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Land use/Vegetation cover Mapping of Rajmahal
Coalfield based on Satellite data of the year 2014

Submitted to
Eastern Coalfields Limited


Land use/Vegetation cover Mapping of
Rajmahal Coalfield based on
Satellite data of the year 2014


Remote Sensing Cell
Geomatics Division
CMPDI, Ranchi

Job No. 561410027 (ECL) [ Page i of iv]


Document Control Sheet

(1) Job No. 561410027

(2) Publication Date October 2014

(3) Number of Pages 33

(4) Number of Figures 7

(5) Number of Tables 11

(6) Number of Plates 2

(7) Title of Report Land use / Vegetation cover mapping of Rajmahal
Coalfield based on satellite data of the year 2014.
(8) Aim of the Report To prepare Land use / Vegetation cover map of
Rajmahal Coalfield on 1:50000 scale for assessing
the impact of coal mining on land and environment.
(9) Executing Unit Remote Sensing Cell,
Geomatics Division
Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited,
Gondwana Place, Kanke Road, Ranchi 834008

(10) User Agency Eastern Coalfields Ltd .

(11) Authors Hariharalal B, Manager(System)

N.P.Singh, GM(Remote Sensing)

(12) Security Restriction Restricted Circulation

(13) No. of Copies 5

(14) Distribution Statement Official


Job No. 561410027 (ECL) [ Page ii of iv]

3.6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 32-33 4.0 Remote Sensing Concept & Methodology 4 .3 Training set selection 2.3 Agricultural Land 3.4 Wasteland 3.2 Recommendations Job No.1 Geometric Correction.0 Land use / Vegetation Cover Mapping 18.7 Final land use/vegetation cover map preparation 3.3. rectification & geo-referencing 2.6.1 Remote Sensing 2.6 Water Bodies 4.6.4 Data Source 2.6 Data Processing 2. Document Control Sheet ii List of Figures iv List of Tables iv List of Plates iv 1.31 3.3 Scanning System 2.5 Reserve Forest 2.2 Land use / Cover Classification 3.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum 2.1 Vegetation Cover 3.6.5 Settlements 3.5 Creation / Overlay of vector database in GIS 2.0 Introduction 1-3 1.2 Objectives 1. CMPDI Contents Page No.3 Data Analysis 3.17 2.3.2 Image enhancement 2.1 Conclusion 4.4 Drainage 1.6 Validation of classified image Project Reference 1.6.1 Introduction 3.4 Signature generation & classification 2. 561410027 (ECL) [ Page iii of iv] .3 Location and Accessibility 1.5 Characteristics of Satellite/Sensor 2.3.2 Mining Area 3.6.3.

2. Plate No.3 Expanded diagram of the visible and infrared regions (upper) and microwave regions (lower) showing atmospheric windows. 3. 1 Landsat 8 FCC of Rajmahal Coalfield 2.6 Change of Agriculture Land in Rajmahal Coalfield during 2011 & 2014 3.4 Change of Vegatation in Rajmahal Coalfield during 2011 & 2014 3. Job No.5 Change in Mining area in Rajmahal Coalfield during 2011 & 2014 3.000 are given below: 1. 2.1 Vegetation cover / Landuse classes identified in Rajmahal Coalfield.2 Change of Land use / Cover Patten in Rajmahal Coalfield during 2011 & 2014 3. 2. List of Tables 2. 2.7 Change of Waste Land in Rajmahal Coalfield during 2011 & 2014 3.5 Geoid-Ellipsoid -Projection Relationship.2 Characteristics of the satellite/sensor used in the present project work.1 Location Map of Rajmahal Coalfield.3 Change of Settlements in Rajmahal Coalfield during 2011 & 2014 3.1 Comparison of Land Use / Vegetation Cover in 2011 & 2014. 2. 3. 2 Landuse / Cover Map Rajmahal Coalfield based on Landsat 8 data. Plate No. CMPDI List of Figures 1.1 Remote Sensing Radiation system 2. 561410027 (ECL) [ Page iv of iv] . 3. 2.4 Methodology for Land use / Cover mapping.8 Distribution of Landuse / Cover Patten in 11 coal blocks of Rajmahal Coalfield in 2014 List of Plates List of maps/plates prepared on a scale of 1:50.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum.1 Electromagnetic spectral regions.3 Classification Accuracy Matrix.

to assess the impact of coal mining and other industrial activities on land use and vegetation cover in the coalfield area.2012 for continuing the work till 2016-17. work order no. 12. vegetation cover. CIL/WBP/Env/2009/2428 dated 29. drainage.3 Location & Accessibility Rajmahal Coalfield.12. Km. The first report was submitted to CIL in the month of March 2012. CMPDI Chapter 1 Introduction 1. mining area. 1. The or- der was renewed by CIL vide letter no. It is bounded by Latitude of 240 43’ 08” to 250 15’ 30” and Job No. land use/vegetation cover mapping of Rajmahal Coalfield based on satellite data was taken up in 2011 to create the geo-environmental data base of the coalfield using Remote Sensing techniques & GIS.10. 1. infrastructure etc. CIL/WBP/ENV/2011/4706 dt. covering an area of about 610 sq.2009 was issued by CIL to CMPDI for the work. and compare the same with the data base prepared in 2011 in respect of land use. 561410027 (ECL) [ Page 1 of 33] . for creating the geo- environmental data base of all the 28 major coalfields to assess the impact of coal mining and associated industrialization activities on land use and vegetation cover at regular intervals of three years. lies in the Godda district of Jharkhand.2 Objectives The objective of the present study is to prepare the land use and vegetation cover report of Rajmahal coalfield based on satellite data of the year 2014.1 Project Reference A road map was submitted by CMPDI to Coal India Ltd. Subsequently. In pursuant to the above work order.

