiological changes take place. and cated as a pilot. so that students know what to expect. The affected individual thinks rationally. The adrenal gland activates hormones has a responsibility to refrain from certifying that which prepare the body to meet the threat. steps are available: 2-5 . sations to be expected. instructors should first review the as excellent morale followed by deep depression. their fears. aerodynamic principles and explain how stalls affect flight characteristics. flight instructors must carefully Student anxieties can be minimized throughout train. Then.” It results from the fear ly. or potentially be very hazardous presented as conducive to satisfying. may freeze and be incapable of doing any. but they also can by continuously citing the unhappy consequences of be indicative of psychological abnormalities which faulty performances. The abnormal reac. are in a position are significant because they indicate a need for special to differentiate between safe and unsafe piloting instruction to relieve the anxiety. a flight instructor has the per- from it. cooperation. actions. painstaking self-control. service personnel. response to anxiety or stress other hand. real or imagined. and is extremely sensitive to all The responses to anxiety vary extensively. To accomplish this. and may have a potent effect on need for proper training in emergency operations prior to actions and the ability to learn from perceptions. or to retreat student. rather than ignoring them. Many responses are automatic. to future piloting operations. The normal reactions under pressure. rather than ucts of a complex learning situation. sonal responsibility of assuring that such a person The heart rate quickens. such as extreme over- mind that anxiety for student pilots usually is associat. as well as the recovery proce. tions are indicative of abnormal reactions to stress. may be completely absent or at least inadequate. the brain suffering from a serious psychological abnormality alerts the body. Many. the students. uninter. efficient. carefully describe the sen. Others may do things without rational thought more than is called for by the situation. examine student responses and their own responses to ing by emphasizing the benefits and pleasurable expe. and what their reactions should be. These responses may be the normal prod- riences which can be derived from flying. therefore. but the Anxiety can be countered by reinforcing students’ presence of any of them under conditions of stress is enjoyment of flying. Safe flying practices should be will inhibit learning. of anything. FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR ACTIONS REGARDING SERIOUSLY ABNORMAL STUDENTS NORMAL REACTIONS TO STRESS A flight instructor who believes a student may be When a threat is recognized or imagined. • Severe anger directed toward the flight instructor. and very rapid changes in vers. None of them provides an absolute indication. psychological problems. With them. on the some people. adequately. Instructors. and more rapidly Reactions to stress may produce abnormal responses in than they would in the absence of threat. such stalls. which threatens the per. During flight instruction. When introducing • Marked changes in mood on different lessons. This often is called the fight or flight syndrome. Keep in • Inappropriate reactions.Anxiety is described by Webster as “a state of mental Normal individuals begin to respond rapidly and exact- uneasiness arising from fear . The following student reac- fy a deep-seated problem. rather than as necessary only to pre- vent catastrophe. . within the limits of their experience and training. Instructors should introduce these maneuvers emotions. certain blood vessels constrict does not continue flight training or become certifi- to divert blood to the organs which will need it. an actual emergency. or reason. In difficult situations. which points out the son who experiences it. . Instructors also may be able to detect potential tions are even more important because they may signi. instructors normally are the Both normal and abnormal reactions to anxiety are of only ones who can observe students when they are concern to the flight instructor. for example. inappropri- ed with certain types of flight operations and maneu. Some people affected by anxiety ABNORMAL REACTIONS TO STRESS will react appropriately. rupted operations. An effective technique is to treat fears as a normal reaction. or they may do anxiety. acts rapidly.

after consultation with an unbiased skill standards. 2-6 .• If an instructor believes that a student may have a • A discussion should be held with a local aviation disqualifying psychological defect. If. the FSDO. The flight instructor’s primary legal responsibility con- cerns the decision whether to certify the student to be • An informal discussion should be initiated with the competent for solo flight operations. but may be unsafe psychologically. such authorizations and recommendations be delayed until the student feels competent to solo. instructor. and the AME. or to make a rec- local Flight Standards District Office (FSDO). the two instructors examination of the student. who is not issued the student’s medical certificate. to obtain acquainted with the student. It should not deficiency. to conduct an evalua. After the flight. advice and to decide on the possibility of further tion flight. must be withheld. should confer to determine whether they agree that further investigation or action is justified. sug. preferably the one who should be made for another instructor. ommendation for the practical test leading to certifica- gesting that the student may be able to meet the tion as a pilot. the instructor This action should be taken as soon as a question believes that the student suffers a serious psychological arises regarding the student’s fitness. arrangements medical examiner (AME).

and ments: the source (sender. For instance. communication does which are meaningful to listeners and readers. The new instructor must also develop a com- fortable style of communication that meets the goal of An instructor should exercise great care that ideas conveying information to students. IO-540 do not carry er. The beginning instructor must understand the toward the ideas being communicated. an ability to select and causes the instructor to lose credibility in the eyes of the 3-1 . The instructor also provides feedback show that the instructor is confident in the information. as the source of communication. ject area. but the effective communication to take place. ideas or feelings to another person or group of people. A speak- er or a writer may depend on a highly technical or professional background with its associated vocabu- BASIC ELEMENTS lary that is meaningful only to others with a similar Communication takes place when one person transmits background. up-to-date. Mere awareness of these factors is not and stimulating. the student’s understanding of the symbols or words being used. or instruc- abbreviations with a new student. while delivering a message. The presentation should tion to the situation. the tor’s effectiveness as a communicator is related to at student’s interest can be held. The instructor depends on feed. if an instructor were to use The process of communication is composed of three ele- any of the many aviation acronyms. an instructor is more likely to commu- become aware of the common barriers to effective nicate effectively if material is accurate. speaker. However. It to the student to reinforce the desired student responses. communication. or student). FBO.The ability to communicate effectively is essential for use language is essential for transmitting symbols all aviation instructors. Out-of-date information least three basic factors. effective commu- tor). slang. Use of related since each element is dependent on the others for technical language will always be necessary. enough. between instructor and student also is dynamic and depends on the two-way flow of symbols between the In addition to using the correct symbols to communicate instructor and student. or instructor. In this way. the symbols used in composing and transmitting the nication would be difficult if not impossible. speaker. The instruc. It is the responsibility of the instructor. The three elements are dynamically inter- the same meaning to a beginning student. Third. to realize that the Its effectiveness is measured by the similarity between effectiveness of the communication is dependent on the idea transmitted and the idea received. not occur automatically even though the instructor has an instructor consciously or unconsciously reveals his a high level of technical knowledge in a particular sub. the instructor must reveal a positive attitude back from the student to properly tailor the communica. and feelings are meaningful to the students. Terms message (words or signs). should also show that the message is important and that the student has a need to know the information. the source in communication is the An instructor must constantly strive to have the most cur- sender. and the receiver (listener. rent and interesting information possible. transmitter. effectively. SOURCE As indicated. Second. read- like SIGMET. taildragger. The relationship student must be taught the language first. and students. or her attitudes toward themselves as a communicator. and toward the complex process involved in communication. First. transmitter.

or kines. to optimize communication. In code. For motor skills. the student will begin to understand the correct instructor. the instructor can move the trim wheel while the student tries to maintain a given aircraft atti. Figure 3-1. This information and seeing. On the other hand. For exam- ple. At the same time. important to effective communication. When symbols are instructor is able to clarify the information and help the combined into these units. retaining the student’s attention by using a variety of But to refer to the work as careless would not be good channels. Common gestures and facial expressions form figure 3-1. and when told to the risk of losing the student’s attention. as required. Use of boring or uninteresting information runs meaning of control pressure and trim. instead of telling students to and could do harm to the student’s feeling of self-worth. it would be appropriate to tell a maintenance stu- The instructor will be more successful in gaining and dent that a safety wire installation is not satisfactory. The words in the vocabulary constitute a basic symbols.student. communication is achieved The feedback an instructor is getting from a student through symbols which are simple oral and visual needs to be constantly monitored in order to modify the codes. praise builds the student’s ego and reinforces favorable The process finally culminates in the determination of behavior. Most fre. the munication succeeds only in relation to the reaction of instructor can explain to the student that what is felt is their students. When students react with understanding forward or back pressure on the control wheel. 3-2 . reader. that the trim Remember. clarifying. serve as a valuable source of motivation. students need feedback from the instruc- mine which are most suited to starting or ending the tor on how they are doing. After and change their behavior according to the intent of the that. and which are best for the purpose of informs the students of their performance. used carefully. is added as the student practices the skill. the student that stall has been interpreted by the student municate ideas. the instructor realizes from the response of another. In addition to feedback received by the instructor from The parts of the total idea should be analyzed to deter. the mean something to the student. SYMBOLS At its basic level. adjust the trim to relieve control pressure. An instructor’s tions are required for effective transmission of ideas. effective communication has taken place. the sense of touch. negative feedback must be the medium best suited for their transmission. the students. RECEIVER tude. should be delivered as a description of actual perform- thetic learning. the student will respond in the manner desired by the instructor. The student will experience. or chapters) that Recognizing that the student has misunderstood. by feel. The instructor must constantly monitor student feedback. Instructors should always keep in mind that com- needed to maintain the attitude. but words and gestures alone do not com. ance and given in a non-judgmental manner. communicators select the channels of hearing negative feedback only in private. All of these func. each portion becomes student to obtain the desired outcome. or emphasizing. use quently. adjust the trim. lectures. paragraphs. The feedback not only communication. (sentences. or stu- wheel affects the amount of control wheel pressure dent. but also can explaining. They should be combined into units to have something to do with the engine quitting. As an example. To avoid embarrassing a student. the receiver is the listener.

Whether spoken or written. tor’s terminology is necessary to convey the idea. Many people seem to believe that guarantee rapid advancement in aviation training. it is also essential that instructors take. Words. do not trans- fer meanings at all. one of four barriers to dents. cultural background. Figure 3-2. effective communication. some of the students’ abilities. attitudes should be molded things to which they refer determines how the student into forms that promote reception of information. words refer. The instructor should be aware of LACK OF COMMON EXPERIENCE possible differences. A words transport meanings from speaker to listener in the student’s education will certainly affect the instructor’s same way that a truck carries bricks from one location to style of presentation. The English language abounds in words that mean dif- BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE ferent things to different people. and expe. For instance. It is essential to understand the dynamics of com. students come to aviation training with a wide variety of abilities. however. An example might be a mainte. will guide the instructor in commu. they are Second. along with the student’s speak the same language as the students. This is an example instructor’s understanding. First. resistance. but not overreact or assume cer. time needs to be spent making certain the students munication. and educa. to a trucker. or passive neutrality. of a lack of common experience. words cannot communicate the desired meaning to ing most students since they all have different attitudes. The process is complicated by differences in gender. a student with a strong techni- cal background would require a different level of com- munication than one with no such background. several barriers to communication that can inhibit learning. student is probably the greatest single barrier to effective just because a student is a college graduate does not communication. but that style should be based on another. Misunderstandings stem primarily from four bar- riers to effective communication. in themselves. in aviation.In order for an instructor to change the behavior of stu. In fact. The instructor needs to determine the abilities of the students and to understand the students in order to properly com- municate. another person unless the listener or reader has had some experience with the objects or concepts to which these Third. age. To a farmer. the word tractor means the machine that pulls the implements to COMMUNICATION cultivate the soil. it is the vehicle used to The nature of language and the way it is used often lead pull a semitrailer. a tractor propeller is the to misunderstandings. What the student knows. attitudes. Some students arrive with highly developed motor skills. Some may be familiar with aviation in some form while others barely know what an airplane looks like. mean nothing at all. rarely carry precisely the same the evaluation of the student’s knowledge of the avia. Since it is the students’ experience that tional level will determine the approach an instructor will forms vocabulary. the instructor would want to tailor a pres- entation differently for a teenage student than for an older student. Likewise. To gain and The student’s past experience with the words and the hold the students’ attention. A communicator’s ied communicative approach will succeed best in reach. The instructor also must understand that the viewpoint and background of people may differ significantly because of cultural differences. In order for communica- requested task. 3-3 . background. Lack of common experience between instructor and tain values because of these differences. the student. For example. Each technical field has nance instructor telling a student to time the magnetos. the student’s experience. the attitudes students exhibit may indicate merely stimuli used to arouse a response in the student. its own vocabulary. Technical words might mean some- A student new to the maintenance field might think a thing entirely different to a person outside that field. opposite of a pusher propeller. words. the students’ understanding of the student to understand that the procedure has nothing to meaning of the words needs to be the same as the do with the usual concept of time. or stopwatch or clock would be necessary to do the perhaps. meaning from the mind of the instructor to the mind of tion subject being taught. and others have not had opportunities to develop these skills. but the instructor also needs to be aware of understand that terminology. If the instruc- abilities and attitudes. Instruction would be necessary for the tion to be effective. willingness. However. A var. and level of education. responds to what the instructor says. some nicating. this con- sciousness of the differences between people should not be overdone. [Figure 3-2] riences need to be understood.

on the other hand. Being referred to as an air. To learned the terminology particular to aircraft engines. Although the word airplane is more spe- symbol and the symbolized object results when a cific. Boeing 777 to a Piper Cub. through examples and illustrations. Use of the technical language of engines. but skill of the trained AMT. while others would think of (AMT) might be introduced as a mechanic. It would be better to tell the student to word. They that the instructor intends. When such terms are used. Some students make the distinction. An aviation maintenance technician might think of jet engines. or an opposed type engine. Abstract words. as in ple’s minds. Confusion between the an airship. The danger of Abstractions are words that are general rather than abstractions is that they will not evoke the same spe- specific. To many peo. reciprocating engines. Aerodynamics is applicable to all aircraft and is an example of an abstraction that can lead to understand- OVERUSE OF ABSTRACTIONS ing aircraft flight characteristics. people sometimes fail to instructor referred to aircraft engines. another student might visualize Languages abound with words that mean different a helicopter. For instance. engine. but neither really portrays the training and Lycoming IO-360. would narrow the engine type. but there be carefully chosen to represent exactly what the speak. The word aircraft is an abstract desired action. telling a student things that do not call forth mental images in the to take appropriate measures might not result in the minds of the students. an approach to landing is going badly. are times when abstractions are necessary and useful. speakers and writers should be aware of these differences. an inline laboring over an automobile. craft mechanic might be an improvement in some peo. and still another student might visualize things to different people. 3-4 . a V-type engine. various students might envision anything from a word is confused with what it is meant to represent. Overuse of abstract terms can interfere with effective communication. It does not call to mind a specific aircraft in the conduct a go-around since this is an action that has the Figure 3-3. the term mechanic conjures up images of a person abstract since it could be a radial engine. communicate effectively. specify an idea that can be perceived or a thing that they should be linked with specific experiences can be visualized. er or writer intends. Even reciprocating engine is too ple.CONFUSION BETWEEN THE SYMBOL imaginations of various students. One student may AND THE SYMBOLIZED OBJECT visualize an airplane. Words and symbols do not would only be understood by students who have always represent the same thing to every person. when stand for ideas that cannot be directly experienced. Words and symbols can then Abstractions should be avoided in most cases. Concrete words or terms refer to objects that cific items of experience in the minds of the students people can relate directly to their experiences. [Figure 3-3] Although it is obvious that words and the connotations Another example of abstractions would be if an they carry can be different.

training session. Adaptation could be as simple as putting off a lesson until the student is over an illness. new instructor is more likely to find a comfortable style of communication in an environment that is not INTERFERENCE threatening. This is learned in the beginning torque the bolts in accordance with the maintenance by way of role playing during the instructor’s initial manual for that engine rather than simply to torque the training. occurred. case of flight training. they do not occur automatically. Fear of the situation or mis- cues during an approach. hands- Physiological interference is any biological problem on tasks. Likewise. the level tional techniques with an assigned instructor in the of abstraction should be reduced by using concrete. The instructor tional communication begins with role playing during the needs some way of determining results. However. One solution to this problem something they understand. Whenever possible. student is not comfortable. but also can result in long. Another accommo. and is enhanced by additional training. or physical illness. it would be helpful to be able trust between the instructor and student could severely to tell the student about encountering these same con- inhibit the flow of information. When ROLE PLAYING maintenance students are being taught to torque the Experience in instructional communication comes bolts on an engine. instructor gains more experience. The instructor can improve communication ical conditions. environmental. If either instructor or student teaching the procedures to be used for transitioning is not committed to the communication process.same meaning to both student and instructor. can inhibit communication because the development continues as an instructor progresses. What worked early on might be the presentation to allow the student to feel better about refined or replaced by some other technique as the the situation and be more receptive to new ideas. In both cases. com- from instrument meteorological conditions to visual munication is impaired. In the instruction. level of confidence. and other physiolog. interfer. the instructor can judge the actual 3-5 . One of the basic principles used in public speak- communication process. use of earplugs actually clarifies they know very well and for which they have a high speaker output. explained a particular procedure and subsequently determined that the desired student response has Environmental interference is caused by external phys. ground instructional skills to prepare students for what tively. the maintenance these factors. It has been shown that in addition to will perform better when speaking of something that protecting hearing. of the communication have taken place. INSTRUCTIONAL COMMUNICATION dation could be the use of a seat cushion to allow a stu. the instructor should consider the effects of is to transpire in the air. attempted and to assess or critique the results. This better defines and gains control of supervisor in the case of a maintenance instructor. For a prospective flight instructor. effective communication will that may inhibit symbol reception. ing courses is to encourage students to talk about term damage to hearing. A images produced in the minds of the students. Communication skills must be developed. It would not be good if an is the use of headphones and an intercom system. be necessary to reinforce the skills that have been injury. case of a flight instructor applicant. Instructors use of earplugs. Communication has not occurred unless desired results cate stems from experience. instructor must develop skills in the classroom to pre- pare the maintenance student for the practical. ditions. If an instructor without a maintenance background tried to intercom system is not available. Psychological interference is a product of how the The instructor should not be afraid to use examples of instructor and student feel at the time the communica- past experiences to illustrate particular points. These. A new instructor can try out different instruc- bolts to the proper values. But it also is essential that he or she develop good and psychological interference. control of the instructor: physiological. Instruction has taken place when the instructor has dent to sit properly in the airplane. this Barriers to effective communication are usually under might take the form of conducting a practice ground the direct control of the instructor. One example of this is the noise level by adhering to several techniques of good communica- found in many light aircraft. Noise not only impairs the tion. The new instructor is naturally most ence is made up of factors that are outside the direct concerned about developing flight instruction skills. This ical factors. The experience of instruc. or with a mentor or specific terms. and the method training to be an instructor. continues during the actual used should be related to the expected outcome. To communicate effec. such as hearing loss. An instructor’s personal experiences make instruction more valuable than reading the same infor- DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION SKILLS mation in a textbook. The instructor must adapt nothing remains static. a good solution is the teach a course for aviation maintenance. The ability to effectively communi. it would be better to tell them to from actually doing it. When tion process is occurring.

Students can improve their listening skills by in order to communicate effectively. simply knowing the dif. Wanting to listen is just one of several tener depends on proper torque. Normally. lier. it is necessary for students dent to know that the security and integrity of any fas. the instructor must determine the level of understanding by use of some sort of evaluation. [Figure 3-4] thing should be done. an attitude of wanting to listen must be devel- The aviation student should know how and why some. For example. [Figure 3-5] ferent airspeeds for takeoffs and landings is not enough. but it is more important for the stu. For a maintenance student. Instructors can use a number of tools to become better at listening. applying the steps to effective listening. performance of a maneuver. 3-6 . As discussed ear. the instructor must municate. Well constructed written exams can indicate whether the student has absorbed the desired information or not. Since written examinations also provide a permanent record. would be more likely to torque all fasteners properly in Instructors can improve the percentage of information the future. the student techniques which allow a student to listen effectively. LISTENING Instructors must know something about their students Figure 3-5. training programs usually require them. an instructor needs to determine the abilities of the the instructor can judge the level of accomplishment of a students and understand the students to properly com- maintenance procedure. It a one-time event. to want to listen. This works well because it allows the stu- dent to put the information in his or her own words. One way of becoming better acquainted with determine whether the student has actually received and students is to be a good listener. The instructor can then judge whether or not the infor- mation received by the student matches with what the instructor intended. a maintenance stu- dent may know how to tighten a particular fastener to Just as it is important for instructors to want to listen in a specified torque. Written examinations are sometimes appropriate.Figure 3-4. For a flight student. Another testing technique is to have the student explain a procedure. order to be effective listeners. In both cases. transfer by teaching students how to listen. It is essential to know the reasons for different airspeeds in specific situations to fully understand the importance of proper airspeed control. In this way. is important to realize that in order to master the art of listening. oped. Instructors can use a retained the knowledge or if acceptable performance was number of techniques to become better at listening.

but no The deeper the knowledge of a particular area. concentrate on repeating. aware of this possibility. communication This allows them to copy the clearance in a useful form will fail again. would probably be more successful. By know- will be more inclined to do a better job of listening. With this Good questioning can determine how well the student frame of mind. An instructor may ask for prospect of spins is listening to a lesson on spins. dent can then clarify as necessary. If certain areas arouse emotion in a student. tional communication are necessary to be an instructor. Focused questions allow the instructor to carefully. The same note taking a pilot acknowledging instructions from the tower. order to clarify. The presentation can then be modi- made a conscious effort to put that fear aside. The instructor can lesson presentation.Listening is more than hearing. If the student. The instructor must ensure that the student is aware of Since it is important that the instructor understand as the danger of daydreaming. People who concentrate on meant to the instructor. the additional details. It also shows the student that the instructor listen to the routing instructions and then retain very is paying attention. responsible for listening. ing to understand rather than refute. ing the format of a typical clearance. the attempt to record the lecture verbatim should be made. better the instructor is at conveying that information. instructors must ensure that students interested in the student’s response. examples. mation needs to be retained. merely a method of allowing the student to recreate the An example of hearing that is not listening would be lecture so that it can be studied. An example is the instrument student pilot who anticipates drastic changes QUESTIONING in requested routing and is already upset. the student Open-ended questions allow the student to explain should be aware of this and take extra measures to listen more fully. One emotional area to concentrate on is listen. It is very difficult to tion. what is the purpose of ings of the student. take notes allows the student to use an organized system to reconstruct what was said during the lesson. the listener can the instructor has of the student’s behavior and the stu- relate the words to the overall concept. it will be very difficult for the student to understands. the student can then remembering or recording facts might very well miss the make any corrections or expansions on the statement in message because they have not picked up on the big pic. Doing so will use the extra time to reinforce the speaker’s words. instructors can be much faster than even the fastest talker can speak. but is sometimes applicable to use paraphrasing to show what the student’s statement hands-on situations as well. 3-7 . This much more effective by using improved listening skills leaves room for the mind to get off onto some other and effective questions to help in putting themselves in subject. again by stating what perceptions what I am listening to? By doing this. understand things in the same way are the use of para- marily a technique for listening to a lecture or formal phrasing and perception checking. tain their students have the best possible listening skills. In addition. should ask both open-ended and focused questions. For example. This allows the instructor to ask further ques- attempt to listen. tions if necessary. Increasing the depth of knowledge in either area will Nobody can remember everything. But simply hearing is not enough. Another listening technique that can be taught to stu. This is pri. be copying an instrument clearance. Two ways of confirming that the student and instructor dents is that of listening for the main ideas. By incor- porating all or some of these techniques. Perception checking gets to the feel- ture. skills can be used outside the classroom any time infor- but then having no idea what the tower operator said. listening fied to fit the understanding of the student. Note taking is and the instructor. Knowledge of the subject material and skill at instruc- dent to retain more of the information. As mentioned earlier. paraphrasing. An example of this would When calling back to the tower to get the informa. the pilot will want to hear what is being said and copy an instrument clearance word for word. Teaching a student to make the instructor more effective. or summariz- ing the speaker’s words. students will Students also need to be reminded that emotions play a retain more information. allowing the stu. Otherwise. An instructor are aware of their emotions concerning certain subjects. and impressions from the emotions felt by the student might overwhelm the student. for readback and for flying of the clearance. The listener who is aware of this problem can the place of the students. if a student who is terrified of the concentrate on desired areas. student instrument This time the pilot must be ready to listen and be pilots can develop their own system of abbreviations. Most people can listen much as possible about the students. In this way. And it shows that the instructor is much. In most cases a shorthand or abbreviated system of the it is important for students to be able to hear the radio student’s choosing should be encouraged. A listener must always ask. Every INSTRUCTIONAL ENHANCEMENT student will have a slightly different system. Instructors can vastly improve large part in determining how much information is their students’ retention of information by making cer- retained.

If asked a question that exceeded the instructor’s knowledge. course on the subject. ing level as that being taught. the true test of whether successful must be careful to put adequate information into the communication has taken place is to determine if the presentation without providing excessive informa. in a depth of presentation more suited to an advanced factory level if the instructor had only the same train. through receiver) indicates the beginning of the understanding experience or additional training. desired results have been achieved. Otherwise. was prepared to required for the successful communicator.For example. must recognize that communication is a two-way These are discussed in Chapter 11. the flow of ideas between an instructor and the student. the essential elements could get lost electricity might be able to teach at a minimally satis. 3-8 . the instructor An awareness of the three basic elements of the com- could research the answer and get back to the student. Advanced courses in the instructional area and order to convey desired information to the students and on instructional techniques are widely available. Recognizing answer the question initially. In the end. municative process (the source. and the It would be much better if the instructor. The instructor process. dence and give the instructional presentation more The instructor must develop communication skills in depth. Additional knowledge the various barriers to communication further enhances and training would also bolster the instructor’s confi. a maintenance instructor teaching basic tion. the symbols.

The lesson plan should also include almost instantaneously. form as prepared by a publisher of training materials. Sometimes. and other times it is acquired home study or other special preparation to be done by only through long. learning occurs and evaluation.Effective teaching is based on principles of learning includes a statement of lesson objectives. patient study and diligent practice. The objectives allow the instruc- tor to structure the training and permit the student to clearly see what is required along the way. For each lesson or instructional period. and review and evaluation. Objectives are needed to bring the unit steps. The teaching process consists of four basic very helpful in delineating exactly what needs to be done and how it will be done during each lesson. application. presentation. the specific The learning process is not easily separated into a def. Traditionally. necessary supplies. These documents will list general objectives that are to Discussions in this handbook focus on these four basic be accomplished. materials. and the means to be used for review inite number of steps. PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJECTIVES One good way to write lesson plans is to begin by for- mulating performance-based objectives. most of PREPARATION the work of writing a final lesson plan is completed. [Figure 4-1] of instruction into focus. can be divid. Once the performance-based objectives are written. Although there is disagreement as to the the lesson are readily available and that the equipment is number of steps. and equipment needed for ed into steps. on the other hand. the student. 4-1 . or it may be in pre-printed teaching of new material can be reduced to preparation. The instructor uses the objectives as listed in the syllabus or the appropriate PTS as the beginning point for establishing performance-based objectives. and facilities to be used during the lesson. examination of the various lists of operating properly. The instructor should make certain that all The teaching process. the procedures which have been discussed in some detail in Chapter 1. It also allows persons outside the process to see and evaluate what is supposed to take place. the instructor Chapter 10 discusses lesson plans in depth and pro- must prepare a lesson plan. this plan vides examples of a variety of acceptable formats. The instructor can organize the overall instructional plan by writing down the objectives and making certain that they flow in a logical sequence from beginning to end. Preparation of the lesson plan may steps in the teaching process reveals that different be accomplished after reference to the syllabus or prac- authors are saying essentially the same thing: the tical test standards (PTS). goals to be attained. These objectives are Figure 4-1.

.. Arrival at point B should be within five minutes of planned arrival time and cruise altitude should be maintained within 200 feet during the en route phase of the flight. “Using a sectional chart and a flight computer.” are better because they can be measured. the objective as stated is not specific enough formance level is desired of a student before the stu. they become Cessna 172. objectives must be clear. the behavior of Conditions are necessary to specifically explain the the student. 4-2 . conditions. interpretation.. In the previous example.” last few paragraphs. If it is teria. which may be defined as knowl. repeatable. conditions. Phrases Reckoning. instructional. The description write performance-based objectives to fit the desired should be in concrete terms that can be measured. The PTS also has specific crite- The description of the skill or behavior explains the ria or standards upon which to grade performance. the steps to. or an attitude. “But. or loss maintaining standard hemispheric altitudes. tools. navigate from point A to point B while subject to the fallibility of recall. how- desired outcome of the instruction. term behavioral objective. and cri..Performance-based objectives are used to set meas. For example. If they are not written. This might be someone say- Performance-based objectives consist of three parts: ing. original version was confusing to that person. rules under which the skill or behavior is demonstrat- ed. it will be confusing to others that will leave every reader with the same picture of the and should be corrected. and limit- tion. In most cases. they must mean the same inserting conditions narrows the objective as follows: thing to any knowledgeable reader. how it will be performed. although it may be referred to as a performance. Pilotage and Dead types of verbiage which should be avoided. All refer to the same thing. and criteria. the criteria may not always be specific enough for learned capability..” or “able to repeat Standards.. reference material.. The revised performance-based objective may now read. Conditions and criteria should be refined as necessary.” and “awareness of. Information dent is allowed to progress to the next stage of instruc. is a well-defined les- cannot be measured very well and are examples of the son objective from the task. The objectives “Using sectional charts. the criteria may include that navigation from A to B be accom- plished within five minutes of the preplanned flight time and that en route altitude be maintained within 200 feet. for instance. Again. the objective is listed along with sufficient conditions to describe the DESCRIPTION OF THE SKILL OR BEHAVIOR scope of the objective. In other words. urable. outcome of the lesson. It actually is a ever. and to what level of performance.” of specificity with time. or educational CONDITIONS objective. objective.. in the process of writing the objective.. a difficulty is encountered. Each part is required and must be stated in a way confusing to one person. for all students to do it in the same way.?” This is a good indication that the description of the skill or behavior.” The alert reader has already noted that the conditions and criteria have changed slightly during the development of these objectives. and ing parameters should be included. The criteria should be stated so that there is no question whether the objec- tive has been met. the practical test standards already description of the skill or behavior. measurable. Performance-based objectives are made up of a As noted earlier. If a desired capability is to navigate from point A to These objectives provide a way of stating what per. [Figure 4-2] CRITERIA Criteria is a list of standards which measure the accomplishment of the objective. The objective formulated in the Terms such as “knowledge of. what if. and a must be written. a skill. the skill or behavior described should be performance of the student. have many of the elements needed to formulate per- formance-based objectives.. The instructor should feel free to edge. Sometimes. Figure 4-2. in the Private Pilot Practical Test like “able to select from a list of. reasonable standards that describe the desired Furthermore. such as equipment. point B. plan a flight and fly from point A to point B in a Cessna 172. a particular lesson. a flight computer. and that is exactly the way it will occur. This usually involves the logical and within the overall instructional plan.

By listing the criteria for the performance. the discussion is In most instructional situations. drift correction. After a classroom presenta- psychomotor (physical skills). or time en route. lem areas. and instructor has presented. which is used in a classroom situation. tions. and the instructor and student in the proper order so the students get a correct picture actions anticipated during the lesson have also been of each separate process or operation. Showing a student pilot how to dent can practice the maneuver again and again until recognize stalls. as well as the specified. The tion-performance method. Faulty habits are difficult to correct and balance. a marker board. The instructor would first demonstrate Periodic review and evaluation by the instructor is the common indications of a stall. having for- mulated the conditions under which the student will In the shop. The student also may be asked to perform a formance-based objectives may easily be adapted to a procedure or operation that has just been demonstrat- specific performance level of knowledge or skill. This is when habits and training devices. the blanks on the lesson plan. The lecture method is suitable for presenting new material. since each tion. values). any bad habits. a chalkboard. ed. The initial information on overhaul conventional idea of an objective to include conditions procedures would be taught in the classroom using the and criteria. This expansion opens the way for the per. It is especially helpful in teaching subjects such student with a better understanding of the big picture. the instructor’s limited to the lecture method. such as a ground school les. This method is that each student perform the maneuver or operation most effective when accompanied by instructional aids the right way the first few times. or flip chart and must be addressed as soon as possible. the instructor has already established the completion standards normally included as part of Another form of presentation is the guided discussion the lesson plan. The instructor nature of the subject matter and the objective in teach. the steps must be sequenced equipment necessary. would be appropriate for correct performance becomes almost automatic. All three forms of presentation will be tion on the part of the student. and for showing rela. lecture method. affective (attitudes. and the guided discussion. because it is very important son on aircraft weight and balance. the demonstration-per. as safety and emergency procedures where students as well as knowledge of exactly what is expected.OTHER USES OF Combining the lecture and the demonstration-perform- PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJECTIVES ance methods would be useful for teaching students to The use of performance-based objectives expands the overhaul an engine. the stu- most flight maneuvers. demonstrated should the student be allowed to prac- son on the flight computer. Usually the instructor will have to interrupt the stu- tionships between theory and practice. This is necessary. In the case of a lecture on weight are established. overall procedure. it dent’s efforts for corrections and further demonstra- is suitable for the presentation of a ground school les. beliefs. This can use initiative and imagination in addressing prob- overview can alleviate a significant source of frustra. In the demonstra- ments of the lesson and the schedule of events. nity to perform the same procedure. 4-3 . the instructor has already procedure and then the student would have an opportu- done most of the work toward determining the ele. based objectives. Only after reasonable competence has been able for teaching a skill. or during instruction on tice certain maneuvers on solo flights. and the actual hands on portion in the formance-based objective to be used to fill in many of shop would use the demonstration-performance method. which to choose. For example. the stu- PRESENTATION dent may be asked to use the flight computer to com- Instructors have several methods of presentation from pute groundspeed. The ed with student performance efforts. In this handbook. for example. Flight could be used effectively. instructor. makes a presentation and then asks the student to try ing it normally determine the method of presentation. the student may be asked to explain the new domain includes several educational or skill levels. after an instructor has demonstrated and explained the use of the flight computer. and then have the necessary to ensure that the student has not acquired student attempt to identify the same stall indications. the same procedure or operation. addressed in greater depth in Chapter 5. explanation and demonstration activities are alternat- formance method. In addition. the instructor would first demonstrate a accomplish the objective. As indicated in Chapter 1. It is a good method for encouraging active participation of the stu- Use of performance-based objectives also provides the dents. per- material. instructors in particular must be aware of this prob- lem since students do a lot of their practice without an The demonstration-performance method is desir. for summarizing ideas. this method. For example. Then. For example. performance-based objec- tives apply to all three domains of learning — cognitive APPLICATION Application is where the student uses what the (knowledge).

4-4 . Any advances and deficiencies should be In addition to a review of knowledge and skills learned noted at the conclusion of the lesson. If deficiencies or faults not associated with the present lesson are revealed. The instructor’s evaluation may be informal and they are normally able to compare their performance recorded only for the instructor’s own use in planning only with that of their instructor. the instruc- tor should review what has been covered during the clear picture of their progress. they will be less likely to provides opportunities for both positive feedback and become discouraged with their progress. visible competition. they are in a competitive an integral part of each classroom. students should be made aware of their progress. Evaluation is with other students. dents really know how they are doing. Review and evaluation in every lesson ured against task standards. Corrective measures that are practicable within the limitations of the current lesson should be taken immediately. methods of integrating training syllabi students may become discouraged when their only and record keeping will be introduced. may cre. If the evaluation reveals a [Figure 4-3] deficiency in the knowledge or performance. is doing well and they are not. The instructor’s feed- the next lesson for the students. their instructor. which are beyond the scope of the immediate lesson. son should include a selective review and evaluation ate a barrier that could impede further instruction. or it may be formal. Remedial actions. must be included in future lessons in order to minimize unsafe practices or other discrepancies. the instructor should remember that it often is difficult for students to get a Before the end of the instructional period. If students understand that performance is meas- lished standard. back must adequately compare the students’ performance More likely. However. they should be carefully noted and pointed out to the student. correction of faults. In either case. each les- students aware of their progress. of things previously learned. REVIEW AND EVALUATION In aviation training programs. shop. or lack of it. it must be corrected before new material is presented. the In Chapter 5. The evaluation of student performance and accom- plishment during a lesson should be based on the objectives and goals that were established in the instructor’s lesson plan. the evaluation will be formal and results to the completion standards of the lesson plan so the stu- recorded to certify the student’s progress in the course. situation with an unseen competitor—competency—and son. Otherwise. or flight les. Students in flight training lesson and require the students to demonstrate how seldom have a chance to compare their performance well the lesson objectives have been met. Failure to make during the instruction period just completed. Review and evaluation allow both the instructor and the students to have a valid pic- ture of where the student stands in respect to the estab- Figure 4-3.

