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A320 Supervision Guide, Air Berlin

by Cmd Urs Oetiker, TRE, Station Zürich

A320 LINE TRAINING Number :
SUMMARY

Page : 2 of 148

IMPORTANT
The information in this document will provide you with a
collection of basic organized material gathered from official
Air Berlin sources regarding the operation of the A320.

This A320 Line Training Summary is a document which you
may use in your training as a work of reference.

It is not intended for operational use, meaning that it shall
not be used in-lieu of original operational documentation
during commercial operation.

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.07

A320 LINE TRAINING Number :
SUMMARY

Page : 3 of 148

0 Introduction

The trend of modern aviation dictates that we are operating in an enviormnent that is increasing in
both technical complexity and is governed and monitored closely in legal and procedural frameworks.
So, as well as good stick and rudder-skills, we must also become proficient in the technical
management of the aircraft and adhere rules and regulations stipulated by the company and the
authorities. If we can combine these factors and provide a safe, economical and comfortable
experience for the crew and passgeners – then we have attained our goal.

The technical and operational information needed to operate in this environment is contained in
several documents with which the pilot must be familiar. It is not necessary, nor is it advisable, to
know these books “by heart”. However, the crew must know the structure of the documentation and be
able to consult, understand and apply the relevant text/schematics in a timely manner.

The purpose of this summary is to give the trainee an overview of the most fundamental topics that
are needed to operate the Airbus A320 family. It provides condensed information as found in the Air
Berlin documentation and also describes accepted methods for operating in daily work within the
company.

This summary provides references to the following documentation:

OM(A) – The Operations Manual Part A is a document which stipulates accepted practices by which
Air Berlin must adhere. It covers many areas; from the description of the organizational structure of
the company all the way to weather conditions required for an approach. It covers mainly issues of
operational rather than technical nature. The main Chapter of interest for the flight crew member is
OM(A) Chapter 8.

FCOM 3.3 (a subchapter of FCOM 3, see below) has been specially modified by Air Berlin to suit its
„dark and silent“ flight-deck philosophy. It is the only part of the FCOMs that is modified by Air Berlin.

FCOM – The Flight Crew Operations Manual is provided by the aircraft manufacturer. It provides
technical guidelines and information that relate to the operation of the aircraft. The FCOM is separated
into 4 parts. The FCOMs are delivered by Airbus and do not contain company company-specific
information (except FCOM 3.3, see above).

• FCOM 1 – System Description
• FCOM 2 – Flight Preparation
• FCOM 3 – Flight Operations
• FCOM 4 – FMGS Pilot´s Guide

FCTM – The Flight Crew Training Manual is a document published by Airbus and is advisory in
nature. It provides only basic information regarding practical operation of the aircraft.

A320 Instuctor Support – This document provides Instructors with additional background information
on the A320 operation, in procedural and technical terms.

There is a strict hierarchy with which the documentation is to be used within Air Berlin. Any information
in the OM(A) overrides FCOM 3.3, followed by the FCOM and finally the FCTM and A320 Instructor
Support.

Use this summary during your training to prepare for your next flights. By doing so, you provide
yourself and the instructor more time to dedicate to areas which may need more focus.

The initial training will provide you with the ability to operate the aircraft safely and economically.

Remember that safety has highest priority – therfore:

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.07

07 .05.ch/uoetiker/ All that remains to be said is: good luck! Instr. If the reader finds any deviations from official policy or finds outdated/incorrect information. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Page : 4 of 148 • Attain in-depth knowledge of the procedures • Attain a good understanding regarding the technical apects of the aircraft • Strictly adhere to Standard Operating Procedures • Plan and fly in a conservative manner If you have any questions relevant to training issues do not hesitate to contact your instructor or the Department Training. please contact: Name: Urs Oetiker Function: TRE. Station Zürich e-mail: uoetiker@freesurf.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. The A320 Line Training Summary is revised at irregular intervals depending on the number and significance of changes within the official documentation.ggaweb.ch Mobile: +41 78 707 5661 For the latest update of the summary check following webpage: http://home.

...................... 18 2 Pre-flight and fuel planning...............................................2 Walk Around......................................................1 Structure......................................... 19 2....................................2 HILDAW ....2 Working with packets ..........................................5 Fly .................3... 24 2......................................................... 32 6 Loading........................................... A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Page : 5 of 148 Table of Content 1 General Principles..............................8 Planning minima for en-route alternate aerodromes .... 13 1............................4 Take off Briefing ........................... 36 6............................................................................. 17 1.............................................4 LPC load sheet....................................................................... procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 3.. 12 1...........................................................................................................1............................4 Interpretation of given meteorological information .....................................5 Conventional load sheet.............................................................................................. 20 2...............5.....................1 General ..9 RVR conversion ..................................... Navigate..................................... 24 2...................3 Systematic method of operation......................... 19 2.............................................................. 20 2.................................................................................................... 39 6.................................. 24 2...... 23 2....................... 32 5..................................................4................... 32 5............................................................................................................. 37 6............................. 24 2..........................1 Fuel index table............6..2 Closed Loop...................1 Introduction ......................................................... 11 1...................................................... 30 4...................................3 Operational fuel calculation......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 6..5...3...............................6............................................. 25 3 Briefings ..............1 RNAV ............................ 30 4........................4.................................................................................................................................. 36 6.............................................................05.................................... 17 1.......................... 26 3............1 General ..................................................................1 General .................... 26 3............................................................................................ 40 6........................................................................................................................ manual calculation....................2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) .................................................. Communicate ...............6 Last minute changes procedure.......3 Departure Briefing ........... 30 4........................ 24 2....................................................................1.................... 15 1.................... 17 1.2 DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet.1........................................................................................................6............................ 11 1.....................1 General......................................................1.6 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and destination alternate aerodromes ............................................................................... 13 1...................... 40 6................................................................... 24 2............. 28 3.......5 Profit tankering .................................7 Take off alternate aerodromes ....................................................................7 Standard Weight Values ..................................................2 Planning minima for a destination aerodrome .............. 26 3..............................5 Landing Briefing ......2 Interfacing with automation .........................3.....................................................................................2 General Briefing ..............................................................................4 Cross-Cockpit Communication ........................................................2 Procedures and Techniques ............................................................ 42 Instr...............................1 General..............................3.... 41 6..... 28 3..2 Definitions (weights and centre of gravity) .................................................................................................................................................... 19 2...................................................... 29 4 Use of automation ..................................................................................................... methods.......GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................07 .............1 General...........................1 General .3 Planning minima for a destination alternate aerodrome ...............................................................................1 Becoming an expert in Aviation............................3 Aircraft weights........................... 22 2................ 20 2...............................................................2 Pre-flight planning work distribution ...............1 Recommendations for optimum use of automation .................................................and conventional waypoints........................ 30 5 Exterior Inspection (Walk Around) ................................................. 36 6........................................................................ 26 3..........................

...............5 Take off on contaminated runways ..3 De-icing on ground..................... 45 8 Stabilized approach ............... 57 11..................................4 General checks ........................................................................................................... A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Page : 6 of 148 7 Resetting of computers and C/B’s ..........................................................7 Procedures........................................ 63 11......................................................................................... 43 7.............................................. 49 10 Weather radar .................................5............................6 Final check before aircraft dispatch ........GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19............1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak .......................................................................................................................5 Responsibility...................................... 48 9..............................................5 Turbulence versus altitude................................................................................................................................................ 51 10...........................................3 WX+T and TURB modes ..................................................................5......................05.................................................................................... 46 9 Landing technique ....... 54 11.......2 Flare ............................................................................................................................................ 60 11.............................................................................................7 Colour gradient...................................................1 Definition ......................................................................... 54 11.... 43 7.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 10.................................................................................... 58 11............................................................................................................................ 57 11.........4 Taxiing in icing conditions ................................ 46 8............................2 Computer reset.............................. 47 9..................................9 Severe turbulence: .....................................3.............................................................................................................................. 54 11............................ 55 11..............3 Clear ice phenomenon.....................................................2 Philosophy of stabilized approach .... 62 11....2.........................2 Engine start in cold weather ...............................................................2 Technical background....................................................................................1 Final approach................................5 Crosswind limits ...2 Gain............................................2 Definitions ...............2.................................................................... 64 Instr...................2 In flight..4 Spotting dry hail .............. 53 11 Winter operation......................... 48 9.................................................................................................. 51 10................................2 Performance Optimization .................. 50 10............................ 63 11..........4 Tail strike at landing .................................................... 50 10............3 Flap setting.............................................1.........8 Pilot behaviour with significant weather .........1 Tilt ..............4 Recommended procedure ..............................................1 Flight planning...............................................................................3 Required landing distance ................................................. 47 9.....3.....5....................................... 60 11................................................................... 57 11....................6 Turbulence above cloud tops....................................07 .......................................................................... 50 10................................................................................ 43 7...........................................1 On ground ........................... 51 10..................2 Exterior inspection .................................................................................................................................. 46 8.....................................3 BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground)....................3.................... 44 7.... 50 10................................. 44 7............................. 52 10................................ 52 10.......................3............5................ 57 11........................................................................................................ 54 11... 47 9.........................1 General ...................3 Crosswind landing..3..................................................................................................3 ECAM advisories............5 Bouncing at touch down..................3......................1 General .............................................................. 52 10................................1 Runway contamination................................ 61 11............................................................................ 64 11....................... 63 11............................1 Clean aircraft concept ........................................................3......................................................................... 63 11................................................................................................................... 50 10...............................................2.................... 49 9.....................1.................. 57 11.................................... 57 11.......................................................................... 56 On ground operation ....................................................................2...........1 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight ......................................................................2 Runway contamination................................ 43 7....................................................................................................................3...........................5........................3 Use of the weather radar ...............................................................................................................3....6 Engine-out landing ...................................2.......... 58 11.................................................................................................................................1............3.......................

..................2.................................................. 96 14.................................................................................... 71 12............... A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Page : 7 of 148 11................................................2 Section 00E......... 64 11....................... 96 Instr.................... 70 12......3.....3 Structure of the MEL ................. 86 13........................................................3 Wing anti-ice ..................................... 96 14...............GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.........7 Landing on contaminated runways ......4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) ..........................................................................3..... 74 12............................................. 66 11...............3 Warning / Caution classification......... 70 12...............................8..................................2 Planning for an economical descent........................................2 Contents..............4 Presentation of the MEL............... 95 14....................................................3 Section 01 MEL.................................................... 66 11..... 96 14..........................................................................8......................1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page............................................05......... 86 13......3............................................................................................ 80 12...............1 General ........8...................................................... 65 11................................. 95 14............................................................................................................................................................................. 69 12......... 93 14 Minimum Equipment List (MEL)............ 81 12...................................................4 EGPWS................................. 90 13.................. 83 13 Descent planning .........................................................2 Color code.................. 79 12.....2 Engine anti-ice ................................................................................07 .......................... 95 14..................3 A word about track miles....... 64 11...........3........................................4 Conclusion ..................2 Energy circle displayed on the ND...................................................................................................................................................................4...... 65 11...............................8........................................................................... 87 13.....................................3 Use of summaries in the QRH .............................................1 Section 00 General ...................................................................................................................... 73 12............................6..........2 Energy management..7 Landing distance ...................................................1 Windshear ..............2 CAT2.....................................................................................2 General application of the MEL...................4 Remaining on the 3° descent path............... 70 12................................................................................ 95 14.........3...........................................................2 Windshear ahead (PWS) ...............................................................................................................................8.................................. 87 13.....1 Corrections..................................... 68 12...................... 77 12.............................2...3 TCAS...................................... 73 12.6 Use of autopilot ...............3........ 92 13.........................................1 General .....1 Objectives ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8...4 Use of QRH.............................................................5 Loss of braking.........4 Section 02 Operational Procedure....................... 91 13..................... 68 12.................................................................3........... 65 11.................8.......................................................................5 Strategies for intercepting the 3° descent path from above and below...................4............................6................................5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures ............................ 88 13............3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft ...................2......1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways.......... 78 12....................... 67 12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations.... 94 14..................8....................3 The economical descent ...............................................8 Memory Items ...................................3............................................................................................................................................................................. 66 11....3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) ....... 74 12. 96 14................................8............... 74 12................................................................................................................7 Unreliable speed indication..........1 General .................. 96 14..6 Emergency descent ...................6................................................. 94 14............. 72 12......................................................................1 Types of failures....... 87 13....................................................................................2..1 Scope ...........................................8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation............6 Aircraft contamination in flight..........................................4...................2..........2.........2 Example ................... 88 13....................................................................................................8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication ............................................................................ 68 12...........................1 General ...........................................................................................................3.....................................2...............................................................................................8.............................................................................................. 88 13. CAT3 SINGLE.......... 94 14.... 91 13.................................................................................... CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing.....................7...................................................................................

................................................................2 GPS Position...........................5 P-RNAV for terminal procedures ..............................................................................................................2................................................1 General ..........................................................2................................................2 Procedures..................................3............................................................. 103 15................................................ 111 18.......................1 General .............. 106 17 Taxiing and braking ................. 110 18...................1 General .......1 Mix IRS Position..................... 109 17................................................................2 Alert Height ............................................................................................................6.............................................3 Taxiing with one engine .............................1 General ...............................................4 Runway characteristics ............................... 110 18................................................................................ 108 17..1................................... 114 18...... 111 18................... 112 18..................................................................................................................5.....1 Taxiing...... 98 15......2 General procedures ............................1........... 111 18.................................................3........05...................... 97 15...........3 With GPS PRIMARY....................4 B-RNAV in European airspace .... 109 17......................2 Alert height concept ......................................................................................................2 Without GPS PRIMARY.. 109 17....................................................1............3 Pre-flight procedures......................................................................................................................................................................................3 Radio Position....................................................... CAT III Operations.......................................................... 101 Evaluation of position accuracy...... 103 16 RVSM ........................................................................................ 115 Instr............................................ 104 16.............6 Altitude tolerances....................1 General ................................................................................................3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP).................................. 107 17.........5 Requirements for RVSM ............. 107 17...................................................................................... 99 15........2 Procedures.................................................6.................................................................................................................................................................8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out...................................................................................................................................................3............................1........GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19............................................1 General ........................................................................... 97 15........................................................................................................6............................. 110 18....................................................7 GPS approaches................................................................................................. 100 15.............3 Visual Segments ...............................2................................................................ 104 16........................................................... 107 17.......................................................................6............................................................2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action ..................6 Position Computation ............................................................................................................1................................................................... 102 15.................................1.............................................4.................... 100 15...3............................4 FM Position ................................... 105 16........2 CAT III ............................................................................................................ 105 Aircraft requirements ........ 99 15........................................ 97 15.........................................1 CAT II .......................................................................................................... 104 16.3 Runway Visual Range.................... 110 18....................................................................................................1 Decision height concept:.....................4 In-flight procedures ..........................4 Taxiing in icing conditions ............................ 97 15................. 98 15......................................... 99 15............... 98 15......2 Brakes .......5 Fail operational automatic landing system .1.. 101 15.................................................................................1 Definitions .............. 109 18 CAT II......................................3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) ...................................................2 Decision height and alert height concept.......5..1................................................................................................................................. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Page : 8 of 148 15 RNAV .....2........................ 97 15........................... 97 15............................ 113 18............... 107 17...............................1........4................1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................2........... 113 18...................... 100 15........ 105 16........3...........................................1 Decision height .....................................................................2 Dispatch requirements ...................................................................4 Fail passive automatic landing system .......................07 ............ 98 15........................................................ 110 18.................................................2 180° turn on the runway..................................................................... use of FINAL APPR MODE..... 110 18....................................................... 109 17.... 104 16............................................................

...................... 129 21 Limitations ...1 General ................................................... 122 18.5 CAT IIIa (CAT 3 dual) ....4.........................................................4...................5 Structural weight limits ....................................... 126 18...... 115 18..................................6 List of required equipment .............................................................................. 129 20....................................................................................................................................................2 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off ...................1 General ......... 122 18.......................................................................................................................4.................. 116 18.....................1 General ..................................................1......................................1........................................................13 Type and command experience....GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19................................................................... 131 21.................................................................................1 General ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Summary Limitations..........................................1............................. 129 20....10 Failures and associated actions....................................................................................4.................. 132 21..............1 General limitations ....9............................................................9...................... 116 18. 121 18......... 123 18.................. 116 18..... 123 18..........................................9...................................................8................12.11 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment ............................7 Runway End Lights ... 130 21.......................................................12..............4 CAT IIIa (CAT 3 single).........1 Drag.. 120 18............................................6 CAT IIIb (CAT 3 dual) .................................................. 118 18..................................................................................................................4........8 Runway Centerline Lights .........12....... 115 18........................4......................... 126 18................................................................... 121 18...................................................................................................................................... 127 19...2 Runway Width......................................................................................................................... 120 18........................ 118 18..................................1 Airports requirements .................................07 ..................................................................................8....................................................4.................................... 122 18.......................................... A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Page : 9 of 148 18.........4....................2 Expedite Function ..................................................................... 115 18.......... 123 18.............................11 Taxiway Centerline Lights............................................................................................10 Taxiway Edge Lights.... 130 21................................................8 Landing ............ 115 18.......................... 131 21.......3 Opearting temperatures ............... 116 18...........1 Technical limitations........................... 125 18.................................................................6 Speeds ....................................... 131 21.......................9....................................................................... 119 18........................10..... 116 18................9.......4.............. 127 19............................ 115 18..............................................05.............................................2 Take Off Minima................................. 127 19..................................................................3 CAT II (manual landing) ................................2..................................................................8......13 Approach Light System...........................1.....................................................4............................................... 130 21.... 120 18.9..........................................6 Threshold Lights ....................10....................................3 Optimum Flight level ........................................... 116 18.................................................................12 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions ..................................................................................... 127 19.......................................................................................................................................9.........1 General .........................................4............... 128 20 Performance ..... 130 21...............4..................2 Commencement and continuation of approach.....3 Limitations........................... 126 18..............................3 Landing Minima General............. 121 18...............12 Stop Bars ....4.2 Flight instrument tolerances.....5 Technical aspects ....................................2 CAT II (auto land)......................................................................................................9 Touchdown Zone Lights .......................................................... 115 18.. 126 18..1.......................................................................................................................................................7 Approach preparation .................4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights ....................................... 115 18.... 132 Instr............. 126 19 Low visibility Takeoff ..7 Engine out (CAT II or CAT III single) .......................................................................................................... 121 18..................1.............................................................2 Abnormal Procedures .........................................2 Crew procedures ...................................................................................................... 129 20...............................5 Runway Edge Lights ..........................................................................1 Runway Length ....................................................................3 Runway Slope........................4 Cabin pressure.....7 Use of autopilot ........ 122 18.... 121 18.......................1...........................................2................................................................................................................................

............1................. 135 21............2..............................................................................05............2.......................... 137 21.....................................13 Oxygen.................................16 Engine... 132 21............10 Fuel ..........................................................2 Taxi ...............................6 Landing ......................... 137 21......................................................... 134 21...14 Electrical .................................................................................................................................1............................................ 140 21....................................2..........................................2..............15 APU.......................................................................................2....................................................3 After Take Off / Climb ...........................................................................................7 After Landing................12 Break...... 135 21.......................................2 Operational Limitations .....9 Weather. flight controls ..... 141 21................ 136 21................................... landing and roll out .......... 140 21.................................1................................... 138 Before Take Off ... 134 21......................... 135 21................1........................................................................................................................................................................1......................................9 Leaving Aircraft .................................5 Approach...07 ...............................................................8 Parking ...................8 Automatic approach.............................................................................................................4 Cruise......................................................GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19......................... 139 21.1......1.................................................................... 143 Instr............................. gear...2........ 142 22 Abreviations...................................1................... 141 21...... 136 21...............2...................................................2....................11 Hydraulic .............................................................................................................................1................................................................................................... 135 21......................................1 Cockpit Preparation ............ 139 21..........................................2............ A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Page : 10 of 148 21.................... 141 21..............................................................................

The trick is to fill the bag of experience before you empty the bag of luck.” “Try to learn from the mistakes of others.1 Becoming an expert in Aviation “An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes. which can be made. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.” “You start with a bag full of luck and an empty bag of experience.” “Always remember you fly an aeroplane with your head. You won't live long enough to make all of them yourself.05.” Instr.07 . in a very narrow field.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Unfortunately. not your hands.“ ”Good judgment comes from experience.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 11 of 148 1 General Principles 1. experience usually comes from bad judgment.

Because the exact thrust settings are not defined in the FCOM for taxi (except for maximum N1: 40%) these two ways of taxiing are two different techniques. different pilots have different techniques to accomplish this briefing and opt to put different emphasis on different parts of it. and must be adhered to stringently. Techniques are methods of operation available to the crews that can be used in areas where procedures are not defined.. These two terms are fundamentally different and must be understood by both instructors and trainees: Procedures are dictated by the company and the manufacturer in the form of documented material: OM(A). An instructor must force a trainee to operate according to procedures. Procedures contained therein are not modifiable or negotiable by crews. but may only offer techniques as advice. However. while others reduce it. some pilots prefer to set a higher thrust setting to get the aircraft moving. Obviously. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Examples of techniques: • When beginning to taxi.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.2 Procedures and Techniques During the supervision phase. For example: some pilots prefer to keep the thrust on during a certain portion of the flare. the procedures do not state how the briefing should be accomplished. A crew shall not begin a flight unless the conditions are satisfied. Instr.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 12 of 148 1. • The required weather minima according to OM(A) must be fulfilled for departure. and then reduce the thrust to idle. destination and alternate airports. Other pilots prefer to set a lower N1 and keep it on for the duration of the taxi. must operate according to procedures and can opt to use whichever technique he believes leads to the best outcome based on his personal preference. crew shall not omit or modify any part of a checklist (except during emergencies when the commander deems it necessary). FCOM etc. Again. • Because there is no procedure that defines the flare and touch-down (when to pull the side-stick exactly how much. when to reduce the thrust by how much) the landing is taught to trainees as a technique. it is most useful to the trainee if the instructors also taught similar techniques. Examples of procedure: • All check-list work is procedure.05. instructors will be speaking of procedures and techniques. • The procedures state that a pre-departure and approach briefing shall be conducted by the crews and also dictate what should be covered in the briefing. A trainee on the other hand.07 .

and passengers allow operations that do not deviate from normal check-lists or procedures. deviation from these procedures are not permitted. For example. the crew must all times: • Know in which area they are operating (normal. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Normal Situation Abnormal Emergency Situation Situation The diagram above is a simplified representation illustrating the possible transitions from one operation to another. Abnormal Operations: The status of the aircraft. Emergency Operations: The safety of the aircraft. QRH etc. However the situation develops. PULL UP”) immediately transfers the crew from normal operations to emergency operations. the passengers. In another case.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. the crew may elect to assume normal operations. aircraft and crew are NOT exposed to immediate risks or dangers. Instr. and • Work systematically with the available tools (ECAM. crew or passengers are exposed to immediate risk or danger.1 Normal operation During normal operations the crew is bound to perform their duties according to normal procedures and check-lists. the situation may deteriorate from normal to abnormal and then to an emergency scenario. During abnormal operations.07 . abnormal. After the crew-action for the EGPWS warning and no further risk is obvious. an EGPWS warning (“PULL UP.3.05.3 Systematic method of operation 1.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 13 of 148 1. Reference to abnormal check-lists or procedures are required to correct the situation.3. the health of crew or passengers are degraded and mandate heightened alert by the crew. emergency). crew.) 1.1.1 Introduction The nature of the crew’s work on the aircraft can be subdivided into three specific areas: Normal Operations: The status of the aircraft. The tools they have at their disposal are as follows: • SOP (Normal Operation) • OM(A) • ECAM • QRH • FCOM • OEB . Corrective by the crew is required without delay to avert further serious degradation of the situation.

CMD may elect to disregard landing distance corrections) • FCOM (e. This course of action should only be considered if the published procedures are likely to lead to an unsatisfactory result. PAN.3.(Normal and Abnormal Operation) • OM(A) • ECAM Procedures (must be completed as stipulated in the FCOM) • QRH • FCOM • OEB As is the case in normal operations.g.2 Abnormal operation This situation warrants the execution of abnormal check-lists and procedures as written in company documents.05.07 . The ATC call “PAN. The ATC call “MAYDAY.3.3 Emergency operation During Emergency operations the Commander has authority to deviate from published procedures and check-lists ONLY if it is necessary to maintain safe conduct of flight. the crew is required to follow instructions published in this material. MAYDAY. The tools the crew have at their disposal is as follows: • SOP . PAN“ will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the crew is experiencing an abnormal situation but is not in imminent danger.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 14 of 148 1.1. The crew should not deviate from these procedures. MAYDAY“ will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the flight is in imminent danger and is in need of assistance. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.g.g.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.1. The tools at the disposal of the crew are lilted below.g. the CMD may opt not to finish the ECAM procedure) • QRH (e. Note that during emergency operations deviations therein are possible: • SOP (deviations possible) • OM(A) (e. CMD may decide to deviate from published CB resetting procedures) • OEB Instr. stabilized approach criteria may not be fulfilled) • ECAM (e. 1.

passing FL100 in climb or descent.). A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.& Turnoff lights • EFIS Control Panel: Select Airports • SEC F-PLN page: Copy active F-PLN • RAD NAV page: Clear all remotely tuned Navigation aids • VHF 2: Set to 121. Below is a suggestion of packets that have proved to be useful in our operation and helps increase the reliability of our actions in during these various phases. Descent The FL100 Packet during descent is a good time to visit the following items in order to make sure that they are in a suitable state: • Exterior Lights: Switch on Landing lights • EFIS Control Panel: Select Constraints • LS Presentation: Push LS PB • LS Identification: Ident ILS VOR etc. and here we ensure that they are set accordingly.5 MHz • EWD: Check EWD Some of these items are included as part of the “AFTER TAKE-OFF / CLIMB CHECKLIST” (FCOM 3.05. However. switch on exterior lights.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 15 of 148 1. • Nav accuracy: Check GPS Primary • PERF Page: Activate Approach Phase Again.13). the packet also ensures that we have set an appropriate setting on the EFIS Control Panel and VHF 2.Take off. to conduct a departure briefing etc. The advantage is that items are less likely to be overlooked. At Air Berlin regular use of these packets are taught during training.16 DESCENT) – the packet in this case serves us as clear reminder at FL100 to ensure that we actually performed the necessary tasks.3.3. some of these items are included in the Standard Operating Procedures (as listed in the FCOM 3. It is a useful technique to “link” these actions with a certain event or altitude and systematically perform the required actions in one flow or “packet”.07 .1 FL 100 Packet Climb The FL100 Packet during climb is a suitable time to visit the following items to ensure that they are in the appropriate state: • Exterior Lights: Switch off Landing.g. delayed unnecessarily or forgotten.g. 1. reaching cruise altitude. check navigational accuracy etc.2 Working with packets During flight-operations. Instr. which is part of good airmanship.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.). Such a packet may be used in any situation the pilot deems useful (e.3.2. activate approach phase. For example.3. during descent the crew must ensure that several actions are completed before commencing the approach (e. there are many actions that must be fulfilled by the crew by a particular point in time.