72 O/8. 1. Khelari RF in the southern side and Garial RF in the south western side. The northern part is rich in surface water bodies.5 Reserved Forests The reserved forests in the Rajmahal Coalfield are Gandeshwari (Kesgaria) RF in the central region.Sahibganj districts. 1. Asansol in the south is connected via rail with Pirpainti on the main line of Bhagalpur . The coalfield area is covered under Survey of India topo-sheet no. The southern part of the area is drained by Gumani river and its tributaries flowing along the southern boundary of the coalfield.Asansol section of Eastern Railways passing north of the coalfield. mainly ponds.4 Drainage The area has almost flat to gently undulating topography with fertile land in the northern half and mostly forest land in the southern half. The general slope of the area is towards south east in the southern part. CMPDI Longitudes of 870 18’ 30” to 870 31’ 05” and located in the eastern part of India. 561410027 (ECL) [ Page 2 of 33] . Rajmahal coalfield is well connected by rail and road ways. Mahagama is the central town in the coalfield which is connected with Godda (25 Km) in the south west and Kehalgaon (30Km) towards north-west and Pirpainti (35) in the north. Job No. and 72 P/5 on RF 1:50000. The river Ganga flows north to east of the coalfield area through the Bhagalpur . This coalfield holds a premier position in India for having a considerable share of reserve of thermal grades of non-coking coal for catering to the demand of coal in the eastern part of country.

CMPDI Fig. 1. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 3 of 33] .1 : Location Map of Rajmahal Coalfield in Jharkhand’s Godda district Job No.

which is reflected. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 4 of 33] . All physical objects on the earth surface continuously emit electromagnetic radiation because of the oscillations of their atomic particles.1 Remote Sensing Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object or area through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in physical contact with the object or area under investigation. Remote sensing is largely concerned with the measurement of electro-magnetic energy from the SUN. The term remote sensing is commonly restricted to methods that employ electro-magnetic energy (such as light. scattered or emitted by the objects on the surface of the Job No. heat and radio waves) as the means of detecting and measuring object characteristics. CMPDI Chapter 2 Remote Sensing Concepts and Methodology 2.

1 schematically illustrate the generalised processes involved in electromagnetic remote sensing of the earth resources.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the continuum of energy that ranges from meters to nanometres in wavelength and travels at the speed of light. Figure 2. which is divided on the basis of wavelength into different regions that are described in Table 2. and is called the reflected energy peak (Figure 2. Energy reflected from the objects on the surface of the earth is recorded as a function of wavelength. CMPDI earth. the maximum amount of energy is reflected at 0. The visible region (0.1.7µm wavelengths) occupies only a small portion of the entire EM spectrum.2). The EM spectrum ranges from the very short wavelengths of the gamma-ray region to the long wavelengths of the radio region. Different objects on the earth surface reflect different amounts of energy in various wavelengths of the EM spectrum. 2.5µm wavelengths. which corresponds to the green band of the visible region.2 shows the electromagnetic spectrum. The earth also Job No. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 5 of 33] .4-0. Figure 2. During daytime.

561410027(ECL) [ Page 6 of 33] .2). CMPDI radiates energy both day and night. with the maximum energy 9.7µm wavelength. This radiant energy peak occurs in the thermal band of the IR region (Figure 2. Job No.

03 to 3.70 µm Imaged with film and photo detectors.3mm are completely absorbed by Ozone in the upper atmosphere. X-ray and most of the ultraviolet (UV) region.00 cm Longer wavelengths can penetrate clouds. Wavelength regions with high transmission are called atmospheric windows and are used to acquire remote sensing data.10 to 30.9mm is detectable with film and is called the photographic IR band.70 to 3.00 µm Interaction with matter varies with wavelength.30 to 0. Radio > 30.00 nm Completely absorbed by atmosphere. fog and rain. Detectable with band film and photo detectors.00 cm Longest wavelength portion of electromagnetic spectrum.5mm. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 7 of 33] . Microwave 0. The band from 0.7-0.03 nm Incoming radiation is completely absorbed by the upper atmosphere and is not available for remote sensing. Images at these wavelengths are acquired by optical-mechanical scanners and special videocon systems but not by film. Thermal IR band 3. but atmospheric scattering is severe. Ultraviolet 0. Visible 0. Radar images are acquired at various wavelength bands. these regions are not used for remote sensing.10 to 30.40 to 0.1 Electromagnetic spectral regions Region Wavelength Remarks Gamma ray < 0. Includes reflected energy peak of earth at 0.00 µm Principal atmospheric windows in the thermal 8. Some classified radars with very long wavelength operate in this region. CMPDI Table 2.70 to 100. The horizontal axes show wavelength on a logarithmic scale. Absorption bands separate atmospheric transmission windows.00 cm Active form of microwave remote sensing. X-ray 0.00 µm region.00 to 14. The earth's atmosphere absorbs energy in the gamma-ray. Details of these regions are shown in Figure 2.03 to 0. Infrared 0. Job No.40 µm Transmitted through atmosphere.3. Not employed in remote sensing.00 µm Reflected solar radiation that contains no information about thermal properties of materials. Detection and measurement of the recorded energy enables identification of surface ob- jects (by their characteristic wavelength patterns or spectral signatures). therefore. Reflected IR band 0.00 to 5. the vertical axes show percent atmospheric transmission of EM energy. Radar 0.40 µm Incoming wavelengths less than 0. Images may be acquired in the active or passive mode. both from air-borne and space-borne platforms. Photographic UV 0.