The discussion which follows students through the course in a logical manner departs from the theoretical with some specific recom. stration-performance method are covered in this chapter. maintenance technician certificate or rating. an instrument rating. the method. integrated lesson plans.The information presented in previous chapters has ORGANIZING MATERIAL been largely theoretical. many explanation. a demon. emphasizing concepts and principles pertinent to the learning process. the main society today. human Regardless of the teaching method used. a systematic plan of action requires the use Teaching methods in common use. Although some schools and independent instructors stration is usually accompanied by a thorough may develop their own syllabus. This knowledge. must be a plan of action to lead instructors and their cient. There used. In a typical lesson. a brief description of new tech. near the end of the chapter. Since a number of computer-based pro. Usually the goal for students mendations for the actual conduct of the teaching is a certificate or rating. Generally. effi. Thus. 5-1 . an effective instructor normally uses more than one method. if properly not stand alone within a course of training. for included since this type of learning may be useful in detailed information on requirements for an aviation conjunction with either the lecture or guided discussion training syllabus. an instructor behavior. It could be a private pilot process. Planning Instructional Activity. able task of organizing a block of training with tion training materials. curriculum development. concern of the instructor usually is the more manage- grams are currently available from publishers of avia. In all cases. in practice. syllabus must contain a description of each lesson. and successful. the guided discussion method. Refer A discussion on cooperative or group learning also is to Chapter 10. and effective communication in education must properly organize the material. and the building-block concept for methods. toward the desired goal. or an aviation have been tested and found to be effective. The traditional way of organ- nologies and how to use them effectively is provided izing a lesson plan is—introduction. such as the lecture of an appropriate training syllabus. and conclusion. development. and the demon. A teaching method is seldom used by itself. The lessons do and training programs. which is essentially a lecture. instructors use a commercially developed syllabus that already has been selected by a school for use in Personal computers are a part of every segment of our their aviation training program. For example. including objectives and completion standards. Included are methods and procedures which certificate. will enable instructors to be more confident.

making an unexpected or ships by developing the main points in one of the surprising statement. the instructor INTRODUCTION should avoid a long apologetic introduction. The introduction should be free of stories. Time relationships are subject. Telling a story or a joke PAST TO PRESENT that is not related in some way to the subject can In this pattern of development. simple to joke. concise presentation of the objective and the key ideas gives the students a road map of the route to be followed. apply. and an Development is the main part of the lesson. A good visual aid can help the instructor show the students the path that they are to travel. ideas and concepts. the introduction is made DEVELOPMENT up of three elements—attention. For example. or incidents that do not help the students focus their attention on the lesson objective. the instructor may talk about an occurrence where the knowledge in the lesson was applied. SIMPLE TO COMPLEX The simple-to-complex pattern helps the instructor lead the student from simple facts or ideas to an under- standing of involved phenomena or concepts. MOTIVATION The purpose of the motivation element is to offer the students specific reasons why the lesson content is important to know. [Figure 5-2] most suitable when history is an important consider- ation. or perform. in developing a 5-2 . to the subject and establish a background for devel- oping the learning outcomes. asking a question. understand. and most frequently another. the instructor can lead into new Figure 5-2. The introduction prepares the students to receive the information in the lesson. the student might begin by considering the action involved in releasing air from a toy balloon and finish by taking part in a discussion of a complex gas turbine engine. only serves to dampen the students’ interest in the lesson. because it The introduction sets the stage for everything to come. The main concern is to arranged chronologically. motivation. In studying jet propulsion. Regardless of which is used. known to unknown. Or the instructor may remind the students of an upcoming test on the material. KNOWN TO UNKNOWN By using something the student already knows as the point of departure. Also. jokes. In brief. Figure 5-1. Any of these may be appropriate at one time or complex. A clear. as in tracing the development of radio naviga- tion systems. The attention element causes students to focus on the upcoming lesson. Efforts in this area pay great dividends in terms of quality of instruction. The instructor may The instructor usually shows these primary relation- begin by telling a story. the subject matter is only distract from the lesson. This motivation should appeal to each student personally and engender a desire to learn the material. Here. it should relate used to least frequently used. The instructor must logically organize the The purpose of the attention element is to focus each material to show the relationships of the main points. for example. For example. [Figure 5-1] instructor develops the subject matter in a manner that helps the students achieve the desired learning ATTENTION outcomes. the overview of what is to be covered. student’s attention on the lesson. from the present to the past gain the attention of everyone and concentrate on the or from the past to the present. OVERVIEW Every lesson introduction should contain an overview that tells the group what is to be covered during the period. or telling a following ways: from past to present.

speaker presents a concise array of facts to the listeners who normally do not expect elaboration of supporting Under each main point in a lesson. pret the meaning of these reactions and adjust the lesson accordingly. the instructor confuse the students. However. The successful instructor will be able to inter- based training. The lecture method is adaptable to many different settings. summarizing ideas. computer. demonstration. In the teaching lecture. in the teaching lecture. When serves as a reminder of. certain information or concepts are Finally. and basic VOR/NDB radio navigation there are several types of lectures such as the illustrated procedures before going on to area navigation proce. the tial navigation system (INS). They also should ration is one key to successful performance as a understand the advantages and limitations of this classroom lecturer. each point leads logically into. LECTURE METHOD PREPARING THE TEACHING LECTURE The lecture method is the most widely used form of presentation. the subordinate material. Every instructor should know how to The competent instructor knows that careful prepa- develop and present a lecture. and little or no verbal participation by the students. New ideas should not be introduced in the In other methods of teaching such as demonstration- conclusion because at this point they are likely to performance or guided discussion. receives direct reaction from the students. notes. manner of taking method—lecture. Lectures are used for introduction of new with a discussion of the vacuum-driven heading subjects. the feedback is the instructor has maximized the opportunity for not nearly as obvious and is much harder to inter- students to retain the desired information. but it is necessary if the students are because it allows some active participation by the stu- to learn and remember what they have learned. For example. With purpose is to inform. Poorly dents. students should study frequently used pilotage. As mentioned in Chapter 3. convey ideas to the listeners. depth of the presentation. covering a subject in too much detail is as bad or worse CONCLUSION than sketchy coverage. showing relationships indicator before proceeding to a description of the between theory and practice. Regardless of the method of An effective conclusion retraces the important development or depth of coverage. talk where the speaker relies heavily on visual aids to dures such as global positioning system (GPS) or iner. cooperative or group learning. the success of the elements of the lesson and relates them to the objective. teaching lecture depends upon the instructor’s ability This review and wrap-up of ideas reinforces student to communicate effectively with the class. However. This permits effective sorting or them toward the desired learning outcomes. points. aware of where they have been. methods to give added meaning and direction. lectures may be combined with other teaching common to all who use the material. learning and improves the retention of what has been learned. dead reckoning. Organizing a lesson so the TEACHING LECTURE students will grasp the logical relationships of ideas is The teaching lecture is favored by aviation instructors not an easy task. The lecture method of teaching needs to be very flexible tion. the next. the instructor must each teaching situation is unique. By organizing the lesson material into a logical format. since it may be used in different ways. The instructor student because it cannot be readily understood or also should carefully consider the class size and the remembered. either verbally or by some form of body language. When learning naviga. The instructor must determine the method to be organized information is of little or no value to the used in developing the subject matter. or a combination—will be used. The setting and develop a keen perception for subtle responses from purpose of the lesson will determine which teaching the class—facial expressions. Meaningful transitions using a teaching lecture.lesson on heading indicators. During a formal lecture. or to entertain with this arrangement. This fourth orga. pret. son. the instructor plans and from one main point to another keep the students delivers an oral presentation in a manner that allows oriented. the speaker’s points should lead naturally from one to the other. and apparent interest or disinterest in the les- performance. Lectures also may be used to introduce a TO LEAST FREQUENTLY USED unit of instruction or a complete training program. With a briefing. the instructor could begin method. This preparation should start 5-3 . guided discussion. In some subjects. and reemphasizing main radio magnetic indicator (RMI). and where some participation by the students and helps direct they are going. including either small or large MOST FREQUENTLY USED groups. nizational pattern starts with common usage before progressing to the rarer ones. categorizing chunks of information in the working or short-term memory. to persuade.

but does not read or memo- rize the material to be presented. Picturesque slang and free-and-easy until the reactions of the students indicate they 5-4 . Because the exact words to express an idea are spontaneous. the lecture to build self-confidence. visual aids. mechanical or testimony. simple rather than complex students. the instructor also ing. In all stages of preparing for the teaching lecture. a leak in the with meaningful examples. The instructor to get a feel for the lecture presentation. if they suit the subject. statistics. • Organizing the material.well in advance of the presentation. Errors in grammar and vulgarisms detract from an instructor’s dignity and reflect upon the intelligence • Establishing the objective and of the students. • Researching the subject. depending on the requirements of any observe the practice sessions and act as a critic. use substandard English. The instruc- of preparation: tor should not. tell more than the general term. and If the subject matter includes technical terms. instructor has better control of the situation. the After completing the preliminary planning and writ. fuel line. can change the approach to meet any contingency. student may neither believe nor understand any point without the use of testimony from subject area experts Another way the instructor can add life to the lecture or without meaningful examples. the instructor should have another knowl. the • Planning productive classroom activities. preferably another instructor. While developing the lesson. Unless long sentences are carefully constructed. and other instructional devices. In addition. • Speaking impromptu without preparation. [Figure 5-3] • Reading from a typed or written manuscript. helps. comparisons. Rehearsals. as well as the presentation. or compar. the instructor should rehearse medium length. Instructors should try a dry run with another ments can be made based on their responses. using sentences of different length should strongly consider the use of examples and per. instructor should normally use sentences of short and ing of the lesson plan. their reactions can be readily observed. help smooth out the mechanics of using TYPES OF DELIVERY notes. statistics.The instructor should consider that the defect. If possible. a choppy style. • Reciting memorized material without the aid of a manuscript. Lectures may include several different types of deliv- edgeable person. For example. Since the instructor talks directly to the students. The instructor speaks from a mental or written outline. instructor should clearly define each one so that no stu- dent is in doubt about its meaning. however. and SUITABLE LANGUAGE can tailor each idea to suit the responses of the In the teaching lecture. the the instructor should use specific rather than general instructor should support any point to be covered words. the lecture is more personalized than one that is read or spoken from memory. that point can be elaborated on simple words. For example. However. Good puzzled expressions that a number of students fail to newspapers offer examples of the effective use of grasp an idea. The following colloquialisms. and adjust- Figure 5-3. The teaching lecture is probably best delivered in an extemporaneous manner. or dry runs. Whenever possible. if the instructor realizes from words should be used whenever possible. • Speaking extemporaneously from an outline. since consistent use of short sentences results in sonal experiences related to the subject of the lesson. desired outcomes. they are difficult to follow and can easily become tangled. the specific words. can add vari- four steps should be followed in the planning phase ety and vividness to a teaching lecture. is to vary his or her tone of voice and pace of speak- isons. To ensure clarity and variety. ery. a lecture is usually delivered critique will help the instructor judge the adequacy in one of four ways: of supporting materials and visual aids. This particular circumstances.

such as lectures tening to a lecture. or if they do not have access to refer- should be placed where they can be consulted easily. By using a lecture in this way. interest. the lecture does not bring about maxi- lecture is encouraged. the students are encouraged to make contri- it is likely to hold the interest of the students. Learning is an active process. notes are a must large groups. grounds a common understanding of essential princi- ples and facts. FORMAL VERSUS INFORMAL LECTURES The lecture may be conducted in either a formal or Although the lecture method can help the instructor an informal manner. this way. For these reasons. In a lecture. The informal lecture includes meet special challenges. 5-5 . Too often the lecture inhibits student participation and. The lecture is particularly suitable for introducing a new subject and for explaining the necessary back- ground information. Figure 5-4. cessfully supplement other teaching devices and [Figure 5-4] methods. butions that supplement the lecture. Notes allow the accurate dissemination of the instructor can offer students with varied back- complicated information. If necessary. The can be used to amplify the speaker’s voice. In more flexible than other methods. ularly if the students do not have the time required Notes may be written legibly or typed. but at the same time difficult for the student to get in other ways. it must be mum attainment of certain types of learning outcomes. stimulate made the presentation before can usually speak effec. learning outcomes. The primary consid. However. The extemporaneous presentation The instructor can achieve active student participation reflects the instructor’s personal enthusiasm and is in the informal lecture through the use of questions. organize. The instructor can use questions to determine the experience and USE OF NOTES background of the students in order to tailor the An instructor who is thoroughly prepared or who has lecture to their needs. Therefore. and/or to add variety. The only effective way students can introducing new subject matter. relaxed teacher-dependence on the part of the students. If the lecture has been carefully is the instructor’s responsibility to plan. prepared. partic- should make no effort to hide them from the students. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Notes used wisely can ensure accuracy. and dispel the fear of forgetting. eration in the lecture method. the instructor can present many ideas in a relatively short time. can seldom be learned by lis- on some subjects and occasions. and the instructor is completely familiar with develop. a public address system because they help keep the lecture on track. A brief introductory lecture can give direction and purpose to a demonstration or prepare students for a discussion by telling them something about the subject matter to be covered. for example. Lectures instructor who requires notes should use them can be used to present information that would be sparingly and unobtrusively. there should be no real difficulty. perfect such skills is through hands-on practice. the outline. and present the major portion of a lesson. it tively without notes. As a atmosphere. jog the mem. Facts and ideas that have been logically organized can be concisely presented in rapid sequence. and they for research. is the achievement of desired instructor do all the work. many students willingly let the teaching methods. Lecturing is unquestionably the most economical of all teaching methods in terms of the time required to present a given amount of material. They are essen- There are a number of advantages to lectures. At the same time. if the instructor walks about the room. it does have several drawbacks. For an example. as in all other as a consequence. Lectures also can usefully and suc- or held. a lecture is a convenient way to instruct instructor who tends to ramble. Learning is best achieved if and the lecture method tends to foster passiveness and students participate actively in a friendly. and check student understanding. active student participation. For tial for reporting complicated information. OF THE LECTURE ory. ence material. realized that a formal lecture is still to be preferred Motor skills. the use of the informal teaching method.understand.

In addition. and earn- must describe in very unambiguous language the ing the group rewards for success. groups are that students tend to interact and achieve in tion drops off significantly after the first 10-15 minutes ways and at levels that are rarely found with other of a lecture and picks back up at the end. with what materials. an instructor needs considerable skill in speak. CONDITIONS AND CONTROLS access to rewards is through membership in the In spite of its many advantages. Numerous research studies in diverse school settings. For example.The lecture does not easily allow the instructor to to clear and specific learning outcomes or objectives. and gender. Numerous other benefits for students have objectives. Thus. but the instructor chance of learning the content and/or abilities. the instructor may apply are discussed in the following paragraphs. cooperative or group group where all members receive a reward or no learning is not a panacea for education or training. Students must perceive these objectives as their own. unwittingly present more information than students can absorb. geted objectives. Within a single period. precise terms exactly what stu- COOPERATIVE OR GROUP dents are to do. indicate promising possibilities for ALL STUDENTS IN THE GROUP MUST BUY academic achievement with this strategy. the student must acquire and then demonstrate on their own. the rate of retention for active and feelings of others. regardless of the specific knowledge and/or abilities the students are to group he or she is in. race. instructors need to begin planning early to determine what the student group is expected to learn and be able to do on their own. The main advantages with heterogeneous ing. In comparison. the group needs to master the essential information and greater comprehension of the subjects they are and/or skills. member does. or cliques. In addition not feel penalized by being placed in a particular group. and LEARNING METHOD when appropriate. One form of active learning that has been successfully CLEAR. 5-6 . Students should not be achieve desired learning outcomes through the lecture allowed to form their own groups based on friendship method. HETEROGENEOUS GROUPS Instructors should organize small groups of approxi- mately 3 to 6 members so that students are mixed het- Many instructors find it difficult to hold the attention of erogeneously. and the lecture method provides no accurate means of checking student progress. significant characteristic of group learning is that it continually requires active participation of the student POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE in the learning process. An instructor who can clarification of various opinions. considering academic abilities. As indicated in Chapter 1. In other words. instructional strategies. introduce some form of active student participation in the middle of a lecture will greatly increase retention. estimate the students’ understanding as the material is some of the other conditions and controls that may covered. This means tasks are structured so that Virtually all studies and literature carefully mention students must depend upon one another for their that success depends on conditions that must be met group’s success in completing and mastering the tar- and certain controls that must be in place. To backgrounds. strategy which organizes students into small groups so These directions need to be given to the students before that they can work together to maximize their own and they engage in their group learning efforts. what students are to generate as evi- Cooperative or group learning is an instructional dence of their mastery of targeted content and skills. Instructors must structure learning tasks so students will believe that they sink or swim together. or physical skills. each other’s learning. AND INSTRUCTIONS Instructors need to provide directions and instructions that contain in clear. a student’s rate of reten. and to seek more support and learning goes up dramatically. The end result of a curriculum unit OPPORTUNITY FOR SUCCESS or group task may emphasize academic achievement. in what order. all members of the group must accept the been attributed to these programs. ative learning group tasks tend to have higher test They must understand and believe that everyone in scores. They also tend to become tol- the retention rate for a lecture is about five percent after erant of diverse viewpoints. higher self-esteem. INTO THE TARGETED OBJECTIVES advocates have noted that students completing cooper. COMPLETE DIRECTIONS used is cooperative or group learning. First of all. In cases where groups select their own studying. Every student must believe that he or she has an equal cognitive abilities. and across a wide range of subject areas. Perhaps the most objectives as ones they have agreed to achieve. improved social skills. ethnic all students in a lecture throughout the class period. to consider the thoughts 24 hours.

In these exam- weeks together in the same heterogeneous group. how they helped access to and comprehend the specific information that each other comprehend the content. learning is achieved through the skillful use of questions. as is true with any groups and expected to use appropriate social and group learning effort. more intense the discussion and the greater the partici- pation. briefings. and edge and experience. GUIDED DISCUSSION METHOD face conversations. After the discussion develops. encouragement. each student must be formally and individually tested to determine mastery and retention of the targeted USE OF QUESTIONS IN A GUIDED DISCUSSION learning outcomes or training objectives. ples. and to assign particular students specific roles students know. encourage questions. In the guided discussion. conflict management. during classroom periods. Students should be positioned and postured to face each other for direct eye-to-eye contact and face-to. and academ- reasons. the instructor typically relies on group skills does not mean they will automatically use the students to provide ideas. Thus. or working group strategies are alterna- and be retained only after students have spent several tives to a pure form of group learning. The instructor may want a student to explain 5-7 . students need and information. Instructors may need to describe the cussion method is almost the opposite of the lecture expected social interaction behaviors and attitudes of method. the instructor acts as a facilitator to and for learning what needs to be learned. the DEBRIEF ON GROUP EFFORTS instructor may ask a follow-up question to guide the Students should spend time after the group tasks have discussion. tion is indicated by its name. collaborative. Just because students are placed in In the guided discussion method. As a result. and preflight and postflight trust-building. The purpose is to get the discussion started. experiences.ACCESS TO MUST-LEARN INFORMATION they worked together as a team—specifically how well Instructors must structure the tasks so that students have they achieved their group objectives. Understanding FOR GROUP SUCCESS these distinctions helps the instructor become a more Only members of groups who meet established levels skilled user of questions. and task they must learn. Research suggests that modified to adapt to school policy or for other valid many of the positive values. opinions. social skills. SUFFICIENT TIME FOR LEARNING All of the preceding conditions and controls do not Each student and group should be provided the amount have to be used every time an instructor assigns of time needed to learn the targeted information and/or students to work in groups. The specific awards must be something valued by for discussion. and what they need to do in the future to be even more successful. learning groups is so they can individually achieve exercise patience and tact. Sarcasm or ridicule should never be used. The instructor should remember that the iors in their groups. the student leader or the instructor serves as a coach or facilitator who interacts with the group. after the students have gained some knowl- cism. Questions can be catego- RECOGNITION AND REWARDS rized by function and by characteristics. and comment on all greater success than if they were to study alone. the more effective the learning. rather than to spend the class period to ensure that they consciously work on these behav. constructive criti. negotiation. as well as any test tudes to enable each individual and the entire group to items that will be used to measure their achievement. Fundamentally. each student must be held individually responsible and since it inhibits the spontaneity of the participants. All members of INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY the group should follow the discussion. responses. The instructor’s goal is to draw out what the students. An instructor may use this method to engage in such interactive abilities as leadership. student-led. If students do not spend sufficient time learn- or group learning in aviation training is normally ing. To work together as a group. In a accountable for doing his or her own share of the work guided discussion. ic advantages of cooperative learning tend to emerge instructor-led. as POSITIVE SOCIAL INTERACTION necessary. For example. In practice. encourage discussion between students. The focus of learning tasks must be procedures. This is the lead-off question and its func- the students. these skills. resources. the guided dis- clarification. compromise. The instructor The main reason that students are put in cooperative should treat everyone impartially. be successful. to keep it on track or to encourage everyone BEHAVIORS AND ATTITUDES in the group to participate. how they used positive behaviors and atti- aligned with the specific objectives. cooperative abilities. telling them. The reasons for using a follow-up question been completed to systematically reflect upon how may vary. for achievement receive the rewards or public recogni- The instructor often uses a question to open up an area tion. the benefits will be limited.

to ask “Why does an airplane normally PLANNING A GUIDED DISCUSSION require a longer takeoff run at Denver than at New Planning a guided discussion is basically the same as Orleans?” instead of. In preparing questions. Lead-off questions should usually begin with how or why. always be alert for ideas on the best way to tailor a lesson for a particular group of students. how. a Consequently. that appears to be especially appropriate as back- voking and require more mental activity than simply ground material for students. or may need to bring the Note that these same suggestions include many that are discussion back to a point from which it has strayed. the instructor should be certain that the main points discussed build logically with the objective. experiences. A reverse understanding level of learning. However. and closure. the instructor can redirect the question to another student • Conduct adequate research to become familiar with to provide the answer. reverse. the instruc- tor should remember that the purpose is to stimulate Figure 5-5. motivation. develop an understanding of the subject by sharing low-up purposes may choose the overhead type. and to infer cause-and. and backgrounds. Since most aviation training is at be well organized and based on fundamentals. the objective normally is stated at the direct question may be asked of that student. the students The instructor who wants to phrase a question for fol. For example. If. because it also spurs group cussing the lesson topic. While researching. remotivation. ever. the instructor should the group instead of the individual. The desired learn- question is used in response to a student’s question. not merely to get answers. questions can be identified • Select a topic the students can profitably discuss.something more thoroughly. knowledge. appropriate for planning cooperative learning. instructors will find it much easier to ask appropriate questions that keep the discussion moving in should avoid questions that require only short cate- the planned direction. “Would you expect an airplane planning a lecture. [Figure 5-5] has three main parts—introduction. or higher. lesson in a logical sequence. Questions are so much a part of teaching that they are the instructor can prepare the pre-discussion assign- often taken for granted. direct. such as yes or no. the instructor phrases the questions to help the students obtain a firm grasp of the subject matter and to minimize the possibility of a rambling discussion. rhetorical. discussion. Similarly. it is better. Rather than give a direct answer to the student’s query. learning outcomes. Orleans?” Students can answer the second question 5-8 . The introduction consists of three elements—attention. In terms of characteristics. instructors the instructor should also earmark reading material should ask open-ended questions that are thought pro. The rhetorical question give the students an adequate background for dis- is similar in nature. If the objectives of a lesson are clearly estab. If necessary. make assignments that will to pose the lead-off question. By organizing in this manner. Through discussion. ing outcomes should stem from the objective. as overhead. In the discussion. gorical answers. • Plan at least one lead-off question for each desired learning outcome. Effective use of questions may ment more effectively while conducting research for result in more student learning than any other single the classroom period. explain • Organize the main and subordinate points of the similarities and differences. Such material should remembering facts. the understanding level of learning. the instructor provides the answer to the rhetorical question. During this research process. In general. they cannot reach the stimulate the thought and response from each group desired learning outcomes by the discussion member. it is more • Establish a specific lesson objective with desired commonly used in lecturing than in guided discussion. thought. to require a longer takeoff run at Denver or at New ing suggestions helpful in planning a discussion lesson. The guided discussion effect relationships. The instructor may use an overhead question method. The instructor will find the follow. The conclusion consists of the summary. and relay. and overview. and conclusion. technique used by instructors. discussion. The Unless the students have some knowledge to overhead question is directed to the entire group to exchange with each other. a response is desired from a specific individual. ques- tions should require students to grasp concepts. The instructor lished in advance. Consequently. A relay question is redirected to the topic.

engine effi. The instructor should try to make the students feel that their ideas and active participation A guided discussion is closed by summarizing the mate- are wanted and needed. the student should feel a personal responsibility to CONCLUSION contribute.” but the first question is The more difficult the question. Each student Once the discussion is underway. dents do not understand the question. Throughout the time the instructor prepares the Remember that during the preparation. if dis- aware of the lesson objective. This will summarize the ideas developed by the group INTRODUCTION and show how they relate to. the how to answer. Whenever the instructor sees puzzled expressions. and support. a motivation element. informal atmosphere. dents will need to produce an answer. the inter- relaxed. rial covered. GUIDING A DISCUSSION— When it appears the students have discussed the ideas INSTRUCTOR TECHNIQUE that support this particular part of the lesson. the instructor should should be encouraged to accept responsibility for listen attentively to the ideas. tion. experiences. The following to the instructor. may find it necessary to guide the direction. The summary should be succinct. By the introduction. Moreover. ately after the discussion of each learning outcome. An interim summary reinforces learning in overview of key points. determine understood by one or more members of the group. the subject. it. and show the relationships between the facts brought forth DISCUSSION and the practical application of these facts. ficult to be patient while students figure out answers. or to think of an example. the instructor asked to discuss a subject without some background in should be able to guide the discussion toward the objec- that subject. As the discussion proceeds. the instructor work and must face the students cold for the first time. To encourage enthusiasm and relation to a specific learning outcome. Sometimes an instructor finds it dif. to stimulate In such cases. the cussed by the students. instructor might give a fairly complete description of an tion. they should be made ed some of the anticipated responses that would. an the prepared lead-off questions. but not incomplete. The students accident which occurred due to a pilot attempting to should be given a chance to react. the idea dis- cussed. the more time the stu- likely to start a discussion of air density. The GUIDED DISCUSSION nature of the questions should be determined by the lesson objective and desired learning outcomes. The instructor take off in an overloaded airplane from a short runway should have the answer in mind before asking the ques. In certain instances. the instructor should create a its uses as a summary and transitional device. by merely saying “Denver. instructor should clarify or cover this material again. The interim summary may be omitted after dis- A guided discussion lesson is introduced in the same cussing the last learning outcome when it is more expe- manner as the lecture. and feel free to do so. an interim summary can be made immedi- conducting the guided discussion. In addition to stimulate discussion. the inter- with the discussion and know where to intervene with im summary is one of the most effective tools available questions or redirect the group’s focus. Sometimes stu- ciency. The instructor needs to keep up accomplished. Each student should be im summary may also be used to keep the group on the given the opportunity to discuss the various aspects of subject or to divert the discussion to another member. instructor should summarize what the students have tice and experience. and examples contributing to the discussion and benefiting from contributed by the students during the discussion. and an conclusion. To bring ideas together and help in information provides a framework for successfully transition. Normally students should not be using how and why follow-up questions. it is practical and advisable to give the students to explore the subject in greater depth. For exam- The instructor opens the discussion by asking one of ple. in concluding a discussion on density altitude. indicate that they had a firm grasp instructor has no opportunity to assign preliminary of the subject. or to the students a brief general survey of the topic during encourage them to discuss the topic in more detail. If the discussion has revealed that certain areas are not Keep in mind that it takes time to recall data. at a high-altitude airport on a hot day. In the conclusion the instructor should tie together the various points or topics discussed. After asking a ques. The introduction should include dient for the instructor to present the first part of the an attention element. In a guided discussion lesson. and the effect of temperature on performance. the The techniques used to guide a discussion require prac. the instructor should be patient. the instructor list- students for their discussion. 5-9 . It is the instructor’s responsibility to help students prepare themselves for the discussion. tive of helping students understand the subject. the question STUDENT PREPARATION FOR A should be rephrased in a slightly different form. but the students have to think about the question before answering.

SUPERVISION PHASES Because these two phases. An individual learns to write explained. steps involved in performing the skill being taught. the instructor must convey to the COMPUTER–BASED TRAINING students the precise actions they are to perform. In flight training. Skills requiring the use of tools. such as a weight and balance computation. which involve separate Every instructor should recognize the importance of actions.DEMONSTRATION–PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION PHASE The instructor must show students the actions neces- METHOD sary to perform a skill. Next. the instructor may allow the stu- dent to follow along on the controls during the demon- stration of a maneuver. Students learn dents are to clearly understand that the instructor is physical or mental skills by actually performing those accurately performing the actions previously skills under supervision. One of the most significant is computer- this phase. The demonstration-performance method of ability to perform. can increase their ability to perform the skill. so they Student performance requires students to act and do. the instructor should identify the most important skills that have been explained and demonstrated. coaching as necessary. and the instructor discovers just how well the skill has been learned. [Figure 5-6] tion. Immediately thereafter. students have been performing a task. In METHOD addition to the necessary steps. the instructor determines the of the particular lesson to be presented. The learning outcomes. and to fly an aircraft by the demonstration does not closely conform to the actually performing flight maneuvers. students learn to follow used. The first of these phases is lesson that is to include demonstration and perform. periods. students must practice. the aircraft maintenance instructor uses it in It is important that students be given an opportunity to the shop. such as speed reading. As little extraneous activity as This method of teaching is based on the simple. the instructor should Many new and innovative training technologies are describe the end result of these efforts. by this acknowledged and explained. and based on effectiveness of the instruction. they should be allowed to independently complete the task at least once. Then. Early in a here under a single heading. Students also explanation. the student’s performance of the physical or mental ance. pertinent to the objectives of student achievement. From this measurement Explanations must be clear. The science teacher uses it during laboratory correct procedures and to reach established standards. due to some unanticipated circumstances by writing. this deviation should be immediately learn mental skills. are performed concurrently. the instructor requires students to teaching has five essential phases. machines. The student displays whatever competence has been attained. allot enough time for meaningful stu- The demonstration-performance method is widely dent activity. To test each student’s Figure 5-6. In another exam- ple. and the flight instructor uses it in teaching perform the skill as soon as possible after a demonstra- piloting skills. the instructor should have the student attempt to perform the maneuver. allow students time to practice each step. method. to weld by welding. Prior to terminating the performance phase. The instructor must. To learn skills. the instructor should encourage students to based training (CBT)—the use of the personal com- ask questions about any step of the procedure that they puter as a training device. CBT is sometimes called do not understand. as a group. EVALUATION PHASE In this phase. The terms CBT and 5-10 . STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND INSTRUCTOR tional method. work independently throughout this phase and makes some comment as to how each performed the skill rel- EXPLANATION PHASE ative to the way it was taught. Before leaving available today. In teaching a skill. yet possible should be included in the demonstration if stu- sound principle that we learn by doing. the known experience and knowledge of the students. therefore. they are discussed student performance in the learning process. Through doing. the instructor judges student perform- ance. If. computer-based instruction (CBI). with supervision and coaching as necessary. and equipment are particularly well suited to this instruc. explain and demonstrate the second activity is the instructor’s supervision.

for which safely and properly perform a compression check on an there are no two-seat training versions. entrusting an entire train- procedures. as well as considerable resources to developing CBT programs in many other ways. a student can review portions of a CBT pro- area. or guided discussions questions missed. If students wish to learn about a particular in a text. instructors the refueling of a specific aircraft could use a CBT pro. since aviation training is that are used to teach aircraft systems and maintenance all encompassing and dynamic. The instructor must be active- programs typically allow the students to select a test. Like video or a textbook. Computer-based training should not be Other common examples of CBT include the comput. in teaching aircraft mainte- advantages of CBT is that students can progress at a nance. by the instructor as simply another form of reference for ments where the presentation varies as a result of their students to study. This involvement should include close supervision. a usual. and find out how they did on aids. CBT programs produced by various aircraft rate which is comfortable for them. Fixed-base operators (FBOs) who offer instrument training may use personal com. should not rely exclusively on a CBT program on traffic Major airlines have high-level flight simulators that are patterns and landings to do the ground instruction for a so realistic that transitioning captains meet all qualifi. Another use of computers would be to allow students to review procedures at their own pace while the instructor is involved in hands-on training with other Computers are now used for training at many different students. time merely by clicking on the appropriate icon. This is part of educational programs of all types. At times. The students also manufacturers can be used to expose students to equip- are often able to access the CBT at their own conven. The instructor must contin- portion of the screen. They can focus on the area they ue to monitor and evaluate the progress of the student as either need to study or want to study. For example. it can be done at any way businesses function and promises the same for edu. One of the major instructor. can purchase the package of CBT materials along with the For most aviation training. they do so by clicking the mouse on a particular gram until it is understood. cation and training. ly involved with the students when using instructional complete the questions. action with a human instructor. military pilots terns and landings in the aircraft. CBT ful for preparation for the FAA knowledge tests. Likewise. puter-based aviation training devices (PCATDs) or they also have limitations. the amount of manpower nec. The computer may For example. For example. student’s input. it would be use flight training devices or flight simulators to pre. quizzes. such as the A-10. much more descriptive of the way instructors should uti- lize the computer in aviation training. than a textbook or video. Just as a student can reread a section responses. For example. As a Another term in computer training is computer assisted result. educators today are using personal computers as instruction—the use of the computer as a tool. Some of the more advanced CBT applications allow In teaching flight students.CBI are synonymous and may be used interchangeably. These is an aid to the instructor. entire procedure. depending on the in use by everyone from flight schools to major airlines. However. examinations. ing program to a computer is not practical. a flight instructor instrument time a pilot needs for the instrument rating. If the student wishes to repeat a sec- The personal computer or PC has revolutionized the tion or a portion of the section. This is necessary to be certain a student is on maintenance student who wants to find information on track with the training syllabus. as well as the military. aircraft engine if the only training the student received was via CBT. The new generation is as comfort- able with the PC as they are with the telephone. CBT programs can be used students to progress through a series of interactive seg. used by the instructor as stand-alone training any more er versions of the test prep study guides which are use. As a result. The student may then conduct a review of questions. Even airline essary to train aircrews and maintenance technicians simulator programs require tailoring and hands-on inter- on the new equipment has been significantly reduced. Likewise. the test. improper to expect a maintenance student to be able to pare for flying aircraft. may feel that they are doing more one-on-one instruc- gram to access the refueling section. such as the major airlines. but repetitive 5-11 . ment not normally found at a maintenance school. major aircraft manufacturers allocate be used as described in the previous paragraph. on the subject matter. The major advantage of CBT over other levels. One example that is very significant is the high forms of instructional aid is that it is interactive—the technology flight training devices and flight simulators computer responds in different ways. End users of the aircraft. and study the tion than in a normal classroom setting. the computer should be aircraft in order to accomplish both initial and recur. thought of as a very valuable tool to be used to aid the rent training of their personnel. student pilot. then expect the student to demonstrate pat- cations in the flight simulator. ience rather than that of the instructor. Improper or excessive use of flight training devices (FTDs) for a portion of the CBT should be avoided. While computers provide many training advantages.

cooperative learning. The instructor’s success is instructor’s tools are teaching methods. This actually gives the instructor more time for one-on- one teaching. there will be skill regarding methods of instruction may be com. The instructor must continually monitor student uations. [Figure 5-7] A successful instructor needs to be familiar with as many teaching methods as possible. as with all instructional aids. Although lecture and demonstration-performance may be the methods used most often. Just as the determined to a large degree by the ability to organize technician uses some tools more than others. Figure 5-7. being aware of other methods and teaching tools such as guided discussion. An experienced instructor’s knowledge and ers. times when a less used tool will be the exact tool need- pared to a maintenance technician’s toolbox. 5-12 .forms of teaching may be accomplished by computer. Remember. performance when using CBT. As is the case with the technician. and computer-based instruction will better prepare an instructor for a wide variety of teaching sit. The ed for a particular situation. and it will always be the responsibility of the instructor to provide monitoring and oversight of student progress and to intervene when necessary. the material and to select and utilize a teaching method appropriate to a particular lesson. Obviously the aviation instructor is the key to effective instructor will use some methods more often than oth- teaching. the computer has no way of knowing when a student is having difficulty.

otherwise. for improvement and encouragement. communicating. Second. for exam- 6-1 . the as expected. classroom as well as to the student who performed the ation is unique. and the overall performance. analysis. the not the course objectives have been met. to measure and document whether or in content. which is a part of each lesson. Students must understand the ability to analyze. The student quite naturally looks to the instructor to accept the criticism offered and little improvement for guidance. written. An ing.The emphasis in previous chapters centered on learn. A critique may be oral. before the entire class. and the teaching process. a critique is not necessarily negative the end of course. It is a step in the learning tions are used periodically throughout a course. It considers the good along with the bad. Although not all critiques lend themselves to reteaching. relationships of the individual parts. the actual outcome may not be entirely exercise or assignment. The instructor must be able to appraise instructor should be judicious and avoid embarrassing student performance and convey this information back the student in front of the whole class. to the student. It flight instructor in the aircraft or in the briefing area. and show how learning. and describe several methods of evaluation. In this case. performs or practices to improve skill. they will be unlikely ance. PURPOSE OF A CRITIQUE the techniques and methods described also apply to the A critique should provide the students with something aircraft maintenance instructor in the shop and to the constructive upon which they can work or build. should provide direction and guidance to raise their No skill is more important to an instructor than the level of performance. A critique may be conducted in private or to conduct effective evaluations. and at process. as well as suggestions will result. First. appraisal. A critique also can be used as a tool for reteaching. This feedback from instructor to student is called a critique. purpose of the critique. or both. A critique presented before the entire class can be beneficial to every student in the Since every student is different and each learning situ. This is an informal critique. while the advantage of the opportunity when it arises. and be corrected at the outset. and usual- ly should. A critique can. in the grading process. we will discuss the instructor’s role as a critic. In this instructor may critique any activity which a student chapter. however. Although this chapter deals with the critique primarily from the standpoint of the instructor in the classroom. proficiency. and judge student perform. details of the performance are easy to recall. It should come the instructor should be alert to the possibility and take immediately after a student’s performance. The critique should be used by the Two common misconceptions about the critique should instructor to summarize and close out one lesson. a critique is not a step prepare the student for the next lesson. If. individual parts. Formal evalua. appraise. be as varied in content as the performance THE INSTRUCTOR AS A CRITIC being critiqued.

To dwell on the excel- with a student. might recognize the need for a more detailed explana. lence of a performance while neglecting the portion that tivity. the instructor is faced with the problem of what In order to provide direction and raise the students’ to say. and readily apparent familiarity with the subject at hand must serve instead. sincerity. and biases of the instructor. not as it could have been. and not reflect the person. A friendly student may suddenly become hostile. Sometimes a good student will turn in a poor step in a weight-and-balance problem. An effective critique covers strengths as well enced by their general impression of the student. The instructor must decide whether the greater For example. ACCEPTABLE Before students willingly accept their instructor’s crit- icism. to determine what to say at the proper moment. or as A critique is pointless unless the student profits from the instructor and student wished that it had been. Students must have confidence in the instructor’s qualifications. as weaknesses. Effective critiques share a number of charac. Critiques do not have to be all sweetness and light. or only unless they interfered with the performance itself. if a student accomplishes a complicated benefit will come from a discussion of a few major flight planning problem. the student probably will accept it as such. it. it is not enough 6-2 . A comprehensive critique is not necessarily a long one. technique. the instructor’s manner. Some of the requirements for an fy the requirements of the moment. likes. or special hostile student may suddenly become friendly and emphasis in the critiques of subsequent performance. The praise can then be used The instructor needs to examine the entire performance to inspire the student to improve in areas of lesser of a student and the context in which it is accom. nor do they have to curry favor with students. The instructor instructor to criticize the student’s personality traits might critique what most needs improvement. While such factors usually operate to the instructor’s advantage. If a critique is to be objective. Again and again. favor. effective critique are shown in figure 6-1. It should be objective. The challenge of the critique for an instructor is be aligned with the completion standards of the lesson. attitude. or a tion. the critique must be factual and mize. improve. and what to mini- level of performance. Usually. If a critique is presented fairly. dislikes. accept- Figure 6-1. If this is not the case. of course. competence. however. another demonstration of the step. A critique should be designed and executed so AN EFFECTIVE CRITIQUE that the instructor can allow for variables. teaching ability.ple. but praise should be included to show how to capitalize on FLEXIBLE things that are done well. it must be honest. How to balance the two is a decision able or unfavorable. cooperative. as well as the CHARACTERISTICS OF student. An This. By the same token. sincerity. ance. Praise for praise’s sake is of no value. ability depends on more active and demonstrable qual- teristics. conviction. and from a position of recognizable competence. they must first accept the instructor. ities than on simply being the instructor. it would hardly be fair for the points or a number of minor points. is because the critique is a part of the effective critique is one that is flexible enough to satis- learning process. the instructor performance and a poor student will turn in a good one. it must be based on the CONSTRUCTIVE performance as it was. what to stress. with authority. and authority. accomplishment.” A conflict of personali. is known as “halo error. The instructor must fit the tone. to such a degree that it influences objec. several students falter when they reach the same plished. Sympathy or over-identification that only the instructor can make. what the student can reasonably be expected to Instructors sometimes permit their judgment to be influ. nor must it treat every aspect of the performance in al opinions. should be improved is a disservice to the student. detail. instructors have the opportunity to establish themselves with their students before the formal cri- tiquing situation arises. and content of the critique to the occasion. Instructors should not rely on their position to make a critique more acceptable to their students. ties can also distort an opinion. OBJECTIVE COMPREHENSIVE The effective critique is focused on student perform. what to omit.

