You are on page 1of 5

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

New Product Development Approach for Design and FEA Analysis of
Skid Plates – A Case Study
Jayaraju S H1 Dr. N S Narahari2
Student 2Professor and Head
Department of Mechanical Engineering 2Department of Industrial Engineering & Management
RVCE, Bengaluru
Abstract— Vehicle safety is an important factor during performance during the entire PLC. The scope of PLC is to
design and development of any automobile. There are improve the product quality, reduce development cost and
several components which make an automobile and each shorten development time.
component has its own functionality and importance. In the Chan S L [3] described that to become successful
same way there are many accessories which are required to in dynamic business environment, companies usually target
be used along with the vehicle. One such accessory is skid on improving their new product development (NPD) by
plate which is very much essential for off-road vehicles. In identifying customer needs and improving product quality.
this paper, a NPD approach is used to develop a skid plate Automobile safety is a hierarchical process and a little
for safeguarding the propeller shaft. To design and develop variation in the final part/product leads to variation in all
skid plate, a survey has been carried out to know the assembly parts, tools etc. Modeling of variation propagation
necessity of skid plate. From concept generation and is essential in predicting the product dimensional
selection, 2 feasible concepts were selected for FEA and quality. In this research sheet metal part is assumed as a
static structural analysis has been carried out for UDL of rigid body and finite element analysis (FEA) is usually used
1400lbf and then for various loading conditions. From to analyze the flexible deformations (10)
comparison of results, a feasible concept is recommended
for prototyping. II. CONCEPT GENERATION
Key words: Skid Plate, FEA (Finite Element Analysis), In the concept generation stage the needs and drivers which
NPD (New Product Development), Von-Mises Stress, serve the need are listed. T.Taura et al. [4] defined concept
Deformation, PLC (Product Life Cycle) generation as the process of choosing a desirable concept
towards the future. Concept generation is done by design
I. INTRODUCTION creativity which has two stages: planning for something and
Propeller shaft is a critical part in vehicles. Especially in concept creation. The second phase is called as the concept
Four Wheel Drive vehicles they may be fractured due to design. Joanna Tsenn et al. [5] proposed that design always
impact loads from the uneven terrains. Hence safeguarding starts with concept generation for a known problem. It
the propeller shaft is the area of focus. Skid plates are made involves exploring various potential solutions before
up of tough materials fitted to vehicle’s underbody to protect choosing a best concept that fulfills their requirements. The
the parts from damage. Hence there are many key factors concept generation using conceptual design is the first stage
which plays crucial role in designing the skid plate that of design in a systematic approach. The customer
includes DFM (Design for manufacturing), DFA (Design for requirements for the skid plate were identified through a
environment) and cost optimization. Skid plates are usually survey and the corresponding drivers to meet those needs
aftermarket modification for customers who prefer more were listed as shown in table I of appendix. The basic
safety and long life of their vehicle. Skid plates are made requirements for concept generation is done using attribute
using different materials. This includes aluminum alloys, listing technique as shown in table II of appendix and these
structural steel, plastic and many more. The material to be attribute were combined in the concept combination table as
chosen depends on material’s cost and toughness. As the shown in table III of appendix.
weight of skid plate increases the fuel efficiency decreases
A. Concept 1
but provides protection even in the extreme conditions.
Light weight skid plates do not affect much on vehicles
weight and hence maintain its efficiency.
A survey has been made which explains the design,
development and analysis of automobile components. Some
of them are cited herein.
Riley D and Jones R [1] explained the increasing
adoption of underbody shields as a means to withstand high
levels of impact and abrasion from small stones and gravels,
but also they need to be light weight. They described the
development and validating the underbody components
using 100% polypropylene and self-reinforced composites
and concluded that the material has high levels of impact Fig. 1: Concept 1
resistance even in the low temperatures.
Ying-Kui Gu et al. [2] said that the product life
cycle (PLC) is a continuous process. It’s the product
development stage that plays a crucial role in a product’s

All rights reserved by 2115
New Product Development Approach for Design and FEA Analysis of Skid Plates – A Case Study
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/551)