3 Scanning System The sensing device in a remotely placed platform (aircraft/satellite) records EM radiation using a scanning system. CMPDI 2. is determined on a x-y co-ordinate system. The information received by the sensor is suitably manipulated and transported back to the ground receiving station. The range of digital numbers in an image data is controlled by the radiometric resolution of the satellite’s sensor system. surface and subsurface water. speedy and cost-effective method for natural re- source management due to its inherited capabilities of being multispectral. Sensors (or detectors) are positioned to record specific wavelength bands of energy. Each pixel has a numeric value. a sensor. The position of any picture element. The sensor receives electromagnetic energy radiated or reflected from the terrain and converts them into signal that is recorded as numerical data. Generation of environmental 'Data Base' on land use. In scanning system. it is possible to detect.. with a narrow field of view is employed. In a remote sensing satellite. By analysing the digital data/imagery. called digital number (DN) that records the intensity of electromagnetic energy measured for the ground resolution cell represented by that pixel. and their monitoring in Job No. forest. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 8 of 33] . with each array recording simultaneously a separate band of EM energy. etc. The digital image data are further processed to produce master images of the study area. topography and terrain characteristics. The data are reconstructed on ground into digital images. this sweeps across the terrain to produce an image. pixel. settlement and transport network. repeti- tive and synoptic areal coverage. The digital image data on magnetic/optical media consist of picture elements arranged in regular rows and columns. multiple arrays of linear sensors are used. soil. Remote sensing technique (airborne/satellite) in conjunction with traditional tech- niques harbours in an efficient. identify and classify various objects and phenomenon on the earth surface. digitally/visually. The array of sensors employs a spectrometer to disperse the incoming energy into a spectrum.

e.  Secondary Data Secondary (ancillary) and ground data constitute important baseline information in remote sensing. Survey of India topo sheet no. Job No. (d) spatial resolution/instantaneous field of view or IFOV. 2. OLI sensor of Landsat 8 of January 2014 having 30 m. band locations/width. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 9 of 33] .time is very useful for environmental management planning. For Rajmahal Coalfield.. Table 2.5 Characteristics of Satellite/Sensor The basic properties of a satellite’s sensor system can be summarised as: (a) Spectral coverage/resolution. 72 O/8 and 72 P/5 as well as map showing details of location of area boundary. spatial resolution was used in the present study. (b) spectral dimensionality: number of bands. 2. and (e) temporal resolution. as they improve the interpretation accuracy and reliability of remotely sensed data by enabling verification of the interpreted details and by supplementing it with the information that cannot be obtained directly from the remotely sensed data. CMPDI near real . i. this is possible only with remote sensing data.4 Data Source The following data are used in the present study:  Primary Data Remote Sensing Satellite data viz. block boundary and road supplied by ECL were used in the study.2 illustrates the basic properties of Landsat 8 satellite/sensor that was used in the present study. (c) radiometric resolution: quantisation.

0. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 10 of 33] .60 Green 30 m Landsat B4 0.88 NIR 30 m 16 days USA 8 30 m NIR: Near Infra-Red OLI: Operational Land Imager 2. (g) Final thematic map preparation. rectification and geo-referencing.4.2 Characteristics of the satellite/sensor used in the present project work Radiometric Spatial Temporal Platform Sensor Spectral Bands in µm Country Resolution Resolution Resolution B3 0. (b) Image enhancement.84 .0. (d) Signature generation and classification.52 . Job No.6 Data Processing The details of data processing carried out in the present study are shown in Figure 2. (e) Creation/overlay of vector database.63 .68 Red 16-bit 30 m OLI B5 0. (f) Validation of classified image. The processing methodology involves the following major steps: (a) Geometric correction.0. CMPDI Table 2. (c) Training set selection.

Creation of Vector Database metric correction. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 11 of 33] . Coal block boundary) referencing Image Enhancement Geo-coded FCC Generation Training set Identification Signature Generation Pre-Field Training Set Classification Refinement Validation through Fail Ground Verification Integration of Thematic Information on GIS Final Land Use/ Pass Cover Map Report Preparation Fig-2. (Drainage.4 –Methodology of Land Use/Vegetation Cover Analysis Job No.000) Pre-processing. CMPDI Basic Data Data Source Secondary Data IRS – P6 (LISSIII) Topographical Maps (Scale 1:50. Road Network. fication & geo. geo. recti.