It should be organized critique can profitably begin at the point where a and not allowed to degenerate into a random free-for-all. the criteria and guidelines. a self-critique must be con- weld. This method should be controlled carefully the sequence of the performance itself. The combined reports from tance of the individual. nor erroneous impressions derstood. Sometimes a defect is so glaring or The instructor asks a student to lead the critique. ance. and understand it. the techniques or can leave it to the discretion of the tique. If the instructor has a clear. An effective organizational pattern might be formance. or fun at the the groups can result in a comprehensive critique. most importantly. or considered worth can improve. A variation is for the instructor logical defect.” has little constructive value. specifically how they ted. 6-3 . Breaking the whole into parts or building the student leader. and each group is assigned a specific area to analyze. There are several useful methods of conducting a cri- ORGANIZED tique. it should be expressed with methods employed. rather than general. drawing on the talents. and opinions of others. Instead. on the whole. At the conclusion of a critique. discretion may rule out any BY ANOTHER STUDENT criticism at all. be effective. Whatever ticipants in the lesson area. it is desirable for the instructor to furnish should never minimize the inherent dignity and impor. well-founded. a series of otherwise valid comments may lose their INSTRUCTOR/STUDENT CRITIQUE impact. and of the critique. the instructor must not leave con- firmness and authority in terms that cannot be identify a fault or weakness. and quality of performance. The instructor must make allowances for unless they know specifically what the recommenda. Almost any pattern is acceptable as long as it is The instructor leads a group discussion in which mem- logical and makes sense to the student as well as to the bers of the class are invited to offer criticism of a per- instructor. the tions are. Discussion of the perform- sonal feelings. students instructor should reserve time at the end of the student should have no doubt what they did well and what they critique to cover those areas that might have been omit- did poorly and. On occasion. A statement such as. troversial issues unresolved. The instructor Frequently. The student the process. Sometimes a and directed with a firm purpose. repeating. dent why it was not as good and how to improve the Like all other methods. SMALL GROUP CRITIQUE THOUGHTFUL For this method. These groups must present their findings to the class. can often allow the group to accept more ownership of the ideas expressed. the class is divided into small groups An effective critique reflects the instructor’s thought. the instructor should be not be efficient. demonstration failed and work backward through the steps that led to the failure. not emphasized sufficiently. needs to focus on something concrete. A student is required to critique personal performance. The the consequences so great that it overshadows the rest instructor can specify the pattern of organization and of the performance and can serve as the core of a cri. the student’s relative inexperience. but they can generate student interest flexible enough to change so the student can follow and learning and. recognition. Whatever the supportable idea in mind. Normally. expense of the student have no place in a critique. it is The instructor’s comments and recommendations important that the instructor maintain firm control over should be specific. and trolled and supervised by the instructor. Students cannot act on recommendations uncorrected. ideas. While being straightforward and honest. “Your second weld wasn’t as good as your SELF-CRITIQUE first. an instructor may need to criticize a student INDIVIDUAL STUDENT CRITIQUE in private. to ask a number of students questions about the manner the instructor should always respect the student’s per. fulness toward the student’s need for self-esteem. A success can be analyzed STUDENT-LED CRITIQUE in similar fashion. and approval from others. tell the stu. criticism does not help a The instructor also may require another student to pres- student whose performance is impaired by a physio. student-led critiques may the organization of the critique. Negative criticism that instructor’s responsibility. anger. Unless a critique follows some pattern of organization. The instructor should METHODS OF CRITIQUE give positive guidance for correcting the fault and The critique of student performance is always the strengthening the weakness. Because of the inexperience of the par- parts into a whole has strong possibilities. The instructor can add interest and variety of performance should be omitted from a critique to the criticism through the use of imagination and by altogether. Ridicule. In some cases. For example. and it can never be delegated does not point toward improvement or a higher level in its entirety. ent the entire critique. As with SPECIFIC all critiques incorporating student participation.

• Avoid trying to cover too much. trast. • Reviews material already covered by the student. There are three common types of evaluations that instructors may use. Evaluation normally occurs before. what. Evaluation is concerned whenever they wish. an evaluation is more far reaching than a critique because it normally covers several lessons. and based on memory or recall. observable. or skill performance mind when conducting a critique. • Avoid controversies with the class. and where. • Allow time for a summary of the critique to reem- phasize the most important things a student should remember. The answer to a fact question is criticism is honest. no defense should be necessary. at times. the student-performer has the permanent during. the Whenever learning takes place. the stu. The most used means of evaluation is the direct or indi- • Never allow yourself to be maneuvered into the rect oral questioning of students by the instructor. The following list test. written test. • Except in rare and unusual instances. when the instructor with defining. 6-4 . [Figure 6-2] can be applied. when. ally concerns who. remember- ing that most rules have exceptions. recommendations. or it may be accom- GROUND RULES FOR CRITIQUING plished as either a spontaneous or planned evaluation. purpose of an evaluation is to determine how a student dents can keep written critiques and refer to them is progressing in the course. During instruction. and require the • If part of the critique is written. and after instruction. Both student and instructor should con- sider it as an integral part of the lesson. and measuring or judging requires all the students to write a critique of a per. observing. the result is a defin- instructor can devote more time and thought to it than able. learned. it should be • Checks the student’s retention of what has been limited to what transpired during that lesson. Second. make certain that it student to combine knowledge of facts with an ability is consistent with the oral portion. Questions may be loosely classified as fact questions unpleasant position of defending criticism. The to an oral critique in the classroom. do not extend the critique beyond its scheduled time and into the time allotted for other activities. learning process. tor’s evaluation may be the result of observations of the students’ overall performance. ation.WRITTEN CRITIQUE EVALUATION Written critiques have three advantages. it is an integral part of the record of the suggestions. regardless of the type of critiquing activity. Proper quizzing by the instructor can have Although. this new behavior. objective. and do not get into the delicate position of taking sides with group ORAL QUIZZES factions. The disadvantage of a uation is essential to determine what the students are written critique is that other members of the class do learning and how well they are learning it. This type of question usu- comprehensive. it is not. a number of desirable results. There are a number of rules and techniques to keep in such as an oral quiz. A point of dimin- ishing returns can be reached quickly. measurable change in behavior. solve problems. A good critique closes the chap. The instruc- not benefit. • Avoid dogmatic or absolute statements. If the and thought questions. and arrive at conclusions. Since the critique is a part of the lesson. ter on the lesson and sets the stage for the next lesson. Thought questions usually involve why or how. constructive. and opin. a critique may seem like an evalu. to analyze situations. Figure 6-2. procedures. some sort of eval- ions of all the other students. First. formance. Third. It normally is a • Reveals the effectiveness of the instructor’s training wrap-up of the lesson. A few well-made points will usually be more beneficial than a large number of points that are not developed adequately. In con.

until a desired goal Effective questions center on only one idea. which is through a warm front. questions must be adapted to the ability. and thoughts. Asking. and students will have the same mental picture. A single is reached. take when in a mountainous area?” CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE QUESTIONS • Trick questions—These questions will cause the An effective oral quiz requires some preparation. as when flying from a cold air mass • Promotes active student participation.• Can be used to retain the student’s interest and stim. teaching method. although the one correct answer to B. • Irrelevant questions—The teaching process must be To be effective. Effective questions and slow the student’s progress. and 4. an orderly procedure of building one block of learning experience. Effective questions demand and deserve the use of proper English. and the whole in advance. Instructors often justify use of trick questions should be brief and concise. ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM STUDENTS Assurance by the students that they do understand or Responses to student questions must also conform with that they have no questions provides no evidence of certain considerations if answering is to be an effective their comprehension. not a combination. what. but also clear and definite. but they are placed in one correct answer. upon another in logical progression. the following form. or that they even know the sub. and if the student is satisfied with the answer. where. The students to develop the feeling that they are engaged instructor should devise and write pertinent questions in a battle of wits with the instructor. tions of the objective type and generally will be true of A. 4 all good questions. and stage of training of the students. An effective question rectly. should be supplemented by such impromptu questions as the instructor consid. and as the lesson progresses. • Toss-up— “In an emergency. An example of an irrelevant question would be to ask a question about TYPES OF QUESTIONS TO AVOID tire inflation during a test on the timing of magnetos. should you squawk 7700 or pick a landing spot?” • Identifies points that need more emphasis. when. This is always true of good ques. questions must apply D. will only obscure this orderly process how. One method is to place them in the lesson significance of the subject of the instruction plan. Diversions. “Do you understand?” or “Do you have any questions?” has no place in effective quizzing. Answers to unrelated must present a challenge to the students. The only reason for reversing the order of choices is it serves only to confuse the students and divert their to trick the student to inadvertently answering incor- thoughts to an unrelated subject. 3 a thought question may sometimes be expressed in a C. so that instructor is preferable to trick questions. it should be determined whether or not the is swerving left in a right crosswind during a full. 2. engine overhaul?” • Emphasizes the important points of training. Questions of questions are not helpful in evaluating the student’s suitable difficulty serve to stimulate learning. Other typical types of questions stood by the instructor before an answer is attempted. detailed construction of alternatives or significant circumstances exactly. To be effective. Usually an effective question has only alternatives are 1. • Oversize— “What do you do before beginning an ulate thinking. An example of a trick question would be where the ers appropriate. that must be avoided are provided in the following list. which introduce unrelated facts question should be limited to who. knowledge of the subject at hand. Prepared questions merely serve as a framework. If attention to detail Enough words must be used to establish the conditions is an objective. station pressure—if you take temperature into account. as testing for attention to detail. what precaution should you important to effective learning. 3. After the instructor completes a a conventional gear airplane with a weak right brake response. • Bewilderment— “In reading the altimeter—you • Checks the student’s comprehension of what has know you set a sensitive altimeter for the nearest been learned. 2 variety of ways. Unless the question per- tains strictly to the particular training being conducted. student’s request for information has been completely flap. involved will be lost. 1 to the subject of instruction. The question must be clearly under- ject under discussion. power-on wheel landing?” answered. or why. 6-5 . The instructor should display interest in the student’s question and frame an answer that is as direct and accu- • Puzzle— “What is the first action you should take if rate as possible.

numerous measurements of the same object. offer to help the student look it up in available references. Questions should also be con. a one-word answer is received. a steel tape that expands In all quizzing conducted as a portion of the instruction and contracts with temperature changes. The instructor should advise the student to rein- troduce the question later at the appropriate point in training. Measuring the reliability of a writ- A test is a set of questions. In this case. [Figure 6-3] probably acceptable. While no instrument is are specific and factual. a student asks a question that the instruc- tor cannot answer. however. aviation instructor on test administration. “yes” and “no” answers should be avoided. Regardless of the standing. unnecessarily complicate the learning tasks. if practicable. if it does not become resolved in the normal course of instruction. ters. The reliability of a written test is judged by whether it gives consistent measurement to a particular CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEST individual or group. A test item not remain constant. the reliability is acteristics. For exam- ple. whole test analysis. test scoring. a laborato- answers might be the product of a good guess and not ry balance is more reliable than a bathroom scale for be truly representative of student learning or ability. but tional setting. perfectly reliable. device. The student gains new knowledge and under- ing a knowledge or practical test. since such are more reliable than others. skills. Effective tests have six primary characteristics. Refer to the reference section at the end of written tests or to balances. Students can be expected to measures a single objective and calls for a single improve their scores between attempts at taking the response. For example. the instrument is con. it is obvious that some instruments structed to avoid one-word answers. not as straightforward as it is for determining whether a person has a particular knowl. the instructor should carefully explain to the student that the question was good and pertinent. or cloth tapes process. If identical meas. or exercises for ten test is. This temperature. written tests are only as good as ings of the temperature of a fluid held at a constant the knowledge and proficiency of the test writer. the instructor should follow up with additional questions to get a better idea The reliability of an instrument can be estimated by of the student’s comprehension of the material. freely admit not knowing the answer. Reliability is the degree to which test results are con- sistent with repeated measurements. A test can consist of just one test item. If measuring weight. and lowest readings can be considered a range of unre- There are many excellent publications available to the liability in the thermometer. and understanding do it usually consists of a number of test items. that are affected by humidity cannot be expected to Questions should be framed so that the desired answers yield reliable measurements. effective tests share certain char. Except for the errors made by the person section is intended to provide the aviation instructor taking the readings. intends to measure the diameter of a bearing with a sidered reliable. that has worn moving parts. thermometers. Occasionally. it must be determined that the contacting depended upon to yield consistent results. at this time. Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it urements are obtained every time a certain instrument is supposed to measure. In an educa- edge or skill. and altime- this handbook for testing and test writing publications. but that a detailed answer would.Sometimes it may be unwise to introduce the more complicated or advanced considerations necessary to completely answer a student’s question at the current point in training. the difference between the highest with only the basic concepts of written test design. consecutive read- As evaluation devices. and test item Reliability has the same meaning whether applied to analysis. If a written test consistently rates the mem- underlying purpose. problems. even though the scores of the stu- dents have increased overall. If a maintenance technician is applied to a certain dimension. An altimeter surfaces of the bearing and the micrometer are free of 6-6 . the measuring devices we have discussed. but should prom- ise to get the answer or. bers of a group in a certain rank order. knowledge. In such cases. the instructor should Figure 6-3. a rough measure of the reliability of a thermome- WRITTEN TESTS ter can be obtained by taking several. An unreliable instrument cannot be micrometer. The test could be as simple as the correct same test because the first test serves as a learning answer to an essay question or as complex as complet. grade assignment.

read the test critically and consider its content relative a machinist wishes to measure six bearings that are to the stated objectives of the instruction. There is compression of every cylinder would the test be com. Only by measuring the ly written. which written test is easy to give if it is printed in a type size can measure very fine graduations. Criterion-referenced testing compression on a single cylinder would not provide an evaluates each student’s performance against a careful- indication of the entire engine. standard or criterion. a test must sample an appro. they should guishes the difference between students. the instructor is usually Comprehensiveness is the degree to which a test concerned more with criterion-referenced testing than measures the overall objectives. because in aviation training. the diameters of the large enough for the students to read easily. Norm-referenced testing an aircraft maintenance technician wants to measure measures a student’s performance against the perform- the compression of an aircraft engine. Validity is the most found between the smallest bearing and the second important consideration in test evaluation. tions. The FAA tion of the engine. relation to the performance of other students. type test items are very difficult to grade with com- plete objectivity. For example. it is necessary to measure priate cross-section of the objectives of instruction. Graphics. Sometimes it will not be possible to have test questions measuring The aviation instructor constructs tests to measure all objectives of the course. slight differences in size measures what it is supposed to measure. If a ruler is used to measure not pertain directly to the objectives of the course the diameters of the bearings. It is nearly impossible to prevent an instructor’s own knowledge and experience in the subject area. Later in the discussion. At these times. However. little difference will be should be modified or eliminated. The word. objectives of the course. or grammar from affecting the grade are low and those who are high in achievement of awarded. Items that do slightly graduated in size. To estimate validity. • All levels of difficulty are included. A usable if the machinist measures with a micrometer. smallest one. • Each item distinguishes between the students who writing style. but the ruler could not be depended on for accurately assorting the six bearings. progress toward the standards that will eventually be 6-7 . must be clearly drawn. If the machinist compares the third bear- tor must carefully consider whether the test actually ing with the first bearing. the evaluators must deliber- room are valid only to the extent that they measure ately take comprehensive samples in order to realisti- achievement of the objectives of instruction. course. it has three features. and illustrations. Otherwise. cally measure the overall achievement of the course objectives. Usability refers to the functionality of tests. A rough estimate of the content validity of a classroom test may be obtained from the judgments of several Discrimination is the degree to which a test distin- competent instructors.grease and dirt. the scope of the course objectives is tested. Objectivity describes singleness of scoring of a test. In classroom evaluation. The instruc. knowledge and practical tests for pilots and aircraft maintenance technicians are all criterion referenced In classroom evaluation. norm-referenced testing. and the test small differences in achievement in relation to the should be easily graded. it does not reflect the biases of the person grading the test. the second and third bearing. Measuring the ance of other students. scattered positions in the car. Just as the include the diameter of the bearing and the thickness of owner of the wheat has to select samples of wheat from the extraneous matter. Selection-type test items. TEST DEVELOPMENT When testing aviation students. the instructor has to make certain that the evaluation includes a representative and A test used in educational evaluation follows the same comprehensive sampling of the objectives of the principles of validity. measurable. first and second bearing. charts. for example. An example of this is essay ques. In both instances. Suppose. you will find that supply. • There is a wide range of scores. might be detected. and it will be invalid. a test must be able to measure ate to the test items. are much easier to grade objec- tively. When a test is constructed to identify the difference in the achievement of students. test items themselves needs to be clear and concise. little or no concern about the student’s performance in prehensive enough to indicate the compression condi. student performance against a high standard of profi- The comprehensiveness of a test is the degree to which ciency consistent with safety. can be easily differentiated. or multiple-choice. the measurement will tion is but a sample of the entire course. such as true-false the course objectives. ing of both the directions for taking the test and of the and so on. Evaluations used in the class. the evalua. which are appropri.

criterion objectives state the conditions under which the behavior is to be performed and the criteria that must be met. level-of-learning objec- DEVELOP CRITERION-REFERENCED TEST ITEMS tives. the instructor should attempt to meas- prehension or understanding level. covered in the remainder of this chapter. DESIRED BEHAVIOR tor must administer a presolo written exam to student The second step is to list the indicators or samples of pilots. The questions in the exam for the com- test on an aircraft reciprocating engine. behavior that will give the best indication of the al process. the criterion-referenced tests follows a general-to-specific proper equipment setup. the objectives are for the student to test (evaluation level). The criterion objective provides the framework for developing the test items used to measure the level-of-learning objectives. The test should because it defines the scope of the learning task. There are four steps to test development. and also can be used for skill testing in the testing. the student would not be areas that were not adequately covered. or interpret the results of the compression knowledge test. comprehension. LIST INDICATORS/SAMPLES OF during an early stage of flight training. design a compression Performance-based objectives serve as a reference for test for a different type of engine (synthesis or correla. and the procedures to be used. or psychomotor The last step is to develop criterion-referenced test domains described in Chapter 1. ESTABLISH CRITERION OBJECTIVES The next step in the test development process is to define criterion (performance-based) objectives. if the instructor is expecting the student to display that apply to the cognitive and affective domains of the comprehension level-of-learning on compression learning. criterion objectives have already been formulated. applica.” This objective pression test example should cover all of the areas nec- requires a student to explain how to do a compression essary to give evidence of comprehending the proce- test. If the instructor developed performance-based objectives during the creation of lesson plans. Since tests are an integral part of the instruction. the flight instruc. expected to compare the results of compression tests on different engines (analysis level). The objectives should measure one of the learn- ing levels of the cognitive. the local area. For exam- when developing a test. but by carefully choosing sam- ples of behavior. Further. It is not usually feasible to measure every aspect of a level- of-learning objective. In the Figure 6-4. an objective could ure the behaviors described in the criterion be stated as. affective. In addition to the behavior expected.[Figure 6-4] and the steps used to obtain compression readings. The overall test must be comprehensive enough to give a true representation of the learning to be measured. compression test example. The development process for should describe appropriate tools and equipment. This process is useful for tests ple. some of the specific test question answers psychomotor domain. For the com. oping questions. measure the student’s knowledge in these specific 6-8 . the aircraft objective is a good starting point for developing a test type. The actual development of the test questions is learning include knowledge. For example. but not necessarily perform a compression test dure. If the test is the presolo tion level). behaviors that can be measured are selected in Aviation instructors can follow a four-step process order to give the best evidence of learning. While devel- tion. the instructor can obtain adequate evi- dence of learning.” The first step in developing a test is to state the indi- vidual objectives as general. the development of test items. objectives often cannot be directly measured. The levels of cognitive items. The results of the test (questions missed) identify (application level). it is important for the aviation instructor to be achievement of the objective. a criterion objective to measure the comprehension level of learning might be stated as.measured at the conclusion of the training. As a result. “The student will demonstrate comprehen- sion of compression test procedures for reciprocating DETERMINE LEVEL-OF-LEARNING OBJECTIVES aircraft engines by completing a quiz with a minimum passing score of 70%. analysis. and evaluation. Some level-of-learning well informed about recommended testing procedures. “Describe how to perform a compression objective(s). pattern. A general level-of-learning comprehend the regulations. synthesis. appropriate safety procedures.

organize their knowledge. Another advantage is that selection-type tests are well WRITTEN TEST ITEMS adapted to statistical item analysis. There evaluations. a supply-type item may evaluate the memory rather than knowledge of the subject. periodically revising the ques. many more areas of knowledge in a given time than tions used and changing the letters and positions of the could be done by requiring the student to supply writ- answers will encourage learning the material rather ten responses. These sample Written tests made up of selection-type items are high- questions are designed to measure the level-of-learning ly objective. The main disadvantage of supply-type lar. This would emphasize the negative. 6-9 . This increase in comprehensiveness can than learning the test. They tend exceed the advantages to such an extent that instructors to confuse the reader. or paragraph. Still another disadvantage of a supply-type test is the time required by the student to complete it and the time • Statements should be entirely true or entirely false. By any source. When using questions from one instructor with those under another instructor. they are a good source of example questions test or the person grading it. When tests are constructed in this dents’ generalized understanding of a subject. sentence. sample test items. Selection-type test items require the student to select with all its variations. has a wide range of usage. If the knowledge of a person in a particular subject area. It demands an ability to instructors select sentences more or less at random express ideas that is not required for a selection-type from textual material and make half of them false by item. Some of the principles that should be fol- is no assurance that the grade assigned is the grade lowed in the construction of true-false items are con- deserved by the student.areas. It places a premium on neatness tion tests in general and true-false questions in particu- and penmanship. Another source of test items includes FAA knowledge SELECTION TYPE test guides for a particular knowledge test. It has also decreased the validity of educational tests is that they cannot be graded with uniformity. required by the instructor to grade it. tion-type cannot be devised to properly measure student True-false test items are probably used and misused knowledge. It is from two or more alternatives. The same test graded by different tained in the accompanying list. especially when there are only two possible answers. Tests that include only to be used in measuring a student’s preparedness to take selection-type items make it possible to directly com- the knowledge test. the instructor can test on individual instructors. An test is to measure the readiness of a student to take a example of this would be the presolo knowledge exam where knowledge test. Written questions include two general categories. whether the statement is true or false. • Include only one idea in each statement. prefer to use the selection-type test. scores. whether from a publisher or developed by using selection-type items. The supply-type requires the students to more than any other selection-type item. See Appendix A for well adapted for testing knowledge of facts and details. or students under or the letter of the answer. strictly with selection-type test items. Frequently. Everything consid- ered. This item-type. test construction has aroused antagonism toward selec- edge of the subject matter. underline or otherwise are times where the supply-type is desirable. care must be taken not to teach questions to ble to compare the performance of students within one ensure the student does not merely memorize answers class to students in a different class. pare student accomplishment. For example. Individual instructors should develop their own be when there is a need to thoroughly determine the tests to measure the progress of their students. instructors would probably be assigned different scores. be expected to increase validity and discrimination. Even the same test graded by the same instructor on con- secutive days might be assigned altogether different • Use original statements rather than verbatim text. it is possi- However. It should be noted that although selection-type tests are best in many cases. way. it should be based on the objectives of it would be difficult to determine knowledge of procedures all the lessons the student has received. the True-False supply-type item and the selection-type item. the disadvantages of the supply-type test appear to • Avoid the unnecessary use of negatives. SUPPLY TYPE The chief disadvantage is that true-false questions cre- The supply-type item may be required where a selec. Such students’ ability to write rather than their specific knowl. ate the greatest probability of guessing. This type item is valuable in measuring the stu- inserting negatives. graded the same regardless of the student taking the As a result. the principal attribute being measured is rote On the other hand. the results of such a test would be desired for pilots or aviation maintenance technicians. there • If negatives must be used. That is. Supply- The true-false test item consists of a statement fol- type test items require the student to furnish a lowed by an opportunity for the student to determine response in the form of a word.

the form with the options as answers to a question is preferable to the form that uses an incomplete statement as the stem. • It may be an incomplete sentence followed by sev- eral possible phrases that complete the sentence. never. answers are called distractors.) characteristics. most times.) These words are known as determiners and provide • May be clearly limited by the wording of the item so clues to the correct answer. generally. The student may be asked to select the one choice which is the correct answer or completion. the tive to those students who do not possess the knowl- stem which includes the question. statements containing offered solutions rather than a universal solution. statement. • It may be a stated problem based on an accompany- ing graph. It is more easily phrased and is more natural for Figure 6-5. or problem has the following any. diagram. and ability to apply what has been learned. Keep wording and sen. ranging from acquisition of ments both definite and clear. the source of the statement should expressed clearly and without ambiguity. facts to understanding. application of laws or principles. Make state. reasoning. use terms which mean the same • Has a built-in and unique solution such as a specific thing to all students. One is the develop- • If a statement is controversial (sources have differ. It is appropriate to use when • Avoid the use of ambiguous words and terms (some. ment of a question or an item stem that must be ing information). • Has several pertinent solutions. a multiple-choice item stem advantages that make this type more widely used and may take several basic forms. Finally. every. scientifically accurate. Students are quick to take advantage of this tendency. mine student achievement. make hand scoring easier. Beginning test writers find it easier to write items in the question form. the question. versatile than either the matching or the true-false items. multiple-choice items offer several As mentioned previously. the one choice that is an incorrect answer or completion. [Figure 6-5] • It may be a direct question followed by several pos- sible answers. 6-10 . • Avoid patterns in the sequence of correct responses • Is such that several options are plausible. • Whenever possible. When properly devised and constructed. edge or understanding necessary to recognize the lem. or the one choice which is best of the answers presented in the test item. Since unequivocally true that the student must choose the best of several or false statements are rare. or prob. Some instructors unconsciously make true state- ments longer than false ones. or other artwork followed by the correct response and the distractors. be asked to identify the most appropriate solution. and the student may • Make statements brief and about the same length. the student to read. the distractors Multiple-Choice must be written in such a way that they will be attrac- A multiple-choice test item consists of two parts. etc. and a list of alternatives or responses. Sample multiple-choice test item. statement. This is a poor practice. Incorrect keyed response. Another be listed. absolutes are usually false. Multiple-choice test questions may be used to deter- tence structure as simple as possible. or even because students can often identify the patterns. Three major difficulties are common in the construc- tion of multiple-choice test items.• Avoid involved statements. etc. but the student may be asked Instructors sometimes deliberately use patterns to to identify the one most pertinent. no. requirement is that the statement of an answer or cor- rect response cannot be refuted. In general. Less likely to contain ambiguities. only. • Avoid absolutes (all.

avoid using another negative word in the diverting the student from the correct response is to stem or any of the responses. If a word. Some of the principles that should be followed in the [Figure 6-6] construction of multiple-choice items are contained in the following list. ing. some or all of the alternatives should be acceptable responses—but one should be clearly better In preparing the stem of a multiple-choice item. pressed for time may identify the wrong response simply because the negative form is overlooked. Instructors often justify use of trick questions as testing for attention to detail. If items are to be interrelated. since using the wrong formula is a Instead. • Make each item independent of every other item in the test. dent. Failure to do so can result in decreased validity of the test. responses which appear to be correct to a per. • Design questions that call for essential knowledge rather than for abstract background knowledge or unimportant facts. detailed construction of alternatives learning should have only one correct alternative. When items are to measure achievement at a higher level of Stems learning. since they alternatives derived by using incorrect formulas do not contribute to effective evaluation in any way. word or phrase by usually results in more similarity between the nical language. Do not permit one question to reveal. An effective and valid means of in the stem. and help to avoid reading difficulties and tech. 6-11 . would be logical. or depend on. if writing a question on the conversion of • Trick questions. These should direct the student to select the best alternative. the validity of the test is option. other alternatives should be clearly incorrect. degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit. such as “not” or “false. providing and leading questions should be avoided. or printing in a different color. the fol- than the others. It is usually diffi. For exam- ple. • When a negative is used. use common student errors as distractors. Figure 6-6. The validity of the examination may be Appendix A. or pictures when they can present a situation more vividly than words. with a poorly written stem. When multiple-choice questions are used. it becomes impossible to pinpoint specific deficiencies in either students or instructors.” appears incorrect alternative. This is an example of a multiple-choice question est. italicyz- that is. know it is correct. In either case. • State each question in language appropriate to the students. bold facing. unimportant details. emphasize the negative cult to construct more than four convincing responses. A common criticism of written tests options and gives fewer clues to the correct response. diagrams. A student who is son who has not mastered the subject matter. they tend to confuse and antagonize the stu- common student error. the correct answer to another question. add inter. Therefore it is considered ethical • Questions containing double negatives invariably cause to mislead the unsuccessful student into selecting an confusion. principles will help to ensure that the test item is valid. To Students are not supposed to guess the correct whatever extent this occurs. the instructions given lowing general principles should be applied. all is preferable to trick questions. is the reliance placed on the reading ability of the Samples of multiple-choice questions can be found in student. three or four alternatives are generally provided. since the ability to understand the language will be measured as well as the sub- ject-matter knowledge or achievement. • Include sketches. They generally speed the testing process. If attention to detail Items intended to measure the knowledge level of is an objective. decreased unless reading ability is an objective of the course or test. they should select an alternative only if they decreased. ambiguities.

solution. The matching item is particularly good on a computer. • Make all alternatives credible responses to each ele- ment in the first column. they should generally Appendix A. provisions could be made to include for measuring a student’s ability to recognize relation. ity of guessing is distinctly increased. • Give specific and complete instructions. parts. Besides requiring considerable A matching test item consists of two lists which may time and effort. Matching-type test items are either equal column or • A common misconception. wherever possible. Every alterna- tive should grammatically fit with the stem of the item. or symbols listed in one col. database. An • An incorrect response which is related to the situa- tion and which sounds convincing to the untutored. this task demands a mastery of the sub- include a combination of words. The alternatives in a multiple-choice test item are as important as the stem. to preclude guessing by elimination. groups. terms. Matching bled. When requirements of the problem. be listed in ascending or descending order of magni- tude or length. always provide for some items in the response column to be used more than once. illustrations. Avoid the • Test only essential information. forms of matching-item questions can be found in When alternatives are numbers. If questions are maintained choice items. along with the analysis of each can be measured with matching rather than multiple. clauses. In reality. By reduc- care. Some distractors ity of the test will be improved. unless the selection of what is relevant is part of the problem. alternatives in one list with related alternatives in a sec. ing language barriers. phrases. an ability to write clearly. a ond list. and the possibil- • Generally avoid using “a” or “an” at the end of the stem. In a given period of oped is desirable. Do not make the student guess what is required. the item is reduced to several multiple- choice items with few alternatives. One way of preserving test items is to time. or not at • A statement which is either too broad or too narrow all. • Arrange the alternatives in some sensible order. Some of the principles that should be followed in the • The stem should contain only material relevant to its construction of matching items are included below. alphabetical arrangement is common. unequal column. They should be formulated with • Use language the student can understand. The student is asked to match ize realistic situations for use in developing problems. thus creating a useful ships and to make associations between terms. tant details. If stem of the item. They may give away the correct choice. or sentences. both the validity and reliabil- terion for the distracting alternatives. on a set of cards. to set the stage for the alternatives that follow. Samples of the two eral. matching exercises are a collection semipermanent record of items that have been devel- of related multiple-choice items. The testing time can also be used more efficiently. using this form. more samples of a student’s knowledge usually record the test item. As long as precautions are taken to safeguard the 6-12 . • Put everything that pertains to all alternatives in the • Use closely related materials throughout an item. and an ability to visual- phrases. question. in gen. to min- Alternatives imize guessing by elimination. column type test items have more alternatives in the second column than in the first and are generally Research of instructor-made tests reveals that.• The stem of the question should clearly present the reduces the probability of guessing correct responses. preferable to equal columns. appropriate analysis gathered. central problem or idea. In either case. which can be used are listed below. The function of the stem is especially if alternatives may be used more than once. never test unimpor- use of determiners such as clue words or phrases. a pool of test questions is cre- words. An equal column test item has the • A statement which is true but does not satisfy the same number of alternatives in each column. DEVELOPING A TEST ITEM BANK Developing a test item bank is one of the instructor’s Matching most difficult tasks. • The stem should be worded in such a way that it does not give away the correct response. simply being incorrect should not be the only cri. correct alternatives are longer than incorrect ones. Unequal for the requirements of the problem. ated after a large group of questions has been assem- umn with related items in another column. This helps to avoid repetitious students can divide the alternatives into distinct alternatives and saves time. Because it is so difficult to develop good test items. ject.

and all incorrect answers reviewed by the instructor providing the training prior to endors- ing the student pilot certificate and logbook for solo flight. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) ing new items. The presolo test must include questions on gener- edge should be included in an achievement test. For instance. • Each item should be stated in language the student will understand. diagrams. or be from a high elevation airport might need emphasis placed able to apply. Figure 6-7. An adequate sampling of the general operating rules should be included. • Sketches. make and model of aircraft to be soloed. aircraft to be of items in the pool. A bank of test items makes it easier to construct The regulation requires a presolo knowledge test for each new tests. or pictures should be included when they are necessary for the student to visualize the problem correctly or when they will add realism. The presolo knowledge test is required to be administered. the following princi. a sufficient number of specific questions should be asked to ensure the student has the knowledge to safely operate the aircraft in the local environment. on the effects of density altitude. The wording should be edit- ed for brevity. In addi- tion. al operating rules. Unnecessary words merely delay the student. the flight instructor will have to use good judg- ment in developing the test. • The wording of the item should be simple. Likewise. This allows the flight instructor the flexibility to develop a presolo written test which not only evaluates the student’s knowledge on general operating rules. The list a terminal control area or airport radar service area also applies to reviewing and revising existing items. a student operating important for the student to know. and local area proce- 6-13 . but on the specific envi- ronment in which the student will be operating and on the particular make and model of aircraft to be flown. [Figure 6-7] part 61 requires the satisfactory completion of a presolo knowledge test prior to solo flight. Specific questions should be asked to fit the situation. Figure 6-8. The content and number of test questions are to be deter- mined by the flight instructor. a student who Regardless of item type or form. understand. the existence of the pool PRESOLO KNOWLEDGE TESTS lightens the instructor’s burden of continuously prepar. The regulation states that the presolo knowledge test must include questions applicable to 14 CFR parts 61 and 91 and on the flight character- istics and operational limitations of the make and model aircraft to be flown. should have adequate knowledge to operate safely in the • Each item should test a concept or idea that is environment prior to solo. graded. [Figure 6-8] • Each item must be stated so that everyone who is competent in the subject-matter area would agree on the correct response. direct. would be operating from a controlled airport located near ples should be followed in writing new items. • Each item should present a problem that demands knowledge of the subject or course. and free of ambiguity. Because of the varying complexity of aircraft and operating environ- PRINCIPLES TO FOLLOW ments. No item that can be responded to solely on the basis of general knowl.

6-14 . Practical test standards are made up of areas of are criterion-referenced tests. certain ceivable circumstance to be encountered on a solo tasks are required to be covered and are identified by flight. Selection-type test items do not allow the instruc. The instructor should keep a record of the test results for at least three (3) years. Tasks are titles of knowledge areas. and other grade is assigned. it is impor. cations mentioned above. name of the student.” The supply-type test item measures procedures. One prob. The job of the instructor is to prepare the student to take these tests. notes immediately following the area of operation al operating rules are adequately sampled to ensure the titles. and handbooks. it is probably not possible to cover every con. The practical test standards for aeronautical certificates the instructor can see any areas that are not adequately and ratings include AREAS OF OPERATION and understood and can then cover them in the review of the TASKS that reflect the requirements of the FAA publi- test. Since the purpose of this test is to and certificates. The record should at least include the date. and the results of the test. skill. An example of a sup. FAA publications including the Aeronautical mine fitness for solo and not to assign a grade relative Information Manual and pertinent advisory circulars to a student’s peers. They usually begin ply-type test question would be to ask the student to. and proficiency. The instructor must devise the test so the gener. Areas of operation define tor to evaluate the student’s knowledge beyond the phases of the practical test arranged in a logical immediate scope of the test items. Performance testing is desirable for evaluating training that involves an operation. or maneuvers appropriate to an area of much more adequately the knowledge of the student. Practical tests for maintenance technicians and pilots Figure 6-9. The practical tests are operation and tasks. The purpose of the test is to deter. no specific the requirements of 14 CFR parts 61. operation.The specific procedures for developing test questions criterion-referenced because the objective is for all have been covered earlier in this chapter. Private pilot applicants are evaluated in all tasks of each area of operation. with Preflight Preparation and end with Postflight “Explain the procedures for entering the traffic pattern Procedures. Though selection-type test items are Aviation Regulations. The standards are in accordance with determine if a student pilot is ready to solo. tant that the test properly evaluate this area. Aviation instructors do get involved with the same skill or performance testing that is meas- ured in these tests. regulations or publications. [Figure 6-9] overall objective of a safe solo flight is measured. PERFORMANCE TESTS The flight instructor does not administer the practical test for a pilot certificate. easier to grade. In addition. each element of the practical test will have been eval- uated prior to an applicant taking the practical exam. The test also should ask a sufficient number of specific questions to determine that the student has the knowl- edge to safely operate the aircraft in the local area. Since solo flight requires a thor. The objective of the PTS is to ensure ough working knowledge of the different conditions the certification of pilots at a high level of performance likely to be encountered on the solo flight. 91. nor does the aviation main- tenance instructor administer the oral and practical exam for certification as an aviation maintenance technician. it is recommended that supply-type test items be used for the portions of the presolo knowledge The purpose of the practical test standards (PTS) is test where specific knowledge is to be tested. and safety required by the Federal test are in order. to delineate the standards by which FAA inspectors and lem with supply-type test items is difficulty in assigning designated pilot examiners conduct tests for ratings the appropriate grade. or a process. a procedure. tasks in each area of operation. sequence within each standard. but a review successful applicants to meet the high standards of of some items as they apply to the presolo knowledge knowledge. Therefore. Included are references to the applicable and lends itself very well to presolo testing. In this way. consistent with safety. flight for Runway 26. Flight Though supply-type test items allow broad questions to instructor applicants are evaluated on one or more be asked.

6-15 . testing. Practical test standards are available from cedures. proficient pilots. to use when preparing a student for the practical test. student to the very highest level possible. They are not mini- Since every task in the PTS may be covered on the mum standards and they do not represent a floor of check ride. In other words. skill. tical test standard. uation of the student is only in relation to the standards edge. acceptable level that must be met and there are no tical test. the instructor must evaluate all of the acceptability. it should adhere to criterion-referenced to acceptable standards in all subject matter areas.An instructor is responsible for training the applicants mal in nature. pro. The instructor. and the examiner. and the ability to impart that knowledge listed in the PTS. requirements to exceed them. While this evaluation will not be totally for. Because of the impact of their teach. should also keep in mind that the standards are set at a level that is already very high. Although the instructor should always train the ing activities in developing safe. and maneuvers included in the TASKS within several aviation publishers and are a good reference each AREA OF OPERATION in the appropriate prac. the eval- flight instructors should exhibit a high level of knowl. and skill to the students. the standards are the tasks before certifying the applicant to take the prac.