Below is an example of how this camel-back can be used: Key Dep. Briefing F-PLN Review departure.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 16 of 148 1.3. the crew will want to review the most important pages and information without visiting every page on the MCDU. constraints. It is usually the Pilot Flying that conducts the briefing and it is considered good airmanship if all the data is entered before the briefing is started.2.05.) (Extra Fuel is presented on INIT-B Page) SEC F-PLN Program of emergency return Programming of another runway runway. MCDU programming is an essential part of the process. By simply going through the flow during the departure and approach briefing together. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. cross- cross-check with charts check with charts. During departure or approach preparation for example.07 . Briefing App. if a G/A has to be flown etc.g. the crew will automatically visit the most pertinent pages.2 Camel-back packet The MCDU allows the crew access to many pages where data can be stored and from which much information can be extracted. constraints. once the programming has been complete. Review arrival. RAD NAV Set up manually tuned Nav Aids Set up manually tuned Nav Aids to (mostly used for engine out correspond with required Nav aids departure route) for approach PROG Check navigational accuracy Check navigational accuracy (must (must be HIGH so FMS can be be HIGH so FMS can be used for used for navigation) navigation) PERF Ensure all performance data has Ensure all performance data has been inserted for the correct been inserted for the correct runway runway FUEL PRED Review fuel data to ensure it Review data for awareness (how corresponds to the planned fuel much holding time is possible. However.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. (e. what on the OFP. in case of circling) Instr.

90).FCOM 3. the PF may make attitude. Each crew member can concentrate on her/his assigned tasks. that the other crew-member has received and understood the information.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.4. Any time a crew member makes any adjustment or change to any relevant information or equipment on the flight-deck.1: Cross-cockpit communication is VITAL for any two-pilot crew. he must advise the other crew member and get an acknowledgement if it is not obvious. Expected automatic switching / mode changes must be checked on the FMA by both pilots. but any unclear action or situation must be clarified by acknowledgement to assure all crew-members reflect the same knowledge.3. PF selects new altitude (this is performed silently) 2. The PNF must follow and check the changes made but is not expected to confirm the changes. speed-brake.07 .4. 1.4 Cross-Cockpit Communication 1.1 General It is important that both pilots aim to be fully conversant with the operational status of the aeroplane at any time. The following illustration always applies: 1.2 Closed Loop According to Air Berlin SOP with Autopilot On. • Clear and precise work distribution with clearly defined tasks: this ensures the best and most efficient use of all resources. if necessary.05. PNF checks new altitude (this is performed silently) Be aware that Airbus clearly states that IF ANY DOUBT EXISTS that a crew-member has received information that he MUST be informed: FCOM 3. shall be initiated immediately. Instr. ACTION PERFORMED BY PF WITH AP ON . • Clear and precise call outs: this ensures short and precise communication in the cockpit. PF executes an 2. All deviations from the expected have to be called out and corrective actions. thrust and FMA mode changes without physically or verbally signalling these to the PNF (e.3. The danger of misunderstanding is reduced or eliminated. Silent Cockpit is the means within normal operation. speed.g. PNF checks the action action Example with AP engaged: 1.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 17 of 148 1. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.

. that the same principle applies at all times.07 . Third: Make sure you can send and receive clear and reliable information…. FCOM The situation described above represents an abnormal condition. altitude.10) Fly: • At vrot rotate to 12.Navigate.in other words Fly.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. during normal. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Example: Take-Off with engine failure after v1 (Source: FCOM 3.5 Fly . Navigate. thrust.0 SUMMARY General Principles Page : 18 of 148 1. gear up • Cancel warning • Trim the aircraft • Consider TOGA thrust • Engage any autopilot Navigate: • Pull HDG and fly the engine failure climb out procedure Communicate: • Communicate the intentions to ATC Once the crew has clear command of the aircraft trajectory. speed and configuration…. the checklist work may begin: • Start ECAM action • Consult QRH.05. abnormal and emergency situation Instr. Communicate The successful crew will always clearly understand the priorities when it comes to flying: First: Control the aircraft’s attitude. is on a verifiable vertical and lateral path and has informed ATC.Communicate. Please note however.2. OEB. know where you want to go. Second: Know where you are..5° pitch up • Positive rate. know how to get there….

05.1 General The objective of this section is to provide a standardised guideline for flight and fuel planning 2.page 23) o perform the operational fuel calculation The PNF should closely follow the pre-flight planning.GuideA320 Revision: 1 Effective Date: 19.07 . o Check if profit tankering is recommended (see also chapter 2. making an effort to ensure complete cross- checking. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Pre-flight and fuel planning Page : 19 of 148 2 Pre-flight and fuel planning 2.2. Instr. In order to do so he should perform the following tasks: • Check SWC and Upper Wind & Temperature chart. the flight crew decides on the assignment of the sectors It is recommended that the PF leads the pre-flight planning.8. o check date and validity of all charts o estimate an average wind component along the route • Check TAF.4 page 22) • Check NOTAMS for o departure aerodrome o destination aerodrome o destination alternate aerodrome(s) (consider to check more than one alternate aerodrome(s)) o T/O alternate aerodrome if applicable o En route alternate aerodrome • Check OFP for o Check header (Date.2 Pre-flight planning work distribution After a short analysis of the weather conditions. flight number and aircraft registration) o Check calculated wind component o Check legal fuel calculation according Air Berlin OM-A 8. He shall also intervene as appropriate while considering safety and the strength of the team. METAR and particular weather information (for interpretation of meteorological information see chapter 2. fuel planning instructions.1.5.

A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Pre-flight and fuel planning Page : 20 of 148 2. ATC constraints. Often. It covers factors that are not necessarily covered in the OFP and should be added to the minimum block fuel. the departure phase begins at chocks-off and finishes at the end of the SID. etc). whenever the expected / actual SID is other than the one depicted by the OFP A Arrival Used to compensate for increased fuel burn whenever additional track miles are expected during the approach. ensure that MRW. Approx 5% increased fuel consumption below FL 200 Approx 2% increased fuel consumption above FL 200 L Low Level Cruise Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising at a lower level than the planned FL. Therefore. It is discouraged to simply carry along a standard amount of extra fuel as routine. H High Speed Cruise Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising with HSC. This will be the case.g. or to compensate for increased fuel burn. especially on long flights. the crew will find that it makes sense to take along more fuel to cover for eventualities. runway in use and/or ground de-icing (augmented taxi fuel). (Approx 5% increased fuel consumption) I Icing Conditions Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption due to icing conditions when airborne. Finally.3. some fuel for holding could be considered.3. This causes a higher fuel consumption. Instr.2 HILDAW HILDAW is an acronym used to assist the crew during the pre-flight planning fuel calculation.g. this item shall be used to correct for anticipated traffic situation.05. when selecting a lower level due to anticipated conditions.07 . longer arrival due to a different runway or long radar vectors in PMI runway 06L W Weight Any fuel that is tanked above the amount stated in the OFP (minimum take-off) will signify an increased take-off weight. The increased fuel consumption should be considered. For example. For correction values refer to the OFP D Departure In this regard. 2.3 Operational fuel calculation 2.1 General The crew should verify that the legal fuel requirement stated on the OFP also makes sense from a practical standpoint. CAT. after the fuel calculation. if the crew is aware that the destination traffic volume is significant. Every fuel calculation should be made carefully and in respect of conditions as expected. e. which might hamper the climb to the planed FL (e.GuideA320 Revision: 1 Effective Date: 19. MTOW and MLW are not exceeded. as will a higher ZFW.

6t (total actual minimum block fuel required by crew) The last step is to ensure that none of the aircraft structural weights are exceeded: 60. practical way of determining a fuel quantity which takes into account the flight-crew´s anticipations (which the OFP does not!). A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Pre-flight and fuel planning Page : 21 of 148 Example: The below gives a brief example regarding HILDAW and how it can be applied to fuel planning.5t Trip Fuel (approximate to the lowest trip fuel you expect [without holding.6t Ramp Weight (does not exceed Max Ramp Weight) . The OFP does not cover all the above factors so you you must determine a fuel quantity that covers the operational factors.GuideA320 Revision: 1 Effective Date: 19.1t (the OFP shows burn of +0.0t (you decide not to fly high speed as the time gain would be insignificant) I 0.1t Take Off Weight (does not exceed Max Take-Off Weight) . adjustment for level etc. you having gone over the weather and NOTAMS.5t • The aircraft (A320) Zero Fuel Weight: 60.6t (you will take along this in addition to the minimum block fuel on the OFP) The total block fuel you will tank is therefore: 6.0t (minimum legal block fuel on OFP) + 1.0t Zefro Fuel Wieght + 7. After check-in.) as it provides the crew with a systematic approach to a potential problem. D 0.8t (holding fuel for 45’ minutes is necessary due to the thunderstorms) W 0. • The SWC shows turbulence at your flight-level and your collegue suggests that you could fly lower to provide the passengers with a more comfortable ride.1t more due to the extra fuel you will tank) = 1.0t • trip fuel 3. 3.e.07 .0t (departure on the OFP corresponds to the actual departure ) A 0. You have observed the following during the planning: • minimum block fuel on the OFP: 6.6t Block Fuel = 67.5t (30 minutes taxi time due to de-icing + icing during climb-out) L 0. H 0. Instr. The potential taxi-time is therefore significantly increased – you expect to taxi 30 minutes more than planned.2t (your decide to fly 2 FL below and consult the OFP for the required fuel). = 63. it is time to do a fuel plan with the OFP. most fuel on-board). arrival delays.5t Taxi Fuel (approximate the taxi-fuel you expect) = 67.This method is not mandatory in nature.05.0t • It is snowing outside and it is likely that deicing is required. 0. complex weather situations.6 Landing Weight (does not exceed Max Landing Weight) Finally: This planning tool is especially useful when the operation becomes complex due to the combination of several factors (maximum weights. However. • At the destination airport the TAF states that there is the possibility of heavy thunderstorms. This is where HILDAW comes in as a useful tool – it will determine how much fuel you should take along in addition to the block fuel stated on the OFP. winter-ops etc. it provides a speedy.6t (fuel determined by you in addition to OFP) = 7.] because you want to know if you exceed the Maximum Landing Weight if all factors result in your favour – i.

FM Improvement: Mean wind: Must be within limits Applicable from the Gusts: May be disregarded time of end of the change Ldg minima: May be considered to be above Deterioration: minimum if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum.7.07 . Transient / showery conditions Mean wind: May be disregarded TEMPO e.TL minimum.GuideA320 Revision: 1 Effective Date: 19.05. minimum.g. which are prefixed by: Indicator Kind of change Application of aerodrome forecast Deterioration: Applicable from the Ldg minima: Shall be fully applied if weather time of start of the deteriorates below applicable planning BECMG change. for alternate selection only PROB 40% and higher are considered in the selection. HZ FG SS PROB 40 Gusts: May be disregarded Improvement: Should be disregarded PROB TEMPO In any case Should be disregarded Note: whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating “below minimum” at ETA which are prefixed by BECMG or TEMPO. the airport shall be considered below minimum.g.4 Interpretation of given meteorological information (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. Instr. TS SH Gusts: May be disregarded TEMPO FM TEMPO TL Ldg minima: Shall be fully applied if weather Deterioration: deteriorates below applicable planning TEMPO FM.1.. Persistent PROB 30 conditions Mean wind: Must be within limits e. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Pre-flight and fuel planning Page : 22 of 148 2.4) For planning purposes an aerodrome shall be considered to be below minimum if • the RVR or visibility is below the applicable minimum (precision approaches) • the ceiling or vertical visibility is below the applicable planning minima (non precision approaches) • the steady crosswind component exceeds the prescribed limitation for the A320.. The steady (mean) wind should be used and the gusts may be disregarded • whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating “below minimum” at ETA ±1hr.

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2.5 Profit tankering

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1.8.2)

It may be commercially expedient to tanker fuel to a destination where fuel prices are high or where
there are fuel shortages. The commercial decision to tanker fuel will be made automatically on the
OFP.

With no Information shown on the OFP is tankering not recommended even there is a low amount
of profit. This Information is given on the dispatch remarks section (next Leg Info) or as maximum
remaining fuel.

Profit tankering should not be applied if:

• When icing conditions at destination aerodrome is expected.
On short haul flights only, during the winter months, in particular December, January and
February in Europe, when the temperature at the destination airport is below +10deg C
with high relative humidity, wing icing may form in the vicinity of the fuel tanks. On sectors
of 1 hour 15 min or more, or when the in flight fuel temperature may fall below freezing,
only part of the tankered fuel recommended on the OFP should be uplifted. This will
require a further uplift of “warm” fuel at destination. This has the effect of agitating the fuel
in the wing tanks, melting small accumulations of ice, and preventing the further formation
of ice during the turn round.
• Fuel may be tankered on night stopping aircraft, but if overnight frost or freezing conditions
are anticipated consideration should be given to the likely effect that precipitation or high
relative humidity would have upon cold wings.

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 1 Effective Date: 19.05.07

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2.6 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and destination alternate aerodromes

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.17)

2.6.1 General

The Air Berlin Commander shall only select the destination aerodrome and/or destination alternate
aerodrome(s) when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof,
indicate that, during a period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the estimated time
of arrival at the aerodrome, the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable planning
minima as follows:

2.6.2 Planning minima for a destination aerodrome

• RVR / visibility must be above the specified Minimum.
• For a Non-precision approach or a Circling approach, the ceiling shall be at or above MDH.

Two destination alternates must be selected when:
• the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination, or any combination
thereof, indicate that during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour
after the estimated time of arrival, the weather conditions will be below the applicable
planning minima (as prescribed above) or
• no meteorological information is available.

2.6.3 Planning minima for a destination alternate aerodrome

For destination alternate aerodromes, the minima specified in the following table must be met

Type of approach Planning minimum
CAT II / III CAT I minima (Note 1)
Non-precision approach minimum
CAT I
(Notes 1 & 2)
Non-precision approach minimum
NPA
(Notes 1 & 2) plus 200 ft / 1000 m
Circling Circling minimum

Note 1: RVR
Note 2: The ceiling must be at or above the MDH.

2.7 Take off alternate aerodromes

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.16)

The Air Berlin Commander shall not select an aerodrome as a take-off alternate aerodrome unless
the appropriate weather reports or forecast or any combination thereof indicate that, during a
period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival at the
aerodrome, the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable landing minima specified,
published in this chapter. The ceiling must be taken into account when the only approaches
available are nonprecision and/or circling approaches. Any limitation related to one engine
inoperative operations must be taken into account.
The take-off alternate shall be within 1 hour flight distance with one engine inoperative in still air
(for practical purposes within 370 NM).

2.8 Planning minima for en-route alternate aerodromes

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 1 Effective Date: 19.05.07

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(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.18)

Air Berlin shall not select an aerodrome as an en-route alternate aerodrome unless the appropriate
weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof, indicate that, during a period
commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the expected time of arrival at the aerodrome,
the weather conditions will be at or above the planning minima in accordance with the table under
OM-A 8.4.17.
The en-route alternate aerodromes shall be within 370 nm flight distance.

2.9 RVR conversion

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.4)

If only meteorological visibility is reported, for CAT I and non precision approaches visibility must
be converted to RVR as shown below.

For conversion of meteorological visibility into RVR in all other cases, use the following table:

Visibility x Factor = RVR
Lighting Element in Operation
DAY NIGHT
HI approach and runway lighting 1.5 2.0
any type of lighting installation
1.0 1.5
other than above

no lighting 1.0 Not applicable

Note: If is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR in following cases:

• for calculating Take-Off minima,
• Category II or III minima
• when a reported RVR is available.

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 1 Effective Date: 19.05.07

defines FAF otherwise.1 Structure To verify all waypoints in the FMGS properly against the EAG charts use following structure: The table below shows examples of waypoints FMGS EAG charts RNAV waypoint DL239 DL239 Conventional waypoint LSZ03 KLO – Radial 275 – 2. with an assigned altitude. To verify a conventional waypoint is more difficult. for all Final Approach Fixes. Check track and radials directly in the MCDU. IAL etc. • Final Approach Fix (FAF) A published fix on the final approach with an assigned altitude.) based on country AIPs.3DME Obviously RNAV waypoints are easy to crosscheck against the Charts. This convention should not be confused with the charting convention on which the 3. since EAG flight documentation (SID. This may be confusing. Distances can be verified on the ND in PLAN MODE. The coding in the FMGS is not always obvious. also for ILS or other precision approaches.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) (Source: EAG.1 Definitions • Final Approach Course Fix (FACF) A fix immediately prior to the Final Approach Fix.1.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) 3.07 .0 SUMMARY Briefings Page : 26 of 148 3 Briefings 3.2. usually between one to four miles before the FAF and generally in line with the final approach course.and conventional waypoints 3. Sometimes the coding of the waypoint also allows proper verification.1 RNAV . Legends. Instr.1.1. chapter 14) The NavDataBase delivered by EAG is coded according to an international convention called ARINC 424. usually about four miles from the runway or Missed Approach Point. and usually indicated by a star symbol on the approach. The term FAF is used in ARINC 424. (See chapter 3.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. ERM. • Step Down Fix (SD) A published fix on the final approach with an indicated minimum crossing altitude.05.

g: D150J For distances greater than 26 NM. E. The route type identifier can be any of several letters.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. “B” etc.2 Terminal Waypoint Coding The following summarizes the most common terminal waypoints that have to be assigned codes by the database coder according to the Naming Conventions: • FACF identifier For un-named fixes the letter “C” is used. the letter “M” is used followed by the route type identifier (see above) and finally the runway number. B=2. followed by route type identifier (see explanation above) and runway identifier. Q or U. CN01R • FAF identifier For un-named fixes the letter “F” is used. followed by mileage.g: FI26. and generally indicates the type of navaid used for the approach. Duplications are identified by adding the suffix “A”.g: LON28.05. E. DME03 • Missed Approach Point (MAP) identifier For un-named fixes the letters “MA” are used. FD27L. an ILS is indicated by the route identifier I. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.0 SUMMARY Briefings Page : 27 of 148 3.07 . E..1. while an NDB approach is indicated by the route identifier N. and Z=26). and shortening the navaid identifier to two characters. Otherwise the convention for navaid based fixes uses the letter “D” followed by the bearing from the navaid.g: CI26. If duplication occours. CDG48. Codes are DME. MN09.g: 52DME. CD38A Instr.2. CL27L. E. CQ32. E. FN01R • Step Down Fix identifier DME or other distances are coded after a three-letter code for whole miles. followed by route type identifier and runway identifier. E.g: MA27L. FV22. MD09 • Other Terminal Waypoints The published name should always be used if one exists. or before the code for decimals of miles. and finally followed by A-Z representing 1 NM to 26 NM (A=1. THR (distance to runway threshold) or LOC. For example. L or B. C=3 etc. the navaid identifier is used.

breaking coefficient) • Known or expected technical and operational particularities of the respective departure (e. Instr. FMGS and FCU settings) It is recommended to review the following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the SID (waypoints. shift. departure frequency. flex.g. acceleration altitudes. before each take-off. The main purpose of the latter is to inform both pilots of the status of the aircraft and to refresh the on ground emergency procedures. transition altitude. initial climb altitude.0 SUMMARY Briefings Page : 28 of 148 3.07 .) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode. LSZH14) Check GPS PRIMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH. runway) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and extra time (INIT-B) o SEC F-PLN: Consider programming an appropriate runway for a return to the departure airport or another RWY/SID.05. The Commander informs the First Officer about: • Status of the aircraft and crew (e. before each take-off. o Brief MSA. (Speeds. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.g. o PERF: Check all relevant data. take off alternate) • Action taken in case of major malfunctions after V1 • Flight path in case of abnormal and emergency conditions during take-off and initial climb. CAT I/II/III capabilities) • Emergency handling before V1 (task sharing. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB) o PROG: consider to set a point for a quick return to the field. callouts and priorities) • Emergency evacuation handling and task sharing 3. etc. hold item list. a “general briefing” should be performed.2 General Briefing Before the first flight of the day and before initiating the checklists. address the procedures intended to be applied when in normal conditions. (e. constraints.3 Departure Briefing The Departure Briefing should. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: • A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e. especially addressing One Engine Inoperative (OEI) situations and respective FMGS and FCU settings. use of weather radar and TERR and any specials on the EAG chart. address the procedures intended to be applied when in abnormal and emergency conditions. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: • Review the expected departure (charts. trim.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.4 Take off Briefing The “take-off-briefing” should. 3.g. runway length vs.g.

use of REV and GW • A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e. initial fix. missed approach. the crew qualifications and the airport facilities.07 . minimum. If required check RNP versus required accuracy in the FMGS o PERF: Check all relevant data. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. LSZH14) Check GPS PRYMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH.) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode. (QNH. temperature. o PROG: consider to set a point towards the field (e.05. use of AUTO BRAKE. Notam) Instr. steps. It is recommended to review following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the approach (waypoints. • Brief RWY length. configuration. MSA. constraints. runway etc. etc.g.5 Landing Briefing The “landing briefing” should address the necessary procedures to be followed. MDA/DH. the computer settings. wet runway.0 SUMMARY Briefings Page : 29 of 148 3. degrading of equipment. navigation and expected taxiing • FMGS and FCU settings. the status of the aircraft. x-winds. wind. type of approach.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. use of TERR. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB). check ILS frequency and inbound course. The PF will inform the PNF about: • Clearance limit.) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and alternate destination and check extra fuel o SEC F-PLN: Consider to program a different STAR/RWY or a runway for circling.g.

o Confirm ƒ Crosscheck the effective arming or engagement of modes and the active guidance targets (on FMA. verify the result of this action on: o FMA (e. • After each action on FCU.g. check that the knob or push button is the correct one for the desired function. • During line operations. FMGS navigation accuracy has been confirmed. PFD and/or ND scales and/or FMS CDU).1.g. page Fehler! Textmarke nicht definiert. Note: Never check any setting on the FCU!!! Instr. particularly in congested terminal areas and at high- density airports.. • FMGS lateral navigation should be used to reduce workload and the risk of CFIT during go-around if : o Applicable missed-approach procedure is included in the FMGS flight plan. o Execute ƒ Perform action on FCU or on FMGS CDU. for selected targets). o An abnormal or emergency condition. weather conditions.07 . • The safe and efficient use and management of AP..1. o PFD/ND data (e. See also closed loop principle chapter Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden werden. be aware of modes being engaged or armed (seek concurrence of other crewmember. AP and A/THR should be engaged throughout the flight especially in marginal weather conditions or when operating into an unfamiliar airport.. if deemed necessary).g. for mode arming / selection and for guidance target entries.1 General • Correct use of automated systems reduces workload and significantly improves the flight crew time and resources for responding to: o An unanticipated change (e. ATC instruction. …). • Using AP and A/THR also enables flight crew to pay more attention to ATC communications and to other aircraft. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Use of automation Page : 30 of 148 4 Use of automation 4.1 Recommendations for optimum use of automation 4.05.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. and. adhere to the following rules-of-use: • Before any action on FCU. for arming or engagement of modes). A/THR and FMGS are based on the following three-step technique: o Anticipate ƒ Understand system operation and the results of any action..2 Interfacing with automation When interfacing with automation.. 4. • AP and A/THR should be used during a go-around and missed-approach to reduce workload. o By reference to the aircraft flight path and airspeed response.

If necessary. in terminal area. • Prepare the FMGS for arrival before starting the descent.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • If cleared to exit a holding pattern on a radar vector.g.9 degree and 5. in that order: o horizontal and vertical flight path control. Priority tasks are.g. or for selecting a new approach. in readiness for re-engaging the NAV mode. TO waypoint) is displayed on the FMS CDU and ND. ensure that the selected altitude is not below the MEA or MSA (or be aware of the applicable minimum-vectoring-altitude). • During descent. the holding exit prompt should be pressed (or the holding pattern cleared) to allow the correct sequencing of the FMGS flight plan. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Use of automation Page : 31 of 148 • Announce all changes in accordance with the standard calls defined in the SOPs. • During final approach. the desired TO waypoint can be restored by either: o clearing an undue intermediate waypoint. • Ensuring that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced correctly with a correct TO waypoint is essential. as anticipated.. set the go-around altitude on the FCU. ensure that the aircraft is within the ILS capture envelope.3 to 1. o within 8 degrees from the localizer centreline. ensure that the correct active waypoint (e. when intercepting the final approach course in a selected heading or track mode (not in NAV mode). except to activate the secondary flight plan. • An alternative arrival routing.75 time the nominal glide slope angle (e. while verifying the new route and/or requesting confirmation from ATC. • Under radar vectors. o ATC communications. another runway or circling approach.2 degrees for a typical 3-degree glide slope).g. flight crew should ensure that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced normally by checking that the TO waypoint is correct (on ND and FMS CDU).. • Before arming the NAV mode.. a reversion to AP selected modes and raw data may be considered. The MDA/H or DA/H should not be set on the FCU. o performing a DIR TO [desired TO waypoint]. • Reprogramming the FMGS during a critical flight phase (e. DIR TO). • In case of a routing change (e. o within a glide slope sector ranging from 0. o altitude and traffic awareness.. cross-check the selected altitude indication on the PFD. If the displayed TO waypoint on the ND is not correct. cross-check the new TO waypoint before activating the DIR TO. a glide slope sector between 0. on final approach or go-around) is not recommended. • In case of a late routing or runway change. the selected heading mode can be used with reference to navaids raw data. if prepared. • Before arming the APPR mode. Instr.g. • When changing the selected altitude on the FCU.05. in case of a go-around. The ILS capture envelope is defined by ICAO as follows: o within 10 NM from the runway.07 . can be prepared on the secondary flight plan (SEC F-PLN).