Raw digital images contain geometric distortions. so that any measurements made on the map will be accurate with those made on the ground. While scale is the ratio between reduced depiction of geographical features on a map and the geographical features in the real world. slightly flattened at the poles and bulging at the Equator. which make them unusable as maps. Any map has two basic characteristics: (a) scale and (b) projection. some residual errors in respect of attitude attributes still remains even after correction. projection is the method of transforming map information from a sphere (round Earth) to a flat (map) sheet. Earth however is an irregular sphere.1 Geometric correction.6. rectification and geo-referencing Inaccuracies in digital imagery may occur due to ‘systematic errors’ attributed to earth curvature and rotation as well as ‘non-systematic errors’ attributed to intermittent sensor malfunctions. An understanding of the basics of projection system is required before selecting any transformation model. Map projections are systemic methods for “flattening the orange peel” in measurable Job No. In the present study georeferencing was done with the help of Survey of India (SoI) topo-sheets so that information from various sources can be compared and integrated on a GIS platform. if required. While maps are flat surfaces. Therefore. fine tuning is required for correcting the image geometrically using ground control points (GCP). A map is defined as a flat representation of part of the earth’s spheroidal surface that should conform to an internationally accepted type of cartographic projection. In spite of ‘System / Bulk correction’ carried out at supplier end. it is essential to transform the digital image data from a generic co-ordinate system (i. CMPDI 2. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 12 of 33] . etc.e. Therefore. from line and pixel co-ordinates) to a projected co-ordinate system. Systematic errors are corrected at the satellite receiving station itself while non-systematic errors/ random errors are corrected in pre-processing stage.

Figure 2. the ellipsoid. The geoid is the rendition of the irregular spheroidal shape of the Earth. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 13 of 33] . UTM projection is being used worldwide and is best suited for mapping larger areas as well as for areas with North-Up orientation. here the variations in gravity are taken into account. CMPDI ways. areas and shapes are true along central meridian. even though it is neither conformal perspective nor equal area. Distortion may occur away from central meridian.5 : Geoid – Ellipsoid – Projection Relationship In the present study.5 illustrates the relationship between these three factors. UTM projection along with WGS 84 datum model was used so as to prepare the map compatible with the satellite data. Image transformation from generic co- Job No. When transferring the Earth and its irregularities onto the plane surface of a map. Fig 2.5. the geographical relationships of the ellipsoid (in 3-D form) are transformed into the 2-D plane of a map by a transformation process called map projection. The observation made on the geoid is then transferred to a regular geometric reference surface. the vast majority of projections are based upon cones. cylinders and planes. Finally. Maps prepared using these projections are globally acceptable. Distances. the following three factors are involved: (a) geoid (b) ellipsoid and (c) projection. As shown in Figure 2.

pattern. Based on the variability of land use/cover condition and terrain characteristics and accessibility. 1. Based on the image- elements and other geo-technical elements like land form. Field survey was carried out by taking selective traverses in order to collect the ground information (or reference data) so that training sets are selected accurately in the image.2 Image enhancement To improve the interpretability of the raw data.0 software. Contrast manipulations/ stretching technique based on local operation was applied on the image data using IMAGINE s/w. This was intended to serve as an aid for classification.6. Most of the digital image enhancement techniques are categorised as either point or local operations. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 14 of 33] . CMPDI ordinate system to a projected co-ordinate system was carried out using Arc GIS 9. These keys are evolved from certain fundamental image-elements such as tone/colour. 2.6. The enhanced and FCC image of Rajmahal Coalfield is shown in Plate No. size. drainage pattern and physiography. image enhancement is necessary. location. association and shadow. 100 points were selected to generate the training sets. training sets were selected/identified for each land use/cover class. texture. shape. Point operations modify the value of each pixel in the image data independently. local operations modify the value of each pixel based on brightness value of neighbouring pixels. Job No.3 Training set selection The image data were analysed based on the interpretation keys. 2. However.

e. 2. 2.6. CMPDI 2. 2.4 Signature generation and classification Image classification was carried out using the maximum likelihood algorithm.6. The classified image for the year 2014 for Rajmahal Coalfield is shown in Plate No. variance.5 Creation/overlay of vector database Plan showing coal block boundary is superimposed on the image as vector layer in the Arc GIS database. Based on the validation.6. The classification accuracy matrix is shown in Table 2. signature generation] for the identified training areas. Geo-environmental data base created on GIS platform to analyse the impact of mining on landuse and vegetation cover at interval of three years. Road and drainage network are also digitised on Arc GIS database and superimposed on the classified image. The classification proceeds through the following steps: (a) calculation of statistics [i. The aerial extent of each land use class in the coalfield was determined using ERDAS IMAGINE s/w. classification accuracy matrix was prepared. Job No. and (b) the decision boundary of maximum probability based on the mean vector. After evaluating the statistical parameters of the training sets. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 15 of 33] . The overall accuracy of the classification was finally assessed with reference to ground truth data. reliability test of training sets was conducted by measuring the statistical separation between the classes that resulted from computing divergence matrix. covariance and correlation matrix of the pixels.3.6 Validation of classified image Ground truth survey was carried out for validation of the interpreted results from the study area.

pdf format is also attached.0% to 90. . Due to inconvenient size.000 scale.6. the classification accuracy varies from 80. Job No.7 Final land use/vegetation cover map preparation Final land use/vegetation cover map (Plate . A soft copy in . CMPDI Classification accuracy in case of quarry area and water bodies were 100%.000 scale using HP Design jet 4500 Colour plotter and the same is enclosed in the report. Classification accuracy for scrubs was 80. Classification accuracy in case of Dense Forest lie between 90% to 100%. 2.2) was generated on 1:50. built-up land. The overall classification accuracy is 88%. map was printed on 1:55.0%. In case of open forest.00% due to poor signature separability index. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 16 of 33] .