6-16 .

are devices that routine or less significant bits. instructional aids that are relatively sim- the human brain and the memory function during the ple are best suited for this purpose. is perceived as the most important information is Instructional aids are not self-supporting. instructional aids should be designed to how to effectively use them. As stimuli are devices or flight simulators. educators have theorized about how Generally. flight training ister of the memory acts as a filter. cover the key points and concepts. Educators generally describe training media about certain theoretical factors that seem pertinent to as any physical means that communicates an instruc. Instructors simply need to learn • Ideally. part-task trainers. on the other hand. tional message to students. and numerous other types received. For many years. There is general agreement media. For example. usually they are already in place. or reinforce. as well as retain. Within seconds. The key factor is that it is processed for possible storage in the long-term instructional aids support. The discus. understanding the use of instructional aids. The effectiveness of the instructional aid classroom environment. Carefully selected charts. it is most basic aids and progresses to the more complex essential that the information be arranged in useful and expensive aids. or training technologies which may apply to a typical recording. stand. rehearsal. the instruc- tor’s voice. Therefore. graphs. interactive • During the communicative process. or other well-organized visual aids are examples of items that help the student under- While instructors may become involved in the selec. video cassettes. passed to the working or short-term memory where plementary training devices. the coverage should be straightforward and factual so it INSTRUCTIONAL AID THEORY is easy for students to remember and recall. first part of this chapter applies to a classroom setting with one instructor and several students. what assist an instructor in the teaching-learning process. printed text. memory. essential information. The last segment is about new bits or chunks for effective coding. tion and preparation of instructional aids. the coverage of instructional aids in the and emphasize the main points or concepts. sort out the important bits of information from the Instructional aids. In addition.Instructional aids should not be confused with training communicative process. pictures. as well as other training is critical for this process. 7-1 . supplement. • The working or short-term memory functions are sion about types of instructional aids begins with the limited by both time and capacity. the sensory reg- computer programs. environments. they are sup. This complex process is enhanced by the use of appropriate instructional aids that highlight In general. the individual’s sensory register works to of training devices are considered training media.

or function. especially the key points. when a Good instructional aids also can help solve certain point is complex and difficult to put into words. Numerous stud- ies have attempted to determine how well instructional GUIDELINES FOR USE OF aids serve this purpose. imum. may lend itself to only basic shapes or figures. The aids should be concentrated on the key points. Consequently. they often are much easier to understand. a major goal of all instruction is for the student in the process. Studies generally agree that measurable improve. a picture of the object. coupled with culturally diverse back. This. and tion of students. Instructors Instructors are frequently asked to teach more and should keep in mind that they often are salesmen of more in a smaller time frame. many words to describe a sound. • Organize the material into an outline or a lesson plan. or presents a diagram of the tracting gimmick. size. aids. they help gain and hold the atten. language barrier problems. By symbolizing the factors involved. • Clearly establish the lesson objective. to more optimistic The use of any instructional aid must be planned. or when students are puzzled by an expla- usage. One caution—the instructional aid should keep the instructor plays a recording of the sound. object. Figure 7-1. Indications from the studies vary greatly—from modest results. makes it necessary for instructors to be precise in their choice of terminology. Audio or visual aids can be very use. The plan should include all key points that need to be covered. it is even ful in supporting a topic. When replace extended use of verbiage. Since ier for the student. shows student attention on the subject. relationships of location. For example. schematics or mockups. Symbols. which show a 10 to INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS 15 percent increase in retention. A percent. instructional aids have other advantages. The instructor should 7-2 . and diagrams can also show When properly used. Obviously. it should not be a dis. This may include important safety considerations. and many of the best sales techniques that attract help them do this. grams. Be certain of what is to be communicated. the subsys- INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS tems within a physical unit are relatively easy to relate In addition to helping students remember important to each other through the use of schematics or dia- information. Instructional aids can ideas. In many cases. an explana- carefully selected to convey the same meaning for the tion of elaborate equipment may require detailed student as they do for the instructor. instead of using the attention of potential clients are well worth consid. the student learns faster and more accurately. Aids should be simple and compatible with the learn- Words or terms used in an instructional aid should be ing outcomes to be achieved. to be able to retain as much knowledge of the subject as possible.REASONS FOR USE OF relationships are presented visually. visual symbols and slogans can tionships between material objects and concepts. function. value. frequency. Consider the continued when instructors find themselves forming visual expansion of technical terminology in everyday images. time. and the combination of both possible to visualize abstract relationships. and the instructor saves time Clearly. For example. but less complex equipment vide an accurate visual image and make learning eas. grounds of today’s students. graphs. They should pro. based results in which retention is increased by as much as 80 on its ability to support a specific point in a lesson. audio and visual stimuli is particularly effective since the two most important senses are involved. aids are normally used in conjunction with a verbal presentation. • Select the ideas to be supported with instructional ment in student retention of information occurs when instruction is supported by appropriate instructional aids. [Figure 7-1] simple process can be used to determine if and where instructional aids are necessary. • Gather the necessary data by researching for support material. ering. words on the aid should be kept to a min- Another use for instructional aids is to clarify the rela. Aids are often appropriate when long seg- ments of technical description are necessary. nation or description.

The tendency toward unnecessarily distracting artwork also should be avoided. the choice of instructional aids depends on The chalk or marker board is one of the most widely several factors. in the training environment and whether they are appropriate for the students. they should encourage student partici- pation. or cost may used tools for instructors. Instructional aids should appeal to the student and be based on sound principles of instructional design.avoid the temptation to use the aids as a crutch. In second. However. grammar. All lettering and illustrations must be large enough to be seen easily by the students farthest from the aids. when used. or cut-aways. Sequencing can be emphasized and made clearer by the use of con- trasting colors. the material presented can be erased. the instructor may have little control over joint student-instructor activity in the classroom. the designers of the allowing the surface to be used again and again. preparation can be increased by initially planning them in rough draft form. The usefulness of aids can be improved by proper sequencing to build on previous learning. Recordings of sounds and speeches should be tested for correct volume and quality in the actual environment in which they will be used. Its versatility and effective- impose realistic limitations. computer-based programs. an independent instructor following practices are fundamental in the use of the may have considerable latitude. Instructional aids should also be rials. reviewed to determine whether their use is feasible mock-ups. instructors must improvise and adapt to the existing circumstances in order to incorporate quality The effectiveness of aids and the ease of their instructional aids. including charts. Visual aids must be visible to the entire class. the boards serve as an excellent medium for this case. and graphs. good organization and natural patterns of logic dictate the sequence. Revisions and alterations TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS are easier to make at that time than after their com. The number of students in ness provide several advantages for most types of a class and the existing facilities are other considera. feasibility. diagrams. On the other hand. Instructional aids have no value in the learning process if they cannot be heard or seen. and which usually are more expensive. The their use. video. use of stan- dardized materials. They also should be meaningful to the student. basic balance. First. but limited resources. and models. [Figure 7-2] CHALK OR MARKER BOARD In practice. In some school situations. Aids that involve learning a physical skill should guide students toward mastery of the skill or task specified in the les- son objective. including a syllabus. When practical. stripping tech- niques on charts and chalk or marker boards. chalk or marker board: 7-3 . and curriculum determine the use of instructional aids. instruction. Other aids. lead to the desired behavioral or learning objectives. and by Figure 7-2. are projected mate- simplicity. imaginative use of magnetic boards. clarity. Frequently. Some of the most common and economical aids are pletion. als. Sequencing also can be enhanced simply by using overlays on transparencies. Availability. The listing shown here summarizes guidelines for effective instructional aids. The rough draft should be carefully chalk or marker boards. tions. Colors. spelling. should provide clear contrast and easily be visible. and provide appropriate reinforcement. gy. Often. proper terminolo. and supplemental print materi- checked for technical accuracy. is recom- mended.

The selec- • If necessary. Well-designed course outlines are especially useful to students because they list the key points and help students organize note taking • Adjust lighting as necessary to remove glare. and the organizational chart. A graph is a symbolic drawing which shows relation- ships or makes comparisons. and related items readily available to avoid Pictures. and syllabi. and graphs are also in this catego- ry. use on bulletin boards and in briefing areas. Charts. An important factor is the chart’s format. lines. reproductions of pictures. in presenting data such as the pie chart. upon the type of information the instructor wants to convey. diagrams. and graphs include any printed material which gives information in tabular form. print materials are valuable supplemental aids. the location and handling of them should be tends to distract students and makes a logical pres. diagrams. A complete outline pages. dis- • Underline statements for emphasis. it should be covered and then revealed one step at a time. Charts. and other • Erase all irrelevant material. chart. In addi- tion. Since charts may consist of a series of single sheets or be tied together in a flip-chart format with several • Make only one point at a time. In many class. If writing has been previously pre- pared. entation difficult. diagrams. effective because they provide common visual imagery for both instructors and students. vey. • Write or draw large enough for everyone in the group to see. tributions. chalk or marker board and can be duplicated. They are easy to construct and can be produced in the same manner as pictures. course out- • Use a pointer when appropriate. Some of these include study guides. 7-4 . the flow crowded. exercise books. and photographs are especially interruption of the presentation. they also provide realistic details necessary for • Organize and practice the chalk or marker board visual recognition of important subject material. Charts. • Leave a margin around the material and sufficient There are several types of charts which can be used space between lines of copy so the board is not over. • Use colored chalk or marker for emphasis. during a lecture. Many of these items are suitable for long-term • Keep chalk. use the ruler. The most common types are the line graph and the bar graph. including photographs. markers. cartoons. components. cleaning cloths. chronological changes. rulers. among others. In presentation in advance. or other devices tion of a graph for use in any given situation depends in making drawings. • Stand to one side of the board to avoid hiding the Numerous other useful print items may be consid- essential information. planned in advance. many cases.• Keep the chalk or marker board clean. students may not be able to see the lower must be taken to display only a small amount of material and to make the material as simple but half. Care rooms. meaningful as possible. and graphs can be used effective- ly to show relationships. In addition. drawings. and flow. erasers. SUPPLEMENTAL PRINT MATERIAL Print media. this type of supplemental training media may be reproduced in a format for projection on a screen or other clear surface. murals. ered as supplemental training aids. The type of chart selected for use depends largely on the type of information the instructor wants to con- • Present material simply and briefly. they can be drawn on a • Use the upper part of the board. drawings. compass.

When should provide students with an overview of the pres- required endorsements and record keeping provi. can help aviation instructors to complete. filmstrips. the instructor record for the student.ENHANCED TRAINING MATERIALS instructors. which have provisions for instructor However. The instructor also can write on a blank transparen- another document to evaluate the student’s performance. The actual training ensure that all subject areas for a particular class have requirements are based in the Federal Aviation been covered. slides of various sizes. With acetate or plastic. tice. the sions are designed into training syllabi. Overlays can also be cut into various shapes and The examiner also is required to assign a practical proj. ment and lighting beforehand and then preview the rated so the syllabus could also serve as the training presentation. Instructors need not refer to areas. transparencies for overhead projection. Blocks for instructor endorsements Use of projected materials requires planning and prac- also may be included at appropriate points. which include these benchmarks. the instructor must tion on enhanced training materials is presented in ensure that each student accomplishes a number of Chapter 10. Whether instructor-oriented materials can be a valuable instruc- working as an individual instructor or employed by a tional aid for all aviation instructors. Individual maintenance useful technique for displaying dial indications or fitting 7-5 . or school. Use of these questions nautical knowledge and skill training for pilots and avi. instructor-oriented mate- rial for pilot training is a maneuvers guide or handbook which includes the practical test standards as an integral The equipment can be placed at the front of the room. critical regulatory training benchmarks which are approaching. more user-friendly media such as video. factor governing continued use is that the content must visions to remind both students and instructors of be current and support the lesson. mostly because of availability of only present the course of training in a logical step. the training record can be Aside from a chalk or marker board. endorsed. After the presentation. and specialized equipment such One example of these types of materials includes as rear screen projection or an opaque projector. and properly documented. cy as the lesson progresses. instructors can easily create their own overhead transparencies. the overhead reviewed and the student’s training status easily transparency and projector is still one of the more con- assessed. required endorsements. have compiled lists of Aviation instructors must cover a broad range of aero. it is much instructor should allow time for questions and a sum- easier. allowing the instructor to maintain eye contact with stu- Students learn from the beginning how to perform the dents. venient and cost effective instructional aids. required training. moved about in relation to the base transparency. Such syllabi not training has declined. which are required by the regulations to be taught. building block sequence. use of instructor-oriented training materials which are Computer-based training also can be designed so the enhanced for regulatory compliance can be very bene. progress of the student can be tracked and document- ficial for ensuring required training is being accom. as well as publishers. More informa- flight or maintenance school. During a classroom session. they contain pro. The instructor should set up and adjust the equip- Provisions for logging training time can be incorpo. The brilliant light source concentrated at a short maneuver or procedure and also become familiar with distance makes it possible to use the projector in lighted the performance criteria. The essential by-step. Traditional aids in this group include motion pictures. While aviation instructors are expected training materials in order to facilitate regulatory com- to be familiar with all regulatory training requirements. much like a chalk or marker The examiner for the Oral and Practical (O&P) is board. important benchmarks. and certify records. plished. instructor. from the instructors’ standpoint. part of the description of maneuvers and procedures. Another example of enhanced. to conduct mary of key points. Additional transparencies can be overlaid onto the required to ask four questions in each of the subject original to show development or buildup of an event or areas. entation before showing it. or they may purchase commercially produced ones. endorse. ed. and projects as part of the syllabus helps an instructor ation maintenance technicians. the use of motion pictures and filmstrips for endorsements and record keeping. As training becomes more detailed and complex. and document PROJECTED MATERIAL required training. pliance. This is a ect from each subject area. and record keeping. Regulations and other publications used by designated pilot and maintenance examiners when they conduct There are many ways to incorporate design features in practical tests. display. training syllabi. Enhanced training materials. typical questions and projects. In case the student transfers to another school or instructor. track student progress.

video has become one of the line of sight. Since the material projected requires no advantage. The projector usually works better on a most popular of all instructional aids. it has disadvantages. The capability to easily stop. the surface of the picture or three-dimensional object Consequently.Figure 7-3. Interactive video is covered separately. special preparation. sound. com- Although vastly different from other projection mercially produced video cassettes are available for equipment. Finally. freeze. objects is limited to the space between the top of the lowered projection plate and the body of the projec- tor. color. chair. or table. usually about two or three inches. which follows. it is appar- Items which may be projected are practically limitless. and replay is particularly helpful for both 7-6 . The area of Advantages of video are well documented. video. instructors should VIDEO ensure that the projector does not obstruct the students’ As indicated previously. The initial dis- low stand. and in many cases. Some educators have theorized that TV has produced a visual culture that has actually changed the way people learn. video generation. The current the picture or object is limited to approximately 10 generation of students is sometimes referred to as the inches by 10 inches. several parts of a component together so relative motion limitations of the overhead projector are also true of can be simulated. The overhead projector is self-contained. is limited to passive be adjusted to eliminate image distortion. typed material. High-quality. although the overhead projector is simple to operate and requires little maintenance. ent that most. receptive to video. portable. and the PASSIVE VIDEO fan used for cooling the projector may be noisy. and adaptable to large or small classrooms. This equipment is especially adapted to enlarging diagrams and small charts for dis. As with any projection equipment. the convenience of video is certainly an play purposes. students are familiar with and A postage stamp. [Figure 7-3] the opaque projector. if not all. Many of the rewind. Most projectors are bulky to handle and store. The projection angle should cussion of video. textbook illustrations. video has replaced many of the projec- onto a regular projection screen. Passive video cassettes provide motion. For instructors. The height of usable tion-type instructional aids. In any case. the cost is very low. or a defective spark plug are representative of the items that may be projected. special effects with advanced graphic and animation techniques. the opaque projector reflects light from almost every subject pertaining to aviation training.

plus the complete frequently is able to control the pace of instruction. Real interactivity with computer-based training tion digitally. cou. or multimedia training. INTERACTIVE VIDEO Sophisticated databases can organize vast amounts of Interactive video refers broadly to software that information which can be quickly sorted. The cost of a video cassette program may indicate. AIM. text. This courses of action for the user to choose in order to allows the instructor to use a computer in conjunc- move from one sequence to another. the user. . At the same time. In general terms. either during the presentation or as based training (CBT). tion when the instructor and student are separated. the video cassette recorder and television can be used for other than Interactive video solves one of the main problems of instructional purposes. Students are often accustomed to dra. matic. searched. Prior planning and rehearsal will Interactive video is one form of computer-based multi- help determine the important points and concepts that media. This. Instructors should also try to pre. a review previous material. the terms computer- should be stressed. become very popular. is fairly economical. computer. graphics. For example. jump forward. or other. but it could include should be available to summarize the presentation and several forms of media—audio. the possibilities for distance learning increases. which provides several possible can project images from a computer screen. multimedia is a combination of possibly. action-packed film or video that is designed as entertainment. For example. the student pertinent aviation regulations. through the course. normally is perceived as much is the use of print or electronic media to deliver instruc- less exciting and less stimulating visually. when properly used. although higher than . instructors more than one instructional media. and receive CD is a powerful information source. . Well-designed interac- tive video. As is true with any instructional aid. in comparison. pare students for viewing video programs by telling Multimedia has been used for decades in some form or them what to watch carefully. means the student is fully engaged with the instruc- bility to store enormous amounts of information. Multimedia in a more current context content. As sources for access to information expand. a tion with specially designed software programs to 7-7 . and cross-indexed. what is important. an instructional aid. The term multimedia is not new. However. In addition.instructors and students. A major advantage of a CD is the capa. compare the results with past questions or directions which are programmed to performance. may include additional features such as image computer-based training also can be used to test the banks with full color photos and graphics. what is incorrect. responds quickly to certain choices and commands by found. Each student essentially receives a tages with video. is another trend absorb what they are seeing and hearing. With search and find features incorporated. information access is simplified. customized learning experience. have part of a summary. can diminish the may be defined as a system and process that connects stu- instructional value of the video. instructors need to follow some basic guidelines when using video. and answer any questions students may have regarding video (or film). With advanced tracking features. they tend to watch film or TV in a passive way without attempting to Distance learning. passive video in that it increases involvement of the student in the learning process. in recent years. the video presentation is not designed to COMPUTER-BASED MULTIMEDIA replace the instructor. equipment is available that branching technique. As tion by doing something meaningful which makes the an example. A typical system consists of a combination of a compact disk. is highly effective as Instructors also should be aware of certain disadvan. distance learning video. With computer- based multimedia. as well as student’s achievement.” some of the more basic instructional aid equipment. Go back to and the associated equipment. It also pled with an inattentive viewing style. Instructional applicable to aviation. In a basic form. a single compact disk may contain all subject of study come alive. or distance education. In addition. and try again. generally implies a computer-based media that is shown on personal computers (PCs). dents with resources for learning. and indicate the student’s weak or create interactivity for students as they progress strong areas. Although computers are often used on an individ- The questions or directions are programmed using a ual basis by students. A compact disk (CD) is a format for storing informa. “That was incorrect. The software instant feedback. and video technology. For example.

since he or she must certify dent and the instructor changes. [Figure 7-4] for the training. instructors and students may separate study areas for each student. what they are learning and how fast they learn it. essary. For example. ing control of the learning situation may be difficult. training is accomplished. It also may be difficult to find good CBT programs A more advanced application of computer-based train. As such. Well-designed pro- ly or in small groups. For the instructor. if nec. the overall learning circulate among students who are working individual. and higher levels of mastery and retention. for both pilots and aviation maintenance technicians. This results in considerable one. or other trained per- tor can tailor the presentation for the class. Students in these centers are available. involved in their own learning. they serve as guides or resource experts and Due to the active nature of CBT. The main advantages are less time still be considered as an add-on instructional aid to spent on instruction compared to traditional classroom improve traditional classroom instruction. the responsible instructor needs to establish procedures to make sure the required With computer-based training. It is widely used in airline training facilitators of the computer-based multimedia program. lack sufficient experience with personal computers to the physical facility is usually referred to as a learning take full advantage of the CBT programs that are center or training center. instructors become supportive multimedia training. and also include graphics at appropriate and act as a conduit to the instructor who is responsible points. software.Figure 7-4. Software programs are available which allow instructors to use computers to create unique presentations for an entire class through on-screen projection. Numerous advantages are attributed to computer-based room setting. Disadvantages include the lack of peer interaction ing environment to ensure learning objectives are and personal feedback. In this case. They tor provides assistance. and facilities must be laboratory-type environment may be configured with considered. often monitored by a teacher’s aid. the role of both the stu. Students become more student competency at the end of the course. learning often seems more enjoyable than learning from a regular In this situation. The instruc. who can provide guidance. about a subject on their own. In addition. the instruc. maintain- being achieved. With this setup. for certain subject areas. 7-8 . although no longer the center of attention. must continue to maintain complete control over the learn. a with the equipment. sonnel. answer questions. the computer-based training should classroom lecture. reinforcement. The instruc. In addition. process is enhanced in several ways. and the expense associated ing may involve less instructor control. Thus. and instructors may no longer occupy a center-stage position in a typical class. Instead. tor. create presentations for an entire class. grams allow students to feel like they are in control of on-one instructor/student interaction. and answers can explore areas that interest them and discover more questions for those who need it most. training.

the various parts should be labeled or colored based. called cut-aways. the students can observe how each part works shortcoming of test preparation materials is that the in relation to the other parts. such as CBT. and satellite-based. With these devices. Miniature a rotatable compass card. voice mail. but fail to learn other critical information equipment. as well as instructors. When the instructor emphasis is on rote learning. while others can be manipulated or operated. FAA inspectors and designated examiners have to ask questions. the increased use of computer technology. and cut-aways. or the same size as representation. a reduction. Still oth- ers. MOCK-UPS. or which is impossible to obtain. the World Wide Web. science fiction stage. The scale model represents an exact repro. models are usually more practical than originals Test preparation materials. to be highly effective for technical training. This mock-up. which lets com- puters accept spoken rather than keyed input. which is the lowest of all points to each part of the model while explaining levels of learning. most will agree that new technological advances will [Figure 7-5] affect practically everyone. the students can better understand the mechanical principles involved. the danger is that students may learn to pass a in explaining operating principles of various types of given test. have become routine. and it will be even more significant in the future. wireless communications. is expected Figure 7-5. even though many and reassembled. While test preparation Although a model may not be a realistic copy of an materials may be effective in preparing students for FAA actual piece of equipment. They should be rials. scale replicas are often very expensive. video. which includes moveable pointers. and computer-based products that are to clarify relationships. or testing in place considered as a supplement to instructor-led training. instance. it can be used effectively tests. It is used for study. In duction of the original. and cut-aways are additional to consider in developing and using models. This explosion of information access has already affected aviation training. while simplified models do not general. Models are especially adaptable to small essential to safe piloting and maintenance practices. and if it can be taken apart knowledge during oral questioning. All instructors who use test preparation A mock-up is a three-dimensional or specialized type publications should stress that these materials are not of working model made from real or synthetic mate. Some models are solid satisfy the instructor’s requirement. simulation. As instructional aids. e-mail. A major model. of the real object. Voice-recognition technology. In aviation training. For the original. In group discussions in which students are encouraged addition. and virtual reality will continue to expand. computer-aided 7-9 . costs can vary from low to high. mock- instructional aids. and other moveable indicators. it should be and show only the outline of the object they portray. It ups. these relationships. designed as stand-alone learning tools. the Internet. for learning and eliminate nonessential elements. are built in sections and can be TEST PREPARATION MATERIAL taken apart to reveal the internal structure. that because they are lightweight and easy to manipulate. mock-ups. includ- ing use of computer databases. which is too costly or too danger- ous. Whenever Test preparation material applies to an array of paper- possible. A model is a copy of a real object. used. training. The mock-up FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS may emphasize or highlight elements or components While no one person can accurately predict the future. With the display of an operating have easily passed the FAA knowledge test. Electronic communications. A model is even more effective if it found that student applicants often exhibit a lack of works like the original. Emerging computer technology includes improved voice- recognition software and miniature electro-optical devices. designed by commercial publishers to help student applicants prepare for FAA tests. Depending on the nature of the can be an enlargement. if a two-dimensional representation will represent reality in all details. The proliferation of sources for information has prompted writers to refer to the current era as the information age. dwell on teaching the test are shortchanging student applicants. is electro-optical devices have also advanced beyond the designed to teach instrument navigation procedures. AND CUT-AWAYS Production and equipment costs are limiting factors Models.MODELS.

Among these are the need for uses graphics with animation systems. In the new century. In these centers. They should study and research extensively in professional journals and other publications as well as One other type of computer-based technology is virtual use the Internet. also is discussed. in its current sionalism. technician’s eyes to easily move back and forth from The challenge will be to learn how to stay abreast of computer-generated technical data to the actual hard. as well as aeronautical this information is current. sometimes produce unfavorable side effects. It is extremely instructor’s professional image. As a related part of this con. much of classroom to more extensive use of a lab-type environ. It creates a sensory students learn what they really need to know. New. universities. The subject of profes- rience. belt. dents become more actively involved and responsible for their own training. and versions with a head-mounted display eyewear which is connected to a lightweight. and electronic networks and bulletin boards is from commercial communications. ing levels of knowledge and skill. chapter. mounted computer. There is no guarantee that all of research centers. instructors with well-developed computer Trends in training indicate a shift from the typical skills will be in demand. the existing technology will become obsolete. Despite enormous potential. state. Aviation-related learning centers are providers. In the next experience that allows a participant to believe and bare. and instructors to continue to update and expand their exist- images to reproduce electronic versions of real-life expe. or even accurate. it would be possible for a of ongoing technological advances should be apparent. criminating. VR bilities is fully covered. students will have access to simulation devices. ment with computer work or study stations. 7-10 . and government agencies.information is projected electronically on sunglass-style expensive. Further growth in this Professional instructors need to be resourceful and dis- type of training is likely. interactive multimedia. computer networks. and probably more complex technology of the learning or training center concept in which stu. cable or new possibilities. For example. has drawbacks. and national usually associated with colleges. Since much of problem. programs at some colleges and universities. the broad scope of aviation instructor responsi- ly distinguish a virtual experience from a real one. along with several methods for enhancing the stage of development. Above all. The airlines. Electronic information on computer closed circuit TV. have used similar facilities for many years. they should use creativity reality. the new technology will be based on computer tech- nology. as well as community. training system designers advocate more use of main teaching goals and be selectively receptive to group or collaborative learning techniques. will appear and replace the old. Virtual reality (VR) actually is a separate form and imagination. This is part more efficient. instructors must remember their cept. the changes that apply to training and adopt those that ware while diagnosing and correcting a maintenance are the most useful and cost effective. There is always a better way to help of computer-based technology. Although the explosion of training technology offers and multimedia programs. The computer-aided information would be particularly useful for aviation maintenance For those engaged in aviation training. the implications activities. sounds. VR. new opportunities.

but they also ing each lesson a pleasurable experience for the stu- need to project a knowledgeable and professional dent. Since students learn at Figure 8-1. AVIATION INSTRUCTOR The idea that people must be led to learning by mak- RESPONSIBILITIES ing it easy is a fallacy. and teaching methods. dis- interest. In addition. It is important that aviation Learning should be an enjoyable experience. 8-1 . such as self-enhancement helping students learn. student will experience satisfaction from doing a good ods they can use to enhance their professional image job or from successfully meeting the challenge of a and conduct. As ficult tasks. Not knowing the objective of the lesson often leads to confusion. Knowing the objective of each period of instruction gives meaning and inter- est to the student as well as the instructor.Students look to aviation instructors as authorities in HELPING STUDENTS LEARN their respective areas. Though they might initially be drawn to less dif- learn. As part of this. the teaching process. students should be allowed time to explore and evaluate the various elements of each lesson. and they are proud of the successful achievement of diffi- emphasizing the positive. [Figure 8-1] cult goals. Learning to fly should provide students with an oppor- tunity for exploration and experimentation. Previous chapters have discussed how people less. This encourages them to discover their own capabilities and it helps build self-confidence. the learning process can be made easier by activities that bring rewards. essary to adjust presentations for some students. or any instructor. is to to something simply because it is pleasant and effort- teach. the instructor can maintain a high level of stu- image. By mak- instructors not only know how to teach. The bilities for aviation instructors and enumerates meth. difficult task. demanding adequate standards of performance. aviation instructors are on the front dent motivation. Learning should be interesting. and personal satisfaction. they ultimately devote more effort to indicated. People want to feel capable. People are not always attracted The job of an aviation instructor. This does not mean the instructor lines of efforts to improve the safety record of the must make things easy for the student or sacrifice industry. standards of performance to please the student. There are four main responsibilities for aviation different rates and in different ways. and uneasiness on the part of the student. providing adequate instruction. it usually is nec- instructors. This chapter addresses the scope of responsi.

maps and the relationship of maps to the earth. The instructor must talk with a student at • Evaluate student learning and thereby measure some length to learn about the student’s background. and delicate handling. and support the student’s motivation while they are in a learning situation. Until the students are test. result in a positive and efficient learning experience. achieve them. For dent may soon find that the instruction is not produc- example. the sequence of training. even though the have less need for basic information. the plan of action for a lesson on reciprocat. Helping the student learn does not mean that the To accomplish these objectives. A slow student dent’s current level of knowledge and skill in relation to requires instructional methods that combine tact. it might be necessary for regarding the objectives. In this case. teaching meth. The best way to situation is correctly understood. instructors need to instructor has the responsibility for performing learn- take specific actions. instruction would obviously be directed toward ed. interests. The instructor’s methods also may change as the student As noted in the list. Maintenance students will likewise be in the course are included. rather than drill student stands in relation to the objectives. the instructor does not know for sure where each developing student self-confidence. In the case of the flight student study. with the course of instruction. the transitioning student would time due to lack of self-confidence. the instructor must devise a plan of advances through successive stages of training. No two students are alike. In theory. and opportunity for stu- • Devise a plan of action. knowledge or skill the student has in relation to the ing for the practical test. A pretest is on flight fundamentals. The following measures should ing tasks which students need to do for themselves. and having certain spatial skills to understand and by a logical presentation of learning tasks. the prospective student to get more training or educa- ing. questions for each of the key knowledge areas or skills tificate or rating. this could mean ing engines for maintenance students would be different that the instructor has analyzed a student as a slow for a student transitioning from automotive mainte. too much a criterion-referenced test constructed to measure the criticism may completely subdue a timid person. at the beginning helps the instructor present the infor- ods. methods of instruction cannot be equally effective for each student. The flight instructor should attempt to carefully and correctly analyze the student’s personality. • Transfer responsibility to the student as learning and ability. they must be clear accordingly. action. required to train safe pilots who can complete the knowledge and practical tests for the appropriate cer. application to the learning task. The best instructors provide information. confirm this is with a pretest. If such a stu- 8-2 . Such a student may fail to act at the proper background. teaching effectiveness. guidance. The instructor will then be facing objectives aligned with the knowledge tests and able to identify how much the student knows and tailor the Oral and Practical. Because aviation instructors have full responsibility for The instructor could then base the plan of action all phases of required training. who is actually a quick thinker but is hesitant nance than it would for a student with no maintenance to act. one or two the practical test standards (PTS) for the desired cer. The second part of a pretest is measuring the level of tificate or rating. memory.Learning to fly should be a habit-building period during The pretest measures whether or not the student has the which students devote their attention. and related activities must be organized to best mation and offer guidance more effectively. and present information and guidance effective- ly. In the extreme. In another case. For example. the objectives reflect the knowledge and skill tion before beginning flight training. Typically. PROVIDING ADEQUATE INSTRUCTION • Present information and guidance effectively. For ground and flight train. After the objectives have been the instruction accordingly. ing the desired results. dent learning. Examples of skills that Any objective other than to learn the right way is likely might be required of a student pilot would be knowl- to make students impatient. keen perception. and way of thinking. temperament. understanding the English lan- the students focused on good habits both by example guage. Knowing the objectives is one part of accomplishing An instructor who has not correctly analyzed a stu- these tasks and knowing the student is the other. • Create a positive student-instructor relationship. thinker. thinking. A pretest can expose deficiencies in these and other areas. and prerequisite knowledge and skills necessary to proceed judgment to the development of correct habit patterns. the material that will be presented in the course. knowledge and skills that are necessary to begin the whereas brisk instruction may force a more diligent course. and the same occurs. the objectives will come from material that is going to be taught. Knowing where a student is established. The instructor should keep edge of basic math. This is not effective instruction. Pretests also may be used to determine the stu.

Because they make few mistakes. The demands on an instructor to serve as a practical psychologist are much greater than is generally real. .” 8-3 . Such overconfidence may soon result in faulty performance. A student whose slow progress is due to discourage- ment and a lack of confidence should be assigned sub. experience in aviation: lacy to believe that accepting lower standards to please a student will produce a genuine improvement • An exhaustive indoctrination in preflight procedures in the student-instructor relationship. that fear adversely can meet this responsibility through a careful analysis affects the students’ perceptions. For this purpose.” Instructors fail to provide competent instruction when • Instruction in the extreme care which must be taken they permit their students to get by with a substandard in taxiing an airplane. demanding greater effort. Students who are permitted to complete every flight lesson without cor- rections and guidance will not retain what they have practiced as well as those students who have their attention constantly directed to an analysis of their per- formance. because “. goals should be increased in difficulty until progress is normal. On the other hand. and each element practiced tors conduct themselves.dent receives too much help and encouragement. Students learn more when instruction is pre- sented in a positive manner. Individuals learn when they are aware of their errors. and coordination can be introduced ability to present instruction so that students develop a one at a time. if you go too performance. An earnest stu. an instructor inhibits the perceptual process. It is a fal. Instructors must be able to detect these factors Flight instructors must continuously evaluate their in their students and strive to prevent negative feelings own effectiveness and the standard of learning and from becoming part of the instructional process. The desire to maintain pleasant personal relationships with the stu. that the feeling of of the students and through a continuing deep interest being threatened limits the ability to perceive. a of knowledge pertinent to safe piloting. Students who are fast learners can also create problems for the instructor. and until an acceptable performance is achieved before the the manner in which they develop their instruction all whole maneuver or operation is attempted. in the instructor. As discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. tive impressions by their students. performance achieved by their students. [Figure 8-2] ity. The success of an eration for headings only. EMPHASIZING THE POSITIVE goals that can be attained more easily than the normal Aviation instructors have a tremendous influence on learning goals. positive image of aviation. The way instruc- be separated into elements. they may assume that the correction of errors is unim- portant. or without learning thoroughly some item fast. with emphasis on the extreme precautions which must dent does not resent reasonable standards that are fairly be taken before every flight because and consistently applied. it’s likely to get away from you. . . such deficiencies may in themselves allow haz- ardous inadequacies in student performance later on. For such students. More impor- feeling of incompetence may develop. Consider how the following scenario for the first les- dents must not cause the acceptance of a slow rate of son might impress a new student pilot without previous learning or substandard flight performance. instruction in S-turns may begin with consid. mechanical failures in flight are often disastrous. the instructor should constantly raise the standard of performance for each lesson. Elements of altitude control. deficiencies should not be invented solely for the students’ benefit because unfair criticism immediately destroys their confidence Figure 8-2. tantly. As an contribute to the formation of either positive or nega- example. “. . As the student gains confidence and abil. Chapter 1 emphasized that a negative self-concept ized. complex lessons can their students’ perception of aviation. negative motivation is not as effective as positive moti- vation. aviation instructor depends. and that in them. Merely knowing about these factors is not STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE enough. the attitudes they display. in large measure. on the drift correction.

These methods the new student wonder whether or not learning to fly may or may not have been good. vibrations. instructors have some additional responsibilities ical possibilities of aviation before having an opportu. instructors cannot ignore the exis- tence of these negative factors. standing and positive instruction. learned under one system of instruction does not mean dent to become airsick. Following the positive because positive instruction results in pos- the flight.• A series of stalls. Consequently. These Figure 8-3. responsibilities. the final test must be • A series of simulated forced landings. nor should they ridicule students who are adversely affected by them. and the fact that no FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR critical incidents were encountered or expected. . The instructor may initially determines that the student understands even tell the student that to do it otherwise is to flirt the procedure or maneuver. the instructor can call the student’s attention itive learning. and the flight consists of a perfectly their instruction. flight lesson in which the preflight inspection is pre. The flight instructor has many additional negative sensations can usually be overcome by under. practice the maneuver under direction. This has often been the case because of overemphasis on negative motivation and explanations. consider a first that this is necessarily the best way it can be done.” approach necessary to ensure that the point is com- mitted to memory. the instructor quences of doing it differently. eerie sensa- tions due to G-forces. Flight in which the student is not overwhelmed with the crit. and emergency procedures should be omitted responsibility because their students will ultimately from training. Although most student pilots have been exposed to air travel in one form or another. Some students learn in spite of its components. because “. to the ease with which the trip was made in comparison with other modes of transportation. Other flight instructor responsibilities has developed an acquaintance with normal operations are based on Title 14 of the Code of Federal is not so likely to be discouraging and frightening. engine failure. demonstrates the maneuver. an Evaluation is one of the most important elements instructor might be tempted to point out the conse. RESPONSIBILITIES This by no means proposes that preflight inspections. [Figure 8-3] There is nothing in aviation that demands that students must suffer as part of their instruction. because whether the stated reasons contribute to the learning “. training aircraft.” Most new instructors tend to adopt those teaching These are a series of new experiences that might make methods used by their own instructors. one should always be prepared to cope with an situation. When emphasizing to a student that a particular pro. The stall series may even cause the stu. To be effective. The fact that one has is a good idea. . . allows the student to Justifications such as these may be very convenient. or to Regulations (14 CFR) part 61. Every reasonable effort should be made to ensure that instruction is given under the most favorable conditions. EVALUATION OF STUDENT PILOTING ABILITY cedure must be accomplished in a certain manner. rather than because of it. this is how so many and the instructor may consider the negative people lose their lives in airplanes. Emphasize normal flight to a nearby airport and return. of instruction. Then the instructor with disaster or to suffer serious consequences. including the responsibility of evaluating student nity to see its potential and pleasurable features. regardless of the respect one retains for the ability of sented to familiarize the student with the airplane and their original instructor. or a woozy feeling in the stom- ach. In contrast. . students may experience unfamiliar noises. However. All aviation instructors shoulder an enormous stalls. It only illustrates the positive approach be flying and servicing or repairing aircraft. and finally 8-4 . they may not have flown in light. In flight instruction. (ACs). The pilots and making a determination of when they are introduction of emergency procedures after the student ready to solo. and advisory circulars inhibit learning by the imposition of fear.