B. Concept 2

Fig. 2: Concept 2
C. Concept 3
Fig. 4: Concept 1

Fig. 3: Concept 3

Concept selection is a technique of choosing the best
concept which satisfies the product design specifications.
Fig. 5: Concept 2
Kevin Otto and Katja Otto [6] proposed a multi criteria
assessment tool for screening preliminary product platform B. Defining the Material Properties
concepts. They generated a list based on the personal The material of the skid plate is 1018 Carbon structural steel
expertise of platform development. Each metric was rated with Young’s modulus (E) 2e6psi, Poisson’s ratio 0.3, Yield
onto a scale from 0 to 10 and then combining the metric tensile strength 39900psi.
score using a simple weighted sum. The concept selection is
done on the basis of customers needs by taking one of the C. Meshing
products as reference or by assuming the requirement. Then Mesh generation is a technique of dividing the given body
the concepts are rated with respect to requirement and then into sub regions called elements. Initially coarse meshing is
they are ranked and top two ranked concepts are selected for done to reduce the computation time. Further the mesh is
further development. refined to tetrahedron meshing. Tetrahedron mesh consists
Concept scoring is a technique of concept selection of small sized triangle which gives the number of nodes and
where the concepts are rated from 1 to 5 based on their elements present. C. Veyhl et al. [7] explained the mesh-
relative performance. 1-much worse than requirement, 2- dependence of structural nonlinear finite element analysis
worse than requirement, 3- same as requirement, 4- better (FEA). Various meshes like tetrahedron, hexahedron and
than requirement, 5-much better than requirement. mixed were taken into consideration. It was concluded from
Using concept scoring technique as shown in table the obtained results that linear mixed meshes were superior
IV of appendix, it was found that among 3 concepts, concept than linear- and quadratic tetrahedron and linear
1 and concept 2 are top scored concepts and hence they are hexahedron.
used in further steps.
D. Defining the Boundary Conditions
IV. CONCEPT EVALUATION The boundary conditions are defined on the components.
Preliminarily, a UDL of 1400lbf is applied on the skid plate
Concept evaluation is an important step in the product
and fixing the end supports on both sides as shown in fig 6
development process as it shows the overall capability of
and 9. The total deformation and von-mises stress
design against design objectives.
(equivalent stress) are considered.
Following steps involved in concept evaluation:
E. Solve the Model
A. Importing the Model
The model was solved using the solver which is present in
The skid plate models are built using NX 7.5 and imported
the software ANSYS 17. It calculates equivalent stress and
to ANSYS Workbench 17.0 and they are as shown in figure
deformations for each element to obtain the total
4 and 5.
deformation and equivalent stress results.

All rights reserved by 2116
New Product Development Approach for Design and FEA Analysis of Skid Plates – A Case Study
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/551)

1) Result Analysis for UDL of 1400lbf on Concept 1
Once the model was solved, the results of von-mises stresses
and deformations were plotted as shown in figure 7 and 8.
The results plotted were indicated by different color bands.

Fig. 9: Boundary conditions on Concept 2

Fig. 6: Boundary conditions on Concept 1

Fig. 10: Deformation for load of 1400lbf

Fig. 7: Deformation for load of 1400lbf

Fig. 11: Stress induced for load of 1400lbf
As shown in table V of appendix, For the UDL of
1400lbf on both concept 1 and 2, the deformation is
negligible for both the concepts 1 and 2. The von mises
stresses induced was 25012psi and 38618psi for concept 1
and 2 respectively which is less than yield tensile stress of
39900psi, Hence both the designs are safe and max
Fig. 8: Stress induced for load of 1400lbf deformation do not results in any damage to propeller shaft.
2) Result Analysis for UDL of 1400lbf on Concept 2 But one major drawback of concept 1 is that the expensive
Once the model was solved, the results of von-mises stresses sheet metal welding for joining the tubes to the supports.
and deformations were plotted as shown in figure 10 and 11. 3) Result Analysis for Different Loading Conditions
The results plotted were indicated by different color bands. The analysis is done for 3 loading cases: 1400lbf, 2100lbf
and 2800lbf. The loads are applied on extreme end supports
and on the mid span. The results of deformation and von
mises stress for all the 3 loading conditions are shown in the
table VI and VII of appendix.
Concept 1: load on extreme end 1, end 2 and mid
span. Force of 1400lbf, 2100lbf and 2800lbf is applied at
end 1, end 2 and mid span as shown in figure 12.