0 90. Classes Total Land use classes as observed in the field Class No.0 10. Satellite Data Points C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 1 Urban Settlement C1 05 5 2 Dense Forest C2 10 8 1 1 3 Open Forest C3 10 1 8 1 4 Scrubs C4 10 1 1 7 1 5 Social Forestry C5 10 1 8 1 6 Agriculture Land C6 10 1 9 7 Waste Upland C7 10 9 1 1 8 Sand Body C8 10 1 9 9 Quarry Area C9 10 9 10 Water Bodies C10 10 10 Total no.0 20. CMPDI Table 2.0 % of Classification Accuracy 100.0 Overall Accuracy (%) 88 Job No.0 0.0 0.0 90.0 10. in the Obsrv.0 80. 561410027(ECL) [Page 17 of 33] .0 20.0 30. of observation points 110 05 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 % of commission 00.0 10.0 80.0 70.0 20.3 : Classification Accuracy Matrix for Rajmahal Coalfield Sl.0 90.0 90.0 100.0 10.0 20.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 10.0 % of omission 00.0 30.

rate and pattern of change of each category is of paramount importance for assessing the impact of coal mining on land use/ vegetation cover.1 Introduction Land is one of the most important natural resource on which all human activities are based. Remote sensing data with its various spectral and spatial resolution offers comprehensive and accurate information for mapping and monitoring of land use/cover pattern. spatial distribution. aerial extent. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 18 of 33 ] . By analysing the data of different cut-off dates. In mining industry. 3. Further.2 Land Use/Cover Classification The array of information available on land use/cover requires to be arranged or grouped under a suitable framework in order to facilitate the creation of a land use/cover database. dynamics of changing pattern and trends over a period of time. knowledge on different type of lands as well as its spatial distribution in the form of map and statistical data is vital for its geospatial planning and management for optimal use of the land resources. Therefore. location. it becomes essential to develop a standardised classification system that is not only Job No. CMPDI Chapter 3 Land Use/ Vegetation Cover Mapping 3. The information on land use/ cover inventory that includes type.. impact of coal mining on land use and vegetation cover can be determined. to accommodate the changing land use/cover pattern. the need for information on land use/ vegetation cover pattern has gained importance due to the all-round concern on environmental impact of mining.

3 Scrub 3.2 Sand body 5.1 Waste upland with/without scrubs 4 Wasteland 4.3 Water Filled Quarry 6 Water bodies 6.4 Plantation under Social Forestry 3.3 Industrial 2. Table 3.1 Dense Forest 3. The present framework of land use/cover classification has been primarily based on the ‘Manual of Nationwide Land Use/ Land Cover Mapping Using Satellite Imagery’ developed by National Remote Sensing Center.2 Open Forest 3 Forest/Vegetation Cover 3.1 Crop Land 2 Agricultural Land 2. Land use map was prepared on the basis of image interpretation carried out based on the satellite data for the year 2014 for Rajmahal coalfield and following land use/cover classes are identified (Table 3).2 Fallow Land 3. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 19 of 33 ] . CMPDI flexible in nomenclature and definition.1 River/Streams /Reservoir/Ponds Job No.1 Quarry Area 5. Hyderabad.1: Land use/cover classes identified in Rajmahal Coalfield Level -I Level -II 1.2 Barren OB Dump/ Backfill 5 Mining 5. but also capable of incorporating information obtained from the satellite data and other different sources.5 Plantation on OB Dumps/ Backfill 4.1 Urban 1.2 Rural 1 Built-Up Land 1.

HQ/REM/ 001: FCC (Landsat 8 OLI data of Rajmahal coalfield of the year 2014) with Coalfield boundary and other infrastructural details.Land use/Cover Map of Rajmahal Coalfield based on Landsat 8 OLI data. HQ/REM/ 002 .000 scale : 3. Distribution of various land use classes are shown in the Pie Charts (Fig.2.3 Land use/cover Analysis Satellite data of the year 2014 was processed using ERDAS IMAGINE 13. 4. Plate No. Plate No. kms. CMPDI Following maps are prepared on 1:50. The area of each land use/cover class for Rajmahal coalfield was calculated using ERDAS IMAGINE s/w and tabulated in Table 3. 2.0 image processing s/w in order to interpret the various land use/cover classes present in the study area of Rajmahal Coalfield covering 610 sq. 3.3. Job No. 2 : Drawing No.6). 1 : Drawing No. Rajmahal coalfield contains 11 coal blocks (identified till 2014) whose land use/cover classes are tabulated in Table 3. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 20 of 33 ] .

CMPDI Plate 1 : FCC of Rajmahal CF based on OLI Landsat 8 data of Year 2014 Job No. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 21 of 33 ] .

CMPDI Plate 2 : LU / LC Map of Rajmahal CF based on OLI Landsat 8 Data of Year 2014 Job No. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 22 of 33 ] .