This dent informed of progress. The student should also be capable of the performance.evaluates student accomplishment by observing maneuvers. Evaluation of demonstrated ability during flight or unexpected crosswinds. 8-5 . handling ordinary problems that might occur. suggest appropriate corrective less risks the presentation of an applicant who may measures. students should be the training in the applicable areas of operation stat- required to vary the performance of the maneuver ed in the regulations and the PTS. flight instructor. maneuvers. In the same elements to the performance of other most cases. such as traffic pattern congestion. instructors should point out the elements in which the deficiencies are believed to have originat- A practical test recommendation based on anything ed and. This risk is especially great in signing rec- immediately when a mistake is made. Students who do not understand the prin. and proof that a review has guidance and restraint with respect to the solo opera. On the other hand. the flight instructor has trained and prepared the applicant instructor should require the student to demonstrate competently. it is frequently better to let students progress part trained by the instructor involved. first solo flight to consist of landings to a full stop. 14 CFR parts 61 of the way into the mistake and find their own way and 141 require a minimum of three hours of flight out. The instructor must instruction must be based upon established standards remain in control of the situation. Signing this recom- conducted in FAA-approved school courses and the mendation imposes a serious responsibility on the practical tests for pilot certificates and ratings. the appropriate knowledge test. When explaining errors in practical test standards (PTS). A flight instructor who makes a practical test recommendation for an applicant seek- ing a certificate or rating should require the applicant In evaluating student demonstrations of piloting ability. and procedures. This may be done as each demonstration should in no instance be less than the procedure or maneuver is completed or summarized complete procedure prescribed in the applicable during postflight critiques. to thoroughly demonstrate the knowledge and skill it is important for the flight instructor to keep the stu. students may per. Safety permit. rather than such action. training preparation within 60 days preceding the ver properly if they seldom have the opportunity to date of the test for a recreational. FAA inspectors and designated pilot examiners rely on PILOT SUPERVISION flight instructor recommendations as evidence of quali- Flight instructors have the responsibility to provide fication for certification. mercial certificate. If the tions. level required for that certificate or rating. combine it with other operations. private. the instructor has the opportunity to stop the flight if The evaluation must consider the student’s mastery of unexpected conditions or poor performance warrant the elements involved in the maneuver. The same training requirement form a procedure or maneuver correctly and not fully applies to the instrument rating. suitably modified to apply to the stu. change in active runway. merely the overall performance. PRACTICAL TEST RECOMMENDATIONS Demonstrations of performance directly apply to the Provision is made on the airman certificate or rating qualification of student pilots for solo and solo cross. ing the endorsement is required to have conducted When the instructor suspects this. and certify that the slightly. the applicant should have no problem consistent ability to perform all of the fundamental passing the practical test. or apply person is prepared for the required practical test. the flight instructor is logical- Correction of student errors should not include the ly held accountable for a deficient instructional per- practice of taking the controls away from students formance. By requiring the of performance. ommendations for applicants who have not been ting. successfully. application form for the written recommendation of country privileges. The instructor sign- understand the principles and objectives involved. Recommendations also tant flight instructor responsibility because the provide assurance that the applicant has had a thorough instructor is the only person in a position to make the briefing on the practical test standards and the associat- determination that a student is ready for solo opera. performance. Also associated with pilot skill the flight instructor who has prepared the applicant evaluations during flight training are the stage checks for the practical test involved. been given of the subject areas found to be deficient on tions of their students. It is difficult for students to learn to do a maneu. tle doubt concerning the applicant’s readiness for the ciples involved will probably not be able to do this practical test. be unprepared for some part of the actual practical test. if possible. dent’s experience and stage of development as a pilot. Before endorsing a student for solo flight. In such an event. This is by far the most impor. or com- correct an error. the conscientious instructor will have lit- maneuvers. ed knowledge areas.

For a knowledge or prac- The authority and responsibility for endorsing stu. but it is not necessary for all endorsements for certificated pilots. and experience requirements. Certification: Pilots and Flight Instructors. Currency and Additional Qualification Requirements For example. contains information to assist affect the wording. Examples of all common endorsements can be ance to clarify or reinforce certain areas that are fre- found in the current issue of AC 61-65. FLIGHT REVIEWS The conduct of flight reviews for certificated pilots is not only a responsibility of the flight instructor. no person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft unless a flight review has been accomplished within 14 CFR part 61 also requires that the instructor main. the preceding 24 calendar months. but it can also be an excellent opportunity to expand on the instructor’s professional services. The example shown is for a private pilot recreational. [Figure 8-4] Included in the AC is general guidance in each of these areas. the record must include the kind dent pilot certificates and logbooks for solo and solo of test. Included are additional endorsements for completing it. Effective pilot refresher training must be based on spe- the name of the person receiving the endorsement. the instructions must be read very carefully craft. it is advisable for cy in performance for which an instructor is held the flight instructor to assist the applicant in filling out accountable. AC 61-98. high altitude. [Figure 8-5] 61 for more details concerning the requirements that ADDITIONAL TRAINING AND ENDORSEMENTS must be met to qualify for each respective endorsement. Flight instructors also have the responsibility to make logbook endorsements for pilots who are already cer. As stated in 14 CFR part 61. The instructor’s certification that the appli- responsibility for solo flight operations also is a breach cant is ready to take the test is on the reverse of the form. ciency. another instructor task that must be documented prop. references to other related documents. the date. and the additional training required regulations. commercial. tical test endorsement. or the instructor may customize the the instructor in providing training/endorsements for endorsement for any special circumstances of the stu. training. Any time a flight instructor gives ground or flight transitions to other makes and models of aircraft. FAA Form 8710-1. Typical examples This is only an example. but Figure 8-4. flight reviews. shown here. a logbook entry is required. FAA-monitored currency program.FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENTS the date of the endorsement. Airman Certificate and/or Rating dent pilot who is not fully prepared to accept the Application. instrument revised to reflect changes in the applicable rules and proficiency checks. and dent. knowledge and skills. If the current form is a later edition than for high performance. The examples shown contain the essential elements of Flight instructors often provide required training and each endorsement. of faith with the student. an instructional service designed to assess a pilot’s lo aeronautical knowledge. endorsements to be worded exactly as those in the AC. Failure to ensure that a student pilot meets After ensuring that an applicant for a certificate is pre- the requirements of regulations prior to making pared for the test and has met all the knowledge. quently found incomplete by the FAA during the certi- This appendix also includes references to 14 CFR part fication process. These endorsements are further explained in FAA FORM 8710-1 AC 61-65. The flight instructor must remember that the flight review is not a test or a check ride. and instrument-rated applicant who received training under 14 CFR part 61. Completion of prerequisites for a practical test is to ensure all areas of the form are filled out correctly. instrument proficiency checks. This is a sample logbook endorsement for preso. Providing a solo endorsement for a stu. FAA Form 8710-1 comes with instructions attached for tificated. Appendix 1. Records of endorse- cross-country flight privileges are granted in 14 CFR ments must be maintained for at least three years. The example shown is annotated with additional guid- erly. and cific objectives and standards. The flight review is intended to be an industry-managed. part 61. private. and sample training plans that are pertinent to this type of training. changes to regulatory requirements may for Certificated Pilots. The objectives should 8-6 . but the applicant will likely need the assistance of the instructor in filling out the front. since the form is periodically include endorsements for flight reviews. and the results. and tailwheel air. tain a record in a logbook or some separate document that includes information on the type of endorsement. pilots as well as flight instructors. profi- endorsements allowing solo flight is a serious deficien.

color.Box or Rural Route.S. if no middle name.O. DO NOT apply to alcohol related offenses (DWI or DUI). Items U. Do not use P.S. name must be spelled out. the letters “NMN” must be indicated. Type or print in ink when Spell out Must include city or county and filling out 8710-1. UNLESS a statement of physical location is Enter class shown on medical certificate (i. and V. 3rd). DO NOT USE MIDDLE INITIAL. This sample FAA Form 8710-1 (front page) has been completed for a private pilot applicant. state within the U. Date signed by applicant should be within 60 days prior to date of practical test. if required. Check that flight time is sufficient for certifi- cate or rat- Make sure applicant signs form. Include city Middle and country outside the U.e. 1st. Figure 8-5. 8-7 . 2nd.

This sample FAA Form 8710-1 (back page) has been completed for a private pilot applicant. Practical test date must be within 60 Full printed name should be Instructor’s certificate must be current days after date of recommendation. on date of recommendation. Figure 8-5. included with signature. 8-8 .

include a thorough checkout appropriate to the pilot AIRCRAFT CHECKOUTS/TRANSITIONS certificate and aircraft ratings held. maneuvers. The One of the ways the FAA attempts to improve profi- FAA FSDO having jurisdiction over the area where the ciency is through the requirement for having a flight device is used must specifically approve each flight review within the past 24 months. At the conclu. An instructor who does not meet the recent flight experience prescribed by regulations INSTRUMENT PROFICIENCY CHECKS for the aircraft concerned should not attempt to check Instrument rated pilots who have not met instrument out another pilot. thoroughly debriefed on all problem areas. Part or all of the check may be the leading edge of the aviation industry’s efforts to conducted in a flight training device or flight simulator improve aviation safety through additional training. the including high performance airplanes. including a sample plan of action and checklist. AC 61-98 provides a list of requirements for transi- sion of a successful flight review. and further mary reference for specific maneuvers and any associat. Chapter 1. Appendix 1 is a sample flight and complexity to transport airplanes. or part of an instrument proficiency check. flight instructor should record in the pilot’s logbook the exact extent of any checkout conducted. as training progresses. instructors should contact the local FSDO to verify the approval The objective of the program is to provide pilots with the status of the device. Professional flight instructors know the importance of maintaining knowledge and skill both as instructors and The flight instructor must hold aircraft and instrument as pilots. and for the 61 to pass an instrument proficiency check in order to instructor’s protection in the case of later questions. If planning to use a encouraging pilot proficiency is through provisions of flight training device or flight simulator to conduct all AC 61-91. Only by keeping themselves at top proficiency ratings on his or her instructor certificate appropriate to can they be true professionals. check should be expected to meet the criteria of the spe- cific tasks selected in the Instrument Rating Practical PILOT PROFICIENCY Test Standards. and the standards Certificated pilots look to flight instructors for should be at least those required for the issuance of that aircraft checkouts and transition training pilot certificate. For these. a referral to ed tolerances. For the conduct of an aircraft checkout. approved flight manual. currency requirements in the preceding six months or for six months thereafter are required by 14 CFR part For the benefit of the pilot concerned. ough as an official type rating practical test. The flight instructor is at the aircraft being flown. instruction scheduled. In some cases. and. that meets 14 CFR section 141. Before beginning any training. Many AC 61-98. the review plan and checklist. the flight instructor should use the to be insufficient to allow sign off. dures. newer light airplanes are comparable in performance ing the flight review. operating procedures.41 requirements. and proce. operating limitations. it is essential that the flight instructor be fully qualified in the air- craft to be used and be thoroughly familiar with its Figure 8-6. This can be AC 61-98 contains guidance for the conduct of an done most easily by reference to the appropriate PTS. the pilot should be Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards as the pri. When conducting an instrument In the event the instructor finds a pilot’s performance proficiency check. and aircraft capable of flight at high alti- objectives and standards. rating is not required by regulations is accepting a major responsibility for the safety of future passengers. tudes. The flight instructor who checks out and certifies the pilot should be kept appraised of progress toward the competency of a pilot in an aircraft for which a type achieving those goals. This AC also lists other publications that can be helpful in conducting check- outs. instrument proficiency check. Appendix 2 is a sample list flight instructor’s checkout should be at least as thor- of flight review knowledge. Pilot Proficiency Award Program. This sample logbook endorsement is for comple. [Figure 8-6] with a sample training plan. the logbook of the tioning to other makes and models of aircraft along pilot should be endorsed. opportunity to establish and participate in a personal 8-9 . and tion of a flight review. the regain their instrument flying privileges. All checkouts should be conducted to the per- formance standards required by the appropriate practi- cal test standards for the pilot certificate. A pilot taking an instrument proficiency another instructor may be appropriate. provides guidance for conduct. tailwheel pilot and the instructor should agree fully on these airplanes. It contains recommended procedures and stan- dards for general pilot refresher courses. Another method of training device or flight simulator.

Phases IV through XX are each judgmental decisions. A • Professionalism exists only when a service is per- certificate is awarded for Phases XI through XX. study and research. [Figure 8-7] Aviaton instructors should carefully consider this list. Although the word “professionalism” is hour of instrument training either in an airplane. it is rarely defined. The nition can encompass all of the qualifications and con- program also requires attending at least one sanctioned siderations that must be present before true profession- aviation safety seminar. but 12 months must pass between comple. toward another phase can begin as soon as one phase is completed. aircraft maintenance technician. AC 61-91 contains requirements for other categories/classes of aircraft. next phase. qualified teacher and an expert pilot or Program. • Professionalism is achieved only after extended tion of one phase and application for the award of the training and preparation. Any facade of instruc- 8-10 . SINCERITY The professional instructor should be straightforward and honest. For training. It is open to all pilots holding a recreational pilot certificate or higher and PROFESSIONALISM The aviation instructor is the central figure in aviation a current medical certificate when required. or flight simulator. Flight instructors can substantially improve their own • Professionalism demands a code of ethics. alism can exist. Professionals cannot limit earned by completion of an evaluation or proficiency their actions and decisions to standard patterns and flight with a designated examiner or FAA inspector and practices. the program requires three hours of flight ation professional. as well as addi- Though not all inclusive. and immediately has conducted the appropriate training toward the com. • Professionals must be able to reason logically and By giving instruction leading to phase completion for accurately. Failing to meet these qualities may result in poor per- formance by the instructor and students. This is an example of an instructor’s logbook respect and full attention of a student.recurrent training program. proficiency and that of their students and other pilots Professionals must be true to themselves and to by participating and encouraging participation in the those they service. approaches. no single defi- approved flight training device. destroys their effectiveness. Teaching an avi- endorsement for a pilot who has completed a phase of training ation student is based upon acceptance of the instructor according to requirements of the Pilot Proficiency Award as a competent. a logbook endorsement is required. Anything less than a sincere per- Pilot Proficiency Award Program. Preparation and performance as an instructor with these qualities constantly in mind will command recognition as a pro- fessional in aviation instruction. Pilots training and is responsible for all phases of required of qualified ultralight vehicles are also eligible. major considerations and qualifications that should be included in the definition of professionalism. rent training program. When an instructor formance is quickly detected. one hour go far beyond this if the requirements of professionalism devoted to patterns. The instructor must be fully qualified as an avi- airplanes. or industry-conducted recur. or for the common good. pletion of a phase. Another incentive to participate is that the completion of a phase substitutes for the flight review • True performance as a professional is based on and restarts the 24-month clock. In fact. three pilots (nine hours of instruction) and attendance at a safety seminar or clinic. either as a pilot or aircraft mainte- training which includes one hour directed toward basic nance technician. Work formed for someone. widely used. the instructor’s ability must airplane control and mastery of the airplane. however. and landings. Attempting to hide some inadequacy behind a smokescreen of unrelated instruction will make it impossible for the instructor to command the Figure 8-7. Professionalism includes an instructor’s public image. an instructor can earn • Professionalism requires the ability to make good Phases I through III. attendance at a safety seminar or clinic. and one are to be met. the following list gives some tional detailed requirements for all aircraft. Incentives to participate include distinctive pins and certificates of completion for Phases I through X. Flight instructors may also participate in the program.

such habits make the haps the most important of these. distracting speech the professional relationship of the instructor with the habits.tor pretentiousness. and even little annoy- ances such as body odor or bad breath can cause serious ACCEPTANCE OF THE STUDENT distractions from learning the tasks at hand. long lasting effect on students. and inattentive cannot hold the respect develop similar habits. and that both are working toward the same objective. and capricious changes in mood. Students must be treated with manner is as much to be avoided as is an air of flip- respect. to similar or identical errors at different times. If a student pilot sees the flight instructor start an airplane and take off without referring to a checklist. Acceptance. clean. The instructor must constantly portray manding a patient who does not get well as rapidly as competence in the subject matter and genuine interest predicted. or criticiz- rather than ridicule. The profes- student should be based on a mutual acknowledgement sional image requires development of a calm. The instructor learning process. Beginning with this understanding. and the pre- Personal habits have a significant effect on the profes. A good example is the use of a checklist before takeoff. including all their faults and prob- lems. the attire worn habits they attempt to imitate. instructors must meticulously observe the safety practices being taught to students. image of irresponsibility that many hours of scrupulous flight instruction can never correct. and disciplined. regardless of ability as a pilot or aviation assumed by the student. demeanor. safety precautions. A forbidding or overbearing will encourage learning. 8-11 . Moreover. professionalism. reacting differently Under no circumstance should the instructor do any. Generally. and The attitude and behavior of the instructor can con- the instructor is a person who is available to help in the tribute much to a professional image. no amount of instruction in the use of a checklist will convince that student to faith- fully use one when solo flight operations begin. an instructor and will be adversely affected. Today’s aviation The safety practices emphasized by instructors have a customers expect their instructors to be neat. The instructor should avoid any tendency toward fre- quently countermanding directions. regardless of whether the student is quick to pancy. With regard to students. The exercise of common courtesy is per. in the student’s well being. demand- thing which implies degrading the student. students con- and appropriately dressed. and support rather than reproof ing a student unfairly. Since the instructor is sider their instructor to be a model of perfection whose engaged in a learning situation. will immediately cause the maintenance technician. Criticizing a student calm. The aviation instructor should always present a professional appearance. unconsciously. a student work in close proximity. whether it is real or mistakenly of students. but not somber. whether consciously or should be appropriate to a professional status. Effective instruction is best conducted in a learn or is slow and apprehensive. To maintain a professional image. other. Personal cleanliness is impor- student to lose confidence in the instructor and learning tant to aviation instruction. the instructor must accept DEMEANOR them as they are. An instructor who is instructor more effective by encouraging students to rude. pleasant. The instructor’s advocacy and descrip- [Figure 8-8] tion of safety practices mean little to a student if the instructor does not demonstrate them consistently. thought- that the student and the instructor are important to each ful. PERSONAL APPEARANCE AND HABITS SAFETY PRACTICES AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION Personal appearance has an important effect on the professional image of the instructor. cepts of courtesy will enhance the instructor’s image of sional image. ing unreasonable performance or progress. a flight instructor must carefully observe all regulations and recognized safety practices during all flight operations. thoughtful approach that puts the stu- who does not learn rapidly is similar to a doctor repri. An instruc- tor who is observed to fly with apparent disregard for loading limitations or weather minimums creates an Figure 8-8. Frequently. Habitual obser- vance of regulations. should avoid erratic movements. For this reason. The student is a person who wants to learn. thoughtless. dent at ease.

The flight instructor must go beyond the requirements has wider acceptance and understanding.” or “lower the pitch attitude” are completely incomprehensible. firewall it. By following some basic rules. Minimizing student frustrations in the classroom. throw the cobs to it. .” and “lift” are familiar. and maneuvers. Likewise. The flight instructor must not only teach students to know their own and their SELF-IMPROVEMENT equipment’s limitations. These are practical ways to minimize student instructor should then be careful to limit instruction frustration. At the beginning of the student’s training. aviators. since it when they do not know what is expected of them or 8-12 . Coined words. Words such as “traffic. [Figure 8-9] The beginning aviation student is being introduced to new concepts and experiences and encountering new terms and phrases that are often confusing. bility of introducing new procedures and techniques to their students and other aviation professionals with PROPER LANGUAGE whom they come in contact. of developing technically proficient students who are terminology should be explained to the student before knowledgeable in the areas of their equipment. to a lack of complete confidence in MINIMIZING STUDENT FRUSTRATIONS the instructor. A phrase such as Keep Students Informed—Students feel insecure “. and new operating nance student observes the instructor violating safety techniques. The Figure 8-9. such as VORTAC. the instructor should carefully define the terms and phrases that will be used during the lesson.” or “. All too Student errors and confusion can also result from using often students do not realize how a particular lesson or many of the colloquial expressions of aviation. but the words are a part of aviation and beginning students need to learn the common terms. the student will likely not be maintenance technicians to be a source of up-to-date conscientious about using safety equipment when the information. is a basic instructor responsi- professional instructor must speak normally. Flight instructors are The aircraft maintenance instructor must similarly considered authorities on aeronautical matters and are make the maintenance technician student aware of the the experts to whom many pilots refer questions con- consequences of safety in the work place. They should be constantly alert for ways the part of the students. without bility. as in other professional activi. they are eager to learn and will quickly adopt the terminology as part of their vocabulary. and the services they provide to students. but are given entirely new mean- ings. requirements. but must also teach them to be Professional aviation instructors must never become guided by those limitations.” “elevator. instructors can inhibitions. Jargon such as “. The flight instructor must complacent or satisfied with their own qualifications make a strenuous effort to develop good judgment on and abilities.” would be preferable. advance the power. ally objectionable to the point of being painful. at best. and before each lesson during early instruc- tion. . . cerning regulations. In all cases. If a mainte. . effectiveness. The or during flight training. they can see the benefits or purpose of a lesson or ation and often are not understood even by long time course. procedures. to improve their qualifications. the use of profanity and obscene language leads to distrust or. Specific suggestions for In aviation instruction. unless the exact meaning and intent of any new expression are explained immediately. ronment that will encourage rather than discourage learning. to those terms and phrases. Phrases such as “clear the area. The lan- guage is new and strange. UNICOM.” “monitor ATIS. .” “stall. their enjoyment and their efforts will increase. aviation maintenance instructors practices such as not wearing safety glasses around are considered by maintenance students and other hazardous equipment. ties. self-improvement are discussed in Chapter 11.” should be avoided. When expressions are the result of the glamorous past of avi. Motivate Students—More can be gained from want- ing to learn than from being forced to learn. flight it is used during instruction. To many people. . and PIREP cause further difficulty. shop. and develop the ability to speak positively reduce student frustrations and create a learning envi- and descriptively without excesses of language. These course can help them reach an important goal. Normally. such language is actu. They have the opportunity and responsi- instructor is not around.

important to identify mistakes and failures. It does not Human factors training also addresses the development help to tell students that they have made errors and not of good judgment through the study of how and why provide explanations. each individual within to maintain a professional appearance. it becomes valueless. Otherwise. the expected of them and what they can expect in return. The instructor can requirements. Such behavior tends tors limit their thinking to the whole group without to destroy student confidence.what is going to happen to them. involved with include accident prevention and judg- thing extremely well. responsibilities to the student. effort but is told that the work is unsatisfactory. If the same thing is mize feelings of insecurity by telling students what is acceptable one day and unacceptable the next. adequate notice of examinations. demeanor. These events become frustrated. and the FAA. Concentration of this effort is in the area of Criticize Constructively—Although it is important to how people make mistakes as a result of fatigue. or other expects an instructor to be perfect. the Approach Students As Individuals—When instruc. and giving them Admit Errors—No one. and if they are not sion making (ADM) and judgment training into their identified. stress. they normally expect their abili. shows how personal attitudes can influence decision progress can be made. if the student is assessment and stress management in aviation. it is equally complacency. stu. A number of FAA and Be Consistent—Students want to please their industry references are available which provide instructor. Praise pays dividends in student effort study of human factors in accidents is being taught and achievement when deserved. Praise or credit from the instructor can be a mistake. assignments. they will probably be perpetuated through instruction. stand why accidents occur and how training can pre- vent them. the instructor should admit it to the students. including giving them an overview of the course. win the respect of students by honestly acknowledging mistakes. is usually ample reward and provides an incentive to lack of awareness. fear. This chapter has identified a number of areas necessary tions of its members. If a student has made an earnest people react to internal and external influences. but when given too throughout the aviation industry in an effort to under- freely. Naturally. ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES sonality that stems from the characteristics and interac. 8-13 . Instructors can mini. On the other hand. Other areas aviation instructors should be deeply Give Credit When Due—When students do some. their efforts are directed at an average personality which really fits no one. Each group has its own per. or lack of a sense of urgency. If the instructor tries to cover up or bluff. students will be quick to sense it. frustration occurs. personal conflict. However. the instructor has a number of should be constantly considered. required to please the instructor. or confusion. give praise and credit when deserved. This is a systematic approach to risk faulty practice. Experience has shown that most acci- ties and efforts to be noticed. Aeronautical superiors in industry and business. It briefed on the errors and is told how to correct them. with no other explanation. making and how those attitudes can be modified to enhance safety in the cockpit. student becomes confused. point. they may dents are the result of a chain of events. In addition. Errors cannot be Flight instructors must incorporate aeronautical deci- corrected if they are not identified. including the students. keeping them posted on their progress. This is the same desire that influences instructors with methods for teaching ADM techniques much of the behavior of subordinates toward their and skills as a part of flight instruction. The do even better. ment training. The instructor’s philoso- Instructors should keep students informed in various phy and actions must be consistent. and the group has a personality that is unique and that attitude. decision making and judgment training will be dis- dents have a keen interest in knowing what is cussed more fully in Chapter 9. If in doubt about some considering the individuals who make up that group. the public. ways. but can also be a simple oversight.

8-14 .

If a vers or procedures. obstacles now continues by a carefully planned demonstration to learning encountered during flight training. The telling-and-doing technique is actu. The preparation step is accom. the step. works well. use of distractions. The student must Most physical skills lend themselves to a sequential be intellectually and psychologically ready for the pattern where the skill is explained in the same step- learning activity.In this chapter. and accompanying verbal explanation of the proce- vides an overall orientation for teaching aeronautical dure or maneuver. maneuvers. This technique has been in use for a long time and is This is the only step in which the student plays a very effective in teaching physical skills. by-step order normally used to perform it. In addition. safety procedures that the students must follow. and THE TELLING-AND-DOING TECHNIQUE describe any other pertinent factors that may apply. the instructor should point it out and discuss any differences from the initial The flight instructor needs to be well prepared and explanation. including all instruction because of the introduction of new maneu. When teaching more than one know not only what they will learn. By starting with the simplest skill. the known to unknown strategy as a thorough preflight briefing. It is a continuation of preparing the student. maneuvers. confusion and provide reinforcement. 9-1 . Flight passive role. It is important that the demonstration instructors find it valuable in teaching procedures and conforms to the explanation as closely as possible. The preparation dent gains confidence and is less likely to become frus- phase also should include coverage of appropriate trated when faced with building skills that are more safety procedures. complex. a stu- ceed and how they will be evaluated. except for the first generally imitate the instructor’s performance. it should be demonstrated in the same ally a variation of the demonstration-performance sequence in which it was explained so as to avoid method. This is particularly important in flight the students are expected to practice it. the simple-to-complex strategy they will learn it—that is. as well cedures or maneuvers. and pro. It follows the four steps of demonstration per. When the plished prior to the flight lesson with a discussion of skill being taught is related to previously learned pro- lesson objectives and completion standards. and exchange of flight controls. instruction. the demonstration-performance method INSTRUCTOR TELLS—INSTRUCTOR DOES is applied to the telling-and-doing technique of flight Presentation is the second step in the teaching instruction. the instructor should explain the required power settings. aircraft attitudes. While demonstrating inflight decision making (ADM) and judgment. the first step is instructor must demonstrate the skill exactly the way preparation. This chapter also discusses positive which began in the detailed preflight discussion. highly organized if complex maneuvers and proce- dures are to be taught effectively. but also how skill at the same time. Students need to may be used effectively. deviation does occur. how the lesson will pro. as well as the integrated technique of flight process. In the telling-and-doing technique. Since students formance discussed in Chapter 5.

The student is level attitude. the student actually plays the role of instructor. each procedure or maneuver. number of degrees of your angle of bank. and student’s proficiency level. the instructor is able to eval- • Use outside visual references and monitor the flight uate the student’s understanding of the factors involved instruments. In this used. Instructors should also take care to benefits accrue from this step. it can be corrected before the student becomes absorbed in controlling the airplane. as step). Maintain correct sequence and be aware of safety precautions for coordinated flight by applying rudder in the direc. so that total involve- ment in the maneuver is fostered. in addition to forcing roll-out rate. ance habits are formed. reduce power and trim to remove not only learning to do something. perceptions begin to develop into As an example. jargon and technical terms that are over the heads of telling the instructor what to do and how to do it. Two their students. but he or she is control pressures. begin releasing the back think about what to do during the performance of a pressure so aileron. Instructors should attempt to avoid unnecessary step. • After clearing the airspace around the airplane. with the student doing the talking. it is important power slightly. thinking is done verbally. The instructor appropriate. the student should be encouraged to roll out. being freed from clearly describe the actions that students are expected the need to concentrate on performance of the maneu- to perform. the first time. the process of explaining the maneuver as the instruc- tor performs it. turn the airplane in the desired for the instructor to make sure the student gets it right direction. If a misunderstanding tion of the turn. It is neither ver and from concern about its outcome. In this step. add According to the principle of primacy. Upon reaching a wings. you will total concentration on the part of the student. rudder. the type of maneuver. use. turn rate. This focuses concentration level position. as well as the angle of bank.Another consideration in this phase is the language may provide the most significant advantages. the student appropriate nor effective for instructors to try to should be able to organize his or her thoughts regard- impress students with their expertise by using language ing the steps involved and the techniques to be used. the ailerons control the roll rate. Communication is the key. It is easy to determine whether an However. All of the student’s physical and mental faculties are brought into play. Second. • Remember. on the task to be accomplished. If the student has been ade- since the airplane continues to roll as long as the quately prepared (first step) and the procedure or ailerons are deflected. and 9-2 . neutralize the ailerons and trim. Therefore. meaningful learning will occur. the are neutralized when the airplane reaches the wings. As you gain experience. When you reach the desired maneuver fully explained and demonstrated (second angle of bank. Mental habits begin to form with repetition of described by the instructor in the following way: the instructions previously received. exists. Simultaneously. in performance of the maneuver. keep in mind that the required amount of error is induced by a misconception or by a simple lead really depends on the type of turn. and lack of motor skills. The rate at which the airplane STUDENT TELLS—STUDENT DOES rolls depends on how much aileron deflection you Application is the third step in the teaching process. It is the most obvious departure during student practice depends on factors such as the from the demonstration-performance technique. The student should also understand the sure on the yoke to maintain altitude. this develop a consistent roll-in and roll-out technique method provides a means for keeping the instructor for various types of turns. How far the airplane rolls (steepness of the This is where learning takes place and where perform- bank) depends on how long you deflect the ailerons. until it becomes habitual. and elevator pressures maneuver. In that is unnecessarily complicated. STUDENT TELLS—INSTRUCTOR DOES This is a transition between the second and third steps The exact procedures that the instructor should use in the teaching process. • Leading the roll-out heading by one-half your bank The instructor should be aware of the student’s angle is a good rule of thumb for initial training. aware of what the student is thinking. Use coor- dinated aileron and rudder control pressures as you At the same time. a level turn might be demonstrated and insights. and apply a slight amount of back pres. First. learning a self-teaching process that is highly desir- able in development of a skill. should be alert during the student’s practice to detect any errors in technique and to prevent the formation of • Lead the roll-out by approximately one-half the faulty habits. thought processes.

al references is integrated with instruction in the use of stration-performance method. The instructor must quickly evaluate the stu- dent’s need for help. With potentially hazardous or difficult maneuvers. the use of instrument references should begin determines to what extent the student has met the the first time each new maneuver is introduced. When pointing out port for the belief that reference to flight instruments is areas that need improvement. instructors should General aviation accident reports provide ample sup- be positive in revealing results. hold instrument ratings is significantly better than that uation on a negative note. the student should be allowed to practice the entire maneuver often enough to achieve the level of proficiency established in the lesson objectives. record the instruments is essential for efficient. almost exclusively on outside references. When this training technique is used. the student will technique shows the similarities as well as some differences. INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION Integrated flight instruction is flight instruction during STUDENT DOES—INSTRUCTOR EVALUATES which students are taught to perform flight maneuvers The fourth step of the teaching process is review and both by outside visual references and by reference to evaluation. When occurs between the second and third step. DEVELOPMENT OF HABIT PATTERNS The continuing observance and reliance upon flight At the conclusion of the evaluation phase. In this step. tinction in the pilot’s operation of the flight controls is Since the student no longer is required to talk permitted. of pilots with comparable flight time who have never received formal flight training for an instrument rating. there may still be failures. if required. This is especially true during a student’s first attempt at a particular maneuver. This comparison of steps in the teaching process. and understands the task before starting. student’s performance and verbally advise each student The habit of monitoring instruments is difficult to of the progress made toward the objectives. The safety record of pilots who tions that will help. if a student is progressing normally. errors or Figure 9-1. this occurs. observes as the student performs. avoid ending the eval. the instruc- tor should avoid unnecessary interruptions or too much assistance. [Figure 9-1] and the airplane’s performance. This last instruction in the control of an airplane by outside visu- step is identical to the final step used in the demon. the instructor reviews what flight instruments. student tells—instructor does. safe operations. regardless of whether outside references or through the maneuver during this step. Since success is a motivating factor. The instructor must exercise good judgment to decide how much control to use. and the telling-and-doing positive and timely way. the instructor should be prepared to sched- ule additional training. 9-3 . the instructor should be alert and ready to take control at any time. Regardless develop after one has become accustomed to relying of how well a skill is taught. If possible. which the lesson objectives within the allotted time. then makes appro- priate comments. For this type of instruction to be fully has been covered during the instructional flight and effective. will develop from the However.the stage of training. In summary. In some cases. No dis- objectives outlined during the preflight discussion. The instructor flight instrument indications for the same operations. the telling-and-doing technique includes start the habit of continuously monitoring their own specific variations for flight instruction. The main difference in the telling-and-doing technique is the not be able to meet the proficiency level specified in important transition. At the same time. as well as by outside references. offer concrete sugges. Since this is a learning phase rather than an evaluation phase of the training. A typical test of how much control is needed often occurs during a student’s first few attempts to land an aircraft. and not hesitate to take control. important to safety. process and the demonstration-performance method. On the other hand. the instructor instrument indications are used for the performance of should be satisfied that the student is well prepared the maneuver. the telling and doing technique of flight Student pilots who have been required to perform all instruction follows the four basic steps of the teaching normal flight maneuvers by reference to instruments. the unsafe practices should be identified and corrected in a demonstration-performance method.

The early establishment of proper habits of instrument PROCEDURES
cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft con- The conduct of integrated flight instruction is simple.
trol will be highly useful to the student pilot. The habits The student’s first briefing on the function of the flight
formed at this time also will give the student a firm controls should include the instrument indications to be
foundation for later training for an instrument rating. expected, as well as the outside references which
should be used to control the attitude of the airplane.
During early experiments with the integrated technique Each new flight maneuver should be introduced using
of flight instruction, it was soon recognized that stu- both outside references and instrument references.
dents trained in this manner are much more precise in Students should develop the ability to maneuver an air-
their flight maneuvers and operations. This applies to craft equally as well by instrument or outside references.
all flight operations, not just when flight by reference They naturally accept the fact that the manipulation of
to instruments is required. the flight controls is identical, regardless of which refer-
ences are used to determine the attitude of the airplane.
Notable among student achievements are better moni- This practice should continue throughout the student’s
toring of power settings and more accurate control of flight instruction for all maneuvers. To fully achieve the
headings, altitudes, and airspeeds. As the habit of mon- demonstrated benefits of this type of training, the use of
itoring their own performance by reference to instru- visual and instrument references must be constantly
ments is developed, students will begin to make cor- integrated throughout the training. Failure to do so will
rections without prompting. lengthen the flight instruction necessary for the student
to achieve the competency required for a private pilot
The habitual attention to instrument indications leads certificate.
to improved landings because of more precise airspeed
control. Effective use of instruments also results in PRECAUTIONS
superior cross-country navigation, better coordination, The instructor must be sure that the students develop,
and generally, a better overall pilot competency level. from the start of their training, the habit of looking for
other air traffic at all times. If students are allowed to
OPERATING EFFICIENCY believe that the instructor assumes all responsibility for
As student pilots become more proficient in monitor- scanning and collision avoidance procedures, they will
ing and correcting their own flight technique by refer- not develop the habit of maintaining a constant vigi-
ence to flight instruments, the performance obtained lance, which is essential to safety. Any observed tenden-
from an airplane increases noticeably. This is particu- cy of a student to enter flight maneuvers without first
larly true of modern, complex, or high-performance making a careful check for other air traffic must be cor-
airplanes, which are responsive to the use of correct rected immediately.
operating airspeeds.
In earlier stages of training, students may find it easier
The use of correct power settings and climb speeds and to perform flight maneuvers by instruments than by
the accurate control of headings during climbs result in outside references. The fact that students can perform
a measurable increase in climb performance. Holding better by reference to instruments may cause them to
precise headings and altitudes in cruising flight will concentrate most of their attention on the instruments,
definitely increase average cruising performance. when they should be using outside references. This
must not be allowed to continue, since it will cause
The use of integrated flight instruction provides the considerable difficulty later in training while maneu-
student with the ability to control an airplane in flight vering by reference to ground objects. This tendency
for limited periods if outside references are lost. This will also limit vigilance for other air traffic. The
ability could save the pilot’s life and those of the pas- instructor should carefully observe the student’s per-
sengers in an actual emergency. formance of maneuvers during the early stages of inte-
grated flight instruction to ensure that this habit does
During the conduct of integrated flight training, the not develop.
flight instructor must emphasize to the students that the
introduction to the use of flight instruments does not During the conduct of integrated flight instruction, the
prepare them for operations in marginal weather or instructor should make it clear that the use of instru-
instrument meteorological conditions. The possible ments is being taught to prepare students to accurately
consequences, both to themselves and to others, of monitor their own and their aircraft’s performance. The
experiments with flight operations in weather condi- instructor must avoid any indication, by word or action
tions below VFR minimums before they are instrument that the proficiency sought is intended solely for use in
rated, should be constantly impressed on the students. difficult weather situations.


FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS Assignment of goals that the student considers diffi-
As a prerequisite, a flight instructor must be thoroughly cult, but possible, usually provides a challenge, and
familiar with the functions, characteristics, and proper promotes learning. In a typical flight lesson, reasonable
use of all standard flight instruments. It is the personal goals are listed in the lesson objectives and the desired
responsibility of each flight instructor to maintain levels of proficiency for the goals are included in state-
familiarity with current pilot training techniques and ments that contain completion standards.
certification requirements. This may be done by fre-
quent review of new periodicals and technical publica-
tions, personal contacts with FAA inspectors and des- Impatience is a greater deterrent to learning pilot skills
ignated pilot examiners, and by participation in pilot than is generally recognized. With a flight student, this
and flight instructor clinics. The application of out- may take the form of a desire to make an early solo
moded instructional procedures, or the preparation of flight, or to set out on cross-country flights before the
student pilots using obsolete certification requirements basic elements of flight have been learned.
is inexcusable.
The impatient student fails to understand the need for
OBSTACLES TO LEARNING preliminary training and seeks only the ultimate objec-
tive without considering the means necessary to reach
it. With every complex human endeavor, it is necessary
Certain obstacles are common to flight instruction and to master the basics if the whole task is to be performed
may apply directly to the student’s attitude, physical competently and safely. The instructor can correct stu-
condition, and psychological make-up. These are dent impatience by presenting the necessary prelimi-
included in the following list: nary training one step at a time, with clearly stated
• Feeling of unfair treatment; goals for each step. The procedures and elements mas-
tered in each step should be clearly identified in
• Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations; explaining or demonstrating the performance of the
subsequent step.
• Worry or lack of interest;
• Physical discomfort, illness, and fatigue; Impatience can result from instruction keyed to the
pace of a slow learner when it is applied to a motivat-
• Apathy due to inadequate instruction; and ed, fast learner. It is just as important that a student be
advanced to the subsequent step as soon as one goal
• Anxiety. has been attained, as it is to complete each step before
the next one is undertaken. Disinterest grows rapidly
when unnecessary repetition and drill are required on
Students who believe that their instruction is inade- operations that have already been adequately learned.
quate, or that their efforts are not conscientiously con-
sidered and evaluated, will not learn well. In addition, WORRY OR LACK OF INTEREST
their motivation will suffer no matter how intent they
are on learning to fly. Motivation will also decline when Worry or lack of interest has a detrimental effect on
a student believes the instructor is making unreasonable learning. Students who are worried or emotionally
demands for performance and progress. [Figure 9-2] upset are not ready to learn and derive little benefit from
instruction. Worry or distraction may be due to student
concerns about progress in the training course, or may
stem from circumstances completely unrelated to their
instruction. Significant emotional upsets may be due to
personal problems, psychiatric disturbances, or a dislike
of the training program or the instructor.