A320 FCOM 3.5) 5.0 SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 32 of 148 5 Exterior Inspection (Walk Around) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.3. • Do not pressurize the green hydraulic system without clearance from ground personnel. • Check structure for impact damage • Check that there is no evident fuel.1 General • The Exterior Inspection ensures that the overall condition of the aircraft and its visible components and equipment are safe for the flight. Remember that the green hydraulic system is pressurized if the yellow system is pressurized and the PTU is on auto. Nose landing gear • Nose wheel chocks CHECK IN PLACE • Wheels and tires CONDITION 4. if any gear door is open. Walk around the aircraft according Picture 5-1. oil or hydraulic leaks. • If a landing gear door is open. LH FWD fuselage • AOA probes CONDITION • F/O and CAPT static ports CLEAR • Toilet servicing door (if installed) CLOSED 2. • The parking brake must be on during the exterior inspection to allow the flight crew to check brake wear indicators.3. contact the maintenance crew before applying hydraulic power.05. • Complete inspection is normally performed by maintenance personnel or in the absence of maintenance personnel by a flight crew member before each originating flight.2 Walk Around The Walk Around must be performed by a flight crew member before each flight. RH FWD fuselage • F/O-CAPT static ports CLEAR • AOA probe CONDITION Instr. Nose section • Pitot probes CONDITION • STBY static ports CLEAR • TAT probes CONDITION • Radome and latches CONDITION / LATCHED 3. 5. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.3. page 4 and perform the items listed below: 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.07 .

RH centre wing • Landing light CONDITION • Slat 1 CONDITION 7. RH wing leading edge • Slats 2. 4.0 SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 33 of 148 5. elevator. 5 CONDITION • Fuel ventilation overpressure disc INTACT • Navigation light CONDITION • Wing tip CONDITION 10.05. ENG 2 RH side none 9. 3. RH landing gear and fuselage • Chocks REMOVED • Wheels and tires CONDITION 12. Tail • Stabilizer. ENG 2 LH side • Fan cowl doors CLOSED / LATCHED • Drain mast CONDITION / NO LEAK • Engine inlet and fan blades CHECK 8. RH wing trailing edge • Control surfaces CONDITION • Flaps and fairings CONDITION 11.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. fin and rudder CONDITION • Lower fuselage structure (tail impact on runway) CONDITION Instr. RH aft fuselage • Toilet service access door CLOSED 13. Lower centre fuselage none 6. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.07 .

5 CONDITION 19. fin and rudder CONDITION • Potable water service door CLOSED 16.05. LH wing leading edge • Wing tip CONDITION • Navigation light CONDITION • Fuel ventilation overpressure disc INTACT • Slats 2. LH AFT fuselage • Stabilizer.0 SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 34 of 148 14. 3. LH landing gear • Chocks REMOVED • Wheels and tires CONDITION 17. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. 4. elevator. LH centre wing • Slat 1 CONDITION • Landing light CONDITION Instr.07 . APU • Navigation light CONDITION 15. ENG 2 LH side • Fan cowl doors CLOSED / LATCHED • Drain mast CONDITION / NO LEAK • Engine inlet and fan blades CHECK 20. ENG 1 RH side none 21. LH wing trailing edge • Flaps and fairing CONDITION • Control surfaces CONDITION 18.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

05.0 SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 35 of 148 PICTURE 5-1. WALK AROUND Instr.07 .GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.

Where the use of a standard load plan has been allowed by the authority. performance and maximum landing weights. Note: This is the lowest of the three weights sums: Max Zero Fuel Weight & Take-off Fuel Max Take off weight Max Landing Weight & Trip Fuel Instr.2) AB Flight Crew must be aware that the weight.05. must contain the name of person who prepared it and the loading supervisor must confirm by signature that the load and its distribution are as stated. It must contain details of the weight and disposition of all loaded items. The document. as accepted by the commander. One copy is to be carried on the airplane and the other. including fuel.excluding all usable fuel and traffic load. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. The weight and balance document must be acceptable to and countersigned by the airplane commander. details must be included together with additional limitations on the permissible range of CG travel on which the standard plan is based.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.1 General. and must indicate whether standard or actual weight values have been used.1.2 Definitions (weights and centre of gravity) Dry Operating Weights (DOW) – The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation. 6. Maximum allowed weights for landing – considering structure and performance Maximum allowed weights for take off – considering structural. must remain available at the departure station for at least 3 days.00.0 SUMMARY Loading Page : 36 of 148 6 Loading 6.9.07 . Airberlin OM-A 8. distribution and stowage of load will affect its structural integrity and performance and those will affect safety of flight as well as economy of flight. For economy the most aft possible CG is desired A weight and balance document must be prepared in duplicate for each commercial air transport flight. He must be informed of any late changes and the details entered in the “last minute changes” spaces of both the original and duplicate documents. (DOW and corresponding DOI are calculated for each aeroplane and standard crew composition) Dry Operating Index (DOI) – The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific DOW. procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet (Source: A320 FCOM 2.01. The maximum flex take-off weight as limited by economical reasons. The document may be in any format (manual or computerised) approved by the Authority to establish the airplane’s weight and centre of gravity. published by the operator. methods.

A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Last Minute Change (LMC) A late change / amendment to the weight and balance sheet which does not require the preparation of a new WB sheet. baggage and cargo including any non-revenue loads Payload (PL) The total weight of the revenue load (pax. Pantry Code (Pantry) The pantry code refers to the type of catering on board a commercial flight (codes A-Z) for example: Hot or cold meals. Making full use of the certified limits would assume. Usually changed each season.0 SUMMARY Loading Page : 37 of 148 Traffic load (TL) The total weight of passengers. that the centre of gravity was correctly computed without any errors. Note: AB allows LMC up to l000 kg Certified Centre of Gravity limits (CG) These are the CG limits with which the airplane was certified with.3 Aircraft weights (DOW) Dry Operating Weight + traffic load = Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW). single or double leg etc. cargo or mail).05. This weight does not include items such as: - Crew and crew baggage. The operational centre of gravity envelope must never be exceeded unless authorised by the Flight Operations Department for special flights. (ZFW) Zero Fuel Weight + reserve fuel = Landing Weight (LW) (LW) Landing Weight + trip fuel = Take off Weight (TOW) (TOW) Take off Weight + taxi fuel = Ramp Weight Instr. Basic Operating Weight (BOW) The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation excluding all useable fuel and traffic load.07 . Operational centre of gravity envelope This is the operational centre of gravity envelope which further restricts the certified centre of gravity envelope to compensate for errors such as the differences between assumed passenger weights and actual weights.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Pantry Basic Operating Index (BOI) The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific BASIC WEIGHT 6. Fleet DOW/DOI For a group or groups of airplanes of the same type and version fleet DOWs / DOIs may be published provided the airplanes in this group meet the requirements of the permitted tolerances for the weights and centre of gravity.

4 LPC load sheet (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.1.0 SUMMARY Loading Page : 38 of 148 6.05.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.9. Instr.2) An LPC Load sheet Will be generated by LPC software.07 . After completion of the electronic calculation the LPC system values will be inserted in the load sheet.

A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.O. manual calculation 2.5. Fill in all the masses & pax figures according ramp agent 5. page 6) 4.07 . LDG: Make CG correction on LDG speed and distance.2.1.5 Conventional load sheet. Fill in the 6. Instr.0 SUMMARY Loading Page : 39 of 148 6.2. calculate MAC ZFW & fuel index MAC T.O. page 6) 3.05. CG is lower than 27% MAC the basic performance must be corrected T.5. Fill out the header (For DOW see chapter 6.: Make CG correction or use appropriate RTOW chart. (see chapter 6. Fill in all the masses 1. Fill in the corrected index (see chapter 6.O.5. page 5) Caution : when the T.

GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.5.800 3500 +1 +1 11000 –3 –3 4000 +1 +1 11500 –2 –3 4500 +0 +0 12000 –2 –2 5000 +0 +0 12500 –2 –2 5500 –1 –1 13000 –2 –2 6000 –1 –1 13500 –3 –3 6500 –2 –2 14000 –4 –3 7000 –2 –2 14500 –4 –4 7500 –2 –2 15000 –5 –5 8000 –3 –3 15500 –6 –6 8500 –3 –3 16000 –7 –6 9000 –3 –3 16500 –8 –7 9500 –3 –3 17000 –8 –8 10000 –3 –3 17500 –9 –9 10500 –3 –3 18000 –10 –10 6.9 iu 53. WEIGHT DENSITY (kg/l) WEIGHT DENSITY (kg/l) (kg) 0.2 DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet Example for D-ABDA This can be found on the reverse side of the conventional load-sheet.800 (kg) 0.8 iu 48.5.1 Fuel index table This can be found on the reverse side of conventional load-sheet.0 iu (FWD Cabin Attendant Seat) APC: +90kg / +1.1 iu (Jump Seat Cockpit) FPC: +90kg / -1.2 iu 54.1 iu 49.05.3 iu 52. Registratio Crew Catering n Version Charter City City Shuttle none Charter long range Shuttle 4 legs 42307kg 43347kg 43432kg 42892kg 43037kg D-ABDA 2/0 47.6 iu 53.07 .2 iu (AFT Cabin Attendant Seat) Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.1 iu 49.8 iu 48.0 iu Index corrections for crew version: ACM: +90kg / -1.7 iu 42667kg 43707kg 43792kg 43252kg 43349kg 2/4 47.785 0.785 0.0 SUMMARY Loading Page : 40 of 148 6.

are within the limits permitted in the OM/B.05. In exceptional cases . (Already 100kg may change T/O speeds significantly!) Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. LMC limit +/. last minute changes to the load. The flight deck crew and ground staff amend their copies accordingly.if time does not permit .9. The load message sent to the destination must contain the corrected figures of pax.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.4) As explained in the definition.07 .either plus or minus . cargo. baggage or mail load.1.and trim-sheet are only permitted if the changes of the load .6 Last minute changes procedure (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.0 SUMMARY Loading Page : 41 of 148 6. One person (LMC) is to be calculated with 90 kg including baggage. Note: The LMC-procedure is only to be applied in the Loadsheet.changes may be relayed to the commander via radio or the ground service interphone. W&B and especially the T/O performance have to be correct and therefore to be recalculated!.1 000 kg The changes have to be entered into the weight and balance sheet into the "LMC" column.

7 Standard Weight Values (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.05.g.07 . STN. ZRH.3) Air Berlin calculates with the following Standard Passenger Weights: All Adults 76kg Children 35kg Infants counted only For flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.) use the following Passenger Weights: All Adults 84kg Children 35kg Infants counted only or male/female splitted weights for flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e. STN.9. VIE. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Loading Page : 42 of 148 6. BGY etc.g. VIE. BGY etc. ZRH.): Male 88kg All Adults 70kg Children 35kg Infants counted only Mass values for checked baggage Domestic flights 11 kg Within the European region 13 kg Intercontinental flights 15 kg All other 13 kg Instr.1.

04. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. 7.05.32) • SAC (Slat and Flap Control Computer) could lead to slats/flaps locked. Instr.07 .04. they may re-engage a tripped C/B.2.0 SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s Page : 43 of 148 7 Resetting of computers and C/B’s (Source: A320 FCOM 3. This procedure should be adopted only as a last resort.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.1 On ground On ground almost all computers can be reset except: • ECU (Engine Control Unit) • EIU ( Engine Interface Unit) • BSCU (Brake Steering Control Unit) if the aircraft is not stopped (see also FCOM 3. unless the Captain (using his/her emergency authority) judges it necessary for the safe continuation of the flight. provided the cause of the tripped C/B is identified. On ground.1 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight In flight. and only one re-engagement should be attempted. do not re-engage a circuit breaker that has tripped by itself.2 Computer reset 7.24) 7. For all other circuit breakers. if the flight crew coordinates the action with maintenance. do not re-engage any tank fuel pump circuit breaker.

2.3 BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.24) For the following system malfunction respectively ECAM warnings/cautions a trouble shooting procedure exists: • VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT • AIR PACK 1(2) REGUL FAULT • AUTO FLT YAW DAMPER 1 (2) FAULT • WINDSHEAR DET FAULT • REAC W/S DET FAULT • AUTO FLT FCU 1(2) FAULT • AUTO FLT FCU 1+ 2 FAULT • one MCDU locked or blank • both MCDU locked or blank • FMGC malfunction • F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT • F/CTL ALTN LAW • F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT • F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) PITCH FAULT • Braking malfunction • ELAC OR SEC malfunction • ANTI ICE L (R) WINDSHIELD (WINDOW) • FWS FWC 1 (2) FAULT • L/G LGCIU 1 (2) FAULT • Failure messages on the CIDS FAP in the cabin • ENG IGN A + B FAULT • ENG 1 (2) FADEC A (B) FAULT • COM CIDIS 1 + 2 FAULT • Frozen RMP • FAP freezing • SMOKE LAV + CRG DET FAULT 7.05.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. STEER FAULT BRAKES AUTO BRAKE FAULT BRAKES BSCU CH 1 (2) FAULT BRAKES BSCU SYS 1 (2) FAULT For more details see FCOM 3.0 SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s Page : 44 of 148 7.04.04.07 .2.2 In flight In flight.04. In particular this applies in the case of any of the following ECAM warnings: WHEEL N. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.32) In case of braking / steering problems. the crew must restrict computer resets to those listed in the table (A320 FCOM.W. the crew may perform a BSCU reset to recover correct functioning of the system.32 BSCU RESET Instr. 3.

FUEL & APU) recommended actions exist.80 ECAM ADVISORY CONDITION Instr.05.3 ECAM advisories (Source: A320 FCOM 3.2. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.02. See FCOM 3. ELEC.0 SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s Page : 45 of 148 7.80) For several advisories (CAB PRESS.07 .GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

Instr. • Only small changes in heading and pitch are required to maintain path (10° heading.2) All approaches must be stabilized by 1000 feet AGL! In order to reduce the risk of "approach and landing accidents".0 SUMMARY Stabilized approach Page : 46 of 148 8 Stabilized approach 8. except respective approach procedure dictates otherwise.11.11. 40%-55%) • All briefings and checklists have been performed • ILS approach must be flown within one dot of the expanded localizer band. • Sink rate maximum 1000 FPM below 1000ft AGL. Any go-around accomplished needs not to be reported to DO.3. however an explanation has to be given to the passengers.1 Definition (Source: Airberlin OM-A . 8.07 . • Power setting appropriate for configuration and not below the minimum power for approach as defined by the aircraft operations manual (A320 & A319: N1 approx. (necessary call outs by PNF: +10 KIAS / -5 KIAS of deviations) • Aircraft is in the proper landing configuration. 2° pitch). go-arounds should be initiated whenever a safe landing is not assured.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. field not in sight at DH / MDA or any other safety reason . 2.2 Philosophy of stabilized approach (Source: Airberlin OM-A 2. • Aircraft speed is not more than Vref + 20 KIAS and not less than Vref.1) An approach is stabilized if all of the following conditions are met: • Aircraft is on correct flight path.3. stabilized approach criteria are violated.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Exception: Circling approach and VFT training patterns: wings must be level on final when aircraft reaches 500 feet AGL.

As the aircraft descends through 30 ft.2 Flare (Source: A320 Instructor Support. • Start the flare at around 20 ft. It is a reminder. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. • In order to assess the flare and the A/C position versus the ground. and that attitude becomes the initial reference for pitch attitude control. watch the BIRD position versus the A/C attitude symbol in the centre of PFD. the pitch law is modified to flare mode: indeed. The flare technique is thus very conventional. Therefore if you are late to retard the thrust levers in a manual landing. If you feel that you are very active on the stick. Consequently as the speed reduces.0 SUMMARY Landing technique Page : 47 of 148 9 Landing technique 9. Indeed with ATHR ON. When transitioning from IMC to VMC. be smooth on the stick.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. These are “typical” figures. release it and the A/C will stabilize.1 Final approach (Source: A320 Instructor Support. • At 20 ft a call out “RETARD” reminds the pilot to retard thrust lever. The final approach with crosswind is conducted flying the aircraft track to the runway centreline. The A/C is stable. Instr. the system begins to reduce the pitch attitude (2° down in 8 sec). thus in which direction to look for the runway. Normal Operation) When reaching 50 ft RA.07 . PNF shall announce it. Feedbacks and static stability augmentation are removed on ground. not an order. However if PITCH greater than 10°. The roll is a roll rate law till the A/C is on ground. look out well ahead of the A/C.e. the pilot will have to move the stick rearwards to maintain a constant path. 9. This is a “crabbed approach” with wings level. the ATHR will add thrust during the flare to keep the A/C on target speed. applying a drift correction. The system memorizes the attitude at 50 ft.05. this gives a good assessment of the drift. the normal pitch law which provides trajectory stability is not the best adapted for the flare manoeuvre. it is a progressive aft action on the stick. Normal Operation) Once AP is set to OFF using the Instinctive Disconnect button on the stick either on short final or in the flare. SPEED mode is effective except if autoland (AP ON with LAND/FLARE). The typical pitch increment in Flare is approximately 4° which leads to a –1° flight path angle associated to a 10 kts speed decay in the manoeuvre. A continuous aft pressure has to be applied as usual. i. But then: • don’t turn towards the runway • don’t duck under.

a partial decrab is preferable. Example: with 30 kts crosswind. the pilot will have to apply some stick to the left. the aircraft yaws and rolls to the right.05. the roll normal law is still effective. In order to keep the A/C on the runway centreline. whereas a partial decrab (5° crab angle remaining) requires only 5° bank angle. the main reasons for this being: • Allowing speed to decrease well below Vapp before flare. and if the pilot wishes the A/C to land with the fuselage aligned with runway centreline. the A/C will turn to the right because of the resulting bank angle and because of the effect of the wind. Normal Operation) During the flare. the flaps or the wing tip. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. In such conditions.4 Tail strike at landing (Source: FCOM Bulletin N° 806/1) Industry statistics show that tail strikes are more likely to occur at landing. • Bouncing at touchdown. Hence the recommended technique for crosswind landing is: • smoothlyapply rudder to align the A/C on runway centreline. Note: In strong crosswind. just prior reaching the flare height. a full decrab might lead to a significant into wind aileron input causing a significant bank angle. The Pilot must be aware that there are aircraft geometry limitations in pitch and in bank not only to prevent incurring a tail strike but to prevent scrapping the engine pod. 9. Thus. Thus when the pilot applies a right rudder pedal input for example. some are associated with such external conditions as turbulence and wind gradient. but it stabilizes with a steady bank angle. if he does not act laterally on the stick. with possibly very slight wing down into wind.3 Crosswind landing (Source: A320 Instructor Support.0 SUMMARY Landing technique Page : 48 of 148 9. If the A/C comes for landing with wind from the left. • Too high flare • Too high a sink rate. • Prolonged hold-off for a smooth touchdown.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. the more induced yaw and bank there is with stick free. Instr. he has to apply some rudder to the right. • act on the stick (on the opposite direction) to maintain the A/C on the centreline. than at takeoff (2 to 1). The aircraft will then turn gently to the right. Although most of them are due to deviations from normal landing techniques. The more pedal input there is. Deviations from normal landing technique are the most common causes of tail strikes.07 . a full decrab leads to 10° bank angle.

In case of a high bounce. Do not allow the pitch attitude to increase. Between 100 and 50 feet.6 Engine-out landing (Source: FCOM 3. maintain the pitch attitude and complete the landing. Should it happen. while keeping thrust at idle. maintain the pitch attitude and initiate a go-around.07 . 9. Do not try to avoid a second touchdown during the go-around. as long as N1 is less than 80%. as thrust may be required to soften the second touchdown.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. if pitch attitude is maintained.05. retract flaps one step and the landing gear. it would be soft enough to prevent damage to the aircraft.0 SUMMARY Landing technique Page : 49 of 148 9.04. and the remaining runway length may be insufficient to stop the aircraft. It is yellow. particularly following a firm touchdown with a high pitch rate. Instr.27 P5) The engine-out landing is basically a conventional landing. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. A landing should not be attempted immediately after a high bounce. the pilot he can reset rudder trim to make the landing run easier. and to recover full rudder travel in both directions. The pilot should trim to maintain the slip indication centred. Only when safely established in the go-around.5 Bouncing at touch down (Source: FCOM Bulletin N° 806/1) In case of a light bounce.

GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 10. Water particles reflect five times as much as ice particles of the same size. and his personal experience to make a sound interpretation of the displayed targets. Consequently the following weather phenomena are not detected by radar: • clouds • fog • clear air turbulence • lightning • wind The antenna is stabilized. composition and amount.3.1. 10. The strength of the echo is a function of the drop size.0 SUMMARY Use of weather radar Page : 50 of 148 10 Weather radar 10. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. analyze and avoid significant weather.3 Use of the weather radar The weather radar is used to detect. slowly scan up to +10° the departure path. etc. the geographic location.1 General A weather radar is only as good as the operator’s interpretation of the echoes that are displayed on the indicator. tilt downwards as the aircraft climbs and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND.05.3. Weather scanning is achieved by varying the tilt. Consequently. Instr. The angle between the weather radar antenna and the local horizon is called ‘tilt’. 10. the tilt is directly linked to the phases of flight and the ND range selection.2 Climb To avoid “over scanning”. 10.2 Technical background (Source: Instructor Support. Normal Operation) The weather radar detects precipitation droplets such as: • rain drops • wet hail • wet snow. then set the tilt to + 4°.07 .1 Tilt Effective tilt management is the key to weather avoidance.1.1 Before Take off If significant weather is suspected.3. The basic/initial value of the antenna tilt should be such as to depict the first ground returns at the top of the ND. The pilot must combine his knowledge of how radar works and its limitations with such things as the prevailing weather pattern. 10.

3. Notes: • Over calm sea and even ground the ground return is poor.3 WX+T and TURB modes WX+T and TURB are used to locate wet turbulence areas. 10. 10. Instr. When closing in on significant weather decrease the ND range and tilt further down.3.1. however.3 Cruise Use a slightly negative tilt and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND.3. tilt down until ground returns are on the 80NM line and return to the 80NM range.4 Spotting dry hail Small dry hail may not return echoes on a radar that is designed for weather avoidance. Tilting the antenna up and down regularly will produce the total weather picture.4 Descent During descent tilt upward to maintain the ground returns at the top of the ND 10.05.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. it begins to melt and form a thin surface layer of liquid that will give a return. the aircraft could be flying into hail. Turbulence is detected within approx.3.5 Approach To avoid ground returns tilt upward to + 4° 10. 50 NM and not affected by gain setting.0 SUMMARY Use of weather radar Page : 51 of 148 10. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. At low altitude operation. adjust the tilt to eliminate ground returns up to 90 NM.1.2 Gain Gain is mostly used in mode AUTO. Before evaluating any weather echoes. A slight downward tilt of the antenna (toward the warmer air at lower altitude) may show rain coming from unseen dry hail that is directly in the flight path. When using turbulence detection.3.07 . the reverse is sometimes true: the radar may be scanning below a rapidly developing storm cell. As it falls into warmer air. Manually vary the gain to determine the strongest area of a cell. A good range to identify and observe significant weather is the 80NM range. start with the gain in AUTO mode. from which the heavy rain droplets have not had time to fall to the flight level through the updrafts. Set the 160 NM range.1. then set the gain back to AUTO.(In FL 370 the line of sight is approximately 240NM) 10. but not in the line of flight. When rain returns appear below the flight path. • No ground returns beyond line of sight.

wind shear).07 .GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. but the severity of the turbulence might not. A strong echo may be received from rain water at lower altitudes. • avoid all red and magenta cells by at least 20 NM. but a weaker echo will be received as the antenna is tilted up because of frozen water at the higher altitudes. Remember that ice crystals are poor reflectors. • Frequent and vivid lightning indicates a high probability of severe turbulence. 10. Closely spaced or thin lines between different colours are usually associated with severe turbulence and should be avoided. Instr. significant turbulence can be expected as high as 10. • Severe turbulence may be encountered up to 5’000 ft above a cell. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. scan by varying radar tilt. • Storms with tops above 35’000 ft must be considered hazardous.8 Pilot behaviour with significant weather It is recommended to take the following actions to avoid significant weather: • whenever suspecting weather.000 ft for each 10-kt reduction of tropospheric wind speed.7 Colour gradient Echo intensity gradients should also be observed and are very important.000 ft above the cloud tops. • Do not attempt to fly below a storm even in visual conditions (turbulence. This value may decrease 1. • do not under estimate a thunderstorm even if the echo is weak (wet parts only are detected). • Use turbulence detection to isolate turbulence from precipitation. When the winds at the top of the storm exceeds 100 kt. • deviate upwind rather than downwind (less chances of turbulence or hail). Thus the intensity of the echo might diminish with altitude.6 Turbulence above cloud tops Limited flight data shows there may be a relationship between turbulence above cloud tops and the speed of upper tropospheric winds.0 SUMMARY Use of weather radar Page : 52 of 148 10. 10.5 Turbulence versus altitude Studies by the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) of Oklahoma show that thunderstorms extending to 60’000ft show little variation of turbulence intensity with altitude.05. 10.

so as to provide the best protection against the effect of gust on the structural limits. can be used.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.9 Severe turbulence: (Source: A320 FCOM 3.4. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. the flight crew and the cabin crew must secure all loose equipment and turn on the "SEAT BELTS" and "NO SMOKING" signs. and do not chase your Mach or airspeed. or 3. whilst maintaining an adequate margin above VLS. This thrust setting attempts to obtain. • Consider requesting a lower flight level to increase margin to buffet onset.05. • Configuration FULL. Configuration 3 provides more energy and less drag. • Maintain attitude and allow altitude to vary.) • Before entering an area of known turbulence. that decreases buffet margins and is difficult to recover. (Sufficient buffet margin exists at optimum altitude. A transient increase is preferable to a loss of speed. • Set the thrust to give the recommended speed (see table FCOM 3.0 SUMMARY Use of weather radar Page : 53 of 148 10. • When thrust changes become excessive : disconnect Auto Thrust.4. the speed for turbulence penetration given in the graph below. For Approach: • Use A/THR for managed speed. Instr. However. in stabilized conditions.91).07 .91) If turbulence is unavoidable. • Keep the autopilot ON. • Only change thrust in case of an extreme variation in airspeed. If the crew flies the aircraft manually: • Expect large variations in altitude. but do not chase altitude. aim to keep the speed in the region of the target speed given in this section.