All rights reserved by 2117
New Product Development Approach for Design and FEA Analysis of Skid Plates – A Case Study
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/551)

conditions. As per the aim of this research two different
models of skid plate are evaluated for different impact loads.
From the analysis results it was found that concept – 2 has
shown the good results compared to concept -1 under
In the future work, the concept – 2 model can
further be improved by providing reinforcement to enhance
the strength and critical regions where stress concentration
is more can further be modified.

[1] Riley, D. and Jones, R., “The Development of
Lightweight, Highly Impact Resistant Components for
Fig. 12: Different loading conditions applied on concept 1 Automotive Underbody Applications,” SAE Technical
Concept 2: load on extreme end 1, end 2 and mid Paper, 2003.
span. Force of 1400lbf, 2100lbf and 2800lbf is applied at [2] Ying-Kui Gu and Hong-Zhong Haung, “An integrated
end 1, end 2 and mid span as shown in figure 13. product and process development model supporting
entire life cycle,” The 8th international conference on
computer supported cooperative work in design
proceedings, pp. 558-562, 2003.
[3] Chan S L, “A dynamic decision support system to
predict the value of customer for NPD,” Decision
support systems, vol 52, pp. 178-188, 2005
[4] T. Taura and Y. Nagai, “Perspectives on concept
generation and design creativity”, Concept generation
for design creativity, pp. 9-20, 2013
[5] Joanna Tsenn et al, “The effects of time and incubation
on design concept generation”, Design Studies Vol35,
pp. 500-526, Sept 2014
[6] Kevin Otto and Katja Otto, “A multi criteria
assessment tool for screening preliminary product
Fig. 13: Different loading conditions applied on concept 2 platform concepts”, Journal of intelligent
By comparison of values for concept 1 and 2 for manufacturing, July 2007
various impact loads at various locations as shown in table 6 [7] C. Veyhl et al. “Mesh dependence of non-linear
and 7, it can be concluded that: mechanical finite element analysis”, Finite Elements in
For concept 1 the von-mises stress are less than Analysis and Design 46, 2010, 371–378.
yield tensile for all the 3 loading conditions. The [8] John B Bowles et al, “An assessment of RPN
deformation is also negligible without damaging the Prioritization in a Failure mode effects and Criticality
propeller shaft. As the impact load increases above 1400lbf analysis”, proceedings of annual reliability and
gradually permanent deformation takes place and results in maintainability symposium, 2003, pp.380-386
failure of component. Hence, it can be concluded that U [9] D. Natarajan –“Failure mode and effect analysis”,
shaped profile skid plate can withstand impact loads upto Reliable design of Electronic equipment, 2015.
4) Result Analysis of Final Concept – 2 for Different VI. APPENDIX
In the previous section, the results were discussed when an NEEDS DRIVERS CTQC
UDL of 1400 lbf is applied and it was seen that concept 2 *Size of the *design
yielded better results. Easy for component specifications
The concept is tested for different materials since 1
installation *Weight of the *Design for min
selection of material plays an important role in ease of component number of parts
manufacturing and cost reductions. The other materials *Economy of
tested are aluminum alloys 6110-T6; magnesium alloys *Amount of material
2 Economical
EQ21A-T6 M18330. From the results as shown in table VIII material used *Quality of
of appendix, it was seen that carbon structural steel yielded material
*Type of material
better results than other materials. Also, aluminum and Resistant to *Non corrosive
used and physical
copper alloys are costlier than steel, hence structural steel is 3 weather materials
and chemical
chosen for prototyping. changes *coating
*materials used *Material property
V. CONCLUSION 4 Life span *design *constant servicing
In this paper, various protective covers of skid plate are consideration and maintenance
Should be less *simple design *Design
designed and evaluated for different loads under different 5
weight *providing holes on specifications