The experiences of students outside their training
activities affect their behavior and performance in
training; the two cannot be separated. When students
begin flight training, they bring with them their inter-
ests, enthusiasms, fears, and troubles. The instructor
cannot be responsible for these outside diversions, but
cannot ignore them because they have a critical effect
Figure 9-2. The assignment of impossible or unreasonable
on the learning process. Instruction must be keyed to
goals discourages the student, diminishes effort, and retards the utilization of the interests and enthusiasm students
the learning process. bring with them, and to diverting their attention from


their worries and troubles to the learning tasks at hand. a lesson, and also in recognizing the deterioration of
This is admittedly difficult, but must be accomplished performance. Once fatigue occurs as a result of appli-
if learning is to proceed at a normal rate. cation to a learning task, the student should be given a
break in instruction and practice. Fatigue can be
Worries and emotional upsets that result from a flight delayed by introducing a number of maneuvers, which
training course can be identified and addressed. involve different elements and objectives.
These problems are often due to inadequacies of the
course or of the instructor. The most effective cure is Fatigue is the primary consideration in determining the
prevention. The instructor must be alert to see that length and frequency of flight instruction periods. The
the students understand the objectives of each step amount of training, which can be absorbed by one stu-
of their training, and that they know at the comple- dent without incurring debilitating fatigue, does not
tion of each lesson exactly how well they have pro- necessarily indicate the capacity of another student.
gressed and what deficiencies are apparent. Fatigue which results from training operations may be
Discouragement and emotional upsets are rare when either physical or mental, or both. It is not necessarily
students feel that nothing is being withheld from a function of physical robustness or mental acuity.
them or is being neglected in their training. Generally speaking, complex operations tend to induce
fatigue more rapidly than simpler procedures do,
PHYSICAL DISCOMFORT, ILLNESS, AND regardless of the physical effort involved. Flight
FATIGUE instruction should be continued only as long as the stu-
dent is alert, receptive to instruction, and is performing
Physical discomfort, illness, and fatigue will materially at a level consistent with experience.
slow the rate of learning during both classroom instruc-
tion and flight training. Students who are not complete- APATHY DUE TO INADEQUATE INSTRUCTION
ly at ease, and whose attention is diverted by discom- Students quickly become apathetic when they recog-
forts such as the extremes of temperature, poor venti- nize that the instructor has made inadequate prepara-
lation, inadequate lighting, or noise and confusion, tions for the instruction being given, or when the
cannot learn at a normal rate. This is true no matter instruction appears to be deficient, contradictory, or
how diligently they attempt to apply themselves to the insincere. To hold the student’s interest and to maintain
learning task. the motivation necessary for efficient learning, well-
planned, appropriate, and accurate instruction must be
A minor illness, such as a cold, or a major illness or provided. Nothing destroys a student’s interest so
injury will interfere with the normal rate of learning. quickly as a poorly organized period of instruction.
This is especially important for flight instruction. Most Even an inexperienced student realizes immediately
illnesses adversely affect the acuteness of vision, hear- when the instructor has failed to prepare a lesson.
ing, and feeling, all of which are essential to correct [Figure 9-3]

Airsickness can be a great deterrent to flight instruc-
tion. A student who is airsick, or bothered with incipi-
ent airsickness, is incapable of learning at a normal
rate. There is no sure cure for airsickness, but resist-
ance or immunity can be developed in a relatively short
period of time. An instructional flight should be termi-
nated as soon as incipient sickness is experienced. As
the student develops immunity, flights can be increased
in length until normal flight periods are practicable.

Keeping students interested and occupied during flight
is a deterrent to airsickness. They are much less apt to Figure 9-3. Poor preparation leads to spotty coverage, mis-
become airsick while operating the controls them- placed emphasis, unnecessary repetition, and a lack of con-
selves. Rough air and unexpected abrupt maneuvers fidence on the part of the student. The instructor should
tend to increase the chances of airsickness. Tension and always have a plan.
apprehension apparently contribute to airsickness and
should be avoided.
Instruction may be overly explicit and so elementary it
The detection of student fatigue is important to effi- fails to hold student interest, or it may be so general or
cient flight instruction. This is important both in complicated that it fails to evoke the interest necessary
assessing a student’s substandard performance early in for effective learning. To be effective, the instructor


there is absolutely nothing to as to who actually had control of the aircraft. it is dif. but also from distracting man. Although doing so may be difficult at first. “I have the flight controls. the instruc- instructor to lose the student’s confidence and atten. the Incident/accident statistics indicate a need to place instructor may not have full and effective control of the additional emphasis on the exchange of control of an aircraft. understanding between students and flight instruc- priate for the other. having to fight for control of the aircraft. [Figure 9-4] ANXIETY Anxiety may place additional burdens on the instruc- tor. the following discus- sion provides guidance for all pilots. The presenta. When nec- ating an aircraft. on the recommended procedure to use for the positive Flight instructors should always guard the controls and exchange of flight controls between pilots when oper. Creating the impression of talk. to the importance of this subject. instruction on the same operation for a student with no previous aeronautical experience. Numerous accidents have occurred usually exhibit reactions inappropriate to the situation. “I have the flight controls. be gained by having the student on the controls and larly between students and flight instructors. but a presentation During flight training. be prepared to take control of the aircraft. the instructor should take the controls and calm- ly announce. and the learning rate is unnecessarily during a demonstration and. Prior to flight. This is true of all flight stu- dents. Once the instructor loses this confidence. 9-7 . A from poor preparation. there must always be a clear meaningful to one of these students would be inappro.must teach for the level of the student. flight instructors. confident in the instructor and the aircraft. successive accomplishments of recognizable goals and the avoid- ance of alarming occurrences or situations will rapidly ease the student’s mind. Anxious students can be incredibly strong and aircraft by pilots. the FLIGHT CONTROLS student should follow the same procedure the instructor Positive exchange of flight controls is an integral part used when giving control to the student. perform the maneuver with the instructor following along on the controls. and pilot examiners. This frequently limits the student’s perceptive abil- ity and retards the development of insights. finally. but special handling by the instructor may be required for students who are obviously anxious or uncomfortable. and at ease. controls between pilots is a proven procedure and tation with the student. During this procedure. essary. The student must be comfortable. positive three-step process in the exchange of flight nerisms. tors of who has control of the aircraft. tion.” There should telling-and-doing technique of flight instruction. Establishing the following procedure during the initial tion must be adjusted to be meaningful to the person training of students will ensure the formation of a for whom it is intended. one that is strongly recommended. The student should stay on the controls and keep flying the aircraft until the of flight training. a visual check is recom- POSITIVE EXCHANGE OF mended to see that the other person actually has the flight controls. the student will diminished. or the appearance of irri. instruction in habit pattern that should stay with them throughout the preflight inspection of an aircraft should be pre. It is especially critical during the instructor says. if effective learning is to occur. personal untidiness. Providing this atmosphere for learning is one of the first and most important tasks of the instructor. For example. their flying careers. particu. a briefing should be conducted that includes Poor instructional presentations may result not only the procedure for the exchange of flight controls. When an instruc- ing down to the student is one of the surest ways for an tor is teaching a maneuver to a student. due to a lack of communication or misunderstanding If a recovery is necessary. Figure 9-4. They will be more likely to relin- sented quite differently for a student who is a skilled quish control willingly and promptly when instructed aircraft maintenance technician compared to the to do so during flight training.” If an instruc- BACKGROUND tor allows a student to remain on the controls. The inspection PROCEDURES desired in each case is the same. When returning the controls to the instructor. then have the student follow along on the controls ficult to regain. Due never be any doubt as to who is flying the aircraft. tor will normally demonstrate the maneuver first. especially student pilots.

The instructor should tell the student to divide his/her From a broader perspective. judgment chain. The most effective training Historically.Students should never be allowed to exceed the flight • Ask the student to call the Flight Service Station instructor’s limits. • Ask the student to compute true airspeed with a ity to fly the aircraft. The best way to illustrate this concept to students is to discuss specific situations • Ask the student to get something from the back seat. applicants possess the skills required to cope with dis- tractions while maintaining the degree of aircraft con- trol required for safe flight. aircraft increased risk of entering into an inadvertent stall or equipment and systems. The purpose is to determine that all aviation accidents are human factors related. The poor judgment chain. flight computer. but a chain of events triggered by a number of factors. • Drop a pencil. tude. sometimes referred to as • Ask the student to determine a heading to an airport the error chain. and services for pilots. the accident. and physically react within their abil. Flight instructors should not exceed (FSS) for weather information. The real danger was inadver. one factor remains the same—the policy for use of certain distractions on practical tests human factor. • Ask the student to identify terrain or objects on the USE OF DISTRACTIONS ground. This definition also includes the pilot’s failure to make a decision or take action. acci- spin while performing tasks that are secondary to con. sequence of events. was the cause of. of contributing factors in a human factors related accident. dents still occur. The fol- lowing is an example of the type of scenario which can be presented to students to illustrate the poor • Ask the student to read the outside air temperature. Preoccupation inside or outside the cockpit while changing aircraft configuration or trim. then descend 200 feet and maintain altitude. of flying the aircraft. The impor- situations. The following are examples of since it is usually not a single decision that leads to distractions that can be used for this training: an accident. is a term used to describe this concept using a chart. tance of teaching students effective ADM skills can not be overemphasized. maneuvering • Have the student reverse course after a series of S-turns. consistently determine the best course of action in tent stalls induced by distractions during routine flight response to a given set of circumstances. The FAA has also established a improve flight safety. 9-8 . the phrase “human fac- attention between the distracting task and maintaining tors related” more aptly describes these accidents control of the aircraft. their own ability to perceive a problem. and twenty • Have the student climb 200 feet and maintain alti- percent were preceded by engine failure. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) statis- tics reveal that most stall/spin accidents occured when • Ask the student to identify a field suitable for a the pilot’s attention was diverted from the primary task forced landing. The flight instructor can make a difference! While progress is continually being made in Pilots at all skill levels should be aware of the the advancement of pilot training methods. to avoid other traffic or clearing hazardous obstacles during takeoff and climb could create a potential stall/spin situation. which lead to aircraft accidents or incidents. AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING Aeronautical decision making (ADM) is a systematic The intentional practice of stalls and spins seldom approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to resulted in an accident. Breaking one link in the chain normally is all that is necessary to change the outcome of the • Ask the student to reset the clock. the term pilot error has been used to is the simulation of scenarios that can lead to inadver. It is estimated that approximately 75% of for pilot certification. Sixty percent of stall/spin acci- dents occured during takeoff and landing. decide upon a course of action. Pilot error tent stalls by creating distractions while the student is means that an action or decision made by the pilot practicing certain maneuvers. describe the causes of these accidents. Ask the student to pick it up. or contributing factor which lead to. Despite all the changes in technology to trolling the aircraft.

who had logged 100 hours of flight airplane finally came to a stop in the grass several time. must factor that led the pilot one step closer to the unfor- make effective use of all available resources—human tunate conclusion of his journey. Crew resource management training has proven rience could affect the flight. and crewmember coordination have direct application to the general aviation cockpit. principles. as well touchdown. These groups requirements for the trip based on a rule-of-thumb include. made a precautionary landing on a narrow dirt yards to the side of the runway. On numerous occasions during the flight. human resources. Although the CRM concept originated as operating handbook for the airplane he was flying on airlines developed ways of facilitating crew coopera- this trip. A witness recalled later that the air.A private pilot. 60 gallons of fuel were required to fill the skills. and having acquired a computer vated the airline industry to implement crew printout of the forecast the night before. he departed for the flight home at 5:00 in the afternoon. course for all levels of students. such as workload management. With few alternatives left. crewmembers. On the morning of the flight. hardware. prevented this incident. extremely successful in reducing accidents. Aeronautical 9-9 . runway at a private airport. ducting ADM training. but are not limited to: dispatchers. Teaching pilots to make marginal VFR due to rain showers and thunder. Instructors. cabin figure he had used previously for another airplane. For example. multi-engine. the leadership role of flight home. instructors can help students understand how a series of judgmental errors contributed to the final outcome ORIGINS OF ADM TRAINING of this flight. storms. he was forced to introduced to ADM concepts toward the completion of land at the nearest airfield available. he did not resource management (CRM) training for flight bother to obtain a briefing from flight service before crews. When the airplane was fueled the following Traditional pilot instruction has emphasized flying morning. ADM training focuses on the decision- making process and the factors that affect a pilot’s abil- ity to make effective choices. ence. However. he believed sufficient fuel remained for the al awareness. The pilot lost directional control during landing and swerved off the runway into the grass. the weather along the route grew increasingly typically introduce CRM concepts during initial indoc- hazardous. Since the airplane’s fuel supply was trination of new hires. After commercial. and ATP. By discussing the events that led to this incident. As the flight contin. as well as crews of larger aircraft. Human factors-related accidents moti- was running late. The events unfolded. the pilot did tion to improve decision making in the cockpit. and air traffic He did not use the fuel tables printed in the pilot’s controllers. Instructors in the general aviation almost exhausted. the captain. The focus of CRM programs is the effective his departure. This also includes single pilots since pilots of small Failing to recognize his own limitations was another aircraft. some students were storms. Based on his original calcula. and information. knowledge of the aircraft. He did not consider how fatigue and lack of extensive night flying expe. regulations. The pilot calculated total fuel required to operate a flight safely. also can refer to AC 60-22. use of all available resources. After reaching his destination. deteriorating weather. private. the pilot no longer had the option environment can learn from this example when con- of diverting to avoid rapidly developing thunder. and airlines ued. grams that focused on improving aeronautical deci- ing the weather. and speculated the pilot was having diffi. CRM not request refueling. sound decisions is the key to preventing accidents. one of the first elements The airlines developed some of the first training pro- that affected the pilot’s flight was a decision regard. and information. In the presence of resources. a small private their training or not at all. the pilot lost directional control and the as students. Human resources include all groups routinely working with the cockpit crew A flight planning decision also played a part in this (or pilot) who are involved in decisions which are poor judgment chain. Due to the cepts be incorporated throughout the entire training gusty wind conditions and the pilot’s limited experi. communication. In the past. the pilot plane appeared to be too high and fast on final could have made effective decisions which may have approach. situation- tions. It is important that these con- airport with one narrow dirt runway. as the chain of culty controlling the airplane in high winds. the pilot sion making. and familiarity with 62-gallon capacity tanks. hardware. the approach and landing were difficult. maintenance personnel. each poor decision left him with weather at the time of the incident was reported as fewer and fewer options. instrument.

require places the student in the position of making a decision a pilot to respond immediately using established pro. any changes which occur. such as engine failures. Traditionally. To explain the deci- An understanding of the decision-making process pro. ing to this conclusion constitute the decision-making ment.Decision Making. Some situations. pilots have been well trained to react to DEFINING THE PROBLEM emergencies. When the decision-making process is present- ed to students. ing process. Defining the problem begins with recog- Typically during a flight. which provides background refer. cedures with little time for detailed analysis. definitions. and other pertinent information assess risk before reaching a decision. These terms are used in AC 60-22 to explain concepts used in ADM training. 9-10 . the instructor can introduce the vides students with a foundation for developing ADM following steps with the accompanying scenario that skills. sion-making process. but are not as well prepared to make deci. the pilot has time to examine nizing that a change has occurred or that an expected Figure 9-5. Problem definition is the first step in the decision-mak- sions which require a more reflective response. about a typical flight situation. it is essential to discuss how the process THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS applies to an actual flight situation. gather information. The steps lead- about ADM training in the general aviation environ. [Figure 9-5] process. and ences.

you consider the possibility that you have an increased To assist teaching pilots the elements of the decision- headwind. the your destination at an airport on your route. your destination without a significant loss of time. decisions must be made regarding ing around and landing at a nearby airport that you events which involve interactions between the four have passed. To determine the severity of the problem. You must environment. and the weather conditions to ensure that longer than the time you had originally calculated. you discover that your you continue to monitor your groundspeed. you calculate your new groundspeed. CHOOSING A COURSE OF ACTION After the problem has been identified. While on a cross-country flight. you have recognized a safety of the flight. You can refuel there and continue to determine the exact nature and severity of the problem. AND EVALUATING THE OUTCOME For example. As you proceed to the airport. as well as an objec. as well as analyze accidents. and reassess fuel requirements. the aircraft. After studying the the senses. you contact Flight Watch. By no additional steps need to be taken to guarantee the noticing this discrepancy. The actions to be taken in each of these cir. mine how the decision could affect other phases of the cumstances would be significantly different. diverting off course. you plot the course other sources must be used to verify that the pilot’s changes and calculate a new estimated time of arrival. the DECIDE model can pro- sible action should be considered and the risks assessed vide a framework for effective decision making. the pilot must continue on a problem that does not exist can divert the pilot’s to evaluate the outcome of the decision to ensure that it attention from important tasks. You verify that your original calculations making process. fueling services within a reasonable distance ahead tive analysis of all available information. maintain an awareness of the circumstances regarding the flight now becomes the problem. a six-step model has been developed are correct and consider factors which may have using the acronym “DECIDE. cross-country flying experience. As the flight progresses. Based on your insight. aircraft time en route between two checkpoints is significantly performance. conclusion is correct. you conclude that your head- wind has increased. as well as contact the nearest flight service station to amend your flight plan and check weather conditions at your new destination. and your knowledge of weather systems. To determine if there is a levels. change. are used to along your route. You determine your fuel burn if you continue to your RISK MANAGEMENT destination. [Figure 9-6] change in the winds aloft forecast and to check recent pilot reports. These same abilities. Fixating flight. A problem is perceived first by action and assess the risks involved.” The DECIDE model lengthened the time between checkpoints. before the pilot decides on a response to the situation. the decision-making process is and locked into place or it could mean the bulb is not complete. To implement your decision. After weighing each information source. and consider other options. then is distinguished through insight and chart. and the operation. It is important to think ahead and deter- burned out. The pilot’s failure to is producing the desired result. IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION making process is incorrectly defining the problem. During initial training. The decision-making now consider the expected outcome of each possible process involves an evaluation of each of these risk 9-11 . During each flight. The expected outcome of each pos- Figure 9-6. failure of a landing-gear-extended light Although a decision may be reached and a course of to illuminate could indicate that the gear is not down action implemented. such as turn. or landing prior to risk elements—the pilot in command.change did not occur. One critical error that can be made during the decision. the pilot must evaluate the need to react to it and determine the actions which may be taken to resolve the situation in the time available. This is why once an initial assumption is made regarding the problem. you conclude that there is an airport which has experience. such as a has been used to instruct pilots of varying experience climb or deviation off course.

when approaching or departing airports. Since she was trying to reach her navigation equipment. or is required to navigate have been appropriately evaluated in the situation. the VOR receiver is destination for a business appointment. The inoperative VOR receiver limits dent should also be able to determine whether the risks her options if she becomes lost. For example. properly evaluated. she is informed that marginal ASSESSING RISK VFR conditions with possible icing in the clouds are Examining NTSB reports and other accident research forecast for late afternoon. Having been delayed at the can help students learn to assess risk more effectively. The flying environment was private pilot with no experience in marginal weather less than optimal when she decided to depart despite the conditions. However. the pilot encounters low ceilings and restricted dents are most likely to occur and when risk is the visibility and she becomes spatially disoriented due to greatest. [Figure 9-7] risk elements when making decisions regarding this flight. She intends to fly in a small four-seat. Workload is highest during takeoff and landing. elements to achieve an accurate perception of the flight In this case. The capability of her airplane was not student to identify the risk elements for a flight. the pilot did not effectively evaluate the four situation. the majority of accidents occur continued flight by ground reference. She is a noninstrument-rated in an emergency situation. Evaluating each of these risk elements can help the pilot decide whether a flight should be conducted or continued. single. traffic control (ATC) or use her instruments as refer- engine airplane with standard communication and ences to turn around. with limited visual reference to the ground. the instructor can ask the al VFR conditions. the pilot departs later than planned. which increases the chance of error. 9-12 . she overesti- To reinforce the risk elements and their significance to mated her flying abilities by attempting to fly in margin- effective decision making. and return early in the afternoon. When faced with deterio- ment flying experience during her private pilot flight rating weather. One of the most important decisions that the pilot in command must make is the go/no-go decision. The pilot plans to leave in the morning affected her decision to undertake and continue the flight. In addition. office. her airplane did not contain sophisticated navigation A pilot schedules to fly to a business appointment with equipment which may have helped her locate an airport a client in a nearby city. she did not enlist the assistance of air training. threat of marginal conditions.Figure 9-7. When assessing her fitness as a pilot. although she did gain some attitude instru. The stu. the operation inoperative. While en Instructors can point out the phases of flight when acci- route. When she receives her weather briefing. [Figure 9-8] Figure 9-8.

pilots should assess their fitness. Some circumstances. and is the final authority as to. approaches. a pilot can learn to recognize those factors that can be managed. During the flight planning phase. the operation of Attitude can be defined as a personal motivational that aircraft. Often. RECOGNIZING HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES Being fit to fly depends on more than just a pilot’s PILOT SELF-ASSESSMENT physical condition and recency of experience. their limitations. and learn skills to improve decision-making ability and judgment. ensuring that students to further evaluate their fitness for flight. Figure 9-9. sible for. For The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly respon. and require the student to arrive at a go/no-go decision. Delving deeper into accident statistics can provide Students must be taught that exercising good judg- some important details that can help students under. pilots must have an understanding of are most likely to result in the most serious accidents. and attitude. such as health. The majority of crosswind for takeoffs and landings are examples of weather-related accidents occur after attempted VFR elements which may be included on a personal check- flight into IFR conditions. A pilot’s performance during a flight is The majority of fatal general aviation accident causes affected by many factors. The student should be asked to explain the possible consequences of each situation. slow flight. Instructors should take the time to dis- cuss the conditions. For example. attitude will affect the quality of decisions. events in a given manner. designating weather mini- the pilot’s lack of awareness of the effects of density mums which may be higher than those listed in Title altitude on aircraft performance or other improper 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part takeoff planning resulting in loss of control or stalls 91. Studies have identified five 9-13 . However. such factors as experience. Instructors set an example by having their own personal checklists and can help students create their In addition to discussing these facts. currency. ment begins prior to taking the controls of an aircraft. knowledge. Prior to flight. predisposition to respond to persons. beyond the pilot’s control. pilots thoroughly check their aircraft to deter- tions. Fatal accidents which occur during level can help determine if a pilot is prepared for a par- approach often happen at night or in IFR conditions. Specifying when refresher training Takeoff/initial climb accidents frequently are due to should be accomplished. may be just as they evaluate the aircraft’s airworthiness. skill level. yet do not evaluate their own fit- largest single producers of fatal accidents and many ness for flight. situations. example. and weather. In order to effectively exercise that respon. In addition to a review of personal increase student awareness of these risks by setting limitations. such as the time available to make a decision. stand the risks involved with specific flying situa. list. a lesson in judgment has been accomplished. or shortly after takeoff. and setting limitations regarding the amount of during. For instance. and comfort rized aerobatics. The ability to make effective decisions as pilot in command depends on a number of factors. Even if a flight lesson is canceled based on forecast conditions that never materialize. takeoff/initial climb. FACTORS AFFECTING DECISION MAKING It is important to point out to students that being familiar with the decision-making process does not ensure that they will have the good judgment to be safe pilots. instructors can own checklists. pilots should use the I’M SAFE Checklist positive examples. often during buzzing or unautho. Just as a checklist is used when pre- of these accidents are attributed to maneuvering dur. ticular flight. a personal checklist based on ing low.Studies also indicate the types of flight activities that come of a flight. the flight instructor can introduce situations that are different from those planned. or sibility and make effective decisions regarding the out. maneuvering flight is one of the mine airworthiness. recency of fall under the categories of maneuvering flight. Ignoring a marginal forecast or continuing a flight in poor weather may be sending the message that checking the weather serves no practical purpose. experience. [Figure 9-9] obtain weather briefings before every flight develops good habits and emphasizes the importance of the weather check. flighting an aircraft.

Students must be taught to examine their decisions carefully to ensure that their choices have not been influenced by hazardous attitudes and they must be familiar with pos- itive alternatives to counteract the hazardous attitudes. 9-14 . These substitute attitudes are referred to as antidotes. correctly label the thought. The ability to make effective decisions during flight can be impaired by stress. can increase a pilot’s risk of error in the cockpit. effects of stress are cumulative and. and then begins to fall off rapidly as stress levels exceed a person’s ability to cope. it is important to be able to recognize a hazardous attitude. Was the student uncomfortable or tired during the flight? Is there some Figure 9-11. they eventually add up to an intolerable burden. peaks.Figure 9-10. the instructor can query the student. or has a particular- ly difficult time accomplishing the tasks of the lesson. if not coped with adequately. During a flight operation. Pilots should examine their decisions carefully to ensure that their choices have not been influenced by a hazardous attitude. and then recall its antidote. A cer- tain amount of stress is good since it keeps a person alert and prevents complacency. [Figure 9-10] Hazardous attitudes can lead to poor decision making and actions which involve unnecessary risk. However. [Figure 9-11] STRESS MANAGEMENT Everyone is stressed to some degree all the time. Students can be asked to identify hazardous atti- stress in another aspect of the student’s life that may be tudes and the corresponding antidotes when presented with causing a distraction? This may prompt the student to flight scenarios. If a student seems distracted. Factors. Performance generally increases with the onset of stress. hazardous attitudes which can interfere with a pilot’s ability to make sound decisions and exercise authority properly. [Figure 9-12] One way of exploring the subject of stress with a stu- dent is to recognize when stress is affecting perform- ance. referred to as stressors.

instruct. This can be accomplished by fre- to alleviate some of the student’s stress. and that the more apparent. is essential for accurate to evaluate whether they have the time to use a partic. instructors must first be familiar take assessments of themselves to determine their with the components of each aircraft in which they capabilities and limitations and then set realistic goals. flight planning and for resolving in-flight equipment ular resource and the impact that its use will have upon malfunctions. in an the Airport/Facility Directory. However. and operating properly. the POH. However. which is required to be only be identified. but students must develop the skills carried on board the aircraft. pilots a specific maneuver in greater detail or offering some can expand cockpit resources immensely by improving additional encouragement. it can become a detriment to safe flight. it may be due to apprehension regarding the Internal resources are found in the cockpit during lesson content. avoiding stressful situations and encoun- ters can help pilots cope with stress. experience the same type of stress regarding their flight To ensure that students understand the operation of training schedule. quently reviewing flight information publications. Students reluctant both inside and outside the cockpit.Figure 9-12. if pilots avoid heavy pressures imposed by getting behind pilots do not fully understand how to use this equip- schedule and not meeting deadlines. Instructors can advise students to various equipment. While these pres. instructors can routinely point excessive amounts of stress for the student. Other valuable cockpit resources include the safety of flight. Since some of the most valuable internal flight may cause concern for the student. The three types of stressors can affect a pilot’s performance. the more crucial checklists essential part of ADM training. USE OF RESOURCES set. evaluate how these factors affect performance and emergency situation when action needs be taken quick- judgment. or an impending solo flight. including A thorough understanding of all the equipment and relaxation time in a busy schedule and maintaining a systems in the aircraft is necessary to fully utilize all program of physical fitness can help reduce stress lev. advanced navigation and els. students may also complacent. as well as ensuring that the To make informed decisions during flight operations. Since useful tools to use checklists can be reminded that pilots at all lev- and sources of information may not always be readily els of experience refer to checklists. landings. For example. as well as by pursuing addi- To help students manage the accumulation of life tional training. By explaining resources are ingenuity. For exam. Stalls. The instructor should also try to determine if ly. and publications. instructors can recommend several techniques. stresses and prevent stress overload. Learning to manage time more effectively can help autopilot systems are valuable resources. and skill. knowledge. out resources to students. or they rely on it so much that they become sures may exist in the workplace. Checklists are essential cockpit resources for verifying that the aircraft instruments and systems are checked. such as the CFRs and the AIM. ment. resources. Resources must not become. the instructor may be able their capabilities. For example. 9-15 . learning to recognize these resources is an advanced the aircraft is. ple. such as may be very useful if a pilot is lost. time may not be available to contact ATC immedi- there are aspects of pilot training that are causing ately. proper procedures are performed if there is a system students must be made aware of the resources found malfunction or in-flight emergency. In addition. even though weather briefings indicate favorable INTERNAL RESOURCES conditions. the assistance of ATC current aeronautical charts. For example. During training. if the student consistently makes a decision not to fly. In addition.

radar vectors. If fuel Throughout training. you do not recognize any land. This concept should be emphasized to students and ing them to take advantage of services. quency. the stu. familiar with the area. For also be a valuable resource. if available. answer questions about airport conditions. and the pilot may begin to focus flight. such load. especially if they are familiar with the approach to the airport. It is important tial operations are accomplished by planning. EXTERNAL RESOURCES the student should listen to ATIS. following and Flight Watch. ATC as much as possible during training. the priority can shift from making a scheduled variety of flight situations. may be delegated to another pilot or passen- pare for high workload periods during times of low ger. and you have to assist you? Students should be able to the possibility of error increases. arrival time at the destination. help students feel comfortable with ATC by encourag. speed. For example. as Class B airspace. think. or ATC workload. and assistance in emergency instructions. ognizing a work overload situation. during a go-around. balked landing should be accomplished only after tance in unusual circumstances or emergencies. the POH. Informing the tower of the be better equipped to use ATC as a resource for assis. When the pilot becomes task saturated. The pilot in command should entry and landing preparation. For example. The student should be flying. The instructor should ensure that the student has the ability to recognize a work overload situa- WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT tion. The servic- es provided by ATC can be invaluable in enabling pilots to make informed in-flight decisions. and fuel is running low. Although you are on one item. when en route. there is no awareness of inputs from various sources so marks. and navigation equip- ment as some of the resources that can be used in During a lesson. may be enlisted to provide assistance. Flight service stations can provide updates tant prior to entering a high-density traffic area. and may offer direction-finding assistance. these tasks are completed. attention cannot be devoted to sev- to consider the following situation. ATC. A strange smell or sound may alert a passenger able to describe the procedures for traffic pattern to a potential problem. such as flight reinforced when training procedures are performed. a pilot learns to rec. advance of when they will be needed helps reduce workload as the flight nears the airport. such on weather. ASOS. tor or another experienced pilot. Checklists should be performed well in can help decrease pilot workload by providing traffic advance so there is time to focus on traffic and ATC advisories. What resources do decisions may be made on incomplete information. you become disoriented. the first used to determine its significance? In this case.It should be pointed out to students that passengers can ing their students to prepare for a high workload. and then monitor the tower frequency or Possibly the greatest external resources during flight are CTAF to get a good idea of what traffic conditions to air traffic controllers and flight service specialists. These procedures are especially impor- situations. aeronautical charts. [Figure 9-13] identify their own skills and knowledge. In an emergency situation. or AWOS. Students must understand that priorities change as the situation changes. Instructors can To manage workload. an instruc. what resources can be airport to refuel. If students are exposed to For example. able to decrease workload. Reviewing the appro- brief passengers before the flight to make sure that they priate chart and setting radio frequencies well in are comfortable voicing any concerns. Passengers can help watch example. adding power. As experience is gained. items should be prioritized. as locating an item on a chart or setting a radio fre- ognize future workload requirements and can pre. and properly configuring the air- confident asking controllers to clarify instructions and plane are priorities. and prioritize. The first effect of high workload is that the pilot begins to work faster. As During cross-country training. the student can be asked to for traffic and may be able to provide information in an explain the actions that will need to be taken during irregular situation. ATC expect. 9-16 . prior. On a cross-country eral tasks at one time. stop. or an aviation mainte- nance technician are resources which may help define Another important part of managing workload is rec- the problem. the student should Effective workload management ensures that essen. In addition. to locating a nearby ancy is found during preflight. slow down. When becoming overloaded. an autopilot (if available) may be used. as the instructor monitors the student’s management of tasks. students can be asked to identify quantity is lower than expected on a cross-country internal and external resources which can be used in a flight. tasks. workload can be gradually increased this situation. that the student understand options that may be avail- itizing. flight service. they will feel gaining airspeed. and sequencing tasks to avoid work over. if a discrep. students may be asked workload increases. priority is to fly the aircraft and maintain a safe air- dent’s knowledge of the airplane. Instructors can teach this skill by prompt.

please passengers. weather. meet schedules. an accurate perception of the pilot’s fitness can be achieved through self-assessment and recogni- tion of hazardous attitudes. and generally demon- strate that they have the right stuff. The difference between cockpit automation can lead to complacency if the these two factors is called the margin of safety. the pilot has an overview chart. maintaining situational awareness. ularly those with considerable experience. For awareness. but result in accidents as the pilot diverts attention to the perceived problem and neglects to properly control the aircraft. and can impose an unrealistic Fatigue. such as controlling the aircraft or scan- be maintained. always try to complete a flight as planned. the operational and environmental factors that affect the aircraft. If the autopilot fails. the student diverts too much attention away from tionship to terrain. a pilot receiving a flight review in a familiar Situational awareness is the accurate perception of aircraft may be prone to complacency. In addition. Many cockpit distractions begin as a minor ios and examples provided by instructors during 9-17 . not be mentally prepared to fly the aircraft manually. such as a gauge that is not reading correctly. causing an acci. the pilot may dent. Note that in this idealized example. ments exceed pilot capabilities. A contributing factor in many accidents is a may lead to a mishap. example. Like fatigue. the pilot may have a tendency to relax and not put as much effort into performance. the instructor can determine if the student is of the total operation and is not fixated on one per. Students will develop aware- distraction which diverts the pilot’s attention from ness and learn to avoid many of these operational monitoring the instruments or scanning outside the pitfalls through effective ADM training. and passengers during a specific period of time. that situational awareness is not being maintained if such as spatial orientation of the aircraft. all of the skills emphasize the importance of maintaining situational involved in aeronautical decision making are used. Accidents often occur when flying task require. The instructor should point out ness of the environmental conditions of the flight. and the of these factors and their future impact on the flight. an aware. complacency reduces the pilot’s effective- ness in the cockpit. The instructor can ceived significant factor. stress. These are simple exercises that can be done throughout flight training which will help To maintain situational awareness. Complacency presents another obstacle to maintain- ing situational awareness. and ing the approach and landing. practices that are dangerous and often illegal. aircraft’s location in relationship to references on a When situationally aware. and airspace must other tasks. For example. ceived to be progressing smoothly. gation equipment. as a rule tive resource use. The scenar- aircraft. At this point. Maintaining situational awareness By asking about positions of other aircraft in the traf- requires an understanding of the relative significance fic pattern. traffic. pilot. Instructors should be especially alert to complacency SITUATIONAL AWARENESS in students with significant flight experience. complacency is harder to recognize than fatigue. the margin of safety is minimal dur- pilot assumes that the autopilot is doing its job. When activities become routine. position frequently. and its rela. A clear assessment of the OPERATIONAL PITFALLS status of navigation equipment can be obtained through There are a number of classic behavioral traps into workload management. problem. The basic drive OBSTACLES TO MAINTAINING SITUATIONAL to demonstrate the right stuff can have an adverse AWARENESS effect on safety. These tendencies ultimately may bring about than maintaining an overall awareness of the flight sit. Some of the elements inside also attempt to focus the student’s attention on an the aircraft to be considered are the status of aircraft imaginary problem with the communication or navi- systems. pilot. ning for traffic. and passengers. partic- relationship with ATC can be accomplished by effec. an emergency or does not crosscheck the instruments or the aircraft’s distraction could overtax pilot capabilities. For example. engine instrument indications. and uation. However. Pilots. and establishing a productive which pilots have been known to fall. since everything is per- Figure 9-13. and work overload can cause the pilot assessment of piloting skills under stressful condi- to fixate on a single perceived important item rather tions.

when a discrepancy is found during preflight student arrive at a particular decision? What resources inspection. ness of the student’s choice and other options that may tional awareness in the traffic pattern? Was workload be available can be discussed. ADM instruction should involve these pitfalls. If the tower offers the student a runway that 9-18 . It is not always necessary to present complex sit- EVALUATING STUDENT uations which require detailed analysis.Figure 9-14. Then the effective- go decision was made? Did the student maintain situa. Instructors must learn and allow students to develop judgment skills. For to evaluate students on a different level. How did the example. weather conditions. or have been tempted by. Instructors should continually evaluate student deci- [Figure 9-14] sion-making ability and offer suggestions for improve- ment. instructors can address effective decision making are performed in the right order. such as their fit- technical level. determine the action to be taken. All experienced pilots have fallen prey to. one or more of these tendencies in their flying careers. Opportunities for managed effectively during a cross-country? How does improving decision-making abilities occur often during the student handle stress and fatigue? training. the student should be allowed to initially were used? Was risk assessed accurately when a go/no. The instructor determines whether ness to fly. By allowing DECISION MAKING students to make decisions about typical issues that A student’s performance is often evaluated only on a arise throughout the course of training. and equipment prob- maneuvers are technically accurate and that procedures lems.

dent after the flight. or handled stress. Perhaps the most frequent choice that has to be valuable in assessing the student’s judgment and deci- made during flight training is the go/no-go decision sion-making skills. that problems may have been solved more effectively. students can be required to assess the workload. or other operational problems can be taken. or In addition. how tasks might have been prioritized differently. a involved and asked to present alternative actions to be heavy workload. While the final choice to fly lies with be evaluated on how effectively the student managed the instructor. performance can based on weather. While debriefing the stu- weather prior to each flight and make a go/no-go deter. instructors can create lessons that are other resources that could have been used to improve specifically designed to test whether students are the situation. Planning a flight lesson in which traffic. the student can be directed to assess the risks the student is presented with simulated emergencies. During the flight. the instructor can suggest ways mination.requires landing with a tailwind in order to expedite applying ADM skills. 9-19 .