32 Barren OB/ Due to more 1.09 0.96 317. CMPDI Table 3. Year 2011 Year 2014 Reason for Yr.89 6.84 5.72 0.t Land Use / Cover Clas.08 0.44 Open Forest 87.14 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.62 Crop Land 129.80 +0.89 0.12 23.00 0.06 Quarry 3.47 0.12 100.31 -1.53 1.04 Quarry activities Sub – Total 5. nallah.30 degradation Scrubs 80.11 River.34 44.2 Change of Land use/ cover pattern in Rajmahal Coalfield during the years 2011 to 2014 Change w.18 0.18 -2.17 -0.03 0.1 1.18 127.16 -1.04 0.88 0.18 dation & unused Sand Body 0.46 141.54 1.31 3.89 0.71 24.59 1.47 0.39 0.24 0.82 -1.02 0.97 0.96 0.64 269.92 -1.37 14.13 0.26 82.33 -do- Social forest- Vegetation 0.24 1.05 145.86 0.r.57 44.77 Waste land with / without 4. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 23 of 33 ] .00 0.20 0.27 -1.87 0.03 activity by ECL Plantation on 1.04 0.09 Due to increase Settlement 0.60 Agricultural Agri.10 Water filled Increased mining 0.12 100.08 pond etc.10 land Sub – Total 5.03 -0. land degra- Fallow Land 143.37 86.II Km2 % Km2 % Km2 % Rural 5.48 0.98 0.00 in settlement s Sub-Total 6.27 0.22 0.13 0.46 Land dation Sub – Total 272.88 0.97 0.81 5.00 6.89 13.34 0.93 0.62 20.04 Backfill Sub – Total 317.63 1.57 0.03 0.22 21.13 0.79 0.00 Job No.05 51.34 23.00 610.20 Dense Forest 146.03 0.97 0.87 5.98 Backfill backfilling & Mining Area +0.95 23.80 0.01 Scrubs Agri.92 13.03 Industrial 0.64 4.52 0.39 52.I Level . land degra- Waste Land +0. 2011 ses Area change Area Area Level .18 0.37 Due to forest -0.50 +0. TOTAL 610. Water Body 3.07 1.20 ry Cover Due to plantation Orchard 0.43 0.32 0.18 0.11 Urban 0.67 14.30 1.

89 2.38 250 231. Km 2011 82.92 100 50 6.79 1.57 234. CMPDI 272.39 3.3 6.93 5.75 6.3. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 24 of 33 ] .34 300 269.89 2014 80.43 5.31 4.1 0 Fig.1 Comparison of Land Use / Vegetation Cover in Rajmahal Coalfield in 2011 & 2014 Job No.71 200 150 Area in Sq.54 5.

86 0.20 3.1 1. Total area of settlements in Rajmahal CF have increased from 6.3.13 0. Leaf area index (LAI) is an alternative expression of the term vegetation cover which gives the area of leaves in m 2 corresponding to an area of one m2 of ground.3 STATUS OF CHANGE IN SETTLEMENT AREAS IN RAJMAHAL COALFIELD DURING YEAR 2011 & 2014 Change w.30 1.24 0. which are basically rural in nature (Refer Table 3.13 0.3.00 tlement s Sub-Total 6. urban and industrial classes based on availability of infrastructure facilities.03%) in 2014. CMPDI 3. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 25 of 33 ] .t Year 2011 Year 2014 Land Use / Cover Yr.1 km2 (2011) to 6.14 0.18 0.00 6.03 0.2 Vegetation cover Analysis Vegetation cover is an association of trees and other vegetation type capable of producing timber and other forest produce.03 Industrial 0.30 km2 (1.2). This increase is mainly due to increased urbanisation and settlements around small town in the mining activity areas. TABLE – 3. It is also defined as the percentage of soil which is covered by green vegetation.84 5.11 Urban 0.r.79 0.03 0.88 0. 2011 Reason for change Classes Area Area Area Settlements Km2 % Km2 % Km2 % Rural 5.1 Settlement/ Built-up land All the man-made constructions covering the land surface are included under this category.03 0.18 0. Built-up land has been divided in to rural.09 Due to increase in set- 0. Job No.

71 24.59 1.82%).08 0.39 52.02 0.37 86.00 0.13 0.09% of the total area on account of conversion to scrubs due to deforestation. In year 2014 the estimated area under dense forest has reduced to 145.80 0.24 1. i.52 0.20 Cover Due to plantation Orchard 0.97 0.13 0.05%).37 sq km. Year 2011 Year 2014 Reason for Yr.67 14.71 sq km(24.34 sq km (23. Open Forest – Forest having crown density between 10% to 40% comes under this class.04 Backfill Sub – Total 317.16 1.37 sq km which is about 0.06 Dense forest – Forest having crown density of above 40% comes in this class.27 0.05 51.25 0.44 Open Forest 87.4.67 sq km (14.37 14.48 0.18 activity by ECL & Plantation on others 1.37%) in 2011 has been decreased to 86. and  Social Forestry & Orchards There has been minor variation in the land use under the vegetation classes within the area as shown below in Table 3.I Level .e.89 13.05 145.37 Due to forest -0. There is a decrease in dense forest by 1.16 % of the coalfield area in Job No.92 13.04 0. Open forest cover over Rajmahal coalfield which was 87. TABLE – 3.t Land Use / Cover Clas.14.34 0.30 degradation Scrubs 80. CMPDI Vegetation cover in the coalfield area comprises following five classes:  Dense Forest  Open Forest  Scrubs  Plantation on Over Burden(OB) Dumps / Backfilled area.II Km2 % Km2 % Km2 % Dense Forest 146.r.96 317.4 STATUS OF CHANGE IN VEGETATION IN RAJMAHAL COALFIELD DURING YEAR 2011 & 2014 Change w.34 23.47 0.82 1. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 26 of 33 ] . 2011 ses Area change Area Area Level .00 0.33 -do- Vegetation Social forestry 0. In the year 2011 the total area covered by dense forest were estimated to be 146.26 82.