A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.1 General For more details concerning flight planning refer also to chapter Flight Planning 11.g.25 98 40 cm 99 unreliable 99 Rwy inop // not reported // not significant Remarks 88CLRD// all Rwys o.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 54 of 148 11 Winter operation 11.100% covered 4 dry snow / not reported 5 wet snow 6 slush 7 ice dd Depth 8 Compact or 00 < 1mm rolled snow 9 Frozen ruts or 01 1 mm ridges / Deposit not 02 2 mm reported xx xx mm BB Braking µ (fc) 90 90 mm action 95 good ≥ 0.40 91 not used 94 medium -good 0.29 9x 5x cm 91 poor ≤ 0.05. 25L = 25. DDSNOCLO Rwy closed due to snow removal RR//99// Rwy clearance in progress Instr.1.2 Runway contamination Code: RRDCddBB RR Runway e. 25R = 75.26 – 0.07 . all = 88 D Deposit C Contamination 0 clear & dry 1 < 10% 1 damp 2 11%-25% 2 wet or water 5 26%-50% patches 3 rime or frost 9 51% .0.36 .35 93 15 cm 92 medium .30 – 0.poor 0.k.1 Flight planning 11.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.39 92 10 cm 93 medium 0.1.

7mm 6. Instr.1 Required landing distance (pre-flight) The required landing distance for pre-flight planning is equal to the actual landing distance multiplied with 1. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. manual landing Required landing distance in meters Runway condition Landin dry wet 6.3.1.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 55 of 148 11.2 Automatic landing Determine the corrected required landing distance for manual landing from the data above. The required landing distance for automatic landing is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing except in the following case: • In case of landing in Conf 3 with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg.1.03.05.1. required landing distance. 5 l req = ⋅ l act lreq: required landing distance 3 lact: actual landing distance 11.3mm 12.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.7mm Compacted ice g mass water water slush slush snow 64t 1500 1970 2670 2560 2570 2530 2460 4320 62t 1440 1920 2580 2480 2500 2400 2410 4230 58t 1370 1800 2400 2320 2370 2270 2290 4040 54t 1320 1690 2240 2170 2240 2150 2180 3860 Assumptions: • Configuration FULL • Airport elevation 2000ft • 2 Reversers operative • No wind correction • No CG correction • No correction for speed increment 11. it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 70 meters.10) 11.1.1.3 Required landing distance (Source: A320 FCOM 2.3mm 12. • In case of landing in Conf FULL with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg.3.1 Manual landing 11. it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 125 meters.67.2 Summary.3.1.07 .1.3.

or if compacted by hand.2 kg/ dm3. including wet ice • Wet runway: A runway is considered wet when the runway surface is covered with water.05 or below. or equivalent. but when the moisture on it does not give it a shiny appearance. • Compacted snow is a condition where snow has been compressed (a typical friction coefficient is 0. fog with low visibility of one mile or less.85 kg/dm3. sleet. lt is encountered at temperatures around 5°C and its density is approximately 0.07 . or . • Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow • Damp runway: A runway is considered damp when the surface is not dry.125 in) of water. • Icy is a condition where the friction coefficient is 0. snow will stick together and tend to form a snowball. or loose snow. • Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for takeoff) or when TAT (in flight) is at or below 10°C. • Standing Water is caused by heavy rainfall and/or insufficient runway drainage with a depth of more than 3 mm. slush. if compacted by hand. or o Snow which has been compressed into a solid mass which resists further compression and will hold together or break into lumps if picked up (compacted snow). ice crystals) or standing water. less than or equal to 3 mm or when there is sufficient moisture on the runway surface to cause it to appear reflective. even when moisture is present.2 Definitions (Source A320 FCOM 2. Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. • Wet snow is a condition where. or slush.10) • Contaminated runway: A runway is considered to be contaminated when more than 25% of the runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the required length and width being used is covered by the following: o Surface water more than 3 mm (0. but without significant areas of standing water. Its density is approximately 0.4. equivalent to more than 3 mm (0. and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds. snow. Its density is approximately 0.Ice. and includes those paved runways which have been specially prepared with grooves or porous pavement and maintained to retain «effectively dry» braking action. • Slush is water saturated with snow which spatters when stepping firmly on it.05. rain.2).4 kg/dm3. ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 56 of 148 11. will fall apart again upon release.125 in) deep. • Dry snow is a condition where snow can be blown if loose.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • Dry runway: A dry runway is one which is neither wet nor contaminated.

snow. Instr.07 . • Air data probes. that all critical surfaces of the aircraft are free of adhering ice. • snow. • Control surface cavities. slush or ice adhering to the wings or stabilizers or control surfaces or any frost adhering to the upper surfaces of wings or stabilizers or control surfaces. This is known as the “Clean Aircraft Concept“ and it is ultimately the responsibility of the Commander that this rule is effectively followed on every takeoff.3.2 Engine start in cold weather (Source: A320 FCOM 3. altimeter. • Static vents.91 11.2 Exterior inspection An inspection of the aircraft must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering a clear view of these parts. • Generally intakes and outlets. rate of climb or flight altitude instrument systems.04. • Fuselage.1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak See A320 FCOM 3. • Engines.2. snow. • Landing gear and wheel bays. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.5. It is imperative that takeoff not be attempted unless the CDR has ascertained.3.2. • Vertical stabilizer and rudder. or frost formations.05. these parts include: • Wing surfaces including leading edges.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 57 of 148 On ground operation 11. slush or ice adhering to any fan blade.3 De-icing on ground 11. • Horizontal stabilizer upper and lower surface. windshield or power plant installation or to airspeed.1 Clean aircraft concept (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. • Angle-of-attack sensors. In particular.7) A pilot shall not take off in an airplane that has: • frost.2. The “MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN“ rule applies.70) If oil temperature is below – 40° C the engine has to be preheated T/O with oil temperatures below -10°C is not allowed 11.1. 11.

• The areas where different wing structures are concentrated (a lot of cold metal). • Temperature of fuel added to the aircraft during the current ground stop. Severe conditions occur with precipitation. resulting in a situation that the remaining fuel in the wing tanks is below 0° C.3 Clear ice phenomenon Under certain conditions. accumulations of ice may remain undetected between stationary and moveable surfaces. • Ice can build up on aircraft surfaces when descending through dense clouds or precipitation during an approach.3. onto the affected areas. falling snow with the possibility of re-freezing. The leading edge may not feel particularly cold. The clear ice may not be detected from the cabin either because wing surface details show through.3. Drizzle/rain and ambient temperatures around 0°C on the ground is very critical. therefore. it is possible that. • Under freezing fog conditions. When ground temperatures at the destination are low. The areas most vulnerable to freezing are: • The wing root area between the front and rear spars. especially in the wing tank area.05. adding (relatively) warm fuel can melt dry.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • Any part of the wing that contains unused fuel after flight. Heavy freezing has been reported during drizzle/rain even at temperatures of 8 to 14°C. such as a cabin heater.4 General checks • A recommended procedure to check the wing upper surface is to place high enough steps as close as possible to the leading edge and near the fuselage. especially in poor lighting and when the wing is wet. important that these areas are checked prior to departure and any frozen deposits removed. In most cases. such as areas above the spars and the main landing gear doubler plate. • Abnormally large amount of remaining cold fuel in wing tanks causing the fuel level to be in contact with the wing upper surface panels as well as the lower surface. Any discovered deposits should be removed by directing air from a low flow hot air source. and climb the steps so that you can touch a wide sector of the tank area by hand. 11.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 58 of 148 11. this is accompanied by frost on the under wing surface. when flaps are retracted. If clear ice is detected. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. It is. it is necessary for the rear side of the fan blades to be checked for ice build-up prior to start-up. Instr. The following factors contribute to the formation intensity and the final thickness of the clear ice layer: • Low temperature of fuel that was added to the aircraft during the previous ground stop and/or the long airborne time of the previous flight. • It must always be remembered that below a snow / slush / anti-icing fluid layer there can be clear ice.07 . a clear ice layer or frost can form on the wing upper surfaces when the aircraft is on the ground. the wing upper surface should be de-iced and then re-checked to ensure that all ice deposits have been removed. when sub-zero fuel is in contact with the wing upper surface skin panels. The clear ice accumulations are very difficult to detect from ahead of the wing or behind during walk-around.

05. If the aircraft arrives at the gate with flaps in a position other than fully retracted. de- iced before retraction.) This allowance exists to cope mainly with cold fuel. since surface contamination and blown snow are potential causes for ice accretion equal to natural precipitation. However.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8. runway and adjacent areas. • As mentioned above. these areas must be also de-iced.6) Instr. those flaps which are extended must be inspected and. in the area of fuel tanks and a thin layer of rime or a light coating of powdery (loose) snow on the upper surface of the fuselage. Therefore.5. snow.6) • Flaps should be set just prior take-off to prevent damage by slush.5. if icing conditions are expected to occur along the taxi and takeoff path.2.07 . the moveable surfaces shall be in stowed position. inspect the aircraft when it arrives at the ramp for slush/ice accumulations. and humid conditions not necessarily linked to winter operations. • During anti-icing and de-icing. This consideration must increase flight crew awareness to include the condition of the taxiway. ice. sleet. when the aircraft need to be de-iced. the Flight Crew Operating Manual allows takeoff with a certain amount of frost on certain parts of the aircraft (a frost layer less than 3mm on the underside of the wings. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8. it is necessary to ensure that all ice and frost is removed before flight. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.2. if necessary.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 59 of 148 • When slush is present on runways. • It is important to note that the rate of ice formation is considerably increased by the presence of an initial depth of ice.

11. perform (or have performed) an inspection or simply request a further de-/anti-icing. This information includes the results of the final inspection by qualified personnel.05. The responsibility of accepting the performed treatment lies. if required. from the de-icer itself or another elevated piece of equipment).2 Operational responsibility The general transfer of operational responsibility takes place at the moment the aircraft starts moving by its own power. taxi conditions. when in doubt about the aerodynamic cleanliness of the aircraft.3. No aircraft should be dispatched for departure after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the flight crew has been notified of the type of de-icing / anti-icing operation performed. Instr. the Commander should take into account forecasted or expected weather conditions. The responsible ground crew member should be clearly nominated. The ground crew must make sure that the flight crew has been informed. by touch) to ensure that there is no clear ice on suspect areas. As the final decision rests with the Commander.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 60 of 148 11. 11. holdover time and other relevant factors. As the Commander is responsible for the anti-icing condition of the aircraft during ground manoeuvring prior to takeoff.3. based on his own judgement. he can request another anti-icing application with a different mixture ratio to have the aircraft protected for a longer period against accumulation of precipitation. The inspection must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering sufficient visibility on these parts (e.6 Final check before aircraft dispatch No aircraft should be dispatched for departure under icing conditions or after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the aircraft has received a final check by a responsible authorized person. The person releasing the aircraft is responsible for the performance and verification of the results of the de/anti-icing treatment. however. he can simply request a repeat application. The flight crew should make sure that they have the information.3. taxi times.07 . He should check the aircraft for the need to de-ice.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. and he is responsible for the correct and complete de-icing and/or anti-icing of the aircraft. Therefore. indicating that the aircraft critical parts are free of ice. initiate de-/anti-icing. It may be necessary to gain direct access to physically check (e.g. It also includes the necessary anti-icing codes to allow the flight crew to estimate the holdover time to be expected under the prevailing weather conditions.5.5. Equally.1 Maintenance responsibility The information report (de-icing/anti-icing code) given to the cockpit is a part of the technical airworthiness of the aircraft. frost and snow.3.5 Responsibility 11. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. He will. The Commander must. his request will supersede the ground crew member’s judgement to not de-ice.g. with the Commander.

reset the AEVC circuit breaker at the end of the aircraft de-icing procedure. to avoid any delay between treatment and start of taxiing. or trim surfaces. Avionic ventilation is in closed circuit with both fans running. flight control surfaces. confirm that the outflow valve indication reaches the open green position to avoid any unexpected aircraft pressurization.1 Cockpit preparation • Before treatment. • ENG BLEED 1 + 2 ON At least 60 seconds after APU start.3. This prevents de-icing fluid from entering the aircraft. • Avoid indiscriminate use of de-icing fluid and its ingestion by the engine or APU.2 Before fluid spraying: • CAB PRESS MODE SEL CHECK AUTO • ENG BLEED 1 + 2 OFF • APU BLEED OFF • DITCHING pushbutton ON Outflow valve.07 .3. there is no time limit for this configuration.91) 11. and avionic ventilation inlet and extract valves close. avoid pressurizing or testing flight control systems. In view of the low OAT.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 11. o Hold over time (HOT) • NORMAL PROCEDURE RESUME Instr. or on completion of spraying operation: • APU BLEED ON • PITOTS and STATICS (ground crew) CHECK • GROUND EQUIPMENT REMOVE • DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING REPORT RECEIVED The information from ground personnel. Note: If the "VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT" warning appears.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 61 of 148 11.3 Upon completion of the spraying operation • DITCHING pushbutton OFF • OUTFLOW VALVE CHECK OPEN On the ECAM PRESS page. • Try to make sure that all flight support services are completed prior to treatment.7. • Always have the aircraft treated symmetrically: The left and right sides must receive the same and complete treatment. who performed the de-icing and post-application- check. • Do not move flaps or slats. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. AIR COND/AVNCS/VENT/MONG Y17 on 122 VU. pack valves.05.7 Procedures (Source A320 FCOM 3. • THRUST LEVERS CHECK IDLE Aircraft prepared for spraying 11. if they are not free of ice. AIR COND/AVNCS VENT/CTL D06 on 49VU.7. o The mix ratio of fluid to water (for example 75/25). must include (anti icing code): o Type of fluid used.3. o When the holdover time (HOT) began.7.4.3.

The minimum requirement is to receive the anti-icing code in order to figure out the available protection time from the holdover timetable. or to re-protect the aircraft.4 Taxiing in icing conditions (Source: A320 FCOM 2. In freezing precipitation. There are several parameters influencing holdover time. 'ANTI ICE F/O TAT FAULT'. Instr. Make this inspection before the holdover time expires. 'ANTI ICE CAPT TAT FAULT'. Disregard them. 'L/G SHOCK ABSORBER FAULT' may be triggered. Base the decision on whether to takeoff. consider APU BLEED OFF during takeoff. or SMOKE warnings. a pre-takeoff check should be considered 11. or just before takeoff. resulting in specific odours. medium or heavy by different people. Thus. 2. the radio altitude indications may fluctuate and auto call outs or GPWS warnings may be activated. Disregard these warnings. The timeframes given in the holdover timetables consider the very different weather situations worldwide. as revealed by a personal inspection from the inside and outside of the aircraft.04. Pay special attention to the flight control check.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Do not consider the information given in the holdover timetables as precise. If in doubt. On contaminated runways and taxiways. on the amount of ice that has built up on the critical surfaces since the last de-icing. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. there is a risk of de-icing fluid ingestion by the APU air intake.10) If taxiing in icing condition with precipitation on runways and taxiways contaminated with slush or snow: • Before T/O keep flaps & slats retracted until reaching the holding point on the T/O runway. The view of the weather is rather subjective. experience has shown that a certain snowfall can be judged as light.07 .05. • After landing do not retract flaps & slats to avoid damage of the structure • After engine shut down make a visual inspection to determine that the flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination • When flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination use following procedure: o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP ON o FLAPS RETRACT o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP OFF Note: 1. Note: If the fuselage has been sprayed. the radio altimeters may not compute any data and the ECAM warnings 'DUAL ENG FAILURE'. During taxi on snowy runways.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 62 of 148 Apply appropriate normal procedures. perform the appropriate checks to evaluate aircraft icing.

Instr.3 mm slush o 50. 3.7 mm wet snow is equivalent to 6.8mm of dry snow or 25.1 Runway contamination If the layer of contaminant on the runway is thin enough. The influence of the flap setting on the takeoff performance is well-known.05. The right balance must be found.8 mm dry snow is equivalent to 6.g. The natural loss of payload.2 Performance Optimization A contaminated runway impacts runway-related performance. Optimization of flap setting. The choice of the optimum flap setting is usually done manually. It is not recommended to take off from a runway covered with more than 50.4mm of wet snow.07 . the presence of an obstacle may still require a minimum climb gradient calling for a lower flap setting. Yet. On a damp runway no performance degradation should be considered. FLEX takeoff is not allowed from a contaminated runway. takeoff speeds and derated takeoff thrust are the main ways of limiting a loss in takeoff weight. and the accelerate-stop distance is increased due to the reduction in the friction forces. 11.5. can be minimized by different means. 2. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.5 Take off on contaminated runways 11. Conf1+F) provide good climb performance (good lift to drag ratio) while the takeoff distance is longer (in other words bad runway performance).5.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.g. 11. The accelerate-go and the accelerate-stop distances are then reduced. A quick comparison of the performance for the three different flap settings reveals which one is best. A higher flap setting (e.5.3 Flap setting Three different flap settings are proposed for takeoff. Most of the time.3 mm slush Note : 1. a contaminated runway calls for higher flap setting. the following guidelines should be considered: • Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow • Contaminated runway: A linear equivalence between depth of slush and snow has been defined: o 12. Conf 3) helps reduce the takeoff distance (improvement of the runway performance) at the expense of the climb performance (degradation of the lift to drag ratio). The accelerate-go distance is increased due to the precipitation drag. resulting from lower takeoff weight. As far as performance determination is concerned. the runway is not considered contaminated. Low flap settings (e. but only wet.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 63 of 148 11.

6 Aircraft contamination in flight 11.04.05. slightly positive OATs do not protect from icing and that icing conditions can be potentially met at any FL.5. a moderate change of altitude will significantly reduce the rate. • Icing conditions are far most frequent than effective ice accretion. stratiform clouds can accumulate lots of ice.04.26 – 0. it should be understood that if severe icing rarely occurs below -12 °C.36 – 0. lift off and retract gear and flaps in the normal manner.29 medium-poor 20kt 2/3 0. runway covered with dry snow 4.39 medium-good 29kt 1 0. • High accretion rates are not systematically associated with Cumulonimbus.40 and above good 29kt 1 0. use differential braking • Rotate not before VR . following procedure is recommended: • Select TOGA • Do not abort takeoff for minor deficiencies even at low speeds • If you have to abort takeoff maintain directional control with the rudder and small inputs to the nose wheel. type of cloud. some recommendations are: • In addition to using EAI and WAI according to procedures.07 . • Should the pilot encounter icing conditions in flight. icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning 11.5. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.5 Crosswind limits (Source: Airbus FCOM 2. o When rapid icing is encountered in a stratiform cloud. dry.30 – 0. If necessary.) When taking off on contaminated runways. Instr. Nevertheless. 11.10.4 Recommended procedure (Source: A320 FCOM 2.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) 2. the pilot should keep an eye on the icing process: Accretion rate.6.35 medium 25kt 2/3 0.25 and below poor 15kt 3/4 unreliable 5kt 4/5 equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1. runway covered with slush 3. crosswind equivalent runway friction coefficient action component condition 0.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 64 of 148 11. runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow 5. Icing conditions do not systematically lead to ice accretion.1 General • Atmospheric physics and meteorology tell us that icing conditions generally occur from slightly positive °C down to -40 °C and are most likely around FL100.10) Reported runway reported braking max.

30) ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON during all ground and flight operations.2 Engine anti-ice (Source A320 FCOM 3.30) WING ANTI ICE may either be used to prevent ice formation.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 65 of 148 o If icing conditions prevail on the approach. even if the SAT is below . whenever there is an indication that airframe icing exists. and the landing distance in CONF 3 must be multiplied by 1. except during climb and cruise when the SAT is below . and the landing distance must be multiplied by 1.07 .3 Wing anti-ice (Source: A320 FCOM 3.30) When landing on contaminated runways.6. ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON before and during a descent in icing conditions.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. the minimum speed should be : o In configuration full. keep speed as high as permitted. VLS + 5 knots. or on the windshield wipers.4. VLS + 10 knots.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 3. delay flap extension as much as possible. Instr.05.4. and do not retract flaps after landing. following procedure is recommended: • Avoid landing on contaminated runways if antiskid is not functioning. 11.1.7 Landing on contaminated runways (Source: A320 FCOM 2.4.40° C. WING ANTI ICE should be selected ON.40° C. 11. when icing conditions exist. o In configuration lower than FULL.04. 11.15.6. This can be evidenced by ice accumulation on the visual ice indicator (located between the two cockpit windshields). A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. or are anticipated. or to remove ice accumulation from the wing leading edges. • Use auto brake • Approach at the normal speed • Make a positive touchdown • If needed use max reverse thrust until the aircraft is fully stopped • Use nose wheel steering with care Caution: • Extended flight. in icing conditions with the slats extended. should be avoided. • If there is evidence of significant ice accretion and to take into account ice formation on non heated structure.

36 – 0. icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning 11.29 medium-poor 20kt 2/3 0. damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) 2.1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways (Source: Airbus FCOM 2.40 and above good 33kt 1 0.7. getting to grips with cold weather operations) The pressure (barometric) altimeters installed on the aircraft are calibrated to indicate true altitude under International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions.35 medium 25kt 2/3 0.8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication (Source: Airbus. In all cases.05. The altimeter setting source is generally the atmosphere pressure at an airport. runway covered with dry snow 4. result in an incorrect reading.25 and below poor 15kt 3/4 unreliable 5kt 4/5 equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1. and the correction on the height above the airport has to be applied on the indicated altitude. When the temperature is lower than ISA.26 – 0. where the temperature may be considerably lower than the temperature of the standard atmosphere and may lead to a significant altimeter error. This means that the pressure altimeter indicates the elevation above the pressure reference by following the standard atmospheric profile.10) Reported runway reported braking max.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 66 of 148 11. Temperature greatly influences the isobaric surface spacing which affects altimeter indications. whereby the indicated altitude differs from the true altitude. Specifically. A low temperature may decrease terrain clearance and may create a potential terrain clearance hazard. The same correction value is applied when flying at either QFE or at QNH.30 – 0. runway covered with slush 3. the correction has to be applied on the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source.8. when the temperature is lower than ISA.04. the true altitude of the aircraft will be lower than the figure indicated by the altimeter.07 .GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. therefore. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Any deviation from ISA will. runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow 5. this occurs in cold weather conditions.39 medium-good 29kt 1 0. It may also be the origin of an altitude/position error. Instr. crosswind equivalent runway friction coefficient action component condition 0.1 Corrections Various methods are available to correct indicated altitude. dry. 11.

A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. The ISA deviation is then. or.8. Let’s now assume that the actual Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is -10°C.04 ⋅ 22 = 220ft 10 Instr. The Intermediate altitude on the VOR 28 approach is 4000ft or 2500ft above GND. decrease aircraft indicated altitude by 4% per 10°C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source. 11. The ISA temperature at 1500 ft is 12°C.07 .05. equal to 22°C. The airport elevation is the same as altimeter setting source altitudes elevation = 1500 ft. The altitude error is: ∆A = 2500ft ⋅ 0.2 Example Let’s assume ZRH with an airport elevation of 1500 ft. This method is generally used to adjust minimum safe altitudes and may be applied for all altimeters setting source altitudes for temperatures above -15°C.0 SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 67 of 148 Increase obstacle elevation by 4% per 10°C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

• Primary: a failure of a system or an item of equipment that costs the aircraft the use of other systems or items of equipment. • AMBER: The flight crew should be aware of the configuration or failure. • RED: The configuration or failure requires immediate action.05.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 68 of 148 12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. or limitations.07 .2 Color code The ECAM display uses a color code that indicates the importance of the failure or the indication. as they execute various procedures. • MAGENTA: These are particular messages that apply to particular pieces of equipment or situations (inhibition messages. Instr.1 Types of failures • Independent: a failure that affects an isolated system or item of equipment without degrading the performance of others in the aircraft. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. • GREEN: The item is operating normally.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • Secondary: the loss of a system or an item of equipment resulting from a primary failure. 12. but need not take immediate action. • WHITE: These titles and remarks guide the flight crew. • BLUE: These are actions to be carried out. for example).

10) Level Signification Aural Visual Red warning: Continuous MASTER WARN The configuration. Caution message Mode However. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. or limit flight or Warning conditions (eg: stall. 1. or failure requires Repetitive light red flashing immediate action: Chime or specific red • Aircraft in dangerous (CRC) light. or Memo automatic selection of functions which Magenta are temporarily used message on E/WD Instr. The affected Information parameter pulses green. degradation (eg : FCDC fault) System parameters monitoring NONE Automatic call of the relevant system page on Advisory the S/D. Information : Recalls normal or NONE Green. Amber. specific message (red) on 3 overspeed) sound E/WD • System failure altering flight or Automatic call of safety (eg : Eng fire. these cautions should be Automatic call of considered without delay to prevent the relevant 2 any further degradation of the affected system page on system: the S/D • System failure without any direct consequence on the flight safety (eg: HYD G SYS LO PR) Amber caution: NONE Caution message Requires crew monitoring : (amber) on E/WD 1 • Failures leading to a loss of generally without redundancy or system procedure.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.31. time and situation (amber) on E/WD permitting.05. excess synthetic the relevant cab alt) voice system page on the S/D Amber caution: Single MASTER CAUT The flight crew should be aware of the Chime light amber configuration or failure.07 . but does not (SC) steady Failure need to take any immediate action. configuration.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 69 of 148 12.3 Warning / Caution classification (Source A320 FCOM.

05. As a general rule.00.4.02.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. a black square indicates the precondition n A sequential precondition or a phase of flight is indicated by a black dot TITLE Abnormal procedure displayed on ECAM TITLE Abnormal procedure not displayed on ECAM TITLE Emergency procedure displayed on ECAM TITLE Emergency procedure not displayed on ECAM 12.07 .2 Contents The QRH is divided in following sections • Emergency Procedures • Abnormal Procedures • Normal Procedures • In FLT Performance • Ops Data • OEB’s Instr. A320 FCOM. g If actions depend on a precondition.1 Scope The QRH contains some specific procedures which are NOT displayed on the ECAM.4 Use of QRH (Source QRH 0. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.4.01) 12. 3.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 70 of 148 12. the procedures displayed on the ECAM are not provided in the QRH.