9-20 .

individual basis. The goal might be a certificate of completion. Before any important instruction can begin. the term “training syllabus” is commonly used. a training course outline. and dictates the evalua- labi. within a cur- required by the professional aviation instructor as it riculum. and psychomotor (physical skills). finally. tives. shows an of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). approved school syl. line. include curriculum. training syllabus. In addition. aviation training aspires to a level-of-learning ably. visions for regular review and evaluations at prescribed Much of the basic planning necessary for the flight and stages of learning. In many cases. For example. blocks lar course.This chapter is oriented to the beginning instructor who A curriculum may be defined as a set of courses in an may be instructing independently outside of a formal area of specialization offered by an educational institu- training organization such as a pilot school. manuals. training. A curriculum for a pilot school usually includes instructors who learn to plan instructional activity courses for the various pilot certificates and ratings. It normally includes statements of objec- of learning. In aviation. a determi- cific goal. at the application level or higher. and has been included in previous chapters. be awarded a described performance-based objectives as they relate graduation certificate. Independent tion. but there are important differences. A effectively can provide high-quality training on an syllabus is a summary or outline of a course of study. these terms are used interchange. definitions of eval- uating criteria. and indications of desired outcome. states by objective what the student is expect- ficiency requirements published in Title 14 of the Code ed to accomplish during the unit of training. In this context. 10-1 . Normally. syllabus. and the various texts. This chapter reviews the planning And. into the objectives. COURSE OF TRAINING In education. and training course out. a course of training may be defined as a OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS complete series of studies leading to attainment of a spe. The theory upon completion of all course requirements. or an academic degree. organized plan for instruction. and values). The limited to something like the additional training required desired level of learning should also be incorporated for operating high-performance airplanes. may be described as the content of a particu- relates to four key topics—course of training. a training syllabus is a step-by- Any instructional activity must be well planned and step. and lesson plans. graduation. descriptions of teaching aids. A course of training also may be to development of individual lessons and test items. and training tion process for either the unit or stages of learning. building block progression of learning with pro- organized if it is to proceed in an effective manner. The syllabus defines the unit of ground instructor is provided by the knowledge and pro. a student Considerable theory regarding objectives and standards pilot may enroll in a private pilot certificate course. beliefs. nation of objectives and standards is necessary. affective (attitudes. level-of-learning objec- tives may apply to one or more of the three domains of Other terms closely associated with a course of training learning—cognitive (knowledge). courses available.

Standards are closely tied to objectives, since they
include a description of the desired knowledge, behav-
After the overall training objectives have been estab-
ior, or skill stated in specific terms, along with condi- lished, the next step is the identification of the blocks
tions and criteria. When a student is able to perform of learning which constitute the necessary parts of the
according to well-defined standards, evidence of learn- total objective. Just as in building a pyramid, some
ing is apparent. Comprehensive examples of the blocks are submerged in the structure and never
desired learning outcomes, or behaviors, should be appear on the surface, but each is an integral and nec-
included in the standards. As indicated in Chapter 1, essary part of the structure. Stated another way, the
standards for the level-of-learning in the cognitive and various blocks are not isolated subjects but essential
psychomotor domains are easily established. However, parts of the whole. During the process of identifying
writing standards to evaluate a student’s level-of-learning the blocks of learning to be assembled for the pro-
or overt behavior in the affective domain (attitudes, posed training activity, the planner must also examine
beliefs, and values) is more difficult. each carefully to see that it is truly an integral part of
the structure. Extraneous blocks of instruction are
The overall objective of an aviation training course is expensive frills, especially in flight instruction, and
usually well established, and the general standards are detract from, rather than assist in, the completion of
included in various rules and related publications. For the final objective.
example, eligibility, knowledge, proficiency, and expe-
rience requirements for pilots and maintenance students
are stipulated in the regulations, and the standards are While determining the overall training objectives is a
published in the applicable practical test standards necessary first step in the planning process, early iden-
(PTS) or Oral and Practical Tests (O&P). It should be tification of the foundation blocks of learning is also
noted, though, that the PTS and O & P standards are essential. Training for any such complicated and
limited to the most critical job tasks. Certification tests involved task as piloting or maintaining an aircraft
do not represent an entire training syllabus. requires the development and assembly of many seg-
ments or blocks of learning in their proper relation-
A broad, overall objective of any pilot training course is ships. In this way, a student can master the segments or
to qualify the student to be a competent, efficient, safe blocks individually and can progressively combine
pilot for the operation of specific aircraft types under these with other related segments until their sum meets
stated conditions. The established criteria or standards the overall training objectives.
to determine whether the training has been adequate are
the passing of knowledge and practical tests required by The blocks of learning identified during the planning
14 CFR for the issuance of pilot certificates. Similar and management of a training activity should be fairly
objectives and standards are established for aviation consistent in scope. They should represent units of
maintenance technician (AMT) students. Professional learning which can be measured and evaluated—not a
instructors should not limit their objectives to meeting sequence of periods of instruction. For example, the
only the published requirements for pilot or AMT certifi- flight training of a private pilot might be divided into
cation. Instructional objectives should also extend the following major blocks: achievement of the knowl-
beyond those listed in official publications. Successful edge and skills necessary for solo, the knowledge and
instructors teach their students not only how, but also skills necessary for solo cross-country flight, and the
why and when. Ultimately, this leads to sound judgment knowledge and skills appropriate for obtaining a pri-
and decision-making skills. vate pilot certificate. [Figure 10-1]

Figure 10-1. The presolo stage, or phase, of private pilot training is comprised of several basic building blocks. These blocks
of learning, which should include coordinated ground and flight training, lead up to the first solo.


Use of the building block approach provides the stu-
dent with a boost in self-confidence. This normally
occurs each time a block is completed. Otherwise an
overall goal, such as earning a private pilot certificate,
may seem unobtainable. If the larger blocks are broken
down into smaller blocks of instruction, each on its
own is more manageable.

There are a number of valid reasons why all aviation
instructors should use a training syllabus. As technolo-
gy advances, training requirements become more
demanding. At the same time, new, and often more
complicated rules continue to be proposed and imple-
mented. In addition, the rules for instruction in other
than an approved flight school are still quite specific
about the type and duration of training. These factors,
along with the continuing growth of aviation, add to
the complexity of aviation training and certification.
Instructors need a practical guide to help them make
sure the training is accomplished in a logical sequence
and that all of the requirements are completed and
properly documented. A well organized, comprehen-
sive syllabus can fulfill these needs.

The format and organization of the syllabus may vary,
but it always should be in the form of an abstract or
digest of the course of training. It should contain blocks
of learning to be completed in the most efficient order.

Since a syllabus is intended to be a summary of a
course of training, it should be fairly brief, yet com-
prehensive enough to cover essential information. This
information is usually presented in an outline format
with lesson-by-lesson coverage. Some syllabi include
tables to show recommended training time for each les-
son, as well as the overall minimum time requirements.
[Figure 10-2]

While many instructors may develop their own training
syllabi, there are many well-designed commercial
Figure 10-2. This excerpt of a ground lesson shows a unit of
products that may be used. These are found in various ground instruction. In this example, neither the time nor the
training manuals, approved school syllabi, and other number of ground training periods to be devoted to the les-
publications available from industry. son is specified. The lesson should include three key
parts—the objective, the content, and the completion stan-
Syllabi developed for approved flight schools con-
tain specific information that is outlined in 14 CFR
parts 141 and 147. In contrast, syllabi designed for tives and standards for each lesson. Appropriate objec-
training in other than approved schools may not pro- tives and standards should be established for the over-
vide certain details such as enrollment prerequisites, all course, the separate ground and flight segments, and
planned completion times, and descriptions of checks for each stage of training. Other details may be added
and tests to measure student accomplishments for each to a syllabus in order to explain how to use it and
stage of training. describe the pertinent training and reference materials.
Examples of the training and reference materials
Since effective training relies on organized blocks of include textbooks, video, compact disks, exams, brief-
learning, all syllabi should stress well-defined objec- ings and instructional guides.


Any practical training syllabus must be flexible, and
should be used primarily as a guide. When necessary,
the order of training can and should be altered to suit
the progress of the student and the demands of special
circumstances. For example, previous experience or
different rates of learning often will require some alter-
ation or repetition to fit individual students. The syl-
labus also should be flexible enough so it can be adapt-
ed to weather variations, aircraft availability, and
scheduling changes without disrupting the teaching
process or completely suspending training.

In departing from the order prescribed by the syllabus,
however, it is the responsibility of the instructor to consid-
er how the relationships of the blocks of learning are
affected. It is often preferable to skip to a completely dif-
ferent part of the syllabus when the conduct of a scheduled
lesson is impossible, rather than proceeding to the next
block, which may be predicated completely on skills to be
developed during the lesson which is being postponed.

Each approved training course provided by a certificated
pilot school should be conducted in accordance with a
training syllabus specifically approved by the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA). At certificated
schools, the syllabus is a key part of the training
course outline. The instructional facilities, airport,
aircraft, and instructor personnel must be able to sup-
port the course of training specified in the syllabus.
Compliance with the appropriate, approved syllabus
is a condition for graduation from such courses.
Therefore, effective use of a syllabus requires that it
be referred to throughout the entire course of training.
Both the instructor and the student should have a copy
of the approved syllabus. However, as previously
mentioned, a syllabus should not be adhered to so
stringently that it becomes inflexible or unchange-
able. It must be flexible enough to adapt to special
needs of individual students.

Ground training lessons concentrate on the cognitive
domain of learning. A typical lesson might include sev-
eral knowledge areas. Many of these knowledge areas
are directly or indirectly concerned with safety, aero-
nautical decision making, and judgment. These sub-
jects tend to be closely associated with the affective
domain of learning. Thus, instructors who find a way to
stress safety, ADM, and judgment, along with the tra-
ditional aviation subjects, can favorably influence a
student’s attitude, beliefs, and values.

Flight training lessons also include knowledge areas, but
they generally emphasize the psychomotor domain of
learning. In addition, the affective domain of learning is Figure 10-3. A flight training lesson, like a ground training
also important in flight training. A student’s attitude, espe- lesson, should include an objective, content, and completion
cially toward flight safety, ADM, and judgment, should be standards. More than one objective could, and often does,
a major concern of the instructor. [Figure 10-3] apply to a single flight lesson.


PURPOSE OF THE LESSON PLAN Lesson plans are designed to assure that each student receives the best possible instruction under the exist- ing conditions. LESSON PLANS A lesson plan is an organized outline for a single instructional period. Lesson plans should be prepared for each training period and be developed to show specific knowledge and/or skills to be taught. Organization and format are similar. [Figure 10-4] development of lesson plans. and study assignment for the next lesson. content. and completion standards.Individual flight lessons are much like ground les. or standards. can be very beneficial to shown in figure 10-3 is an example showing the main the independent instructor. Both ground and flight lessons may have explanatory infor. as well as that of their students. in effect. A well constructed syl- labus already contains much of the essential informa- tion that is required in a lesson plan. 10-5 . An adequate lesson plan. ance procedures throughout a student’s flight training. Lesson plans help instructors keep a constant check on their own activity. or maneuvers in a flight lesson. content. elements. the instructor labi introduce each procedure or maneuver in one should emphasize collision and wake turbulence avoid. For example. and what procedure to use in teaching the material of a lesson. Some syllabi also include provisions for grading stu- dent performance and recording both ground and flight training time. When putting it in writing. A lesson plan should be put into writing. As already mentioned. The lesson designed for record keeping. Thus. including objec- tives. flight lesson and review them in subsequent lessons. a syllabus can be an effective tool for suitable sequence for efficient learning. should: • Assure a wise selection of material and the elimina- tion of unimportant details. training. The development of lesson plans by instructors signifies. part of the lesson. lessons to students. have been determined to be cause factors in aircraft procedures. Another benefit of using a syllabus is that it helps in mation notes added to specific lessons. Information in the form of notes may be added lessons to themselves prior to attempting to teach the to individual ground or flight lessons in a syllabus when they are necessary. it can be used as a checklist to ensure that required training has successfully been • Aid the instructor in presenting the material in a completed. that they have taught the Figure 10-4. This record-keeping function is usually facilitated by A syllabus should include special emphasis items that boxes or blank spaces adjacent to the knowledge areas. A mental outline of a lesson is not a lesson plan. A the status of training. refer- basis for endorsements and recommendations for ence or study materials. it may be useful for other purposes. These records also serve as a lesson may specify the recommended class time. While a syllabus is designed to provide a road map showing how to accomplish the overall objective of a • Make certain that due consideration is given to each course of training. Enhanced syllabi. in what order to do it. Another instructor should be able to take the lesson plan and know what to do in conducting the same period of instruction. which also are sons. when properly used. It is a necessary guide for the instructor in that it tells what to do. Accurate record keeping is necessary to A syllabus lesson may include several other items that keep both the student and the instructor informed on add to or clarify the objective. Most syl- accidents or incidents. record keeping. the lesson plan can be analyzed from the standpoint of adequacy and completeness. recommended sequence of knowledge and practical tests.

One technique for writing the les. which are stated in terms of desired getting off the track. A lesson is concerned with certain limit.• Provide an outline of the teaching procedure to be • Practicality—Each lesson should be planned in used. and review and evaluation. The should be planned and taught so that its relation to effective instructor realizes that the time and energy the course objectives are clear to each student. procedures. An approach that has confusion. The quality of planning affects the quality of results. the new facts. or skills should be related to the lesson previously pre- sented. • Promote uniformity of instruction regardless of the • Flexibility—Although the lesson plan provides an instructor or the date on which the lesson is given. presenting too little material results in been successful with one group may not be equally inefficiency. presentation. of the teaching process— preparation. principles. and should be revised as changes occur or are needed. Once the research is complete. In teaching a ground school period. Then. After the objective is determined. on lesson planning and instructional procedures. Successful professionals understand the price of excel- • Relation to Course of Training—Each lesson lence is hard work and thorough preparation. thoroughly familiar with as much information related A lesson plan should be a working document that can to the subject as possible. For CHARACTERISTICS OF A example. • Instructional Steps—Every lesson. However. have a carefully thought-out lesson plan. successful with another. such as decid. The most certain means of achieving teaching success is to • Content—Each lesson should contain new material. ful lesson planning format. complete the outline and revise as required. terms of the conditions under which the training is to be conducted. the kinds and quantities of instructional aids available have a great influence • Give the inexperienced instructor confidence. a lesson on short-field takeoffs and land- worth the effort in the long run. For spent in planning and preparing each lesson is well example. Students have a and materials should be selected to attain these right to expect an instructor to give the same atten- objectives. tion to teaching that they give to learning. is an outline for conducting an instructional period. All teaching procedures introducing irrelevant material. • Be Familiar with the Lesson Plan—The instructor son plan outline is to prepare the beginning and ending should study each step of the plan and should be first. the number depending on complexity. falls logically into the four steps determine the method of instruction and identify a use. A short review of earlier lessons is usually • Adapt the Lesson Plan to the Class or Student— necessary. In this sit- A person can master only a few principles or skills uation. when ade- tive. ducted in a classroom. A complete cycle of planning usually includes several steps. Lesson plans conducted in an air- • Serve as a means of relating the lesson to the objec. The final HOW TO USE A LESSON PLAN PROPERLY steps include assembling training aids and writing the lesson plan outline. The following are some of the important characteristics • Use the Lesson Plan as a Guide—The lesson plan that should be reflected in all well-planned lessons. if required. particularly in flight training. There is no certain way of predicting the reactions Presenting too much material in a lesson results in of different groups of students. ing how to organize the lesson and selecting suitable support material also must be accomplished. the instructor must research the subject as it is defined by the objec. application. omitting essential points. and student learning outcomes. ings should be related to both the certification and safety objectives of the course of training. the instructor should change the approach. outline and sequence for the training to be conducted. the outline of content may include blank WELL-PLANNED LESSON spaces for add-on material. Also. Having a plan prevents the instructor from ed objectives. 10-6 . plan are not leading to the desired results. a degree of flexibility should be incorporated. plane or ground trainer will differ from those con- tives of the course of training. unity. at a time. the instructor may find that the procedures outlined in the lesson • Scope—Each lesson should be reasonable in scope. It assures that pertinent materials are at hand and • Unity—Each lesson should be a unified segment of that the presentation is accomplished with order and instruction. Other steps. the instructor must quately developed.

structured classroom lessons. al subheadings. lowing pages. a variety of lesson plans and lesson plan training is not simple. In some authorities often divide the main headings into sever- cases. all instructors should recognize that even well-designed preprinted lesson plans may need to be LESSON PLAN FORMATS modified. and the objectives usually include the higher plans and lesson plan formats are included in the fol- levels of learning. Examples of various lesson learning. at least at the application level. Various to the effective completion of the lesson. and ability of the particular student. A objectives. headings. continuous revision may be necessary. They all during flight. or they may be elaborate As indicated by much of this discussion. A lesson plan for an instructional flight period In spite of need for varied subject coverage. a related term. the main and complicated for large. diverse should be appropriate to the background. comple- tion standards may be called assessment. performance evaluation. it is apparent that one format does objectives that are achievable within a reasonable period not work well for all students. each lesson should have somewhat limited With this in mind. or for all training situ- of time. method is used. This is true for a number of reasons. new manuals and textbooks. aviation requirements. Because of the broad range of aviation training flight training. This principle should apply to both ground and ations. However. Certainly the subject matter has a lot to do when developing their own lesson plans for specific with how a lesson is presented and what teaching students or training circumstances. 10-7 . including availability or Commercially-developed lesson plans are acceptable nonavailability of instructional aids. review and • Revise the Lesson Plan Periodically—After a les. For example. concern in developing a lesson plan is the student. content to support the knowledge or poor mastery of elements essential objectives. as previously noted. Therefore. flight teaching methods. varies extensively. feedback. in the state-of-the art among others. or some other son plan has been prepared for a training period. instructors are encouraged to use The format and style of a lesson plan depends on sever. due to deficiencies in the student’s should include objectives. It involves all three domains of formats is recommended. the entire lesson plan may have to be aban. and terminology. for most training situations. Individual lesson plans may be quite simple for one-on-one training. Preferably. creativity when adapting preprinted lesson plans or al factors. even for the main doned in favor of review. and changes instructor applicants during their practical tests. and relatively high level learning experience. changes in reg. However. and completion standards. most aviation lesson plans have the com- lesson plan may have to be modified considerably mon characteristics already discussed. including use by flight ulations.

pressure altitude 3. Body (29 minutes) EXPLANATION DEMONSTRATION: Define landing distance. Reteach any area(s) of difficulty to the class as they go along. This is an example of the lesson plan designed for a traditional ground school in a classroom environment. Encourage students to ask questions. Explain how the lesson will proceed. and to work as accurately as possible. Show the normal landing distance chart with given data in the following order: 1. This could have been avoided by correctly computing the landing distance. Ensure students can see demonstration and encourage (8 minutes) questions. Record results for use in reteaching any area(s) of difficulty in the summary. gross weight 4. REMOTIVATION: Remind students that landing distance will be an important consideration in any aircraft they fly. plus future application). temperature 2. Assign study materials for the next lesson. MOTIVATION: Tell students how landing distance can affect them (any aircraft. followed by a brief summary. headwind-tailwind component 5. Check progress of each stu- dent continually so they develop skill proficiency within acceptable standards. the students will be evaluated according to the standards. Prepare area for evaluation by removing (6 minutes) the task step chart and practice problem sheets. 10-8 . read ground roll distance from graph PERFORMANCE SUPERVISION: Review standards. Finally. Define land- ing distance and explain the normal landing distance chart. Hand out chart and practice problems. Demonstrate the procedure using °C with a headwind and °F with a tailwind. Next. Relate similar personal experience of the same type of mishap. Reemphasize standards of acceptable performance including time available. (15 minutes) Explain that they should follow the procedure on the chart to work the practice problems. EVALUATION: Review procedure again from the chart. Conclusion (3 minutes) SUMMARY: Review lessons with emphasis on any weak area(s). Terminate evaluation after 6 minutes. The students will practice the procedure: at least once with supervision and at least once with as little help as possible. and by handing out the evalu- ation problems. the les- son will conclude with questions and answers. Explain the normal landing distance chart to include the scale and interpolation. Ask students to work the three problems according to conditions and standards specified. Then. OVERVIEW: Explain what will be learned. Remind students to use a pencil. Evaluate each student’s performance and tactfully reveal results. to make small tick marks. CLOSURE: Advise students that this lesson will be used as a starting point for the next les- son. LESSON PLAN Introduction (3 minutes) ATTENTION: Relate aircraft accident in which a multi-engine airplane ran off the end of the run- way. demonstrate how to solve for landing distance.

Flight 3. NOTES: Emphasize that the runway. Flight 6 Student:Judy Smith DUAL-LOCAL (7 to 10 knot crosswind conditions required) SEQUENCE: 1. The principle of a stabilized landing approach will be emphasized. LESSON REVIEW: 1. Postflight Evaluation LESSON OBJECTIVE: During the lesson. the student will demonstrate safe crosswind landings in light crosswind conditions. In this example. This should allow the student to concentrate on keeping the upwind wing low while maintaining runway alignment during the flare. Crosswind Landings COMPLETION STANDARDS: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the slip is used to perform crosswind landings. 10-9 . Preflight Orientation 2. and longitudinal axis of airplane must be aligned at touch- down. Slips 2. the lesson plan is specifically intended to help a student who is having difficulty with crosswind approaches and landings. the student will review crosswind landing techniques in actual crosswind conditions and attempt to increase understanding and proficiency during their execution. airplane path. Have the student establish a slip early on the final approach rather than crabbing and establishing slip just prior to touchdown. In addition.

discuss errors. • Ability to visualize position. • Fly direct to selected NAVAID(s). have student identify position on chart (paper) before looking at map screen. • Review terminology: bearing vs. This example lesson plan may be used for ground training in a personal computer-based aviation training device (PCATD) or a flight training device (FTD). Demonstrate bracketing techniques. configuration can be cruise flight or normal maneuvering flight regime. • Intercept a dictated radial: Tune/identify NAVAID(s). COMPLETION STANDARDS • Correctly determine location and orientation TO/FROM NAVAID(s). 10-10 . determine and note changes in CDI centering. • Set airplane location off of a line between 2 NAVAID(s) about 40 miles apart (save as file for future use). EMPHASIS • Situational awareness. note on which side of airplane is desired course. Determine intercept angle and turn to intercept heading. • Recognize that the ability to track is heavily dependent on accurate maintenance of heading. verify on map screen. Determine location with respect to bearing by turning to the heading of course dictated. requires pilot constantly asking: Where am I? Where am I going? What am I going to do next? • VOR utilization SET-UP • Choose an unfamiliar environment in which to fly (from the database map). radial. intercepts. • Re-position airplane on the map screen. • Correctly determine appropriate intercept angle and heading. and tracks. • Utilize cockpit instrument check to set frequencies. tracking inbound vs. outbound. EXERCISES and MANEUVERS • Determine position by orientation of TO/FROM and CDI centering. GROUND LESSON 8 — PCATD OBJECTIVE • Review of VOR concepts.

• Postflight — Critique student performance and assign study material. Demonstrate power-on and power-off stalls and recovery proce- dures. 10-11 . • Inflight — Demonstrate elements. Stalls LESSON ________________ Larry STUDENT ________________ 7-20 DATE ________________ OBJECTIVE • To familiarize the student with the stall warnings and handling characteristics of the airplane as it approaches a stall. This is a typical lesson plan for flight training which emphasizes stall recognition and recovery procedures. Perform each new maneuver as direct- ed. stall warnings. SCHEDULE • Preflight Discussion :10 • Instructor Demonstrations :25 • Student Practice :45 • Postflight Critique :10 EQUIPMENT • Chalkboard or notebook for preflight discussion. and heading. • Initiation of stall recovery procedures. INSTRUCTOR’S ACTIONS • Preflight — Discuss lesson objective. • Inflight — Review previous maneuvers including slow flight. • Control of airplane attitude. STUDENT’S ACTIONS • Preflight — Discuss lesson objective and resolve questions. Coach student practice. • Postflight — Ask pertinent questions. To develop the student’s skill in recognition and recovery from stalls. Student should recognize and take prompt corrective action to recover from power-on and power-off stalls. • Observation of airplane attitude. CONTENT • Configuration of airplane for power-on and power- off stalls. altitude. and handling characteristics as it approaches a stall. COMPLETION STANDARDS • Student should demonstrate competency in con- trolling the airplane at airspeeds approaching a stall.

to cease training in the instrument ground trainer. and develop the pilot’s skill and comfort operating the Baron in a variety of situations. In addition. and demonstrates a level of proficiency. review procedures for abnormal situa- tions. FURTHER STUDY: Baron POH (Chapter 3. ELEMENTS: • ground instruction → systems electrical landing gear → procedures systems failures other abnormal and emergency checklists → multi-engine considerations / aerodynamics zero sideslip drag effects • flight training device or flight simulator → any further training needed on IFR skills → utilize to practice engine failure after takeoff and single-engine go-around procedures • flight → engine failure on ground → VMC demo → drag demo → engine failure in cruise. 10-12 . and further review multi-engine aerodynamics and concepts. including systems failures. as judged by the instructor. complete IFR proficiency in the ground trainer. Chapter 7) This is a specialized flight training lesson plan for multi-engine transition. MULTI-ENGINE TRANSITION — LESSON THREE OBJECTIVE: To complete the Baron systems instruction. descent → systems failures including manual gear extension → IFR procedures / single-engine approaches COMPLETION STANDARDS: The lesson is complete when the student demonstrates understanding of all Baron systems and emergency procedures.

Types of fire extinguishers and their inspection. General safety practices. Safe use of hand and power tools. and hangar safety hazards. Tools/Equipment: Power and hand tools. MATERIALS YOU PLAN TO USE: Visuals: Videos. Shop. fire extinguishers. OBJECTIVE No 2: Consistently apply safety practices on forming various aircraft maintenance functions. parts. Practical test covering practice items. aircraft and aircraft systems. Rules for safe use of hand and power tools and shop equipment. and shop areas. and photographs showing safe and unsafe practices/conditions and their consequences. an aviation maintenance training lesson plan emphasizes safety. 3. Accident report completion. and maintenance shop areas. 4. Fire Safety Key Points: 1. 3. Using MSDS and manufacturer’s instructions. Performing a safety inspection of flight line. 2. 10-13 . hangar. and hangar equipment. aircraft maintenance manuals. 2. Flight Line. hangar. and Demonstration TITLE: Flight line. and appliances. Proper techniques for using fire extinguishers. and Hangar Safety Key Points: 1. government and industry published safety data. Recognizing and identifying safety color codes and signs and their correct application. 5. LESSON PLAN AVIATION MAINTENANCE TRAINING INSTRUCTOR: William Brown METHOD OF INSTRUCTION: Lecture. 3. Audio Visuals. shop. Causes of accidents. Identifying hazardous parts of various power tools. 4. 2. Chemical Safety Key Points: 1. PRACTICE: Identifying flight line. In this example. and Shop Safety OBJECTIVE No 1: Recognize and neutralize or avoid (as appropriate) safety hazards that may be found in flight line. and equipment manufacturer’s instructions. Matching fire extinguishing agents to classes of fires. and chemicals commonly used in performing aircraft maintenance. Using hazardous materials. Safety related terms. ASSESSMENT: Written test covering category key points. Steps to be followed after an accident. shop. overheads. Classes of fire. 2. and flight line. protective clothing and equipment. 5. test and inspection tools. References: Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Hangar. PRESENTATION: Topics/Steps: Personal Safey Key Points: 1. Demonstrate proper use of power tools and shop equipment. 4.

10-14 .

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Program has several features that the instructor can Regulations (14 CFR) part 147 requires all instructors use to promote safety. The presumption of detailed knowledge is true AVIATION SAFETY COUNSELORS because. The Flight Standards District Office certified. be a more capable and professional instructor. They ject. or aviation main- incumbent on the instructor to continually keep up with tenance technicians. The instructor who violates accepted must continue to develop their knowledge and skills in safety procedures will adversely affect the safety order to teach successfully in this environment. the concurrence of the manager of the FSDO.Aviation is changing rapidly and aviation instructors cerning safety.3. Instructors have had to undergo comprehen. flight instructors. The most knowledgeable people in who are selected by the Safety Program Manager with any subject area are the ones who are teaching that sub. the instructor is portrayed as the person helping to correct conditions that are hazardous to air- the student will emulate. and thought toward the objective education in the aviation field. it is generally are pilots. Counselors are volunteers who are willing as authorities. Because instructors are regarded for selection. Aviation 11-1 . actively involved in the Aviation Safety Program will cate as an aircraft maintenance technician. The Aviation Safety instructor certificate. One of the most productive actions a flight or and develop as professionals and as safety advocates. Another way to further safety is to actively participate in the FAA Aviation Safety Program. this is not a prerequisite current information. an instructor must know the Aviation Safety Counselors are well known and aviation subject area to a much greater depth in order highly respected members of the aviation community to teach the subject. The aviation instructor who is teaching maintenance subjects to hold an FAA certifi. energy. in this development. they are in a unique position to influence to devote time. FAA-M-8740. The program’s GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT objective is to improve safety in general aviation by The aviation instructor is usually well respected by improving attitudes. and reducing environmen- meet additional training requirements in order to be tal hazards. maintenance instructor can take to enhance aviation and also suggests some sources of information to assist safety is to consistently emphasize safety by example. With the aviation field constantly changing. craft and aviation personnel. This practices of the students who observe such unsafe chapter addresses the topic of how instructors can grow acts. and In Chapter 8. (FSDO) Safety Program Manager is involved in all sive evaluations and a practical test to obtain a flight areas of safety within the district. however. of solving aviation safety problems in their community. They assist the FAA in the promotion of safety by THE INSTRUCTOR AS A SAFETY ADVOCATE organizing and participating in safety programs. This is especially true con. increasing knowledge and profi- other technicians and pilots because instructors must ciency through education. in most cases.

These courses are available for flight instructors to complete the training requirements for renewal of flight instructor certificates. for a list of ing safe flight or ground operations are observed. requirements for earning this certificate. serve as an example to students. and seminars. outlines some of the specific GOVERNMENT activities of the Aviation Safety Counselor. Technician Awards Program. The FAA is a source of many documents which can be • Counseling individuals following incidents requir. able by mail. • Organizing and participating in safety meetings. • Assisting the FAA in transmitting safety information to pilots. can be a useful tenance technicians on matters pertaining to proper source of knowledge for aviation instructors. There are many different with AC 61-83. The aviation instructor has many sources to use for continuing education. The FAA activities of the Aviation Safety Counselor. Similarly. although directed at pilots. and provides One of the first educational sources for the instructor is guidelines for performing those activities. edge and skills. Accomplishing the requirements of the cer- establishing local airport safety committees. tificate is evidence that the instructor has performed at • Notifying the appropriate authorities of the need for a very high level as a flight instructor. corrective action when hazardous conditions affect. 11-2 . Participation in this program is a good way • Conducting proficiency flights (when appropriately for a flight instructor to improve proficiency and to rated). EDUCATIONAL/TRAINING INSTITUTIONS Professional aviation instructors can further increase their knowledge and skill in aviation specialties through FAA programs and seminars. seminars. aircraft owners. pins can be found in AC 65-25. maintenance facilities. and workshops that are available to the public in the • Counseling individuals who may have exhibited furtherance of knowledge of aviation. The FAA approves the sponsors who conduct Flight cle in a technical publication to taking courses at a Instructor Refresher Clinics (FIRCs) in accordance technical school or college. These • Assisting pilots. Some examples potentially unsafe acts. The FAA co-sponsors Inspection Authorization (IA) seminars. These seminars are open to all maintenance technicians. Certification: Pilots and Flight Instructors. and are a good source of additional train- ing and education for maintenance instructors. would be safety seminars conducted around the coun- try by the FAA in conjunction with industry. affords the aviation maintenance instructor the oppor- tunity for increased education through attendance at CONTINUING EDUCATION FAA or industry maintenance training seminars. in the Proficiency Award Program were outlined in Chapter 8. Instructors need to continually update their knowl. used to further an instructor’s knowledge. as outlined in either sponsors or collaborates in sponsoring seminars the manual. maintenance of aircraft and avionics equipment. This effort to improve aviation knowl- edge and skills can range from simply reading an arti. Aviation Maintenance ing. Some of the the FAA and other governmental agencies. Nationally Scheduled FAA-Approved sources of information the aviation instructor can use Industry-Conducted Flight Instructor Refresher in order to further aviation knowledge. These range from local community colleges to technical schools and Figure 11-1. aircraft owners. the Aviation Maintenance Awards Program workshops. See AC 61-65. Many of ing flight assistance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) these are published as advisory circulars and are avail- personnel. Part of being a professional aviation instructor is being Details for the awarding of bronze through diamond knowledgeable on the subjects of aviation and instruct. and aircraft main.Safety Counselor Manual. and The requirements for a flight instructor’s participation technicians. They can also increase their professional knowledge and skills through post-secondary schools. Another way is to work toward the Gold Seal Flight Instructor • Providing information and assistance to the FAA in Certificate. [Figure 11-1] Clinics (FIRC). are listed below.

Government Bookstores or from the U. ily attend. as well as formal training sessions. spin training. Many industry organizations have local affiliated chapters that make it easy to meet other pilots. There are numerous organizations around the country In addition to government publications. Many offer training that can be by the aviation instructor for inclusion in a personal attended either at the home base of the company or in reference library. computer-based training.universities. and fabric cov. Government Printing Office. is a others may provide complete ground and flight training listing of all current advisory circulars and other FAA programs for professional pilots and instructors. chology. U. and mainte- COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS nance training manuals. These meetings frequently include presentations by industry experts. a number of that offer courses of training for aviation instructors. sheet metal fabrication. Government Printing Office (GPO). this includes current copies of regulations pertinent to pilot qualification and certifi. The aviation instructor has two reasons to maintain a edge and experience by adding additional category source of current information and publications. Figure 11-2. Documents. Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). the instructor needs a steady supply of fresh material to make instruction interesting and up-to-date. These publications sold by the Superintendent of companies often provide a wide variety of study pro. Aviation instructors can improve their knowl- cation. 11-3 . They also are an excellent opportunity to exchange information with other instructors. Properly organized safety symposiums and training clinics are valuable sources of refresher training.S. maintaining familiarity with what is being written in tion instructors are the myriad of aviation organizations. and tailwheel qualification. techni- cians. The aviation maintenance instructor courses of benefit to instructors. and instructors. This checklist can be obtained from traveling classes/seminars so instructors can more eas. is available through electronic means. but are especially useful for odicals and technical journals from the aviation indus- instructors to improve their abilities. For pilots there are courses in mountain flying.S. current aviation publications. These schools may offer complete degree appropriate Practical Test Standards (PTS). ing requirements in order to provide competent Some may be publishers of training materials while instruction. and other aviation- ering. edge by becoming familiar with information on the Internet. For the flight instructor. but also present training pro. Aviation instructors must be Commercial organizations are another important completely familiar with current certification and rat- source of education/training for the aviation instructor. and pilot programs in aviation subjects as well as single-subject training manuals. tions are in printed form. Examples of try are other sources of valuable information for such courses include workshops for maintenance instructors. but increasingly. related subjects. Aviation peri- pilots and technicians. Flight instructors also may increase their aviation knowl. information cles in their publications. SOURCES OF MATERIAL An aviation instructor should maintain access to cur- rent flight publications or maintenance publications. current knowledge and practical test standards. and Many of the advisory circulars should be considered printed publications. teaching methods. Many public and institutional libraries technicians to enhance their skills in subjects such as have excellent resource material on educational psy- composites. grams including videos. AC 00-2 Advisory Circular Checklist. excellent handbooks and other reference materials are These are generally courses that are available to all available from commercial publishers. should have copies of applicable regulations. First and class ratings to their certificates.S. INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS instructors should keep themselves well informed by Other significant sources of ongoing education for avia. testing. [Figure 11-2] grams or co-sponsor such programs. Second. Some aviation industry organizations conduct their own training sessions on areas such as flight instructor refresher clinics and Inspection Authorization (IA) seminars. Most of these publica- These organizations not only provide educational arti. U.

In addition. but the personal computer select “Publications” from the list to locate all FAA has greatly expanded sources of aviation information. new sites are added and old sites are discontinued on a regular basis. The aviation instructor can become more adept at obtaining infor- mation by entering and navigating around the Internet Figure 11-3. they will find sites which provide the FAA web sites are not the only source of aviation information they use most frequently. Commercial the site without going through multiple links. These publications can be accessed by aviation. some are starting to be available partially or totally in electronic From the AV-INFO Web Site. and some non- (NTIS). National Technical Information Service accessing FAA materials are explored. In info. the site can and from the National Technical Information Service be saved by clicking on the Bookmark option (or other (NTIS). periodicals are still available in hard copy.S. Most FAA regulations. [Figure 11-3] or education-related information on the Internet. At the AFS-600 site. Aviation instructors can improve their knowl. Government Printing Internet. and the Federal Depository Libraries. aviation instructors have form. Publications not printed by the U. Professional aviation instructors must continue to lications of interest to the aviation instructor can be expand their knowledge and skills in order to be com- accessed through the FAA Flight Standards Service petent instructors. publications available from the Department of This section will list some sources of information on the Transportation (DOT). 11-4 . and Technical” Printed material makes this possible. and guides are access to the National Transportation Safety Board. For example. While most select Advisory some FAA publications are more important to the aviation instructor than others. The more familiar aviation instructors become with the Internet. ELECTRONIC SOURCES one of the fastest ways to view a variety of FAA mate- rials is to select an option from the prominent pull- Access to the Internet via personal computers has down list. Once Non-FAA publications are available through the GPO the instructor has located a site of interest. to become informed about the contents and how to best edge by becoming comfortable navigating the Web. also be a disadvantage. An easy way to reach some of these sites is through the AV-INFO Web Site by clicking on the button marked “Public Aviation Sites. In the past. Keep in mind that most sites on the Internet are updat- ed periodically. Practical Test Standards. and FAA forms.faa. documentation in the form of flight publica. selecting for referral while flying or conducting maintenance. “Publications: Training. opened up a vast storehouse of information for the avi- the instructor can click on the “GO!” button to link to ation instructor.PRINTED MATERIAL Aviation Information (AV-INFO) Web Site (http://av- Printed materials have the advantage of portability. Once instructors begin to navi- gate the Internet. and often becoming tedious to keep current.” Others can be accessed via published web addresses or by using the search function of the web browser. available either in electronic form or as hard copy. The field of aviation is advancing. In the following discussion.S. aviation instructors had lim- various FAA sites. an instructor can ited access to information. Airworthiness Directives. Listings of FAA Certificated Maintenance and Pilot schools. FAA sites are included. This allows the instructor to return to many publishers and suppliers of books. taking up space for storage and Knowledge Test Guides. the better they will be able to adapt to any changes that may occur. Conducting a search on the word “aviation” gives the aviation instructor access to literally thou- sands of related web sites. Obviously. After opening the FAA home page. The aviation instructor can access a myriad of avi- ation-related publications at other governmental or non-governmental web sites. Once an area of interest has been selected. The FAA home page can also be reached through the AV-INFO Web Site. U. but hard copy can accesses Airman Knowledge Test Question Banks. clicking on the button marked Regulatory Support tions or maintenance data must be immediately available Division (AFS-600). Many of the pub. locate desired information. Testing. standards. publishers usually provide catalogues and toll-free numbers or web sites for ordering their products. several sites for Office (GPO). designation such as “Favorite”) provided by the web Government Printing Office are available from the browser used.

other governmental other electronic sources. and from the Internet and materials available from the FAA. and continuing education will be able to provide the high- from industry trade groups. Instructors who commit to agencies. papers. commercial publishers and vendors. These materials are avail. Instructors can able at training sessions and seminars. est quality instruction to their students. 11-5 .and the instructor also must advance. from printed best do this by taking advantage of the wide variety of books. magazines.