All rights reserved by 2118
New Product Development Approach for Design and FEA Analysis of Skid Plates – A Case Study
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/551)

the plate *product structure place.
*error tolerant Conce Weldin Sheet metal Profi Non
Should be *fault tolerance Steel
6. design pt 11 g operations le-3 removab
reliable *recoverability
*resilience le
Table 1: Needs, Drivers and Ctqc’s (Criticality to Quality Alumin
Characteristics) y,
Conce um Weldin Sheet metal Profi
pt 12 g operations le-3
Materials used Steel Aluminum alloys y in
Assembly Fasteners Welding mainten
Manufacturing Sheet metal
method operations Table 3: Concept Combination Table
Profile-2 (U Shaped Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3
Profile-1 (plate with profile) R Ra
Shape of plate Selection Weig Rat W
tube support) Profile-3 (Convex pipe ati WS tin WS
criteria htage ing S
with tube support) ng g
Table 2: Attribute Listing Technique Ease of
10% 3 0.3 3 0.3 3 0.3
SHA handling
METHOD Ease of
PLATE PE 30% 2 0.6 4 1.2 1 0.3
CONC ASSEM OF COMM manufacturing
URING production 20% 2 0.4 4 0.8 1 0.2
Conce Weldin Sheet metal Profi Non cost
Steel 0.7
pt 1 g operations le-2 removab Durability 25% 3 0.75 4 1.0 3
le 5
assembl Maintenance 0.4
15% 2 0.3 3 2 0.3
y, cost 5
Conce Weldin Sheet metal Profi Total score 2.35 3.75 1.85
Steel difficult
pt 2 g operations le-1 Rank 2 1 3
y in
maintena Continue? Yes Yes No
nce. Table 4: Concept Scoring Matrix
Conce Fastener Sheet metal Profi Induced von-mises
Steel Concept Deformation (inches)
pt 3 s operations le-2 stress (psi)
Alumin Non Concept 1 5.46e-2 25012
Conce Weldin Sheet metal Profi
pt 4
g operations le-2
removab Concept 2 4.88e-2 38618
alloys le Table 5: Results of Deformation and Stress for Udl of 1400
assembl Lbf
y, Loading area/value 1400lbf 2100lbf 2800lbf
y in 0.10466 0.15144 0.20311
maintena End 1
Von-mises stress
nce. Not 72897 80821 93295
Alumin (psi)
Conce Weldin Sheet metal Profi all
um 8.223e-
pt 5 g operations le-1 aluminu Deformation 5.305e-2 2 0.1031
alloys End 2
m alloys
are Stress induced 45322 78901 83610
weldable Mid Deformation 0.11881 0.1737 0.23691
and they span Stress induced 48729 74459 94314
are Table 6: Results of Analysis for Concept 1 for Various
costly. Loading
Conce Fastener Sheet metal Profi Loading area/value 1400lbf 2100lbf 2800lbf
pt 6 s operations le-1 Deformation 5.865e-
2 9.4e-2 0.11686
Alumin Suitable (inches)
Conce Fastener Sheet metal Profi End 1
um only for Von-mises stress
pt 7 s operations le-2 36516 65557 83686
alloys light (psi)
loading 1.737e- 2.101e-
Deformation 3 3 4.02e-3
Alumin since End 2
Conce Fastener Sheet metal Profi
um bending Stress induced 4883.4 7378.5 10013
pt 8 s operations le-1
alloys takes Mid Deformation 8.91e-2 0.13407 0.17849
place. span Stress induced 37179 44937 72605
Conce Fastener Sheet metal Profi Table 7: Results of Analysis for Concept 2 for Various
pt 9 s operations le-3 Loading
Suitable Deformation Von-mises Stresses
only for Material
(inches) (psi)
Alumin light Aluminum alloys 0.11840 91851
Conce Fastener Sheet metal Profi
um loading
pt 10 s operations le-3 Magnesium alloys 0.18009 95436
alloys since
bending Structural steel 0.04784 70675
takes Table 8: Results of Analysis for Various Materials

All rights reserved by 2119