04%). there is an increase of 0. There is an increase of 0.27 sq km (0.e.01%) in plantation over OB dumps. An estimated 0. These have come up around the settlement regions and can be seen as a part of the community development activities initiated by the developmental agencies. There is a increase of 1.47 sq km.The increase is on account of deforestation and other related activities. In year 2011 the scrubs covered 80. Plantation over OB Dump and backfilled area – Analysis of the data reveals that ECL has carried out plantation on backfilled areas during the period for maintaining the ecological balance of the area. i.21 % of the total coalfield area. which is 0. Scrubs in the coalfield are seen to be scattered signature all over the area mixed with wastelands.89 sq km. CMPDI 2014. Orchards – Plantation activities have been started in the northern part of the coalfield region by various agencies like forest department and other social organisations. of scrubs.04% of the coalfield area. 13.48 sq km which was 0.92 sq km which were 13.80 sq km orchard plantations have come up by 2014.04 sq km (0.25% of the coalfield area in 2014. Job No. This increase is due to plantation around settlement areas.04%) . Scrubs – Scrubs are vegetation with crown density less than 10%. The plantation on the OB dumps and backfilled areas are estimated to be 1.52 sq km. There exists 82. i. This is due to plantation done on backfilled areas. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 27 of 33 ] .20 sq km (0.08% of the coalfield area in 2014.59% of the coalfield area in 2014. Social Forestry – Plantation which has been carried out on wastelands. In 2011 the area covered under social forestry was 0.97 sq km which is 0. Thus the decrease in open forest is 1.26% of the coalfield area.e. 0. In year 2011 the plantation on OB Dumps were estimated to cover an area of 1.30 sq km which is 0.33% of the coalfield area . along the roadsides and colonies on green belt come under this category. This reduction is due to deforestation by local inhabitants. Analysis of data reveals Social Forestry covers 0.

18 0.32 Barren OB/ Due to more 1.32 0.3.63%) in the year 2014.22 0.87 0. In the year 2011 the barren OB dump/backfill was estimated to be 1. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 28 of 33 ] .63 1.31%) which has been increased to 3.62 Job No.20 0.98 Backfill backfilling & Mining Area +0.53 1. This decrease is due to mined out area being converted to backfilling. This increase is due to the increase in mining activity and increased dumping activities in the back filling region. in the current study some more classes have been added as follows:  Barren Backfilled Area  Water filled Quarry In the year 2011 the coal quarry was estimated to be 3.93 0.5 Status of change in Mining Area in Rajmahal Coalfield during the year 2011 & 2014 Change w. CMPDI 3.87 sq km (0.20 sq km (0.87 5.88 sq km (0.II Km2 % Km2 % Km2 % Quarry 3.04 Quarry activities Sub – Total 5.5 below.31 3.3 Mining Area The mining area was primarily been categorized as.31%) in the year 2014.I Level .53%) which has reduced to 1. Year 2011 Year 2014 Reason for Yr. TABLE – 3.  Coal Quarry  Barren OB Dump To make the study more relevant and to give thrust on land reclamation.t Land Use / Cover Clas.97 0. 2011 ses Area change Area Area Level .10 Water filled Increased mining 0.89 sq km (0.89 0.03 -0.31 -1.r.88 0.04 0. The status of land use in the mining area over the Rajmahal Coalfield is shown in the table 3.

but temporarily allowed to rest) Total agricultural land is estimated to be 269. It includes crop land (irrigated and un-irrigated) and fallow land (land used for cultivation.12 23.65 Land degradation Sub – Total 272. which is 43. 2011 ses Area change Area Area Level .92 -1.18 127.64% of the coalfield area.99 -2.17 -0.77 Job No.57 sq km in year 2014.64 269. The details are shown below in Table 3.4 Agricultural Land Land primarily used for farming and production of food.6 Status of change in Agricultural land in Rajmahal Coalfield during the year 2011 & 2014 Change w.99 % of the coalfield area.34 sq km which was 44. In the year 2011. Year 2011 Year 2014 Reason for Yr. TABLE – 3. fibre and other commercial and horticultural crops falls under this category.r.34 44.6.60 Agricultural Agriculture land Fallow Land 143.95 23.t Land Use / Cover Clas.57 43.27 -1.62 20. due to reduced agricultural activities and land being converted to waste land and scrubs.77 sq km which is 0. The region is mostly fertile in nature owing to the presence of the river Ganga in the northern region & other irrigational facilities. There is a decrease of 2.46 141.II Km2 % Km2 % Km2 % Crop Land 129. CMPDI 3.22 21.3. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 29 of 33 ] .65% of the coalfield area.I Level . the total agricultural area was estimated to be 272.

97 0.7 Status of Change in Wastelands in Rajmahal Coalfield during the year 2011 & 2014 Change w. TABLE – 3.07 1.r.I Level .54 1.98 0.81%) in the year 2011.11%) of the total coalfield area due to conversion of agricultural land/ scrubs into waste land on account of poor monsoon or reduced agricultural activities over the last few years. 2011 ses Area change Area Area Level .07 sq km i. environment. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 30 of 33 ] .10 unused land Sub – Total 5. The land use pattern within the area for waste lands is shown below in Table – 3. (0.08 0. chemical and physical properties of the soil or financial or management constraints.89 6.96 0.57 0.01 out Scrubs Agriculture land Waste Land +0.II Km2 % Km2 % Km2 % Waste land with / with.96 sq km (0.5 Wasteland Wasteland is degraded and unutilised class of land which is deteriorating on account of natural causes or due to lack of appropriate water and soil management.54 sq km (1.07%).3. The waste land was estimated to be 4. So there is an increase of 1.t Land Use / Cover Clas. 4.09 0.11 Job No.7.e.81 5. In the year of 2014. waste land has become 6. The details are shown below in Table 3.47 0.7. CMPDI 3. Wasteland can result from inherent/imposed constraints such as location. Year 2011 Year 2014 Reason for Yr.18 degradation & Sand Body 0.43 0.