11-6 .

Which of the following statements is/are generally true regarding the charging of several aircraft batteries together? 1.) The acute angle A is the angle of A. care must be exercised to avoid ambiguity. APPENDIX A—SAMPLE TEST ITEMS There are four types of test items in common use today. incidence. dihedral. B. 2. Pilot in command or operator.000 feet or more above MSL. C. When using this form. C. based on magnetic course. 2 and 3. MULTIPLE-CHOICE TEST ITEMS Multiple-choice test items consist of a stem or question and three or more alternative answers with the correct answer sometimes called the keyed response and the incorrect answers called distractors. at 3. and charged using the constant current method. based on magnetic heading. B. B. This form is generally better than the incomplete stem because it is simpler and more natural.000 feet or more AGL. Who is primarily responsible for maintaining an aircraft in an airworthy condition? A. C. The lead mechanic responsible for that aircraft. Listed below are examples of some of the more widely used forms. Batteries of the same voltage and same ampere-hour capacity must be connected in series with each other across the charger. based on true course. Batteries of different ampere-hour capacity and same voltage can be connected in parallel with each other across the charger. FIGURE 1. (Refer to figure 1. and charged using the constant current method. Stem Supplemented by an Illustration. giving clues. Batteries of different voltage (but similar capacities) can be connected in series with each other across the charger. and using unnecessarily complex or unrelated alternatives. matching. They are multiple-choice. A-1 . or identify objects. attack. This form is useful for measuring the ability to read instruments. The most used type is the multiple-choice test item in one of several forms. VFR cruising altitudes are required to be maintained when flying A. Stem Presented as a Question. 3. and charged using the constant voltage method. Multiple Response is Required. A. and supply- type.—Lift Vector. This form is a variation of the previous forms in that it contains more than one correct answer. at 3. C. Detailed information on the writing of stems and alternatives can be found in Chapter 6. B.000 feet AGL. 1 and 2. and students are instructed to select all correct answers. 3. Stem as an Incomplete Statement. more than 3. Owner or operator of the aircraft. true-false.

Volt 3. Form drag interact. Farad 8. 1. B. Induced drag 2. write the letter(s) corresponding to the type(s) of drag which is/are most closely associated with that phrase. ____ Inductance f. Aircraft towing other aircraft. or not at all. Generally preferable to equal columns. Static drag 3. providing for some items in the response column to be used more than once. Interference drag 4. e. Watt 2. ____ Capacitance e. wingspan to the mean chord. Ampere 4. write the letter corresponding to the unit of measurement which is most closely associated with that term. ____ Electrical power. ____ Electrical power. and some types may not be used at all. Diffusion. square of the chord to the wingspan. ____ Impedance h. ____ Resistance d. can preclude guessing by elimination. Association Type. B. Airship.Negative Variety Type. to preclude guessing by elimination. ____ Results from the turbulent wake caused by the separation c. Directions: In the blank before each electrical term in the left-hand column. B. Matching test items may have either an equal or unequal number of selections in each column. g. This form is used to determine knowledge of a specific definition. ____ Generated by the airflow circulation around the airfoil as f. This form is not suggested but. Which aircraft has the right-of-way over the other aircraft listed? A. always emphasize the negative word. Conduction. When using this form of test item. MATCHING TEST ITEMS Matching test items are used to test a student’s ability to recognize relationships and to make associations between terms. Skin friction drag of airflow from the surface of a structure. ____ Current g. Convection. Each unit of measurement may be used more than once and some units may not be used at all. ____ Electromotive force a. Matching-Equal Columns. b. Each type of drag may be used more than once. if used. Definition Type. d. Sliding drag A-2 . C. it is a good practice to provide alternatives in the response column that are used more than once. C. Ohm 6. This form is useful if a limited number of associations are to be made. Directions: In the blank before each phrase in the left-hand column. 1. Which of the following is NOT considered a method of heat transfer? A. words. clauses. VAR 7. ____ Occurs when varied currents over an airplane meet and a. When using this form. ____ Caused by the roughness of the airplane’s surfaces. Gyroplane. or symbols in one column with related alternatives in another column. apparent b. true c. parts. Henry Matching-Unequal Columns. Rolling drag it creates lift. or not at all. Coulomb 5. wingspan to the wing root. C. phrases. Aspect ratio of a wing is defined as the ratio of the A.

To operate within Class B airspace. SUPPLY-TYPE TEST ITEMS The aviation instructor is able to determine the students’ level of generalized knowledge of a subject through the use of supply-type questions. Describe the position of the elevator and ailerons when taxiing a tricycle-gear airplane into a right quartering headwind. The chief disadvan- tage of this type is the opportunity for successful guessing. the aircraft must have two-way radio communica- tion capability and a Mode C transponder. 1. What conditions are used in determining the published value of VMC? A-3 . 2. True or False. True or False. 2. An aviation maintenance technician must hold an Inspection Authorization to legally conduct annual inspections on small aircraft. Directions: Circle the correct response to the following statements. Short-answer essay test items are the most common.TRUE-FALSE TEST ITEMS A True-False test item requires the student to determine whether a statement is true or false. 1.


14 CFR section 61.189 requires that instructors sign the logbook of each person they have given ground or flight
training. AC 61-65 contains suggested endorsements, and this appendix reprints several of the more commonly
used endorsements. All of these examples contain the essential elements, but it is not necessary for endorsements
to be worded exactly as those in the AC. For example, changes to regulatory requirements may affect the wording
or the instructor may customize the endorsement for any special circumstances of the student.

Pre-solo aeronautical knowledge: §61.87(b)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has satisfactorily completed the pre-solo knowledge exam of §61.87(b)
for the (make and model aircraft). S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Pre-solo flight training at night: §61.87(c) and (m)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required pre-solo training in a (make and model aircraft).
I have determined that he/she has demonstrated the proficiency of §61.87(m), and is proficient to make solo flights
at night in a (make and model aircraft). S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Solo flight (each additional 90-day period): §61.87(n)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training to qualify for solo flying. I have deter-
mined he/she meets the applicable requirements of §61.87(n), and is proficient to make solo flights in a (make and
model aircraft). S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Initial solo cross-country flight: §61.93(c)(1)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required solo cross-country training. I find he/she has
met the applicable requirements of §61.93, and is proficient to make solo cross-country flights in a (make and
model aircraft). S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Solo cross-country flight: §61.93(c)(2)
I have reviewed the cross-country planning of (First name, MI, Last name), I find the planning and preparation to
be correct to make the solo flight from (location) to (destination) via (route of flight) with landings at (name the
airports) in a (make and model aircraft) on (date). May list any appropriate conditions or limitations. S/S [date] J.J.
Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Solo flight in Class B airspace: §61.95(a)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of §61.95(a). I have determined he/she
is proficient to conduct solo flights in (name of Class B) airspace. May list any applicable conditions or limitations.
S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Solo flight to, from, or at an airport located in Class B airspace: §§61.95(b) and 91.131(b)(1)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of §61.95(b)(1). I have determined that
he/she is proficient to conduct solo flight operations at (name of airport). May list any applicable conditions or lim-
itations. S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Aeronautical knowledge test: §§61.35(a)(1), 61.103(d), and 61.105
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of §61.105. I have determined he/she
is prepared for the (name the knowledge test). S/S [date] JJ Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Flight proficiency/practical test: §§61.103(f), 61.107(b), and 61.109
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of §§61.107 and 61.109. I determined
he/she is prepared for the (name the practical test). S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00


Spin training: §61.183(i)(1)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of §61.183(i). I have determined that
he/she is competent and proficient on instructional skills for training stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin
recovery procedures. S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Completion of a flight review: §61.56(a) and (c)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot certificate) (certificate number) has satisfactorily completed a
flight review of §61.56(a) on (date). S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Completion of an instrument proficiency check: §61.57(d)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot certificate) (certificate number) has satisfactorily completed the
instrument proficiency check of §61.57(d) in a (list make and model of aircraft) on (date). S/S [date] J.J. Jones
987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Re-testing after failure of a knowledge or practical test (pilot): §61.49
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the additional (flight and/or ground) training as required by
§61.49. I have determined that he/she is prepared for the (name the knowledge/practical test). S/S [date] J.J. Jones
987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Re-testing after failure of a knowledge or oral and practical test (mechanic): §65.19
I have given Mr./Ms. (First name, MI, Last name) additional instruction in each subject area shown to be deficient
and consider the applicant competent to pass the test.
Last name First name
Cert. No. Type/Rating(s)
Signature Date

Completion of a phase of an FAA-sponsored pilot proficiency award program (WINGS): §61.56(e)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot certificate) (certificate number) has satisfactorily completed Phase
No.___of a WINGS program on (date). S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00


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array of facts without inclusion of ate confusion when they mean differ- cal sequence within the PTS. ence and/or old learning. airplane is less persons. MAKING (ADM)—A systematic approach to the mental process used by ATTITUDE MANAGEMENT— COGNITIVE DOMAIN—A group- aircraft pilots to consistently determine The ability to recognize ones own ing of levels of learning associated the best course of action in response to hazardous attitudes in oneself and the with mental activity which range a given set of circumstances. May have a potent effect COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING on actions and the ability to learn BOOKMARK—A means of saving (CBT)—The use of the computer as a from perceptions. Words and symbols cre- of the practical test arranged in a logi. ent things to different people. CBT is sometimes (WWW) for easy future access. the base AERONAUTICAL DECISION decision making. that describes a person’s ability to degree to which a test measures the maintain and enhance the organized overall objective. to shape or control what is computer to assist in the instruction. SYMBOL AND THE SYMBOL- procedure while explaining it. appropriate antidote thought. In the telling-and-doing or online training to choose from sev- technique of flight instruction. Aircraft is tional predisposition to respond to Concept of learning that new knowl- an abstraction. ing of levels of learning associated with a person’s attitudes. expertise and professional knowledge a popular foremat for storing informa- as a part of the FAA Aviation Safety tion digitally. called computer-based instruction APPLICATION—A basic level of Usually done by selecting a button on (CBI). situations. instructional program designed to COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUC- familiarize and qualify a pilot to act BEHAVIORISM—Theory of learn. BASIC NEED—A perception factor COMPREHENSIVENESS—Is the tious flow of air traffic. extensive supporting material. multimedia courseware. the terms and acronyms are learning where the student puts some. analysis. having a particular form of behavior sizing the point that the instructor is reinforced by someone. BUILDING BLOCK CONCEPT— general rather than specific. from knowledge through comprehen- sary through the application of an sion. amounts of information. expands supporting further learning. G-1 . GLOSSARY ABSTRACTIONS—Words that are ATTITUDE—A personal motiva. in the lesson. this eral courses of action in moving from CONFUSION BETWEEN THE step consists of the student doing the one sequence to another. and organization to characterization. willingness to modify them as neces. CONDITIONS—The second part of APPLICATION STEP—The third a performance-based objective step of the teaching process. orderly. and values which range from —Volunteers within the aviation plastic optical disk which contains receiving through responding. and expedi. As knowl- ing as a sort of mental shortcut to edge and skills increase. application. thesis to evaluation. and syn- AFFECTIVE DOMAIN—A group. personal AVIATION SAFETY COUNSELORS COMPACT DISK (CD)—A small beliefs. —A service provided by the FAA to promote the safe. where BRANCHING—A programming which describes the framework the student performs the procedure or technique which allows users of inter. nevertheless. The major advantage of a CD is its capability to store enormous AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) Program. valuing. the web browser screen. have to be input again in a lengthy series of characters. community who share their technical recorded music or computer data. and jet given manner that can. addresses on the World Wide Web training device. or events in a edge and skills are best based on a abstract. AIRCRAFT CHECKOUTS—An self. under which the skill or behavior demonstrates the knowledge required active video. other than the responsible for the class and uses the ANXIETY—Mental discomfort that student. TION—Synonymous with computer- as pilot in command of a particular ing that stresses the importance of based training or instruction empha- aircraft type. solid foundation of previous experi- airliner is still more specific. arises from the fear of anything. will be demonstrated. IZED OBJECT—Results when a BRIEFING—An oral presentation word is confused with what it is meant AREAS OF OPERATION—Phases where the speaker presents a concise to represent. Also. understood. jet is more specific. real learned. be changed or modified through train. or imagined. it saves the synonymous and may be used inter- thing to use that has been learned and current web address so it does not changeably.

dispatchers. human resources. has the student attempt the same instruments. definition includes all groups routinely such words usually make the state. OR BEHAVIOR—The first part of a cueing system or visual system is not ment. a certificate of completion. A curriculum for a pilot hend an event if that person is feeling together to maximize their own and school usually includes courses for the threatened since most of a person’s each other’s learning. A current questions. who have some idea of the goals and formance-based objective which DISUSE—A theory of forgetting that values of their students will be more describes the standards which will be suggests a person forgets those things successful in teaching them. but as CRM programs evolved to performance-based objective which required. of the objective. under. ened when associated with an pates only as necessary to keep the terion rather than against each other. cabin crewmembers.COOPERATIVE OR GROUP CURRICULUM—May be defined ELEMENT OF THREAT—A per- LEARNING—An instructional strat. and air traffic controllers. gradua. maintenance per. a question ed. FLIGHT REVIEW—An industry- COURSE OF TRAINING—A com. and that learning is weak. cussion back on track or to get the aircraft. DIRECT QUESTION—A question little or no verbal participation by the but are not limited to: pilots. introduced and the instructor partici- ly written. Since absolutes are rare. CRITERIA—The third part of a per. or set of air- team management concepts in the flight craft. Instructors to a multiple-choice test item. to which a test distinguishes the differ. It was initially DESCRIPTION OF THE SKILL an enclosed cockpit. FAA monitored currency plete series of studies leading to DEMONSTRATION-PERFOR. G-2 . and MENT (CRM)—The application of activity. equipment. ing is affected by how much value a DISTRACTORS—Incorrect responses person puts on education. subsequent learning. inform. tor first shows the student the correct FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICES way to perform an activity and then (FTD)—A full-size replica of the CREW RESOURCE MANAGE. words which give a clue to the students to explain something more craft. son’s perception of an event depends face and accompanying interpersonal ences between students. group focused on the subject. is built in sections so it can be taken EXERCISE—A principle of learning ate what has been learned. that those things most often repeated stood. Words such as “always” and thoroughly. “never” are determiners in true-false hardware. be measured. used for follow-up purposes. Pilots of small DETERMINERS—In test items. ing feeling. program designed to assess and attainment of a specific goal. measurable standard or cri. as in most used by an instructor to get the dis- general aviation aircaft. FORMAL LECTURE—An oral working with the cockpit crew who are ment false. CORRELATION—A basic level of CUT-AWAY—Model of an object that learning where the student can associ. apart to reveal the inner structure. include cabin crews. such as MANCE METHOD—An educa. CRM GOALS AND VALUES—A percep- is one way of addressing the challenge DISCRIMINATION—Is the degree tion factor that describes how a per- of optimizing the human/machine inter. as a set of courses in an area of spe. available resources. the phrase crew instruction in concrete terms that can FOLLOW-UP QUESTION—In the resource management has been adopt. explains the desired outcome of sonnel and others. on beliefs. GUIDED DISCUSSION METHOD EFFECT—A principle of learning —An educational presentation typi- CRITERION-REFERENCED that learning is strengthened when cally used in the classroom where the TESTING—System of testing where accompanied by a pleasant or satisfy. topic to be covered by a group is students are graded against a careful. but listeners. guided discussion method. persuade. sonnel. maintenance per. used to measure the accomplishment which are not used. in an open flight deck area or in deck environment. managed. DEFENSE MECHANISMS— Subconscious ego-protecting reac- tions to unpleasant situations. panels. or entertain with ate a flight safely. These groups include. ception factor that describes how a egy which organizes students into cialization offered by an educational person is unlikely to easily compre- small groups so that they can work institution. Motivation toward learn- activities. must make effective use of all answer. and information. update a pilot’s knowledge and skills. tional presentation where an instruc- tion. presentation where the purpose is to involved in decisions required to oper. unpleasant feeling. and applied with previous or are best remembered. This includes single pilots. controls of an aircraft. A force (motion) known as cockpit resource manage. as well as crews of larger air. or an academic degree. effort is focused on whatever is threatening them. directed at a specific individual. various pilot certificates and ratings.

It is a necessary guide for the ILLUSTRATED TALK—An oral environmental. INTERNET—An electronic network site may have additional locations Creating insight is one of the instruc. needs from the most basic to the most ing experience is likely to be remem- fulfilling. aids and training devices. will learn more than when they are on that person’s background and per- merely told about the real thing. They are supple. world. It incorporates the meth. portion of the brain that stores infor- INSTRUMENT PROFICIENCY mation which has been determined to CHECK—An evaluation ride based LACK OF COMMON EXPERI- be of sufficient value to be retained. summarizing ideas. list. again increasing. currency. Students experiencing the real thing that how a person learns is dependent fulfillment. a rational evaluation of alternative self-supporting. take these factors into account in a lesson. INSIGHT—The grouping of percep- LINK—On the Internet. actions in response to it. LEARNING STYLE—The concept through safety. area for discussion and get the discus. computer. which connects computers around the which can be accessed by merely tor’s major responsibilities. risk identification and assessment. tain choices and commands by the tional presentation usually delivered ods and principles of the behavioral user. MATCHING—A test item consist- INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUC.HEADWORK—Is required to erence to both the flight instruments sion started. underlin- that assist an instructor in the teach. and what proce- heavily on visual aids to convey ideas the instructor. accomplish a conscious. A typical system consists of a by an instructor to a group of stu- and social sciences. and a timely LONG-TERM MEMORY—The decision on which action to take. plinary field devoted to optimizing INTERACTIVE VIDEO— human performance and reducing Software that responds quickly to cer. the time the maneuver is first intro. The instructor must dure to use in teaching the material of to the listeners. or the learning performance. the same regardless of whether flight information processing. od. a particular tions into meaningful wholes. clicking on words identifying the new site. Good decision making involves duced. and compact disk. as well as the instructional HUMAN FACTORS—A multidisci. in presentation where the speaker relies factors outside the direct control of what order to do it. of recognizing and analyzing all perti- ing. Human factors involve something because a certain experi. mentary training devices and are not tion. (2) LESSON PLAN—An organized performance. a diffi- In order for it to be retained in long- standard which is required to regain culty which arises because words have term memory. or a button (picture or icon) ing-learning process. variables that influence individual ence overshadows it. social. Handling of the controls is as a result of experience. They are usually identified INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS—Devices JUDGMENT—The mental process by a different color type. Lectures applied science which studies people are useful for the presentation of new INTERFERENCE—(1) A theory of material. methods used. and video dents with the use of instructional physiology. LEAD-OFF QUESTION—In the ing of two lists where the student is TION—A technique of flight guided discussion method. significant period of time before once —A listing by Abraham Maslow of ing where a dramatic or exciting learn. The lists may include a combina- G-3 . These range from physical bered longer than a boring experience. and practice. rational and to outside visual references from thought process when making deci. LECTURE METHOD—An educa- human error. being used. a question asked to match alternatives on one list instruction where students are taught used by an instructor to open up an to related alternatives on the second to perform flight maneuvers by ref. engineering. as well as team or crew of similar things has intervened. ing phenomenon where progress appears to cease or slow down for a HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS INTENSITY—A principle of learn. and problem instruments or outside references are LEARNING PLATEAU—A learn- solving. LEARNING—A change in behavior sions. and psychological instructor in that it tells what to do. It may be described as the technology. it must have been instrument flying privileges when the different meanings for the source and processed or coded in the working privileges have expired due to lack of the receiver of information due to memory. sonality. their differing backgrounds. and working together in concert with forgetting where a person forgets showing relationships between theory machines. nent information in a particular situa- indicating access to a new site. Barriers to effective communication outline for a single instructional peri- that are caused by physiological. order to communicate effectively. on the instrument rating practical test ENCE—In communication. and ego to self.

The delivery could be answers or responses. Perceptions result when a Aeronautical decision making is ated with physical skill levels which G-4 . This portion also includes making cer- ware which can be displayed on a per. which consists of Motivation can be positive or nega. terms. to move between sites on the flight instruction. the tive. instructor both talks about and per- plished by means of links or connec. question may be used by an instructor of bad decisions grows. of an individual that are set at a very by either the lecture method or early age and are extremely resistant demonstration-performance method. and video. ment panel of an airplane. lesson or instructional period that cate or rating. person gives meaning to external intended to break the poor judge- phrases. this is where the Internet. forms the procedure. An overhead leads to another. which the measurement will be taken. Mock-ups may PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJEC. and (2) as a string remembered by the student. MULTIMEDIA—A combination of sonal computer to replicate the instru. POOR JUDGMENT CHAIN—A thing often creates a strong. Also used to determine the are ranked against the performance of was the cause of. (PCATD)—A device which uses soft. relation to the material that will be dent. When using the telling-and-doing tech- more than one instructional medium. PERSONAL COMPUTER-BASED determining the scope of the lesson. MOCK-UP—Three-dimensional are influenced by an individual’s working model used where the actu. The impor- OVERHEAD QUESTION—In the an accident or incident. multimedia implies a com. PRETEST—A test used to determine whether a student has the necessary NORM-REFERENCED TESTING PILOT ERROR—Means that an qualifications to begin a course of —System of testing where students action or decision made by the pilot study. it directed to the entire group in order to the creation of a poor judgement must be shown correctly since that stimulate thought and discussion chain are: (1) one bad decision often experience is the one most likely to be from the entire group. tor which led to an accident or inci. it reduces as the lead-off question. In the telling-and-doing technique of Internet. son’s ability to sense the world around them. almost series of mistakes that may lead to unshakable impression. it does not or take action. or sentences. subtle or AVIATION TRAINING DEVICES objectives. accomplished prior to the flight lesson.tion of words. stimuli or sensations. illustrations. graphics. grouping of levels of learning associ- learning. PHYSICAL ORGANISM—A per. AC 61-126. a set of conditions under practical tests and flight instructors larger than the original. control requirements specified in PRESENTATION—The second puter-based presentation. step of the teaching process. the teaching process. which MULTIPLE-CHOICE—A test item consists of delivering information or consisting of a question or statement PERSONALITY—The embodiment demonstrating the skills which make followed by a list of alternative of personal traits and characteristics up the lesson. level of knowledge a student has in other students. tangible or intangible. this step is This format can include audio. text. and the goals to be attained. standard used to measure accomplish- MOTIVATION—A need or desire ment of the objective. This definition also includes presented in the course. ily of airplanes and meet the virtual Recently. the number of subsequent alterna. a question principles generally associated with time something is demonstrated. PRIMACY—A principle of learning reflect the biases of the person grad- where the first experience of some- ing the test. ception factor that describes a per. experience and many other factors. Navigation is often accom. PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN—A PERCEPTIONS—The basis of all tives for continued safe flight. tain all necessary supplies are on hand. obvious. A PCATD nique of flight instruction. OBJECTIVITY—Describes single- failure of the pilot to make a decision ness of scoring of a test. smaller. tions between sites. PREPARATION—The first step of that causes a person to act. standards which must be met for the emphasize some elements while TIVES—A statement of purpose for a issuance of a particular pilot certifi- eliminating nonessential elements. FAA inspectors and includes three elements: a description designated pilot examiners use these MODEL—A copy of a real object of the skill or behavior desired of the standards when conducting pilot which can be life-size. Meanings ment chain before it can cause an which are derived from perceptions accident or incident. must replicate a type of airplane or fam. Two basic tance to an instructor is that the first guided discussion method. or contributing fac. animations. NAVIGATE—With respect to the to change. PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS al object is either unavailable or too (PTS)—An FAA published list of expensive to use. or student. should use the PTS while preparing and a set of criteria describing the applicants for practical tests.

the less will be of the decision making process ventional training. tions within the four fundamental risk takes in a message containing infor. tools. reacts with understanding. cussions. order to stimulate discussion. elements that affect safety before. tion. sions which are formed into sen- tion of the brain which receives input tences. The cor. remembered better than things that are the stick and rudder or airmanship were learned some time ago. perceptual skills used to control a of operation that comprise any given ing that things learned today are specific aircraft or its systems. tor evaluating the student’s perform- READINESS—A principle of learn. question asked to stimulate group SITUATIONAL AWARENESS— thought. the sender. reader. points at the end of a lecture in order judgment to reduce risks associated for students to better remember them. preconceived concept of what is sage that means something to the ing process. during. The RISK MANAGEMENT—The part abilities that are gained through con- longer time passes. lectures. within the FAA Flight Standards personal analysis of the kinds of stress ting where a person is more likely to District Office (FSDO) area of experienced while flying. which consists of a G-5 . Normally answered by the The accurate perception and under- RECEIVER—In communication. psychomotor. linked to other similar sites. and the type RECENCY—A principle of learn. the air- The procedural. They aviation situation. and incorrect responses are type questions are examples of selection- choices provided. words. and adaptation to and-doing technique of flight instruc. mechanism. repeated measurements. transmitter. simple oral and visual codes such as redirect the question to another stu.range from perception through set. Instructors use this prin. SELF-CONCEPT—A perception response to a student’s question. it is more commonly used standing of all the factors and condi- the listener. com. The individual’s ters to compose and transmit a mes- The fourth and last step in the teach. or instruc- RELAY QUESTION—Used in ROTE LEARNING—A basic level tor who composes and transmits a mes- response to a student’s question. and evalu- ates the Aviation Safety Program STRESS MANAGEMENT—The REPRESSION—Theory of forget. review of all material and an evalua. speaker. required procedure. In the telling. the environment. and good experience. statement. STEM—The part of a multiple- RELIABILITY—Is the degree to choice test item consisting of the which test results are consistent with SAFETY PROGRAM MANAGER question. tion of the students. blank type questions are examples of REVERSE QUESTION—Used in supply-type test items. tion of appropriate stress assessment ant or produces anxiety. matching. problem recognition. gestures. SOURCE—In communication. are perfected. and other coping mechanisms. which relies on situational aware. the instructor can they will receive further experiences. ing the information on to the rest of origination. from two or more alternatives provided. instructor. this step consists of the instruc. and facial expres- dent to provide the answer. type test items. and after the flight. Essay or fill-in-the- called distractors. and craft. tal risk elements: the pilot. —Designs. responsibility. SELECTION-TYPE TEST ITEMS RESPONSES—Possible answers to —Questions where the student chooses SUPPLY-TYPE TEST ITEMS— a multiple-choice test item. or chap- REVIEW AND EVALUATION— from the five senses. important will determine how much guided response. with no understanding or ability to apply what was learned. SENSORY REGISTER—That por. and RISK ELEMENTS IN ADM—Take changes behavior in accordance with into consideration the four fundamen- SKILLS AND PROCEDURES— the message. mation from a source. processes it. implements. and remembered. with each flight. ing affect the outcome of the learning RHETORICAL QUESTION—A experience. paragraphs. ance while the student performs the SITES—Internet addresses which ing where the eagerness and single. the brain for action. or problem. priority the register will give in pass- plex overt response. the applica- forget information which is unpleas. or student who in lecturing rather than in guided dis. the student’s query. Questions where the student supplies rect response is often called the keyed True-false. factor that ties together how people Rather than give a direct answer to feel about themselves with how well SYMBOLS—In communication. provide information and often are mindedness of a person toward learn. become almost automatic through ciple when summarizing the important ness. learned. the of learning where the student has the sage made up of symbols which are question is redirected to the group in ability to repeat back something meaningful to listeners and readers. and multiple-choice answers as opposed to selecting from response.

and indication of desired USABILITY—Refers to the func- TEACHING LECTURE—An oral outcome. building block progression of form of computer-based technology tor first telling the student about a new learning with provisions for regular that creates a sensory experience that procedure and then demonstrating it. This portion of the brain such as tailwheel aircraft. The syllabus barely distinguish a virtual experi- and the instructor doing. Last.receiver of the information. fication scheme for sorting learning outcomes into three broad categories TRAINING COURSE OUTLINE— UNDERSTANDING—A basic level (cognitive. least complex to most complex. with previous events. and aircraft capable of flying at high altitudes. the instructor to accomplish during the unit of train. test measures what it is supposed to tional message to students. TIME AND OPPORTUNITY—A cedures. Some stu. sounds. descriptions of something. that receives information from the sen- types of aircraft not previously flown or exercise that measures a single sory register. or maneuvers within an area of perception factor where learning TRUE-FALSE TEST ITEMS— operation in a practical test standard. program that provides access to sites or exercises for determining whether on the World Wide Web (WWW). the defines the unit of training. while doing it. it must be coded in some way for trans- mittal to long-term memory. definition of evalua- tion criteria. affective. a person has a particular knowledge TRANSITION TRAINING—An or skill. TRAINING MEDIA—Any physical VALIDITY—Is the extent to which a dent participation is allowed. and dictates the evalua- tion process for either the unit or WEB BROWSER—Any software TEST—A set of questions. of teaching aids. VR uses graph- student explains the new procedure objective what the student is expected ics with animation systems. VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)—A instruction that consists of the instruc. something is dependent on the stu. stages of learning. TASKS—Knowledge areas. problem. shows an organized plan for versions of real life experience. describes the of learning where a student compre- tor) and ranking the desired outcomes content of a particular course by hends or grasps the nature or meaning in a developmental hierarchy from statement of objectives. review and evaluations at prescribed allows a participant to believe and This is followed by the student telling stages of learning. means that communicates an instruc. tionality of tests. formance aircraft. Consist of a statement followed by dent having the time to sense and an opportunity for the student to TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL relate current experiences in context determine whether the statement is OBJECTIVES—A systematic classi. Third. presentation that is directed toward desired learning outcomes. WORKING OR SHORT-TERM instructional program designed to MEMORY—The portion of the brain familiarize and qualify a pilot to fly TEST ITEM—A question. high per- objective and calls for a single can store information in memory for only a short period of time. measure. flight pro. and images to reproduce electronic evaluates while the student performs ing. and psychomo. instruction. problems. by-step. true or false. response. the procedure. Within a curriculum. If the infor- mation is determined by an individual to be important enough to remember. G-6 . TELLING-AND-DOING TECH- NIQUE—A technique of flight TRAINING SYLLABUS—A step. states by ence from a real one.

9-10 compensation. 9-16 CHALK OR MARKER BOARDS. 2-4 risk elements. 6-2 HUMAN BEHAVIOR. 5-11 COMMUNICATION SKILL DEVELOPMENT. 11-2 receiver. 7-7 advantages. 9-13 rationalization. 2-3 origins of ADM. 9-15 E AIRPLANE CHECKOUTS/TRANSITIONS. 7-5 syllabi. 7-7 GOLD SEAL FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATE. 9-9 resignation. 8-11 ADVISORY CIRCULAR CHECKLIST (AC 00-2). 8-4 BLOCKS OF LEARNING. 8-4 source. 10-2 presolo training. 2-3 hazardous attitudes. 8-6 FACTORS AFFECTING DECISION MAKING. 7-8 GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE (GPO). 6-1 HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS. 11-1 computer-based training. 11-3 virtual reality. 3-5 G instructional communication. 6-3 purpose. 8-13. 8-9 ANALYZING THE STUDENT. 11-2 disadvantages. 6-1 CUT-AWAYS. 9-15 workload management. 9-11 aggression. 9-13 projection. 3-5 FORGETTING. 1-16 CRITIQUE. 1-15 role playing. 6-4. 3-1 FLIGHT REVIEWS. 7-5 maneuvers guides and handbooks. 10-2 FAA FORM 8710-1. 9-8 I-1 . 11-2 COURSE OF TRAINING. 9-13 flight. 2-3 operational pitfalls. 3-2 FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES. 7-5 AVIATION SAFETY PROGRAM. 11-2 EMPHASIZING THE POSITIVE. 7-9 ACCIDENT PREVENTION. 9-13 C situational awareness. 9-12 DISTRACTIONS. 10-2 F BUILDING BLOCK CONCEPT. 5-11 COMPUTER-BASED MULTIMEDIA. 6-7 HABIT FORMATION. 8-3 AVIATION SAFETY COUNSELORS. 2-3 factors affecting decision making. 7-10 COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING (CBT). 11-1 ENHANCED TRAINING MATERIALS. 10-1 CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM). 9-8 stressors. INDEX A methods. 3-1 FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINIC (FIRC). 8-6 symbols. 1-16. 3-3 sample endorsements. 2-2 characteristics. 9-18 denial of reality. Appendix B. 5-10 CONTINUING EDUCATION. 2-1 ground rules. 7-3 FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENTS. 9-13 pilot self-assessment. 9-8 D ADM definitions. 3-2 FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICE (FTD). B-1 COMMUNICATION—BASIC ELEMENTS. 2-3 DECIDE Model. 3-5 COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION. 2-4 decision-making process. 9-17 use of resources. 2-3 evaluating student decision making. 9-9 H CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTING. 7-8 CD. 7-5 B EVALUATION. 8-6 COMMUNICATION BARRIERS. 6-4 HUMAN FACTORS. 9-10 DEFENSE MECHANISMS. 8-2 AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN AWARDS PROGRAM. 9-17 reaction formation. 11-3 AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING (ADM). 2-3 I’M SAFE Checklist.

7-9 K MOTIVATION. 5-5 teaching lecture. 2-3 behaviorism. 1-5 ORAL QUIZZES. 6-7 learning styles. 1-5 ego. 1-2 how people learn. 9-6 LEARNING PRINCIPLES. 1-10 O affective. 2-2 readiness. 2-2 recency. 9-6 correlation. A-1 L LANGUAGE. 1-1 NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE characteristics. 9-3 student. 1-3 physical skills. 1-10 INSTRUCTION. 1-10 cognitive. 9-5 LEARNING PLATEAU. 6-10 sample test items. 9-5 exercise. 7-3 purpose. 7-1 objectives. 1-16 LEARNING DOMAINS. 5-5 formal versus informal. 9-6 rote. Appendix A. 1-5 ORAL AND PRACTICAL. 1-11 transfer. 7-9 MODELS. 8-12 N LEARNING. 1-13 JUDGMENT. 1-9 illness. 10-5 INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS. 3-6 INSTRUMENT PROFICIENCY CHECKS. 9-10 MOCK-UPS. 1-1 combined approach. 1-8 negative. 1-2 LECTURE. 5-3 I advantages and disadvantages. 1-5 unfair treatment. 1-5 worry or lack of interest. 1-5 physical. 1-10 OBSTACLES TO LEARNING DURING FLIGHT psychomotor. 1-5 NORM-REFERENCED TESTING. 8-2 intensity. 1-9 anxiety. 10-7 reasons to use. 9-5 effect. 1-1 social. 7-2 formats. 8-4 LISTENING. 1-9 apathy due to inadequate instruction. 6-13 MULTIPLE-CHOICE TEST ITEM. 10-1 types. 9-4 procedures. 8-9 instructor. 1-2 (NTIS). 1-5 safety. 11-4 M MATCHING TEST ITEM. 10-5 INSTRUCTIONAL ENHANCEMENT. 3-7 standards. 10-6 theory. 6-4 I-2 . 3-6 INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION. 10-1 INSTRUCTOR AS A CRITIC. 9-7 application. 1-8 KNOWLEDGE TESTS. 2-2 cognitive. 1-1 self-fulfillment. 11-2 LESSON PLANS. 1-14 sensory register. 9-4 INTERNET. 9-6 understanding. 6-12 J MEMORY. 1-8 positive. 1-13 short-term.HUMAN NEEDS. 2-2 LEARNING THEORY. 10-6 guidelines for use. 1-9 INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES. 1-12 physical discomfort. 5-3 INSIGHT. 2-6 INSPECTION AUTHORIZATION (IA) SEMINARS. 1-9 fatigue. 11-4 definitions. 1-7 LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR. 9-5 precautions. 6-1 LEVELS OF LEARNING. 3-7 flight instructor qualifications. 7-1 characteristics. 7-2 how to use. 1-13 long-term. 1-9 impatience. 9-5 LEARNING LEVELS. 2-2 primacy.

4-2. 8-5 norm-referenced testing.ORGANIZING MATERIAL. 10-1 TEST DEVELOPMENT. 8-2 TRAINING AND ENDORSEMENTS. 8-10 format. 7-6 interactive. 7-9 PRESOLO KNOWLEDGE TEST. 5-3 SOURCES OF MATERIAL. 11-3 development. 2-4 normal reactions to stress. 9-2 PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITY. 4-1 application. 9-1 PILOT PROFICIENCY. 7-6 R RETENTION. 9-1 PERSONAL COMPUTER-BASED AVIATION TRAINING TELLING-AND-DOING TECHNIQUE. 5-1 basic needs. 8-2 TEST PREPARATION MATERIAL. 6-7 PRACTICAL TEST STANDARD (PTS). 5-3 time and opportunity. 6-14 TECHNIQUES OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTION. 6-14. 8-11 TRAINING SYLLABUS. 4-1 conditions. 7-5 STUDENT MOTIVATION. 5-2 STUDENT FRUSTRATIONS—MINIMIZING. 2-5 TRUE-FALSE TEST ITEM. 1-6 guided discussion method. 8-11 WRITTEN TEST ITEMS. 8-5 student tells—student does. 10-8 supply type. 6-9 SAMPLE LESSON PLANS. 9-3 PILOT PROFICIENCY AWARD PROGRAM. 5-7 self-concept. 8-12 P T PERCEPTIONS. 6-9 SAFETY PROGRAM MANAGER (SPM). 10-1. 8-12 conclusion. 6-9 anxiety. 10-3 PROFESSIONALISM. 8-9 student does—instructor evaluates. 1-6 TAXONOMY. 8-11 TRAINING COURSE OUTLINE. 3-7. 6-7 POSITIVE EXCHANGE OF FLIGHT CONTROLS. 2-5 Q V QUESTIONING. 4-4 PERFORMANCE TEST. 1-6 demonstration-performance method. 8-12 OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES. 8-3 introduction. 7-7 passive. 6-5 VIDEO. 9-7 criterion-referenced testing. 10-4 abnormal reactions to stress. 11-1 selection type. 5-10 physical organism. 1-15 W S WRITTEN TEST. 4-2 preparation. 4-2 review and evaluation. 1-6 cooperative or group learning method. 11-2 student tells—instructor does. 4-2 presentation. 6-6 SAFETY PRACTICES. 6-9 I-3 . 6-7 PRACTICAL TEST RECOMMENDATIONS. 11-1 content. 9-1 DEVICE (PCATD). 10-1 PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOR. 4-1 PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJECTIVES. 1-10 PERCEPTION FACTORS. 4-3 description of the skill or behavior. 1-7 computer-based training method. 6-13 PRETEST. 10-3 PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS. 8-6 PROFESSIONAL APPEARANCE. 10-3 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. 5-11 instructor tells—instructor does. 5-10 goals and values. 2-4 how to use. 9-2 PILOT SUPERVISION. 4-3 criteria. 1-6 TEACHING METHODS. 8-9. 5-2 STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE. 1-7 TEACHING PROCESS. 6-13 TEST WRITING. 5-1 SELF-IMPROVEMENT. 5-6 element of threat. 1-6 lecture method.

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