In any case. should the PNF refer to the corresponding QRH summary.4.3 Approach The APPR PROC actions should be performed by reading the approach portion of the summary. for failure cases leading to the loss of the MCDU.3. After referring to the approach portion of the summary. the ECAM should be applied first.4. and check that all APPR PROC actions have been completed. the PNF will be able to compute the landing distance taking failure(s) into account.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 71 of 148 12.02. 12. The landing and go-around portions of the summary should be used for the approach briefing.2 Approach preparation As always. it is not necessary to refer to the "LANDING WITH FLAPS (SLATS) JAMMED" paper procedure.3 Use of summaries in the QRH (Source A320 FCOM. which is not fully addressed on the ECAM.4. When the failure occurs.3. in order to determine the landing distance coefficient. The pilot is presumed to know the computation method. Only after announcing "ECAM ACTIONS COMPLETED".3. the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary. and compute the VAPP. A VREF table is provided in the summary.4. and use the VREF given on the MCDU (the destination having been previously updated). This portion has primarily been added due to the flap extension procedure. approach preparation includes a review of the ECAM STATUS. the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary to determine the VREF correction. Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. 3.05. This includes both the procedure and the STATUS review. in the event of an electrical emergency configuration or dual hydraulic failure. After reviewing the STATUS.1 General The summaries consist of QRH procedures. As the recommendations provided in this portion of the summary are deemed sufficient.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 12.07 . Since normal landing distances are also given on this page. the PNF should then review the ECAM STATUS. in order for the pilot to decide whether to divert or not. They have been created to help the crew handle the actions to be carried out. and after performing the ECAM actions.01) 12.

A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. • Irreversible items (engine master switch. COMPLETED.01 & QRH 0. and excessive delay in procedure initiation. CLEAR ?” PF: “CLEAR” After completion of the whole checklist the Status page appears.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 72 of 148 12. No action is taken (apart from canceling audio warnings. the Pilot Flying may initiate actions before this height. because it is a good compromise between the necessary time for stabilization.02. IRS. fire pushbutton) must be confirmed by the PF • Executes configurations changes required by the PF After a checklist is finished the PNF informs the PF: PNF: “TITLE.02 abnormal and emergency procedures) PNF reads the Status and confirms the completion of the ECAM procedure with “ECAM COMPLETED. provided that the appropriate flight path is established.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. approach or go-around.05. 3.5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures (Source: A320 FCOM.07 . PF initiates ECAM: “MY CONTROLS. through the MASTER WARN light) until : • The appropriate flight path is established • The aircraft is at least 400 feet above the runway. In some emergency cases. Instr.00) Procedures are initiated on the Pilot Flying's command. CLEAR?” PF confirms with “CLEAR” and normal task sharing is resumed. Before studying the Status consider following: • Does an OEB (Operations Engineering Bulletin) for the actual problem exist? • Is a restart or reset of an affected System possible? • Are all checklists completed? (Checklists for normal ops as well as checklists in FCOM 3. if a failure occurs during takeoff. A height of 400 feet is recommended. ECAM ACTIONS” Task sharing: PF: • Controls the Aircraft • Communicates with ATC • Is responsible for the thrust levers • Requests configuration changes PNF: • Reads titles and checklists and executes required actions.

when available : • In case of engine failure. and the ECAM STATUS has been reviewed.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. down to 500 ft AGL in all modes. the AP has not been certified in all configurations. extra vigilance is required. and select a suitable airport. if the aircraft deviates from the desired or safe flight path. When ECAM actions have been performed.80). must be based on the actual landing distance in Conf FULL (Refer to FCOM 3. • If an abnormal procedure causes LAND ASAP to appear in amber on the ECAM. • When performing an engine-out non precision approach. 12. and its performance cannot be guaranteed.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 73 of 148 Notes: • If an emergency causes LAND ASAP to appear in red on the ECAM. • In case of other failures.6 Use of autopilot The autopilot (AP) may be used in most failure cases. NAV V/S.7 Landing distance Any increase in landing distance. • ECAM procedures and STATUS information. the crew may refer to FCOM procedure (FCOM 3. the Pilot Flying should land at the nearest suitable airport. resulting from an emergency or abnormality. and the AP must be disconnected. However. Instr. before applying the ECAM procedures. However. If the pilot chooses to use the AP in such circumstances.02) for supplementary information. if time permits. the use of the AP is not permitted in the following modes : FINAL APP. NAV FPA. the fault should be confirmed on the system display.02. the crew should consider the seriousness of the situation.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.07 . 12. supplemented by a PFD/ND check suffice for handling the fault. including CAT II/CAT III ILS approaches and fail-passive automatic landing.

3.8.5°. After V1: • THR LEVERS TOGA • REACHING VR ROTATE • SRS ORDERS FOLLOW In flight: • THR LEVERS TOGA • AP (if engaged) KEEP • SRS ORDERS FOLLOW (This includes full back stick.80) The "W/S AHEAD" message is displayed on each PFD.01) The following procedures are to be applied without referring to paper: • Windshear • Windshear ahead • TCAS • EGPWS • Loss of braking • Beginning of emergency descent • Beginning of unreliable speed indication 12.8.8.80) Before V1: • The takeoff should be rejected only if significant airspeed variations occur below indicated V1 and the pilot decides that there is sufficient runway remaining to stop the airplane. 3. slats gear) • closely monitor flight path and speed • If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot • If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17. The color of the message depends on the severity and location of the winds hear. If necessary to minimize the loss of height.8 Memory Items (Source: A320 FCOM. if demanded) Note: • do not change configuration (flaps. 12.2 Windshear ahead (PWS) (Source: A320 FCOM.1 W/S AHEAD red Instr.02. increase this pitch attitude.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 74 of 148 12.05. 3.1 Windshear (Source: A320 FCOM. 12.07 .2.02.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.02.

12. increase this pitch attitude. WINDSHEAR AHEAD".8.05. • THR LEVERS TOGA • ANNOUNCE "GO AROUND-FLAPS" • FLAPS RETRACT ONE STEP • L/G UP SELECT Note: • This includes the use of full back stick. Note : If a positive verification is made that no hazard exists.02. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Before takeoff Instr.5°. WINDSHEAR AHEAD".07 . If necessary to minimize the loss of height. • SRS ORDERS FOLLOW Note: If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot Landing The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "GO AROUND. provided the windshear is not entered.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 75 of 148 The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "WINDSHEAR AHEAD. if demanded. as indicated in the SUPPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES 3.4.2 W/S AHEAD amber (Source: A320 FCOM.04. the warning may be considered cautionary. During the takeoff run • Reject takeoff. Before takeoff • Delay takeoff. the slat/flap configuration can be changed. Note: Predictive windshear alerts are inhibited above 100 knots until 50 feet.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.91) Apply precautionary measures. When airborne • THR LEVERS TOGA As usual. • If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot • If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17.2. 3.91.80 & FCOM 3. or select the most favorable runway.

Instr.07 . • Use the weather radar or the predictive windshear system before commencing takeoff to ensure that the flight path clears any potential problem areas. • Select the most favorable runway (considering location of the likely windshear). • Evaluate takeoff conditions using observations.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 76 of 148 • Delay takeoff until conditions improve. • Select TOGA thrust. experience and checking weather conditions. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05. • Monitor closely airspeed and airspeed trend during the takeoff run for early signs of windshear.

34. (Resolution Advisories (RA) are inhibited below 900 feet. 3. • GO AROUND procedure must be performed when a RA "CLIMB" or "INCREASE CLIMB" is triggered on final approach. • Use the weather radar. TA (“traffic”) • Attempt to see the traffic Corrective resolution advisory. • Select the most favorable runway. • If downburst is expected. Note : • When it is using the GS mini-function. while keeping the vertical speed outside the red area of the VSI and within the green area.07 . • Evaluate condition for a safe landing by Using observations.3 TCAS (Source: A320 FCOM.) Instr. use the full speed range between Vmax and Vmax. FPA or V/S. maintain“ or “adjust vertical speed“ ): • AP (if engaged) OFF • BOTH FD OFF • Adjust the vertical speed. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. RA (“climb” or “descent” or “monitor vertical speed” or “maintain vertical speed. 12. • Select FLAPS 3. as required. resume normal navigation in accordance with ATC- clearance. • Engage the autopilot. • Check both FDs engaged in ILS.15) Traffic advisory. QRH 1. • Use managed speed in the approach phase. when ILS is available.05. increase Vapp displayed on the MCDU up to a maximum of VLS + 15 knots. considering also which has the most appropriate approach aid. • Respect all GPWS or wind shear warnings • Attempt to see the traffic • Notify ATC • When “clear of conflict” is announced.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 77 of 148 During approach • Delay landing or divert to another airport until conditions are more favorable. associated with managed speed.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Note : • Avoid excessive maneuvers. for a more accurate approach and earlier recognition of deviation from the beam. the system will carry extra speed in strong wind conditions. experience and checking weather conditions.8. If necessary. to that indicated on the green area of the vertical speed scale.2.

Instr. QRH 1.8. Reaction: • AP OFF • PITCH PULL UP Pull up to full back stick and maintain. decrease pitch and accelerate.4. Do not delay reaction for diagnosis.) • Take positive corrections.05.14) 12. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.4 EGPWS (Source:A320 FCOM.34.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. TERRAIN PULL UP“ or “TERRAIN AHEAD PULL UP” or “AVOID TERRAIN” • During night or in IMC apply the procedure immediately.07 . • When speed is above VLS and V/S is positive. Take positive corrections. the alert may be considered cautionary.4.2.8. 3. • During daylight and VMC conditions. 12. with terrain and obstacles clearly in sight.1 Hard warnings MWL and synthetic voice “PULL UP“ or “TERRAIN.8.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 78 of 148 12. • THRUST LEVERS TOGA • SPEED BRAKE CHECK RETRACTED • BANK WINGS LEVEL or ADJUST • When flight path is safe and EGPWS warning ceases. clean up aircraft as required.2 Soft warnings MCL and synthetic voice “TERRAIN TERRAIN” or “TERRAIN AHEAD” or “ TOO LOW TERRAIN” or “SINK RATE” or “GLIDE SLOPE” etc.

05. • MAX BRK PR 1000 PSI Monitor brake pressure or BRAKES PRESS indicator.2. since initial pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode. to reduce the risk of tire burst and lateral control difficulties. Limit brake pressure to approximately 1000 psi and. adjust brake pressure as required. If possible.32. If still no braking : • PARKING BRAKE USE Use short successive parking brake applications to stop the aircraft. • BRAKE PEDALS PRESS Apply brake with care. • A/SKID & N/W STRG OFF Braking system reverts to alternate mode.8.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 79 of 148 12. 3.13) If autobrake selected: • BREAK PEDALS PRESS If no braking available: • REV MAX • BRAKE PEDALS RELEASE Brake pedals should be released when the A/SKID & N/W STRG selector is switched OFF. QRH 1. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Brake onset asymmetry may be felt at each parking brake application.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Instr.since the pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode. at low ground speed.5 Loss of braking (Source: A320 FCOM.07 . delay the use of the parking brake until low speed.

flights to and from LEPA from Germany pass over mountainous regions – don´t turn towards high terrain. Another example.8.07 . • When selecting a new HDG ensure that it makes sense.1 Beginning of Emergency descent (Source: A320 FCOM.02. QRH 1.05.80. establish communication • When selecting an altitude.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 80 of 148 12.2 Points of considerations • When the oxygen masks are on. allow the speed to increase before starting to use the speed brakes. • After the beginning actions executed by memory.25) Immediate Actions: • OXY MASK ON • Descend with autopilot engaged • ALT selector knob turn and pull • HDG selector knob turn and pull • Target SPD/MACH adjust • THR LEVERS (if A/THR not engaged) IDLE • SPEED BRAKES FULL Extension of the speed brakes will significantly increase VLS.8. TCAS may also be used to choose a HDG that doesn´t pose a risk to other traffic. Instr. due to possible activation of the angle of attack protection. it should be above MORA/MOCA. A quick way to determine the MORA is to select CSTR and check the lower left of the ND for the value (remember that it is the Grid MORA). For example. To avoid autopilot disconnection and automatic retraction of the speed brakes. 12.6 Emergency descent 12.8. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.6. 3. refer to the QRH for further actions.6.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

2. • Fluctuating or unexpected increase/decrease/permanent indicated speed. by comparing all of the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1. in all cases of unreliable speed situation. or severe turbulence table (if in cruise). 3 and standby instruments) to positively identify the faulty ADR(s). • If the safe conduct of the flight is affected (all the speed indications are unreliable. climb rate). 2. it is recommended to maneuver the aircraft with care until the ADR(s) is (are) switched OFF. or pressure altitude.05. and standby instruments). the flight control and flight guidance computers will use the remaining two wrong ADRs for their computation.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 81 of 148 12. or increase in aerodynamic noise with decreasing speed.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • Inconsistency between radio altitude and pressure altitude.7. • Then. 2. • Rely on the stall warning that could be triggered in alternate or direct law. provided a significant difference is detected. The indicated altitude may also be affected. • Stall warning. associated with the overspend VFE warning. they will not be able to reject two erroneous speeds or altitudes that synchronously and similarly drift away. is a symptom of a real overspend condition. Unreliable speed indications may be suspected. Consequently. If necessary. • Impossibility of extending the landing gear by the normal landing gear control. 3 and standby instruments) with the expected Instr. 3. Therefore. and fly the memory pitch – thrust settings.8. since the flight control laws may be affected. or overspend warnings. 3. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Check the resulting speed indicated on the table with all the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1.2. the pilots must identify the faulty ADR(s) and then switch it (them) OFF. the aircraft systems will consider the remaining correct source as being faulty and will reject it. pitch attitude. the overspend warning may be false or justified. The flight control and flight guidance computers normally reject erroneous speed/altitude source(s). Unreliable speed cannot be detected by the ADIRU. During this failure identification time. It is not affected by unreliable speeds. In this remote case. thrust. once stabilized. either by • Speed discrepancies (between ADR 1.34) 12. enter the unreliable speed procedure. that contradicts with at least one of the indicated speeds. to set the pitch and thrust corresponding to the current flight phase. if static probes are affected. • Abnormal correlation of the basic flight parameters (speed. Buffet. because it is based on angle of attack.8. or the wrong speed indication cannot not be positively identified) • Immediately apply the memory items : AP/FD/ATHR OFF. • Depending on the failure. or due to air probe failure or obstruction. refer to the QRH in order to determine the pitch and thrust settings required by the current flight phase.07 .7 Unreliable speed indication (Source: A320 FCOM. • Reduction in aerodynamic noise with increasing speed. • Abnormal AP/FD/ATHR behavior.1 General Unreliable speed indication may be due to radome damage. • Determine the faulty ADR(s) once the aircraft is stabilized. first apply the ADR CHECK procedure to identify the faulty ADR(s) and switch it (them) OFF. How to apply the procedure • If the wrong speed or altitude information does not affect the safe conduct of the flight. However.

• The FPV is unreliable.7.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 82 of 148 speed. After the beginning actions executed by memory. refer to the QRH for further actions. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.07 . 3.8. if altitude information is affected. apply the proper pitch-thrust settings for each flight phase until landing and refer to ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for assistance. Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.2 Beginning of Unreliable Speed Indication (Source: A320 FCOM.2. it is a valuable aid in establishing a safe flight path. In other cases.34) • AP / FD OFF • A/THR OFF • FLAPS MAINTAIN CURRENT CONFIG • SPEED BRAKES CHECK RETRACTED • L/G UP Below thrust reduction altitude • THRUST LEVER TOGA • PITCH ATTITUDE 15° Above thrust reduction altitude • THRUST LEVER CLB • PITCH ATTITUDE below FL100 10° • PITCH ATTITUDE above FL100 5° Note: • Respect the stall warning. 12. as per the table . • In the extreme case where the faulty ADR(s) cannot be identified and all speed indications remain unreliable. • Ground speed variations can provide valuable short-term information at low altitude. use ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for reasonableness considerations. if in alternate law.

8.05. 3.1 General The decision to reject the takeoff and the stop action is made by the captain. Instr. he calls "stop".8.8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation (Source: A320 FCOM. if any ECAM warning is activated. and to avoid unnecessary stops from high speed. depending on the circumstances • Although we cannot list all the causes.07 . A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. the pilot should be "go-minded" if none of the main failures cited below ("Above 100 knots and below V1") has occurred. the ECAM inhibits the warnings that are not paramount from 80 knots to 1500 feet (or 2 minutes after lift-off. Above 100 knots. as speed approaches V1. initial temperature higher than normal • Brakes not fully applied • Runway friction coefficient lower than expected • Error in gross weight determination • Runway line-up not considered. takes over. which allows 2 seconds between decision and action.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 83 of 148 12. Note: The speed of 100 knots is not critical: It was chosen in order to help the captain make his decision. whichever occurs first). As soon as he decides to abort.02. This may be due to the following : • Delay in initiating the stopping procedure • Tires damaged • Brakes worn or not working correctly.02.80) 12.8. It is impossible to list all the factors that could lead to the decision to abort the takeoff. the captain should seriously consider discontinuing the takeoff.2 Decision management Below 100 knots : • The decision to reject the takeoff may be taken at the captain's discretion.8. Therefore the captain should keep his hand on the thrust levers until V1 is reached whether he is PF or PNF. based on flight tests. The aircraft is certificated according to FAR amendment 25-42.10 & 3. Rejected takeoffs have sometimes been hazardous even though the performance was correctly calculated. but in order to help in the decision process.8. thus improving the safety margin. and performs the stop actions. Therefore. rejecting the takeoff becomes a serious action that may lead to a hazardous situation.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 12.

because it may not be possible to stop the aircraft on the remaining runway.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. But.3. it is far better to get airborne. • In case of tire failure between V1 minus 20 knots and V1: Unless debris from the tires has caused serious engine anomalies. ECAM warnings such as: ƒ ENG or APU FIRE ƒ ENG FAIL ƒ CONFIG.3 Procedure during a rejected takeoff 12.8. and land with a full runway length available. if there is enough runway available at the end of the deceleration.8. Above V1: Takeoff must be continued.8. 12. (MAIN WARNINGS ONLY) ƒ ENG OIL LO PR ƒ ENG REV UNLOCKED ƒ L + R ELEV FAULT • Nose gear vibration should not lead to an RTO above 100 knots. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. if the speed is approaching V1.1 Phase 1 CMD: • “stop” CALL • THRUST LEVERS MAX REVERSE Full reverse may be used until coming to a complete stop.8. • The V1 call has precedence over any other call.05.07 . It could lead to a hazardous situation. o Sudden loss of engine thrust. it is preferable to reduce reverse thrust when passing 70 knots. particularly on slippery runways. Very few situations should lead to the decision to reject the takeoff. o Malfunctions or conditions that give unambiguous indications that the aircraft will not fly safely. reduce the fuel load. FO: • BREAK RESPONSE MONITOR • REVERSE CONFIRM • “70 kt” CALL OUT • ANY WARNING CANCEL • ATC INFORM • ON GND EVAC C/L LOCATE Instr.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 84 of 148 Above 100 knots and below V1 : • Rejecting the takeoff at these speeds is a more serious matter. The main ones are: o Fire warning or severe damage.

2 Phase 2 CMD: • PARKING BRAKE ON • PA “cabin crew at stations” CALL • “ECAM actions” CALL FO: • ECAM ACTIONS INITIATE 12. as required. Do not attempt to clear the runway. until it is absolutely clear that an evacuation is not necessary and that it is safe to do so. if the aircraft comes to a complete stop using autobrake MAX. • Inform ATC of intention and required assistance.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. If in doubt. • The aircraft will stop in the minimum distance.3.3 Evacuation Phase • If required. take over manually. • After a rejected takeoff. immediately switch the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF and modulate brake pressure. the Captain simultaneously reduces thrust and applies maximum pressure on both pedals. refer to the ON GROUND EMER/EVACUATION Checklist for evacuation.8.3. release brakes prior to taxi by disarming spoilers.05.07 . • If the brake pedals were fully pressed when switching the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF. full manual braking should be applied and maintained. • If the autobrake is unserviceable.8. at or below 1000 PSI. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. • If normal braking is inoperative.8.8. Instr. full pressure would be applied to the brakes. only if the brake pedals are maintained fully pressed until the aircraft comes to a stop. 12.0 SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 85 of 148 Note: • If the brake response does not seem appropriate for the runway condition.

This topic will concern the pilots awareness of the aircraft’s vertical and lateral position and energy in relation to the descent path – using the FMS data as back-up rather than the primary source of information. indicating deviations to +. fire and smoke develops in the cabin. These tools have distinct advantages which include: • Economic descent (fuel savings) • FMS can be programmed to consider constraints • MCDU.1 General The Airbus A320 is equipped with numerous electronic tools (FMS. execution and monitoring of the descent. visual approaches). is this sufficient?” • You are cruising 37’000 feet.0 SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 86 of 148 13 Descent planning 13.05. It is not uncommon for pilots to misjudge the descent ending up “high and fast” – an uncomfortable situation that will require much attention and capacity to rectify. ATC asks you “AB7221 you have 25 Track Miles to land. • Flight-crews lose awareness of factors that lead to the most economically viable descent (fuel savings). Some practical examples that would require an approximate rapid calculation by the pilots independent of the FMS (no time available to program the FMS): • You are at 9000ft AGL during the approach. EFIS) to aid the pilot in planning and executing a descent from cruising level all the way down to the landing. • During emergency or abnormal operations the FMS may not be available for the planning. radar vectors. • By using the FMS.g. However. the flight-crew risks to become less situationally aware regarding the lateral and vertical position and energy of the aircraft in relation to the descent path - independently from the FMS. • It is very accurate. there are also disadvantages to consider: • The FMS is most useful for long-term predictable paths. In dynamic and fast-paced ATC environments it is difficult to use the FMS for effective descent planning (e. Can you fly directly for a straight in approach to an airport 30 miles ahead? After working through this section you will appreciate what factors must be considered in finding a reasonable course of action for the above examples and actual situations during daily operations.10ft on the PERF Page on the MCDU. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Instr. Remember – a controlled safe descent will provide you with the time to devote your attention to other matters. PFD and ND can be used to monitor vertical and lateral progress of descent. ATC asks “AB9748 how many track miles do you need for landing?” • You are being vectored downwind at an altitude of 6000ft AGL.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.07 .

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13.2 Energy management

13.2.1 General

A descent constitutes the management of the aircraft´s energy. The total energy is always the sum
of the potential energy (potential energy = altitude) and its kinetic energy (kinetic energy = speed).

E pot = mgh

1
Ekin = mv 2
2

Epot: Potential energy
Ekin: Kinetic energy
m: Mass of aircraft
g: Acceleration due to gravity (g=9.81m/s2)
h: Height of the aircraft above the field
v: Speed of the aircraft

So the total energy of the Aircraft is

Etot = E pot + Ekin

The primary concern of the flight-crew during the descent is therefore to control the aircraft’s
descent path by managing the total energy so as to be at the desired speed at the required altitude
– if possible in an economic manner.

13.2.2 Energy circle displayed on the ND

(Source: A320 FCOM 4.2.20 PERFORMANCE FUNCTION)

In the ND a green dashed arc is presented if the lateral guidance mode is heading or track, and the
current FMS flight phase is in cruise, descent or approach, and the aircraft is within 180 NM of the
destination.

The energy circle is centered on the aircraft position and oriented to the current track line. It
represents the required distance to land by comparing the actual total energy of the aircraft and the
required total energy at the destination airport. (The total energy at destination is zero)

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13.2.3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft

The primary factors affecting the descent path of an aircraft can be subdivided into two main
groups:

• Factors that can be influenced by the Pilot
o Configuration – Deploying devices such as spoilers, flaps, slats and gear will
increase the drag of the aircraft and thus increase the descent gradient.
o Thrust – The lower thrust setting will translate into a steeper descent path.
Consumers such as anti-Ice increase the idle thrust parameters and can also have
an influence on the descent path.
o Speed – The descent speed (IAS) can have a significant effect on the descent
path. Since the total drag increases exponentially with speed, the steepest descent
path can be attained flying at the highest possible speeds.

• Factors that cannot be influenced by the Pilot
o Mass – A higher mass constitutes higher inertia. The consequence is that the
aircraft has a higher total energy and it takes more effort to change vectors such
as speed.
o Wind – The wind has an influence on the air distance the aircraft has available to
reduce the altitude. An increase in headwind increases air distance in which the
altitude can be defeated. On the other hand a tailwind will reduce the air distance
available to land.

Reading the above, it can be seen that the steepest descent path is achieved when the pilot flies
with spoilers, flaps, slats, gear extended, at idle thrust, consumers such as engine anti-ice off, with
maximum IAS – and if he is lucky enough to be flying into a head-wind with a comparatively light
aircraft…..”it can drop like rock”.

13.3 The economical descent

13.3.1 General

As seen above, the Pilot has various tools at his disposal to increase the drag of the aircraft.
Considering that the thrust should be reduced to idle at the top of descent to save fuel, the pilot has
two strategies for approach:

• As a first option (1 in the figure below), he can maintain the speed as dictated by the
entered Cost Index (Econ Speed) and commence the descent at the relevant point. Per
definition, this speed is the most cost-effective for the given flight. The descent path is not
as steep as the second option and so the descent must begin earlier.
• As a second option (2 in figure below), he can choose to continue at the cruising altitude
as long as possible in order to have low fuel consumption at high altitude. At the
appropriate point, he can initiate a descent at the highest possible speed and drag so as to
complete the descent in the shortest possible time.

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A B

1 – Econ speed 2 – Max speed

The most economic descent is option 1. Whereas option 2 allows the engines to operate at the
cruising level for longer and has a shorter descent phase, the consumed fuel from A to B defeats
the economic purpose of the descent. In addition the time gain of option 2 is practically
insignificant.

Consequently, the most fuel efficient descent for the applicable flight is the one that is conducted at
the ECON SPEED at idle thrust in clean configuration.