6 Water bodies It is the area of impounded water which include natural lakes.00 0. in water bodies which is 0.30 0.21 0.03 0.00 0.03 7.03 0.00 Waste Land Sand Body 0.27 0.00 0.26 1.00 Settlements Rural 1.00 0.00 0.04 0. The water bodies in the study area were es- timated to be 3.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 21.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.89 sq km in year 2011.00 0.00 0.15 0.00 Mining Area OB Dump/ Backfill 0.27 10.85 0.00 0.92 0.58 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.8 Block wise Area Statistics -Rajmahal CF(2014) (DEOGHAR) BHALUKAS CHUPERBH LOHANDIA LALMATIA PIRPAINTI- DHANKUN BARAHAT BA-SURNI SIMLONG SIMLONG HURA 'C' ITA OCP NORTH JITPUR EXTN.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.32 3.10 0.71 0.12 0.00 0.00 Social Forestry 0.38 Cover Plantation on Backfill 0.74 1.00 0.00 2.00 Crop land 26.17 0.59 0. HURA A& B OCP DA Urban 0.02 0.21 0.3.00 0.08 0.18 0.63 2.39 sq km which is 0.19 0.06 0.02 0.76 3.00 0.8 Area in km2 Table 3.5 sq.53 1.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.47 1.00 0.00 0.08% of the total coalfield area.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Water Filled Quarry 0.00 0.00 1.02 0.25 0.25 0. km.19 7.00 0.59 4.00 0.56 1. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 31 of 33 ] .85 Waste Land 0.00 0.00 0.24 2.00 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Coal Quarry 0.38 6.57 Job No. tanks etc.00 0.64% of the coalfield area.63 0.73 9.00 0.42 0.11 2.81 0.00 0.00 Industrial 0.16 0.89 22.00 0.00 0.03 0.99 2.50 0.00 0.90 0.90 2.00 0.30 0.23 1.12 0.00 0.19 11.00 0.00 0.19 0.00 0.00 Dense Forest 0.01 0.18 0.68 0.00 0.72% of the total area.00 0.47 0.00 0.40 3.00 0.32 0.13 0.00 Water Body River/ Ponds 0.23 2.55 0.00 0.00 0.07 Open Forest 0.00 0. CMPDI 3.00 0.04 Agriculture Fallow Land 11.00 0.93 0.87 1.00 0.00 0. rivers/streams and manmade canal.00 0.09 TOTAL AREA 41.62 15.00 0.15 Vegetation Scrubs 0.00 0.00 0. reservoirs. So there is an increase of 0.81 25.20 6.06 0.08 0.39 0. TABLE – 3. In 2014 it have been estimated to be 4.00 0.13 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.47 9.02 0.82 0.05 0. which is 0.

18%).3 km2 (1. Surface water bodies. Such a type of change analysis in the land use pattern may help in formulating the miti- gation measures required. reservoir and ponds covered an area of 4. land use/ vegetation cover mapping has been carried out. open forests.1 Conclusion In the present study. Job No. a decrease of 2.93 km2 as mining is progressing in Rajmahal & Simlong OCPs in the coalfield region. based on OLI Landsat 8 satellite data of January. The present study reveals that the settlements in the Rajmahal Coalfields are a mix of urban. CMPDI Chapter 4 Conclusion & Recommendations 4.72%).The settlements show an increasing trend in the rural areas.39 km2 (52.32 km2 to 5. There has been a decrease of forest cover by 2.57 km2 (44.39 km2 (0. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 32 of 33] . rural and industrial which covers an area of 6. the reason for the fertile nature of land in the coalfield region.77 km2 from the year 2011. if any. mainly rivers. The first report in this regard was made in the year 2011 for creating the database of the coalfield. Vegetation cover which includes dense forests. The present report is an attempt to analyse the changes that might have taken place as a result of coal mining and other natural causes during the period of 2011 to 2014 in the coalfield region. 2014 for monitoring the impact of coal mining on land use/vegetation cover in Rajmahal Coalfield for the period of 2011 to 2014. The total mining area has increased from 5.47 km2 on being converted to scrubs on account of deforestation and other biotic interferences.03%). scrubs & plantations cover an area of 317. The study further indicates that the total agricultural land which includes crop and fallow land now covers an area of 269.02%).

Job No. In the south eastern side of Rajmahal Coalfields.2 Recommendations Keeping in view the sustainable development together with proposed coal mining in the area. 561410027(ECL) [ Page 33 of 33] . CMPDI 4. some parts of the forest area have become scrub/ barren land due to deforestation or other biotic interferences. This can be restored back by planting of suitable trees that can be grown in the region. it is recommended that similar study should be carried out regularly at interval of three years to monitor the land use and vegetation cover status and impact of coal mining on land environment.