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.07

have a lift/drag curve in clean configuration that lends itself well to a conduct of a 3° descent gradient. anytime a high drag device is deployed it means that lift energy is being destroyed – lift that was provided by engine thrust (and fuel!) at some point. Instr.05. FL 20.2.req = 3 ⋅ 35 + 20 = FL125 The required aircraft altitude is FL125 or approximately 12’500ft AMSL In the above example you are 1500ft below the 3° descent path and so are in a comfortable position to continue the descent. req: Required aircraft Altitude [FL] Aacft: Aircraft Altitude [FL] Aairport: Airport elevation [FL] tm: Track miles [Nm] tmreq: Required track miles [Nm] 13.07 .3. aircraft altitude 10’0000ft = approx FL100.g. Aacft .0 SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 90 of 148 13.2 Planning for an economical descent As far as fuel efficiency is concerned. airport elevation 2000ft = approx. The aerodynamics of most commercial aircraft such as the A320. (1500ft at this distance is a reasonable deviation – you will get a “feel” for this tolerance during practical flying). A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.3.1 Example 1 During a descent you are at 11’000ft AMSL and are descending to a runway 35 NM away that is at 2000ft AMSL.req = 3 ⋅ tm + Aairport Consequently: Aacft − Aairport tmreq = 3 Aacft. Are you on the 3° descent path (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? Required aircraft altitude: Aacft . The pilot can always check what the aircraft altitude should be is in relation to this gradient with the following formula: Note: For simplification use FL equivalents for altitude and elevation e. Therefore the most cost-effective descent is attained when flying at the company specified Cost Index speed without the aid of devices such as spoilers.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

It may contain additional miles such as procedure turns that you will end up not flying – considerably reducing your actual track miles.4 Remaining on the 3° descent path As discussed earlier. 13. this ND is an ideal tool since the distance markings give a good view in which to visualize the possible ground distance.Aaiport) ) / 3 = (350 – 20) / 3 = 110 track miles b. the Ground speed (as seen on the ND on the A320) must be monitored and the V/S adjusted since the wind can vary significantly at various altitudes. When calculating the track miles. The airport is at 2000ft.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. there is a simple formula: VSreq = 5 ⋅ GS VSreq: Required vertical speed [ft/min] GS: Ground speed [kt] This formula already takes into account any existing tail or headwind component.2 Example 2 You see that you are 90 NM from the airport at which you intend to land and are still cruising at FL350. a.0 SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 91 of 148 13. the air distance available would decrease and the rate of descent would have to be increased to remain on the descent path.3. Required track miles: tmreq = (Aacft . Are you too high? If so by how much? Answer: a. In order to do this.3.3.3 A word about track miles The key to successful descent planning is that the pilot is aware of the distance which the aircraft has left to fly over ground. Fortunately. If flying into an increasing headwind the aircraft has more air distance available to complete the descent – the pilot would have to reduce the vertical speed to remain on the descent path. Instr.07 .2. Required aircraft altitude: Aacft . A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.req = 3 ⋅ 90 + 20 = FL290 So you should start your descent immediately since you are 6000ft too high! 13. Because the method by which the pilot monitors the descent rate is primarily the vertical speed indicator it would be helpful if there was a simple way to calculate the required vertical speed to maintain a 3° descent gradient. When should you start your descent (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? b.05. the wind has a distinct effect on how many air miles the aircraft has available for completing the descent. However. However if the aircraft would fly into an increasing tailwind. be cautious about simply reading the distance on the MCDU F-PLN page.

o If the pilot chooses to continue at this speed. For example.g.5 Strategies for intercepting the 3° descent path from above and below Because the environment in which we fly is so dynamic. 13. • Devices such as spoilers are especially useful for increasing descent rate when the speed increase is no longer desired (e. the same basic energy management principles apply: Excess speed can be traded for altitude. he may have to resort to the spoilers later to defeat the excess altitude. the speed can be reduced to attain a descent rate that is appropriate for the descent path. the pilot has great flexibility in applying them. ATC) or possible (e. Once established on the descent path. the pilot reduces the thrust and fuel flow and may be able to attain the descent path without unnecessary additional drag such as spoilers.07 .5.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.3. However. there are cases when further descent is restricted by ATC but the aircraft is already significantly above the desired 3° descent gradient. • Using this notion. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. the fuel spent cruising at the original speed will have been wasted. to speed (kinetic energy). As a result.1 Intercepting from above • When above the glide-slope.5.0 SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 92 of 148 13.g.3. VSreq = 5 ⋅ GS = 5 ⋅ 300 = 1500 ft min 13.3.1 Example If you see on your ND that your GS is 300 Knots and you are on the 3° descent gradient. By reducing the speed.4. 13. Obviously the deployments of any high-drag devices are undesired during this stage. he will later be able to lose the excess altitude effectively by increasing the speed in OP DES mode. o If the pilot reduces the speed at this stage. it often occurs that we find ourselves above the desired descent gradient or even below. For example. Instr.05. the only option left to the pilot is to add thrust. In this case high-drag devices allow an increase in descent rate without an increase in airspeed. what would be your required vertical speed? Required vertical speed. the pilot can convert the excess altitude (potential energy).2 Intercepting from below Intercepting the descent-path from below allows the pilot fewer strategies. In this case we must act accordingly and intercept the desired gradient using several tools at our disposal. when in OP DES mode (engines at idle thrust) a selection of a higher IAS would result in an increase in airspeed and therefore an increase is descent rate.3. If the speed energy required is insufficient to regain the desired descent path. maximum speed for configuration already attained).

0 SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 93 of 148 13. even minor fuel savings per aircraft can add up to vast sums for the entire fleet over the course of a year. So remember.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.4 Conclusion As you have read. As Airberlin has a considerable fleet size.07 . Although safety remains the top priority – economic flying is becoming ever more important.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. the descent must be safe and economic! Instr. great emphasis was put above on the economics of the descent. fuel cost is a major factor in determining the future of any company. In today’s industry.

engines. certain conditional deviations from the original requirement are authorized to permit continued or uninterrupted operation of the aircraft in revenue flight: they are published in the MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) related to applicable regulations. the aircraft could not be flown in revenue service unless such equipment was operable.1 Objectives An airplane is being type certificated with all required equipments in operating conditions. Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. when the remaining instruments and equipment provide an acceptable level of safety. • The failure of instruments or items of equipment in excess of those allowed to be inoperative by the MEL causes the aircraft to be unairworthy. Experience has proven that the operation of every system or component installed on the aircraft is not necessary.07 . 14. • In order to maintain an acceptable level of safety and reliability the MEL establishes limitations on the duration of and conditions for operation with inoperative equipment. entertainment systems. • For the sake of brevity. If deviations from this type certificated configuration and equipment required by the operating rules were not permitted. in specific conditions and during limited period. control surfaces.05. • The MEL is intended to permit operation with inoperative items of equipment for a period of time until rectifications can be accomplished. specific operations or airlines particular definitions. landing gear. etc… or items which do not affect the air worthiness of the aircraft such as galley equipment.2 General application of the MEL • MEL provisions are applicable until the airplane commences the flight and therefore have to be considered during taxiing prior take off. the MEL does not include obviously required items such as wings. passenger convenience items.0 SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 94 of 148 14 Minimum Equipment List (MEL) (Source: A320 Airberlin MEL) 14.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. His decision to have allowable inoperative items corrected prior flight will have priority over the provisions contained in the MEL. It is important that rectifications be accomplished at the earliest opportunity. etc… • All items which are related to the airworthiness of the aircraft and not included in the list are automatically required to be operative for each flight. Therefore. • MEL conditions and limitations do not relieve the pilot in command from determining that the aircraft is in a fit condition for safe operation with MEL specified unserviceabilities. • The MEL makes no distinction between what is required for the flight between origin and destination (including the intermediate stops) and what is required for a flight beyond the scheduled arrival point. • For dispatch with secondary airframe or engine parts missing refer to Configuration Deviation List (CDL).

14. Dispatch with a MAINTENANCE message displayed on ECAM STATUS page is allowed without specific conditions except for the following message: • AIR BLEED: Refer to MEL 36–00–01 14. A MAINTENANCE message indicates the presence of a category of failure which can only be identified by the interrogation of CFDS.05. refer to QRH.2 CAT2.2.3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) • Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RVSM operations are listed in Flight Manual 4.03. CAT3 SINGLE.51. emergency procedures. • This MEL may not deviate from requirements of the flight manual limitations section.03.04. • The MEL does not include these requirements. refer to Flight Manual and FCOM.00 and FCOM 2. CAT3 SINGLE. • The exposure to additional failures during operation with failed inoperative systems or components must also be considered to determine that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained. FM and FCOM. the related MAINTENANCE messages which may be displayed on ECAM STATUS page are listed with the indication of the associated dispatch status.2. • The MEL does not include these requirements.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. refer to Flight Manual and FCOM. unless the flight manual or airworthiness directive provides otherwise.4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) • Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RNP operations are listed in FM 4. Instr. 14.1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page At the head of each ATA chapter of this MEL.2.03. or CAT3 DUAL capability displayed on FMA are listed in QRH and in the Flight Manual 4.50. or airworthiness directives. CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing • Equipment to be operative to get CAT2.00 page 8.07 .2. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. 14.00 and FCOM 2. • The MEL does not include these requirements.04.0 SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 95 of 148 • Air carriers are responsible for exercising the necessary operational control to assure that no aircraft is dispatched or flown with one or more MEL item inoperative for an indefinite period and without first determining that any interface or interrelationship between inoperative systems or components will not result in a degradation in the level of safety and/or an undue increase in crew workload.

1 Section 00 General Section 00 contains general information about the manual.3 Structure of the MEL The content of the MEL is divided into four parts: 14.3. 14.. is described in section 02 Operational Procedures • When a MEL item calls for a maintenance procedure.07 .3. this is labelled by an (m). A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. a so called operational procedure (labelled by an (o) ) a procedure.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.3 Section 01 MEL The Minimum Equipment List contains the LBA approved list of equipment which may be inoperative for aircraft dispatch and/or clearly specified NO GO items if necessary • When a MEL item requests a flight crew action.3.3.4 Presentation of the MEL For a detailed description of the presentation of the MEL refer to MEL 01..05. 14.00 Page 1-5 Instr. 14.4 Section 02 Operational Procedure Section 02 contains operational procedures.2 Section 00E Section 00E contains ECAM warnings/MEL entry.. 14.0 SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 96 of 148 14. The relevant procedure can be found in the AM (Aircraft Maintenance Manual) and has to be carried out by a certified mechanic.

04. 8.2 Dispatch requirements (Source: Air Berlin OM-A.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.2.36Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page Instr. page97) is a parameter describing lateral deviations from an assigned or selected track as well as along track position fixing accuracy on the basis of an appropriate containment level.1 General When referring to RNP-X.2 Without GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (Source: A320 FCOM 2.3. see chapter 15.3. 8.0 SUMMARY RNAV Page : 97 of 148 15 RNAV 15.8 the required RNP is as follows: • en-route navigation: RNP-5 • terminal navigation: RNP-1 • approach: RNP-0.3.1.2.2Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page • RNP.transitions to final approach (clearance limit to intermediate fix) are an integral part of the standard arrival procedures and should not be filed separately in the ATC - FPL.07 . double EFIS. provided the radio navaid coverage supports it for: • RNP.2 ) Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation. The Required Navigation Performance (RNP. • RNP 5 (Basic RNAV) • RNP 1 (Precision RNAV) 15.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 2.1 General (Source: Air Berlin OM-A.51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15.3 in approach provided a required accuracy of 0.2) The appropriate FMS/RNAV .3.3 15. which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids or a combination of these. the value X is the navigation accuracy expressed in NM which has to be met with a probability of 95%.4. triple IRS) Note: The filing on ATC-FPL is mandatory for use of FMS/RNAV . The equipment code for the A320 is E (double FMS.STARs 15.0.2.1 en route and in terminal area provided a required accuracy of 1. According Jeppesen air traffic control 7. The indication for air traffic control is the appropriate equipment code.3. which has to be incorporated in field 10 of the ATC flight plan.

or if both FMGCs have failed: Inform the ATC. and revert to conventional navigation.07 . which means: • One FMGC • One MCDU • One VOR for FM navigation update • One DME for FM navigation update • One IRS • Flight Plan Data on two NDs. revert to the default required accuracy.51 BRNAV IN EUROPEAN AIRSPACE) 15. B-RNAV capability is maintained for 2 hours. or when entering the terminal area. 15.0. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. enter 5NM or use the radial equivalent to 5NM XTK accuracy.1 General In this airspace. • If one of the following MCDU or ECAM messages is displayed.2 Procedures • When GPS PRIMARY is not available.0. for: • RNP.3. check navigation accuracy with the navaid raw data. or with the GPS MONITOR page (if GPS installed): o NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD o FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF o CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION o ECAM : FM/GPS POS DISAGREE (if GPS installed) • If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-5 capability is lost. Instr.4. • In inertial navigation. or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU. periodically crosscheck the FM position with navaid raw data. independently of the estimated accuracy displayed on the MCDU.4. • If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect. • When leaving RNP-5 airspace.3 in approach provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used 15.4 B-RNAV in European airspace (Source: A320 FCOM 2. • If manual entry of a required accuracy is desired. resume navigation with the other FMGC.05. provided GPS PRIMARY is available. • Manual selection of a required accuracy on the MCDU is optional.1NM.3 With GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met. which is 6.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. radio navaid coverage is assumed to support RNP-5 accuracy.0 SUMMARY RNAV Page : 98 of 148 15.1 en route • RNP.5 in terminal area provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used • RNP. The minimum required equipment to enter B-RNAV airspace is: One RNAV system.4.

.07 .. tracks. insertion of waypoints loaded from the navigation database). as loaded from the navigation database should not be modified. resume navigation with the other system. RNAV STAR. 15.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. check navigation accuracy with navaid raw data or the GPS monitor page (if GPS is installed) : o NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD o FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF o CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION o ECAM : FM/GPS DISAGREE (if GPS installed) o ECAM : FM/IR POS DISAGREE • If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-1 is lost. or if both FMGCs are failed: Inform the ATC and revert to conventional navigation. • If one of the following messages is displayed. • The procedure. crosscheck the FM position with the navaid raw data.. two RNAV systems may be mandated by the procedure chart. prior to starting the procedure. unless instructed to do so by the ATC (DIR TO.51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15.5 P-RNAV for terminal procedures (Source: A320 FCOM 2. or without appropriate radar coverage. distances and altitude constraints with the procedure chart. or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU.05.4. RNAV TRANSITION..5. • The terminal procedure (RNAV SID. .1 General For terminal procedures requiring P-RNAV capability within European airspace.0 SUMMARY RNAV Page : 99 of 148 15. radio navaid coverage can be assumed to support RNP-1 accuracy. Instr. HDG to intercept the F-PLN. • If GPS PRIMARY is not available.5.2 Procedures • When GPS PRIMARY is not available. check or enter RNP-1 in the MCDU and check HIGH accuracy. The minimum required equipment to fly a P-RNAV procedure is: • One RNAV system. which means : • One FMGC • One MCDU • One VOR or GPS receiver for FM navigation update • One DME or GPS receiver for FM navigation update • One IRS • One FD • Flight Plan data for two NDs. For terminal procedures with legs below the MSA. • If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect. and checked for reasonableness by comparing the F-PLN page waypoint sequencing. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.) must be loaded from the FM navigation database. • When leaving the terminal procedures. revert to the default.

and computes a mean-weighted average called the "MIX IRS" position. The FMGS selects the most accurate position. Otherwise.2 GPS Position Each IRS computes a hybrid position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position called GPIRS.1 Mix IRS Position Each FMGC receives a position from each of the three IRSs. The selection is performed using the following hierarchy : • Onside GPIRS position • GPIRS 3 • Opposite GPIRS position If the GPIRS data does not comply with an integrity criteria. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. considering the estimated accuracy and integrity of each positioning equipment.05.22.6 Position Computation (Source: A320 FCOM 1.6.0 SUMMARY RNAV Page : 100 of 148 15. Among these 3 GPIRS positions received by each FMGC.20. if necessary. the MIX IRS position uses an algorithm that decreases the influence of the drifting IRS within the MIX IRS position. the corresponding IRS is rejected. The crew can deselect/select the GPS on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page. Instr. each IRS can independently select their GPS source in order to maximize GPS data availability. (Refer to Navigation modes). the GPS mode is rejected. When the GPS primary function is recovered. refer to FCOM 4. Each IRS position and inertial speed are continuously tested. each FMGC uses only one IRS (onside IRS or IRS3). all usual navigation performance requirements are met.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. If one of the IRSs fails. 15. the "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad. If one of the IRSs drifts abnormally.03. the "GPS PRIMARY" message comes up on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad.6. As long as GPS primary is in use.07 . one is selected according to a figure of merit and priority. GPS/INERTIAL is the basic navigation mode provided GPS data is valid and successfully tested. 15. 2 or 3)/FM POSITION message appears on the MCDU. the loss of the GPS primary function triggers a triple click aural warning. For this. Navigation) Each FMGC computes its own aircraft position (called the "FM position") from a MIX IRS position and a computed radio position or GPS position. If the test fails. When the CHECK IRS (1. During non ILS approach. and radio position updating is used. It means that GPIRS data again complies with the required integrity criteria. navaids plus inertial or inertial only are used.

If one or more navaids fail. or the DME/DME radio position.3 Radio Position Each FMGC uses onside navaids to compute its own radio position. In flight. It can use 4 main different FM navigation modes to make this update. At takeoff. The radio navaid selection is displayed on the DATA "SELECTED NAVAIDS" page.6. 15. the FM position approaches the radio position. These navaids are displayed on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page.4 FM Position At flight initialization.07 . each FMGC can use offside navaids to compute the VOR/DME. The available navaids are : • DME/DME • VOR/DME • LOC • DME/DME-LOC • VOR/DME-LOC It uses LOC to update the lateral position. possibly corrected by the takeoff shift entered on the PERF TO page. Note : The FM position update at takeoff is inhibited when GPS PRIMARY is active. using LOC beam during ILS approach. or the GPS position. the FM position is updated to the runway threshold position. LOC is also used for quick update. each FMGC displays an FM position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position (GPIRS). The FMGS updates the FM position using GPS or radio navaids if the GPS function in inoperative. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. a lateral temporary updating using one of the following modes : • IRS-GPS/LOC • IRS-DME/DME-LOC • IRS-VOR/DME-LOC • IRS-LOC Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. as stored in the database.0 SUMMARY RNAV Page : 101 of 148 15. The decreasing priority order is: • IRS-GPS • IRS-DME/DME • IRS-VOR/DME • IRS only During ILS approaches the system performs. when in GPS/IRS mode.05. at a rate that depends upon the aircraft altitude.6.

This message is also displayed upon a flight area change. It is an estimate of how much the FM position has drifted. the crew should check the entered value.20. The system displays the EPE to the crew.28 Nm. if necessary.28 NM a/c and the VOR/DME.2 NM.XX". and is a function of the navigation mode the system is using. When this occurs. EPE increases or decreases 0. Default area RNP values: • en route: 2. • If the EPE does not exceed the appropriate criteria.5 in meters If above 0. accuracy is LOW. accuracy is HIGH. or "AREA RNP IS XX.28 NM the GPS position is rejected. • If the EPE exceeds the appropriate criteria.05.1 NM + 0. Navigation) The FMGS computes an Estimated Position Error (EPE) continually.5 NM Instr.28 NM value to 0. The number displayed in the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) field is (in decreasing order of priority): • The pilot-entered value • the database procedure value • The system's default value. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. CURRENT NAV MODE EPE (RATE or THRESHOLD) REMARK FOM = Figure of Merit of GPS IRS/GPS (FOM² + 100²)^0.3 NM o other cases: 0.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05 X DME DIST IRS/VOR/DME as the distance between the minimum : 0. and compares it with the required navigation performance (RNP). EPE decreases from initial IRS/DME/DME Tends towards 0.0 NM • terminal: 1.0 SUMMARY RNAV Page : 102 of 148 Evaluation of position accuracy (Source: A320 FCOM 1.07 . When a pilot enters a RNP that is larger than the published value.XX". one of the following messages is displayed: "PROCEDURE RNP is XX. + 8 NM/h for the first 21 min.22. and modify it. IRS ONLY + 2 NM/h after EPE increases continuously Note: After an IRS alignment or at takeoff the EPE is set at 0. The RNP value shall be in accordance with the specified RNP values of the navigation/approach charts (if a RNP is specified).0 NM • approach o GPS: 0. if the new required criteria (default value) are smaller than the displayed manually-entered value.

"GPS PRIMARY" is displayed on the PROG page. altimeter). use of FINAL APPR MODE (Source: A320 FCOM. a triple click aural warning is also triggered. based upon estimated drift. Be aware when flying with the FINAL APPR mode that the final approach (FAF to runway or MAP).22.18 & OEB 826/1 ) At the moment no crew is allowed to use FINAL APPR mode nor to fly GPS-Approaches unless in VMC conditions. and temporarily on the ND. accuracy is HIGH and GPS is the primary mean of navigation.1. as extracted from the navigation database and inserted in the primary F-PLN including altitude constraints.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. and either of the FMGC positions deviates from the GPS positions 1 or 2 by more than 0. This is why the flight crew must periodically check position accuracy. it is not permitted to use the autopilot to perform NPAs in the following modes: • FINAL APP • NAV V/S • NAV/FPA. 3.07 . When the GPS is lost. 15. CHECK in blue.3. 3.05.7 GPS approaches... During a non ILS approach. As a result. but only when the EPE exceeds the required criteria. VOR-approach) can be used provided the approach is stored in the navigation database and the final approach is monitored laterally and vertically using the adequate raw data (reference navaid. a "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and MCDU scratchpads.5 minutes of latitude or longitude. The approach trajectory is intercepted (laterally and vertically) before the FAF or equivalent waypoint in the FM F-PLN so that the aircraft is correctly established on the final approach course before starting the descent. NAV accuracy does not immediately downgrade. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.0 SUMMARY RNAV Page : 103 of 148 When the position computation uses IRS/GPS mode. Instr. The master caution light comes on.8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out (Source: A320 FCOM.g. General) If one engine is inoperative. is not revised by the crew. the EPE is always smaller than any airworthiness required value. Caution: • "HIGH" or "LOW" indicates FM position accuracy. and the single chime sounds. Only FD use is permitted. then the lower ECAM display unit displays the NAV FMS/GPS POS DISAGREE amber message and A/C POS. 80 NM before T/D or at approach phase transition. The MCDU message can be cleared but the ND message cannot. • When the GPS is manually deselected. the "GPS IS DESELECTED" message is displayed on the MCDU. • GPS/FMS POSITION DISAGREEMENT: When GPS primary is active. 15. When the GPS function is lost. Lateral managed guidance (NAV) for overlay RNAV approaches (e. when the GPS function is lost.

that there is not any damage in the pitot-static probes and adjacent area • The altimeter accuracy by setting the QNH or the QFE. that the two primary altitude indications are within tolerances (FCOM 3. procedures) Any deviation.g.4. The European Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) reduces the separation minimum between FL290 and FL410 to 1’000 ft between suitable equipped aircraft. RVSM compliance is the normal aircraft status. the introduction of RVSM will permit the application of a 1’000 ft vertical separation minimum (VSM) between suitable equipped aircraft in the level band FL 290 – FL 410 inclusive. during or after a flight shall be notified by an entry into the WO with reference to the RVSM status of the aircraft [e. Change of RVSM aircraft status shall be reported to Traffic Centre TXL immediately. ADR1/ADR3 respectively ADR2/ADR3 is 20ft).3.3 Pre-flight procedures (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. therefore will not be documented. 16.1 General (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.2.3. regarding the RVSM status of the aircraft. The reading should then agree with the altitude of the apron or the zero height indication within a 75 ft (23m) tolerance. Ensure that maintenance actions have been taken to correct any defects of required equipment.0 SUMMARY RVSM Page : 104 of 148 16 RVSM 16.05. • Check. 3.3.50. 2. thereby making available six additional usable flight levels.04. RVSM Implementation) The implementation of a reduced vertical separation minimum represents a major capacity enhancing objective of European Air Traffic Harmonisation and Integration Programme (EATCHIP) work programme. RVSM Implementation. page 106) (max difference between ADR1/ADR2.2 General procedures (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. Additionally MOC and Traffic Centre TXL have to be informed as soon as possible by using any means of communication available. page 34.5. The purpose of these six additional flight levels is to reduce controller workload and to provide the airspace user community with an improved operating environment and to optimise flight profiles. page 105) for RVSM operations and that maintenance actions have been taken to correct defects. whenever possible.2. Instr. 16. page 34.2.5 page 30. on ground. RVSM Implementation. procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.07 . procedures) The flight crew shall verify: • The condition of the equipment required (refers to chapter 0. flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • Check reported and forecasted weather on the flight route.6.34.4.34. • Check. aircraft non- RVSM compliant) and notify as HlL item. Effectively. see also chapter 16. • Review of maintenance logs and forms to determine the condition of equipment required for flight in RVSM airspace. A copy of the WO shall be faxed to MOC and Traffic Centre TXL. before.5. • Check letter W in field 10 of ATC flight plan.

page 34. page 41.2. procedures) • All the required equipment shall be monitored and checked to ensure satisfactory operation before (transition airspace/ transition altitude) and within RVSM airspace. The autopilot should be engaged within RVSM airspace for cruise and flight level changes. RVSM implementation) (Source: A320 FCOM 2. The altitude capture feature shall be used whenever possible for the level off.4 In-flight procedures (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.2.07 . see also chapter 16.34.05.50.5 Requirements for RVSM Aircraft requirements (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.6. page106).04.4. The usual scan of flight deck instruments should be sufficient. 3. 2.3.5.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.0 SUMMARY RVSM Page : 105 of 148 16. RVSM Implementation. check that PFD altimeter indications agrees in accordance with the instrument tolerances (FCOM 3.5. flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM. procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM. • The aircraft should not overshoot or undershoot the cleared flight level by more than 150 ft • The automatic altitude control system shall be engaged during level cruise by reference to one of the two altimeters. when Autopilot 2 is in use.34.4. • At intervals of approximately one hour.50) RVSM regulations require the following equipment/functions in order to be operative: • 2 ADR + 2 DMC • 1 transponder • 1 Autopilot function • 1 FCU channel (for altitude target selection and OP CLB/OP DES mode engagement) • 2 PFD • 1 FWC (for altitude alert function) Instr. Select ATC 1 for Autopilot 1 and select ATC 2.3. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. • In RVSM airspace and transition areas restrict the rate of climb/descend during step climb/descent to 1000ft/min when operating 2000ft of other aircraft to minimize the generation of TCAS TA´s and RA´s. Always select new altitude first on the altitude-select-panel before starting climb or descend. • The altimeter system being used to control the aircraft should be the same that is used by the transponder transmitting information to ATC.4. 16.

34. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.0 SUMMARY RVSM Page : 106 of 148 16.78 130 195 390 FL390/. or 2. • PFD 1 or 2 at ground check : plus or minus 25 feet Maximum differences between altitude indications FL/speed Altitude (ft) comparison between ADR 1 and ADR 2 ADR 3 and ADR 1.6 Altitude tolerances (Source: A320 FCOM. or 3 (on PFD) Gnd check 20 20 100 FL50/250 kt 50 65 130 FL100/250 kt 55 80 185 FL200/300 kt 90 135 295 FL300/.4. flight instrument tolerances) The values below apply to aircraft in symmetrical flight (no sideslip). or ISIS and any (on PFD) ADR 3 and ADR 2 ADR 1. 3.78 130 195 445 Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05. in clean configuration and in straight and level flight.07 .

0 SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page : 107 of 148 17 Taxiing and braking 17.1.07 . Maximum ground speed is 10 knots. perform the turn at very low speed. Thrust should normally be used symmetrically. little thrust is required.2. The following procedure is recommended for making such a turn in the most efficient way. apply the brakes smoothly and decelerate to 10 knots. Release the brakes. for example). As the ground speed is difficult to assess. Avoid positioning them over unconsolidated or unprepared ground (beyond the edge of the taxiways. 17. Taxi) • Little.1 General (Source: A320 FCOM 3. if any. he turns the nose wheel full right and sets 50 % to 55 % N1.10. Note: To avoid skidding the nose wheel on a wet runway.05. When the CM1 is physically over the runway edge. Once the aircraft starts to move.2 180° turn on the runway (Source: A320 FCOM 3. thus the pilot must be carefully on slippery surfaces.3.1 For the CM1 Taxi on the right-hand side of the runway and turn left. However. using asymmetric thrust and differential braking as necessary.3.1. • The engines are close to the ground. • Use of the engine anti-ice increases ground idle thrust. Do not "ride" the brakes.1 Taxiing 17. Instr. maintaining 25° divergence from the runway axis. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. and the risk of projection of debris towards the trimmable horizontal stabilizer and towards the elevator. power above idle thrust will be needed to get the aircraft moving (40 % N1 maximum). this aircraft only needs a pavement of 30 meters wide for a 180° turn.1. • The normal maximum taxi speed is 30 knots in a straight line and 10 knots for a sharp turn.10. which increase the risk of ingestion (FOD). • Avoid high thrust settings at low ground speeds. monitor ground speed on the ND. Taxi) A standard runway is 45 meters wide. As 30 knots is exceeded with idle thrust. and allow the aircraft to accelerate again.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 17.

90.05. For the whole procedure (taxiing with one engine (departure.2 For the CM2 The procedure is symmetrical. or high gross weight. it may be advisable to taxi on one engine. slippery taxiways.07 . 17. one engine taxi.1.3 Taxiing with one engine (Source: A320 FCOM 3. Instr.4. (Taxi on the left-hand side of the runway).GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.2.1.90) When the aircraft is not in such unusual operational environments as an uphill slope. The pilot must exercise caution when taxiing on one engine to avoid generating excessive jet blast.4.0 SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page : 108 of 148 180° turn on runway 180° Turn 17. arrival)) refer to FCOM 3. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.

2.30 For operational details refer also to section resetting of computers & CB’s .32. the flight crew should not set the PARKING BRK ON.10 17. • The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C and the temperature of one of the brakes is lower than 60°C. select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260° C.4 Taxiing in icing conditions For this topic refer to section winter operation chapter 11.3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action (Source: A320 FCOM 3.05. or done just before stopping at the gate (whichever occurs first).1 General For technical details refer to A320 FCOM 1.02.2.0 SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page : 109 of 148 17. page 43 17. avoid applying the parking brake. 17.3.2.32.1. page 62 or A320 FCOM 2.4. brake fan selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes. chapter 7. to allow thermal equalization and stabilization.10) If the caution BREAKS HOT is displayed during taxi in. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. • If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature. • One brake’s temperature exceeds 900°C.03. until the brake temperature is below 300° C with the brake fans OFF. unless operationally necessary. • When one brake temperature is above 500°C (or 350°C with brake fans ON).07 .04.25 & 3. • The difference between the LH and RH brakes average temperature is higher than 200°. 3. • Delay takeoff. and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots.04.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. and 150°C with the brake fans ON. Instr.32 P2) Maintenance action is required in following cases: • The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C and the temperature of one of the brakes is higher than 600°C.2 Brakes 17. • A fuse plug has melted. • If the BRAKES HOT message is still on when the aircraft is parked.

the flare. touchdown and roll out may be accomplished using the remaining automatic system. based on the characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail-operational automatic landing system. or in the relevant ground equipment. Instr. 18.1 Decision height Decision height is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety (JAA). Airbus: The alert height is the height above touch down. The Alert height for the A320 Family of Airberlin is 100ft 18.1.1 Definitions (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18. Below the alert height.05. if such a failure occurs. On Airbus aircraft since the A320. fail-passive capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 SINGLE on the PFD. above which a Category III approach would be discontinued and a missed approach initiated if a failure occurred in one of the redundant parts of the automatic landing system. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. there is no significant out-of-trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically.1.2 Alert Height ICAO: An Alert Height is a height above the runway. in the event of a failure. above which a CAT3 autoland would be discontinued and a missed approach executed.0 SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 110 of 148 18 CAT II. For CAT II and CAT III A. CAT III Operations 18. a pilot may not continue the approach below DH unless a visual reference containing not less than a 3 light segment of the centerline of the approach lights or runway centerline or touchdown zone lights or runway edge lights is obtained.1.4 Fail passive automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-passive if. For CAT III B the visual reference must contain at least one centerline light. For a fail-passive automatic landing system the pilot assumes control of the aircraft after a failure (JAA).07 .1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. if a failure occured in either the airplane systems or the relevant ground equipments.3 Runway Visual Range Runway Visual Range (RVR) is the range over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centreline (ICAO). 18.

the approach. the flare and landing can be completed by the remaining part of the automatic system. In the event of failure. in the event of a failure below alert height. The pilot must decide if the visual references adequate to safely continue the approach have been established. When necessary. the published DH takes into account the terrain profile before runway threshold. • If the visual references have not been established.07 . the pilot may always decide to execute a go-around if sudden degradations in the visual references or a sudden flight path deviation occur. a go-around must be executed. the approach can be continued.0 SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 111 of 148 18.1. On Airbus aircraft since the A320. 18. the automatic landing system will operate as a fail-passive system (JAA). In Category II operations. • If the visual references have been established. However.2 Decision height and alert height concept (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18. DH is always limited to 100ft or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH). A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. the DH is lower than 100ft (typically equal to 50ft for a fail-passive automatic landing system and 20ft for a fail-operational automatic landing system).05. In Category III operations with DH.2. whichever is higher. The DH is measured by means of radio-altimeter.1 Decision height concept: Decision height is a specified point in space at which a pilot must make an operational decision. Instr. fail operational capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 DUAL on the PFD.5 Fail operational automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-operational if.

GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.0 SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 112 of 148 Instr.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.07 .

70) o When in LAND mode.0 SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 113 of 148 18. the radio altitude goes below 200 feet and o the aircraft gets too far off the beam (LOC or GLIDE) o or both autopilots fail o or both localizer transmitters or receivers fail above 15ft o or both glide slope transmitters or receivers fail above 100ft o or the difference between both radio altimeter indications is greater than 15 feet.5. • Below AH. • Above AH (100ft AGL). Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) Alert height is a height defined for Category III operations with a fail-operational landing system.22.05. a go-around must be initiated if a failure affects the fail-operational landing system. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.22.30 & 4. The AH is only linked to the probability of failure(s) of the automatic landing system. Instr.07 .70.30 & 4. the approach will be continued except if AUTOLAND warning is triggered The AUTOLAND warning is triggered in following cases: (Source A320 FCOM 1.2 Alert height concept (Source A320 FCOM 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.5.2.

0 SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 114 of 148 18.05.1 CAT II With RVR 350m at DH = 100ft (typical CAT II) Instr.07 .GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.3. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.3 Visual Segments 18.

3. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 115 of 148 18.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.2 CAT III With RVR 200m at DH = 50ft (typical CAT IIIa) Instr.07 .05.

4.6 Threshold Lights Threshold lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis.e. a minimum radius of curvature of 1500m) in the area located just before the threshold (60m wide. The basic pattern of runway lights is shown in the figure below. with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway edge.4. and runway centerline lights. Instr. The lights are fixed lights showing variable white. uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 3m. kept to a maximum of 2% per 30m (i. outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the threshold. The runway length is only an operational limitation. disregarding normal standards.2 Runway Width The runway width should be normally not less than 45m.5 Runway Edge Lights Runway edge lights are placed along the full length of the runway in two parallel rows equidistant from the centerline. runway touchdown zone lights. 18.4. runway end lights. 18.8%. runway edge lights. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing green.4. To permit the use of the automatic landing system.4.05. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing red.7 Runway End Lights Runway end lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 200m long).1 Runway Length There is no specific requirement concerning runway length for an aerodrome to be CAT II or III approved.07 . A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 116 of 148 18. 18.4. it is recommended that for the first and the last quarter of the length of the runway the slope does not exceed 0. ICAO also recommends a spacing between the lights of no more than 6m for runways intended for use by CAT III approaches.4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights Runway lights on runways intended for use by CAT II or CAT III operations consist of high intensity threshold lights. outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway end. ICAO also recommends that slope changes must be avoided or. 18.4 Runway characteristics 18. with a minimum number of 6 lights. 18. These lights are uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 60m and may be omitted at the intersections. 18. This limitation is due to the fact that automatic landing systems use radio altimeter and a rapid slope change could disturb the landing.3 Runway Slope For CAT II or CAT III. when it is not possible.4.

5m. Each barrette must be not less than 3m and no more than 4. The longitudinal spacing between pairs of barrettes is 60m or 30m. The lights inside each barrette are fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white. with a longitudinal spacing of approximately 7. 15m or 30m for CAT II and only 7. The lights of the stop bars show red and are spaced at intervals of 3m. the lights are alternately showing green and yellow. 18. and only optional for CAT III operations.07 .13 Approach Light System The approach light system is mandatory for CAT II operations.5m.4.5m with a preference of 18m.4. They extend from the threshold for a longitudinal distance of 900m (full touchdown zone) but do not extend beyond the mid-point if runway length is less than 1800m.8 Runway Centerline Lights Runway centerline lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches.4.5m or 15m for CAT Ill. The lights are fixed lights showing blue. The pattern is formed by pairs of barrettes containing at least three lights. 18.5m) • Red from the point 300m to the runway end. 18.4.It is specified by the ECAC that sequenced strobe lighting is considered to be Instr. • Alternate red and variable white from the point 900m to the point 300m from the runway end (pairs of red lights followed by pairs of variable white lights if the spacing is only 7. spaced at an interval of no more than 1.11 Taxiway Centerline Lights Taxiway centerline lights have to be installed on airfields intended for use by operations with an RVR 400m or less (400m is the mean value for CAT II approach). extending over a distance of 300m from the threshold (over 900m for CAT I).9 Touchdown Zone Lights Runway touchdown zone lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches. The lights are fixed lights showing green.4.12 Stop Bars Stop bars are placed at each taxi-holding position when the runway is intended for use at an RVR less than 400m and are specially required for all CAT III approaches. but it is recommended to have a spacing of 30m for low minima. The lateral spacing (or gauge) between the lights is not less than 18m and no more than 22. It consists of a row of lights on the extended centreline of the runway.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.5m in length.4.10 Taxiway Edge Lights Taxiway edge lights are not a specific CAT II or CAT III requirement. 18. 18. but from the beginning of the taxiway to the perimeter of the ILS critical area/sensitive area or the lower edge of the inner transitional surface. but provide efficient visual aid during low-visibility operations. or less than.05. 7. These stop bars are an efficient means to avoid aircraft intrusion into the obstacle-free zone (OFZ) or into the critical/sensitive area during approaches in very low visibility conditions.5m. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 117 of 148 18. They are located along the centerline of the runway. The lateral spacing between lights must not exceed 15m but the proximity of a curve must be indicated by a spacing equal to. These lights are fixed lights showing: • Variable white from the threshold to the point 900m from the runway end.

it should be switched off when CAT II or CAT III approaches are in progress. Runways lights / Approach light system Instr.05. When installed for other operation.07 . A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 118 of 148 incompatible with CAT II and III operations.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

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18.5 Technical aspects

(Source: FCOM 1.22.30 ; 4.5.70)

700ft
FMGS frozen

400ft
FCU frozen

350ft
LAND GREEN

200ft AUTO LAND WARNING
becomes active
100ft
ALERT HEIGHT

When managed, the speed target is computed by the FMGS and may be modified by the crew
through the MCDU. At 700 feet RA, the current speed target value is memorized by the autothrust,
to ensure stabilized speed guidance, even if Flight Management fails. Below 700 feet, any new
VAPP or WIND entry in the MCDU has no effect on the speed target.

When the aircraft reaches 700 feet RA with APPR mode (LOC and G/S) armed or engaged, the
ILS freq and course are frozen in the receiver.

This function (ILS tune inhibit) is available, when at least one AP/FD is engaged. Any attempt to
change the ILS frequency or CRS, via the MCDU or RMP, does not affect the receiver.

If the speed is managed, the system does not accept any modifications the flight crew may enter
on the PERF APPR page (surface wind, selected landing configuration, or VAPP) for speed
guidance purposes below this altitude.

When the aircraft reaches 400 feet RA, LAND mode engages. The flight crew can only disengage
this mode by engaging the GO AROUND mode

18.6 List of required equipment

The table in the QRH 5.04 gives the reference of the tests, which verify the CAT III availability
in each system.

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.07

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18.7 Approach preparation

• Aircraft Status
o Check on ECAM STATUS page that the required landing capability is available.
o Although it is not required to check equipment that is not monitored by the system,
if any of this equipment is seen inoperative (flag), the landing capability will be
reduced.
o On the A320 Family it is not necessary to check AUTOLAND WARNING light.

• Weather
Check weather conditions at destination and at alternates. Required RVR values must be
available for CAT II/III approaches. The selected alternate must have weather conditions
equal to or better than CAT I.

• Approach ban
Policy regarding an approach ban may differ from country to country. Usually the final
approach segment may not be continued beyond the OM or equivalent DME distance if
the reported RVR is below the published minima for the required transmissometers.
After OM or equivalent, if RVR becomes lower than the minima, the approach may be
continued.

• ATC calls
Unless LVP are reported active by ATIS, clearance to carry out a CAT II or CAT III
approach must be requested from ATC, who will check the status of the ILS and
lighting and protect the sensitive areas from incursion by aircraft or vehicles. Such an
approach may not be undertaken until the clearance has been received.
Before the outer marker, the required RVR values should be transmitted.

• Seat position
The correct seat adjustment is essential in order to take full advantage of the visibility
over the nose. The seat is correctly adjusted when the pilots eyes are in line with the
red and white balls located above the glareshield.

• Use of landing lights
At night in low visibility conditions, landing lights can be detrimental to the
acquisition of visual references. Reflected light from water droplets or snow may actually
reduce visibility. Landing lights would therefore not normally be used in CAT ll or CAT III
weather conditions.

• CAT II or CAT III crew briefing

The briefing should include the normal items as for any IFR arrival and in addition
the following subjects should be covered prior to the first approach:
o destination and alternate weather,
o airfield and runway operational status CAT II / CAT III, etc.
o aircraft systems status and capacity and downgrading possibilities
o brief review of task sharing,
o review approach procedure (stabilized or decelerated),
o review applicable minima (performance page), go-around
procedure, ATC calls,
o brief review of procedure in case of malfunction below 1000ft,
o optimum seat position and reminder to set cockpit lights when
appropriate

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.07

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18.8 Landing

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.1)

18.8.1 General

Air Berlin flight crew shall only conduct a Category II or III operation if:

• The aeroplane concerned is certified for the operation;
• The operations are approved by the authority;
• The flight crew consists of licensed pilots; and
• Decision height is determined by means of a radio altimeter.

The commander shall satisfy himself that:
• The status of the visual and non-visual facilities is sufficient prior to commencing a Low
Visibility take-Off or a Category II or III approach; (NOTAMS & OM/C)
• Appropriate LVPs are in force according to information received from Air Traffic Services
(ATIS & ATC), before commencing a Low Visibility Take-Off or a Category II or III
approach, and
• The flight crew members are properly qualified prior to commencing a Low Visibility
• The status of the aeroplane and of the relevant airborne systems is appropriate for the
pecific operation to be conducted, (Hold Item List & briefing Card)

Use of landing lights at night in low visibility can be detrimental to the acquisition of
visual references. Reflected lights from water droplets or snow may actually reduce
visibility. Landing lights would therefore not normally be used in Category III
weather conditions.

The pilots must realize the importance of eye position during low visibility
approaches and landing. A too-low seat adjustment may greatly reduce the visual
segment. When the eye reference position is lower than intended, the already short
visual segment is further reduced by the cut-off angle of the glareshield or nose.
Airbus aircraft are equipped with an eye position indicating device. The optimum
eye position is obtained when the pilot sees the red indicator ball covering the white
ball.

18.8.2 Commencement and continuation of approach

(Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.2 OM-A 8.4.7 OM-A 8.4.14)

An instrument approach may be commenced regardless of the reported RVR/visibility but must
not be continued past the outer marker or equivalent fix (e.g. NDB, VOR, DME distance) or if no
fix available at a height of 1000 ft above the aerodrome if the reported relevant RVR/visibility
value is less than the applicable minimum.
If, after passing the outer marker or equivalent fix the reported RVR/visibility falls below the
minimum, the approach may be continued and the landing may be completed provided that at
DA/H or MDA/H the required visual reference is established and maintained.
The relevant RVR value is the TDZ-RVR. (May be temporarily replaced with midpoint RVR if
approved ba the state of Aerodrome. RVR may be reported by human observation.)

A pilot may not continue an approach below DH unless visual reference containing at least 3 of
the following lights (consecutive or a combination) is acquired and can be maintained:
• Center line of the approach lights
• Touchdown zone lights
• Runway center line lights
• runway edge lights.

Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.07

• Precipitation shall be only moderate 18.1 General limitations • RVR for landing required for TDZ. 10 kt Instr. • Headwind: max.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 122 of 148 • CAT II additionally Visual reference must include a lateral element of the ground pattern.3 CAT II (manual landing) • DH: 100ft (resp.3 Landing Minima General (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. if in the high-speed portion of the landing run (airspeed 60 kts or higher): Midpoint RVR 125 m.4.15° • Airport Altitude below 2500ft • Automatic rollout has not been demonstrated on snow covered or icy runways. according EAG chart minimum) • RVR: 300m (resp.9. 18.5° & -3.9.7.whichever is greater . • Landings at a friction coefficient below 0.4 . FCOM) 18.05. • CONF3 or CONF FULL • Slope angle within -2. • The maximum allowable tailwind for automatic landing and roll out is10 knots. OM-A 8. 18.4.26 are prohibited. 10 kt 18. crossbar or landing threshold or barrette of the touchdown zone lighting. • CAT II/III approaches are only allowed as Dual Channel appr.07 . e. & Autoland.7) • Landing minima will be the higher of the basic minima as tabulated below or those published by the state of jurisdiction as reflected in the EAG chart or special minima published by Air Berlin.2 CAT II (auto land) • DH: 100ft (resp.9. 20 kt • Tailwind: max. • Wind limitation is based on surface wind report by the tower. Displayed wind on the ND may be disregarded. • AP OFF: latest at 80 ft • Crosswind: max.runway shall be available in addition to the landing distance requirement for dry runways.4. 33kt • Tailwind: max. according EAG chart minimum) • RVR: 300m (resp. • It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. according EAG chart minimum) Additionally.9 Summary Limitations (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.8.g. • Landing distance: 15% or 300 m . according EAG chart minimum) Additionally. if in the high-speed portion of the landing run (airspeed 60 kts or higher): Midpoint RVR 125 m. and CM-1 Pilot Flying. 30 kt • Crosswind: max.

20 kt • Tailwind: max. according EAG chart minimum) • RVR: 300m (resp. according EAG chart minimum) Additionally. 10 kt Instr.9. 30 kt • Crosswind: max. 30 kt • Crosswind: max. 10 kt 18.9.05.5 CAT IIIa (CAT 3 dual) • DH: 20ft (resp. if in the high-speed portion of the landing run (airspeed 60 kts or higher): Midpoint RVR 125 m. • A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode • Headwind: max. 10 kt 18. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 123 of 148 18. according EAG chart minimum) • Config: FULL • Engine out procedure completed latest at 1000 ft AGL • Headwind: max.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode • Headwind: max.6 CAT IIIb (CAT 3 dual) • DH: NO • RVR: 75m (resp. 20 kt • Tailwind: max. according EAG chart minimum) Additionally. 30 kt • Crosswind: max. 20 kt • Tailwind: max. according EAG chart minimum) • Alert Height: 100ft • Headwind: max. 10 kt 18. according EAG chart minimum) • RVR: 300m / 200m (resp.9. if in the high-speed portion of the landing run (airspeed 60 kts or higher): Midpoint RVR 125 m.9. 20 kt • Tailwind: max.7 Engine out (CAT II or CAT III single) • DH: 100ft / 50 ft (resp.4 CAT IIIa (CAT 3 single) • DH: 50ft (resp. 30 kt • Crosswind: max. according EAG chart minimum) • RVR: 300m (resp.07 .

10. in general.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.2. Above 1000ft: 18. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 124 of 148 18.10. • GO AROUND and reassess the capability. The FCOM describes what should be the crew responses to failures in function to the height. to check system configuration and limitations and brief for minima. a single failure (for example one AP failure or one engine failure) below AH does not necessitate a go-around. • As a general rule.07 . But a go-around is required if the autoland warning is triggered. 18. It should be noted that some failures might trigger ECAM warnings. Instr.2 Downgrading conditions Downgrading from CAT 3 to CAT 2 is permitted only if • ECAM actions are completed. and a reassessment of the system capability. ECAM warning. • REVERT to higher minima and proceed to a new DH (above 1000ft). not enough time is available for the crew to perform the necessary switching. • Briefing is amended to include CAT II procedure and DH. Another approach may then be undertaken to the appropriate minima for the given aircraft status. providing the appropriate conditions are met • Below 1000ft (and down to AH when in CAT III DUAL) the occurrence of any failure implies a go-around.1 General The abnormal procedures can be classified into two groups • Failures leading to a downgrading of capability as displayed on FMA and ECAM with an associated specific audio warning (triple click). The nature of the failure and the point of its occurrence will determine which response is appropriate. instrument or element during the approach. cautions and a downgrading of capability. • RVR is at least equal to CAT II minima. amber caution and associated audio warnings). if a failure occurs above 1000ft AGL the approach may be continued reverting to a higher DH. It has been considered that below 1000ft.10 Failures and associated actions 18.2 Abnormal Procedures 18. • In CAT III DUAL.2.10.1 General In general there are three possible responses to the failure of any system. • CONTINUE the approach to the planned minima. • Failures that do not trigger a downgrading of capability but are signaled by other effects (Flag.10.05.

• briefing is amended to include CAT 1 procedure and DH. These conditions need to be obtained no later than 350ft AGL to allow a satisfactory automatic landing. If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible. LAND is displayed if LOC and GS track modes are active and at least one RA is available. If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible. At 200ft RA and below Any AUTOLAND warning requires an immediate go-around. • the decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL. At 350ft RA LAND must be displayed on FMA and runway course must be checked. • engine failure. If automatic rollout control is not satisfactory. If runway course is incorrect or LAND does not appear. a go-around must be performed or if conditions permit. disconnect AP and take manual control. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 125 of 148 • Decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL. • amber caution (single chime). • RVR is at least equal to CAT I minima. • loss of AP (cavalry charge). the PF may decide to complete the landing. Depending on terrain profile before the runway LAND mode may appear at lower height. disconnect the AP immediately. a go-around must be performed. • downgrading of capability (triple click). Downgrading from CAT 2 to CAT 1 permitted only if • ECAM actions are completed. Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Note: switching from one AP to another before 1000ft AGL is permitted. After touchdown In case of anti-skid or nose wheel steering failure. the PF may decide to land manually. Below 1000ft and above DH (for CAT 2 or CAT 3 SINGLE) or above AH (for CAT 3 DUAL) a go-around must be performed in case of: • ALPHA FLOOR activation.05. • at least one FD is available. a CAT ll approach with AP disconnection no later than 80ft may be performed.07 . This can be acceptable provided it has been demonstrated that automatic landing is satisfactory. At flare height If FLARE does not come up on FMA.

A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 126 of 148 18. RVR may be reported by human observation Midpoint or Stopend RVR No effect Approach Lights Not allowed for DH > 50ft Not allowed Approach Lights except the No effect Not allowed last 210m Approach Lights except the No effect last 420 Stanbypower for No effect RVR as for CAT I basic facilities approachlights Whole RWY light system Not allowed Edge lights Day only Centerline lights RVR 300m.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. OM-A 8.15) Failed or downgraded Effect on Landingminima equipment CAT III CAT II ILS Standby transmitter Not allowed No effect Outer marker No effect if replaced by published equivalent position Middle marker No effect TDZ RVR assessment system May be temporarily replaced with midpoint RVR if approved ba the state of Aerodrome.05.14 . day only RVR 300m by day. 550m by night Stanbypower for RWY lights Not allowed Taxiway light system No effect except delays due to reduced movment rate Instr.11 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4.07 .4. 550m by night TDZ lights RVR 300m by day.

• The flight crew is reminded to be vigilant for ILS disturbances when conducting automatic landing on any ILS quality beam in CAT I or better weather conditions when the critical area protection is not assured by ATC.12. Flare.1 Airports requirements The Automatic Landing System performance has been demonstrated during type certification with CAT II or CAT III ILS qualify beam. • AFM limitations must be observed including: o Glide slope angle o Airport elevation o Flap configuration o Wind limits o Required equipment for CAT II must be operative.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Note: Dual Channel approaches and automatic landings are allowed if weather conditions are CAT I or better. • The crew should be warned that fluctuations of the LOC or GS may occur and that the PF should be prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take the appropriate action should unsatisfactory automatic landing performance occur.07 .05.2 Crew procedures • Visual cues must be obtained at the applicable DA (baro) (CAT I) or a go-around must be performed.7) The following applies for a PIC new to aircraft type: • The first 50 hours or 20 sectors (lower value) as PIC on type: CAT II and III operations not allowed.12. • At least CAT 2 capability must be displayed on FMA. 18. 18. 18.13 Type and command experience (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 127 of 148 18.12. nevertheless automatic landing on CAT I ILS quality beam is possible provided the Airline has checked that the guidance below 200ft is satisfactory.3 Limitations • Automatic landing must be approved in the AFM.12 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions 18. the crew will decide to continue the automatic landing or to take over manually or to go around. • 100 hours or 40 sectors (lower value) as PIC on type: 100m must be added to CAT II and III RVR minimums if not previously CAT II/III qualified Instr. landing and roll-out must be closely monitored as the crew must be ready to take over in these flight phases as well. • Being in visual contact with the runway.

).26 are prohibited. a Take-Off may only be commenced if the pilot in command can determine that the RVR visibility along the Take-Off run required (JAR take-off field length) is at or above minimum required.4) • Take-offs at a friction coefficient below 0. . • When no visibility is reported or the reported visibility is below that required for Take-Off and or RVR is not reported. Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. • Take-Off with minima less than 400 m requires that LVP's are in force. The Takeoff minima is mainly determined by the airport installation (runway lighting system. • The maximum allowable Air Berlin tail wind component for Take-Off for the Airbus fleet is 15 knots. the RVR is reported and the flight crew members have satisfactorily completed training in a simulator. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 128 of 148 19 Low visibility Takeoff 19.2 Take Off Minima (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8..05. • The pilot in command has to perform the T/O if the RVR is less than 400 m.4. Instr. (OM-A 8.4. RVR measurement system. Above time is determined at the one engine inoperative speed and equals 370NM 19. When weather conditions are more severe than the landing minima. The maximum RVR at Takeoff is quite independent of the aircraft type and aircraft equipment except for very low RVR.. a takeoff alternate is required within one hour.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. • It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Take-Off minima.07 .1 General (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT 2/3 operations) Takeoff with RVR less than 400m is considered as LVTO by JAR OPS 1.3) 19.2.1 General • Take-Off minima must selected to ensure sufficient guidance to control the aircraft in case of: o discontinued take -Off in adverse circumstances or o continued take-Off after failure of the critical engine • The commander shall not commence Take-Off unless the weather conditions at the aerodrome f departure are equal to or better than applicable minima for landing at that aerodrome unless a suitable Take-Off alternate aerodrome is available.

3.5) along JAR Take-Off field length • A 90 m visual segment is available from the cockpit at the start of the Take-Off run Note 1: the reported RVR/visibility value representative of the initial part of the Take- Off run can be replaced by pilots assessment. Note 4: Required RVR value must achieved for all of the relevant RVR reporting points except Note 1.take-off field length satisfies the applicable Take-Off minima.2 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off Ground facilities RVR Nil (day only) 500m (Note 1) Runway edge lighting and/or centerline marking (for night.2. the commander must determine that actual conditions along the whole JAR .2. A320 SUPERVISION GUIDE Number : Low Visibility Operations Page : 129 of 148 19. Note 3: Take-Off must be performed by captains only. • Runway is not contaminated • Required RVR values achieved 125 m (Note 3.5) end lights are required) Runway edge and centerline lighting 200m (Note 1.4.3. Crosswind 10 kts. Note 5: Low visibility procedures must be in force.05. edge and runway 250m (Note 1.4. If no RVR values are available. Instr.07 .5) and multiple RVR information • HIRCL spaced 15 m or less • HIRL spaced 60 m or less • Max.3.5) Runway edge and centerline lighting 150m (Note 1. Note 2: For night operation RL and REL must be on (Take-Off).GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.76 20.1 Drag Induzierter Widerstand Druckwiderstand Reibungswiderstand Summe tiefster Punkt Greendot auf tiefen höhen in grossen Höhen .GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.07 .0 SUMMARY Performance Page : 130 of 148 20 Performance In Arbeit 20.2 Expedite Function Diagramm mit Ci35 und CI =0 20.3 Optimum Flight level Instr.05.

1m Tail height 12. operating altitude: FL 390 (39’800ft PA) Max. pavement width for 180° turn 23m Main Gear track (outside face of tire) 9.0 g to 0.1m Tail width 12. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground) 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) max. The operational limitations are ordered according a normal flight in flight phases.01. slats extended / flaps retracted + 2.34) Altimeter: max. Most of the operational limitations can also be found in the section technical limitations.1.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 131 of 148 21 Limitations The limitations in this summary are divided in two groups: • Technical limitations Limitations out of the FCOM which are most of them nice to know since the FWC is monitoring them or they have no direct consequence in normal operation. 18° / 22. Maximum take-off and landing altitude: -1000ft – 9200ft PA Pitch in T/O: max. • Operational limitations Limitations which have direct consequences in normal operation and should be known by heart.5m Fuselage width 4m Min.1.0 g.1 Technical limitations 21.34): between 73°N and 60°S 21.4. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS: 100 ft (on ground) Instr.2 Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3. operating temperature -70 C OAT Runway slope limits: +/.01.6m Wingspan 34.2m Max.0 g to 0.5° in windshear Range of ADIRS (FCOM 3.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.2% Runway width: min.20) Length 37.1.5 g to . 45m Manoeuvring load limits: clean: + 2.0 g.0 g.07 . slats & flaps extended + 2. 21.1 General (Source: FCOM 3. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3: 20 ft (on ground) 350 ft (FL390) max.

A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 132 of 148 185 ft (FL 100) 445 ft (FL390) Airspeed: max.5 Structural weight limits (Source: FCOM 3. . .63° / max.1.20) Take-off & Landing: min.20) Maximum take-off weight (brake release): 77’000 kg (A319: 75’500 kg) Maximum landing weight: 64’500 kg (A319: 62’500 kg) Maximum zero fuel weight: 61’000 kg (A319: 58’500 kg) Maximum taxi weight: 77’400 kg (A319: 75’900 kg) Instr.01 (FL390) max. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3: 6 kt / m0.01.1.4 Cabin pressure (Source: FCOM 3.45° / max.008 (ground) 3 kt / m0. -20°C (35’000 ft PA) min. 55°C (0 ft PA) min.40° / max. -10°C (30’000 ft PA) 21.008 (ground) 4 kt / m0. . -25°C (39’000 ft PA) min.1. 37°C (9000ft PA) In flight: min.01.3 Opearting temperatures (Source: FCOM 3.008 (FL390) max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 6 kt / m0. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby ASI: 6 kt (on ground) 8 kt (FL390) Heading: max.66° / max.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.1.21) Maximum positive differential pressure 8. difference 4° 21. .07 .70° / max.6 psi Maximum negative differential pressure -1 psi Ram air inlet opens only if differential pressure is lower 1 psi 21. .

07 . 280 kts / M 0.82 VRA / MRA rough air speed: 250 kts / M 0.05. 200 kts 21. but the tower reports a surface wind within the limitations. 220 kts Gear extension VLO extension: max. Instr.23 VS1g VMCA 110 kts ( 0ft) / VMCG (config 1 +F) 110 kts ( 0ft) / 103kt (8000ft) Gear retraction VMLO retraction: max.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. If the tower reports a surface wind beyond limitations.6 Speeds (Source: A320 FCOM 3. selectable speed: T/O: VLS 103kt (8000ft)= 1.1. landing and roll out (Source: FCOM 3.1 Engine out CAT II and CAT III fail passive autoland are only approved in configuration FULL. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 133 of 148 21. then the autopilot can remain engaged. only CAT I automatic approach without autoland can be performed. 230 kts Tire speed: max. Maximum wind conditions for CAT II or CAT III automatic approach landing and roll out.8.22) Height for engagement after Take-off (with SRS mode) 100 ft Straight in non precision approach MDA Circling approach: MDA-100ft ILS approach with CAT 1 displayed on FMA: 160ft All other cases 500ft 21.01. operating speed 350 kts / M 0. 10kt Crosswind: max. 21. slats / flaps extended speed: 1: 230 kts 1 + F: 215 kts 2: 200 kts 3: 185 kts 4: 177 kts VLS: min. and if engine-out procedures are completed before reaching 1000 feet in approach.20) (all speeds IAS) VMO / MMO max. If the wind displayed on ND exceeds the above–noted autoland limitations.7 Use of autopilot (Source: FCOM 3.1.1. 30kt Tailwind: max. 195 kts Speed for opening cockpit Window: max.01.67 Windshield wipers: max.8 Automatic approach.22) Headwind: max.1.01.13 VS1g Other modes: VLS = 1. 20kt Note: Wind limitation is based on the surface wind reported by the tower.65 VFE / MFE max. 250 kts Gear extended VLE: max.

they should disconnect the AP at or above 80 feet: this altitude being the minimum to take over and feel comfortable. should unsatisfactory guidance occur. • When the crew does not intend to perform an autoland. • At least CAT2 capability is displayed on the FMA and CAT II/CAT III procedures are used.8. the AP may be disconnected at anytime. Automatic landing is demonstrated: • With CAT II and CAT III ILS beam.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. However automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions is possible on CAT I ground installations or when ILS sensitive areas are not protected.15°) range. • Visual references are obtained at an altitude appropriate to the performed CAT I approach. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 134 of 148 21.2 Automatic landing CAT II and CAT III autoland are approved in CONF 3 and CONF FULL. • Nevertheless. Minimum wind correction 5 knots .5°. Instr. Automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions The automatic landing system's performance has been demonstrated on runways equipped with CAT II or CAT III ILS approaches. may occur and the PF is prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take appropriate action. but performance on snow-covered or icy runways has not been demonstrated. for safety purposes. At approach speed (VAPP) = VLS + wind correction.05. Automatic rollout performance has been approved on dry and wet runways. In particular the effect of terrain discontinuities within 300 meters before the runway threshold must be evaluated. • At or below the maximum landing weight. • For airport altitude at or below 2500 feet.1. independent of the aircraft systems. maximum 15 knots. • The crew is aware that LOC or GS beam fluctuations. • With slope angle within (– 2.07 . – 3. if the following precautions are taken: • The airline has checked that the ILS beam quality and the effect of terrain profile before the runway have no adverse effect on AP/FD guidance. otherwise go–around is initiated.

10) Max usable wing tanks: 2 x 6126kg (ρ=0.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.1. -43°C (Jet A1) Instr. Full (5’350 kg) 1’500 kg 4’300 kg 1’600 kg 2’250 kg 2’250 kg Note: The variation is linear between these values (No limitation below 2 250 kg) • Outer tanks: Maximum allowed imbalance: 530 kg Fuel management • Tanks must be emptied in the following order: center tank then wing tanks • Takeoff on center tank is prohibited. at or below 5300 ft): 15 kts (>5300 ft: 10 kts) (A320) 10 kts (A319) Note: The maximum tailwind for automatic landings and rollout remains 10 kts ! Maximum wind speed for door operation (cabin & cargo): 65 kts Keep parking brake on with wind speeds above: 40 kts 21. 33kts gusts up to 38 kts* * Values are demonstrated values and not operational limitations Tail wind (T/O & Ldg.01.1.28.05.20) Following: Cross wind for T/O: max. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 135 of 148 21.10 Fuel (Source: FCOM 3.07 . 29kts gusts up to 38 kts* Cross wind for LDG: max. 1.785) Max usable center tanks: 6476 kg (ρ=0. • Fuel temperature: min.1.785) Total usable Fuel: 18’728 kg (ρ=0.785) Maximum allowed wing fuel imbalance • Inner tanks Tank Fuel Quantity Maximum allowed (Heavier tank) imbalance.28 .9 Weather (Source: A320 3.

FL 200 Min.14 Electrical (Source: FCOM 3. gear.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 136 of 148 21.12 Break.2e) Max continuous load per generator 100 % (90 kVA) Max continuous load per TR (continuous) 200 A Instr. cruise at FL 100 -> 110min against smoke with 100% oxygen at FL 80 -> 15min. 150°C with break fan on.1. 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40°C) min.1.32.3.13 Oxygen (Source: FCOM 3. FL 200 21.27 .1. flight controls (Source: FCOM 3. Cabin: 4 + 4 Masks -> 12min Smoke hood: approx.1. Speed to cut off green hydraulic pressure: 260kt Keep Parking brake on with wind speeds above: 40 kt Do not set N1 above 75% on both engines with the parking brake on Steering angle: Rudder: 6° (40kt) / 0° (130kt) Tiller: 75° (0kt) / 0° (70kt) Towing: 95° Break temperature for T/O: max.11 . 1. max.10) Altitude for LG extension: max.1.1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.35) Oxygen pressure: min. 300°C with break fan off. 1300 psi (+2 observer / 40°C) Protection time during emergency descent ->10min. HI 30min 21.1. 800 psi (2 Crew / 40°C) min.07 . Altitude for flap extension: max.01. FL 250 Altitude for flap extension: max. 3.11 Hydraulic (Source: FCOM 3.29) Normal operating pressure 3000 psi +/-200 21. 15min Bottle in cabin: LOW 1h.

1. 140° C max.5 qts + estimated consumption (0.12 Pressurization/ ventilation (Source: FCOM 3. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 137 of 148 21.15 APU (Source: FCOM 3.5 qts/h) Engine start: 4 Starts (max. 9. Oil quantity: min.1. trans.07 . Maximum for start (below 25000 feet) 900°C Maximum for start (above 25000 feet) 982°C APU start: max.3.1. / 10min.This corresponds to an actual N speed of 106 %.49) Maximum N (ECAM display) 107 % Note : The APU automatically shuts down at 107 % N speed.05. 155° C for 15 Min.-40° C T/O power min. cooling Reverse thrust: maximum reverse should not be used below 70 kts Idle reverse is allowed down to acft stop Instr. 2 Min.1.) with 20 sec.70) Time limit for T/O & GA: 5 min.6) Pack flow selector: LO if number of PAX < 115 (A320) LO if number of PAX < 85 (A319) HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases 21.-10° C max.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. OEI EGT limit for starting: 725°C EGT limit MCT: 915°C EGT limit T/O & GA: 950°C Oil temperature: engine start min.16 Engine (Source: FCOM 3. delay After 4 starts 15 Min. 3 start cycles thereafter wait 60 min before attempting 3 more cycles APU bleed air extraction for wing anti ice is not permitted 1. that appears on the ECAM.

Instr. if the airplane meets all applicable performance requirements at the planned takeoff weight. if no 1000 PSI limiter installed IRS: full alignment ca. or the actual OAT.5 qts/h) A319: min. • Takeoff at reduced thrust is permitted with any inoperative item affecting the performance.07 . • Takeoff at reduced thrust is not permitted on contaminated runways.01.1 Cockpit Preparation (Source: FCOM 3.2. 25.3. • The assumed temperature must not be lower than the flat rating temperature. 21.05.6 .GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 1300 psi (+2 observer / 40°C) Engine oil quantity: A320: min. 11 qts + estimated consumption (0. with the operating engines at the thrust available for the flex temperature. 9.3 qts/h) Battery: (off – on -> check) battery charge currents are below 60 A and decreasing min.4.3.5 V (ensures charge 50%) charging cycle about 20 minutes APU: do not use APU Bleed with external Airconditioning connected -> valve damage Brake pressure check: between 2000 and 2700 PSI (full pedal deflection). 3.2 Operational Limitations 21. 3. with the operating engines at the thrust available for the assumed temperature.5 qts + estimated consumption (0. 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40°C) min. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 138 of 148 Reduced Thrust Takeoff (Source: FCOM 3.34) Oxygen pressure: min.4 . 10 minutes if one IRS has a residual ground speed greater than 5 knots complete a fast alignment on all 3 IRS. 800 psi (2 Crew / 40°C) min. only if the associated performance shortfall has been applied to meet all performance requirements at the takeoff weight.70) • Takeoff at reduced thrust is only permitted.

select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260° C Break temperature for T/O: max.03. periodic engine run-up to as high a thrust setting as practical (70 % N1 recommended) may be performed at the pilot's discretion to centrifuge any ice from the spinner. Instr. Icing (Sorce: FCOM 3. During ground operation when engine anti ice is required and OAT is plus 3 deg C or less.10) N1 max 40% Taxispeed max 30 kt straight ahead max 10 kt in turns Brake fan: If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature. slush. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 139 of 148 Pack flow selector: LO if number of PAX < 115 (A320) LO if number of PAX < 85 (A319) HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases Altimeters max.05. Subsequent takeoff under these conditions should be preceded by a static run-up to as high a thrust as practical (70 % N1 recommended) with observation of all primary parameters to ensure normal engine operation. or when TAT (in flight) is 10° C or below with visible moisture in the air or standing water.2. fan blades and low compressor stators. 300°C with brake fan off.2 Taxi (Source: FCOM 03.07 . ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground) max.3. The run-ups should be performed at intervals not greater than 15 minutes. 150°C with brake fan on.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS: 100 ft (on ground) 21. max. There is no requirement to sustain the high thrust setting.9) Note: Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for take-off).

3. / 10min.12.1. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 140 of 148 Before Take Off (Source: FCOM 03.5. Take Off (Source: FCOM 3.2) behind heavy aircraft (>136’000kg) same position 2 min intermediate position 3 min Time limit for T/O & GA: 5 min. or when the TAT (in flight) is at or below 10°C.05.07 .12) Packs: Select PACK 1 ON after CLB thrust reduction Select PACK 2 ON after a min. snow. 10 seconds waiting period but not later than Flaps are set to zero. gusts 38 kt max tailwind A320 15 kt A319 10 kt Max Pitch in T/O 18° Separation due to wake turbulence: (Source: EAG ERM.1.28.3 After Take Off / Climb (Source: FCOM 3. 3.3.30) Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on ground and for takeoff). Instr.6 .70) max demonstrated crosswind T/O 29kt. and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds. ICAO RAR 12.3.2. sleet.4.3.07) Start IGN START if heavy rain or severe turbulence is expected after takeoff.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. gusts 38 kt max demonstrated crosswind LDG 33kt. ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways 21. fog with low visibility of one mile or less. Icing (Source: FCOM 3.28.03. slush. Note: Selecting pack ON before reducing take off thrust would result in an EGT increase. OEI Fuel: Takeoff on center tank is prohibited. ice crystals) or standing water. rain.

2.34) Altimeter: max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby altimeter: 185 ft (FL 100) 21.4. gusts 38 kt max demonstrated crosswind LDG 33kt.76 (which ever is less) Below FL 200 250 kt 21.07 .91) Above FL200 275 kt or Mach 0. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 141 of 148 Selecting both packs ON simultaneously may affect passenger comfort. gusts 38 kt max tailwind A320 15 kt A319 10 kt auto LDG max tailwind 10 kt auto LDG max crosswind 20 kt auto LDG max headwind 30 kt Instr. Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3.4 Cruise Turbulence (Source: FCOM 3.05.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.5 Approach max demonstrated crosswind T/O 29kt.2.4. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) max.

2. • Engine shut down minimum 3 minutes after LDG. 70kt 21.7 After Landing (FCOM 03.32) Brakes • above 500°C. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 142 of 148 Wake turbulence radar separation minima (Sorce: ICAO RAR 12.3. and the temperature of either one of the brakes is higher than or equal to 600°C or • The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C. or brake temperatures are likely to exceed 500°C. parking brake application should be avoided unless operationally necessary When turnaround times are short.23) • if above 30° C OAT consider Conf 1 • Brake fans selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes.4.3.2.24 . use the brake fans.05. Maintenance action is due in the following cases : • The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C.3) Behind a heavy acft: 5Nm All other cases 3Nm 21.8 Parking (Source: FCOM 3.07 .03. and the temperature of one brake is lower than or equal to 60°C. or • The difference between the LH and RH brakes' average temperature is higher than or equal to 200°C or • A fuse plug has melted or • One brake's temperature exceeds 900°C Instr. or done at the gate (whichever occurs first).6 Landing (Source: FCOM 3.21) Pitch max 10° Bank max 7° Full reverse min. 3. disregarding possible oxidation phenomenon. to allow thermal equalization and stabilization and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots. if full reverse used 21.2.28.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.

GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. 21.9 Leaving Aircraft (Source: FCOM 3.3.07 . Above 21 kt Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed). before switching off the batteries Instr.05. A320 LINE TRAINING Number : SUMMARY Limitations Page : 143 of 148 IRU Performance On POSITION MONITOR page Drift 5nm or below (in all other cases consult FCOM 3.2.24) Residual ground speed check: Below 5kt ok 6-14 kt perform a fast alignment 15-20kt Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed. Wait until the APU flap is fully closed (about 2 minutes afte the APU AVAIL light goes out).3. wait at least 10 seconds before switching off the electrical supply to ensure that the ADIRS memorize the latest data. if the excessive deviation occurs after two consecutive flights).25) After having switched off the ADIRS.

Capture A / C Aircraft CAS Calibrated Airspeed ACARS ARINC Communication Addressing C / B Circuit Breaker and Reporting System CBMS Circuit Breaker Monitoring System ACP Audio Control Panel CDL Configuration Deviation List ADF Automatic Direction Finder CDU Control Display Unit ADIRS Air Data Inertial Reference System CFDIU Centralized Fault Data Interface ADIRU Air Data Inertial Reference Unit CFDS Centralized Fault Display System ADM Air Data Module CG Center of Gravity ADR Air Data Reference CHG Change ADV Advisory CIDS Cabin Intercommunication Data AEVC Avionics Equipment Ventilation System Computer C / L Check List AFS Auto Flight System CLB Climb AIDS Aircraft Integrated Data System CLR Clear AIL Aileron CMD Command AIU Audio Interface Unit CMPTR Computer AMU Audio Management Unit CO Company ANT Antenna CONT Continuous ALS Approach Light System CO RTE Company Route ALT Altitude CPCU Cabin Pressure Controller Und ALTN Alternate CRC Continuous Repetitive Chime A / P Auto-Pilot CRG Cargo APPR Approach CRS Course APPU Asymmetry Position Pick off Unit CRT Cathode Ray Tube APU Auxiliary Power Und CRZ Cruise ARPT Airport CSCU Cargo Smoke Control Unit AS Airspeed CSD Constant Speed Drive ASAP As Soon As Possible CSM / G Constant Speed Motor / ASI Air Speed Indicator Generator A / SKID Anti Skid CSTR Constraint ATC Air Traffic Control CTR Center ATE Automatic Test Equipment CTL PNL Control Panel A/THR Auto Thrust Function CVR Cockpit Voice Recorder ATS Auto Thrust System ATT Attitude AWY Airway D DA Drift Angle B DAR Digital AIDS Recorder BARO Barometric DC Direct Current BAT Battery DDRMI Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic BCL Battery Charge Limiter Indicator BCDS Bite Centralized Data System DES Descent BITE Built-in Test Equipment DEST Destination BIU Bite Interface Unit DEU Decoder / Encoder Unit BFE Buyer Furnished Equiptment DFA Delayed Flap Approach BMC Bleed Air Monitoring Computer DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder BNR Binary DH Decision Height BRG Bearing DIR Direction BRK Brake DIR TO Direct To BRT Bright DISC Disconnect BSCU Braking Steering Control Unit DIST Distance Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.07 .05.0 SUMMARY Abreviations Page : 144 of 148 22 Abreviations BTC Bus Tie Contactor BTL Bottle A C ABN Abnormal C Centigrade AC Alternating Current CAPT Captain.

A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.0 SUMMARY Abreviations Page : 145 of 148 DITS Digital Information Transfer System FF Fuel Flow DMC Display Management Computer FGC Flight Guidance Computer DME Distance Measuring Equipment FIDS Fault Isolation and Detection DMU Data Management Und (Aids) System DSDL Dedicated Serial Data Link FL Flight Level DSPL Display FLSCU Fuel Level Sensing Control Unit DTG Distance To Go FLT Flight DU Display Unit FLT CLT Flight Control FMA Flight Mode Annunciator E FMGC Flight Management Guidance E East Computer ECAM Electronic Centralized Aircraft FMGS Flight Management Monitoring Guidance System ECB Electronic Control Box (APU) FMS Flight Management System ECM Engine Condition Monitoring F/0 First Officer ECON Economic FOB Fuel on Board ECP ECAM Control Panel F-PLN Flight Plan ECS Environmental Control System FPA Flight Path Angle ECU Engine Control Unit FPPU Feed Back Position Pick-Off Unit EDP Engine Driven Pump FPV Flight Path Vector EFCS Electronic Flight Control System FQI / FQU Fuel Quantity Indication / EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument System Unit EFOB Estimated Fuel On Board FREQ Frequency EIU Engine Interface Unit FRT Front EIS Electronic Instruments System FRV Fuel Retum Valve ELAC Elevator Aileron Computer FT Foot.05.07 . Feet ELV Elevation FT/MN Feet per Minute ELEC Electrics FU Fuel Used EMER Emergency FWD Forward EMER GEN Emergency Generator FWC Flight Waming Computer ENG Engine FWS Flight Waming System EO Engine Out EPR Engine Pressure Ratio G ESS Essential GA Go Around EST Estimated GCU Generator Control Unit ETA Estimated Time of Arrival GEN Generator ETE Estimated Time en Route GLC Generator Line Contactor ETP Equal Time Point GMT Greenwich Mean time EVMU Engine Vibration Monitoring Unis GND Ground E / WD Engine / Waming Display GPCU Ground Power Control Unit EXT PWR External Power GPS Global Positioning System EXTN Extension GPWS Ground Proximity Waming System GRND Ground F GRP Geographic Reference Point GRVTY Gravity FAC Flight Augmentation Computer GS Ground Speed FADEC Full Authority Digital Engine Control G/S Glide Slope System GW Gross Weight FAF Final Approach Fix FAP Forward Attendants Panel FAR Federal Aviation Regulations H FAV Fan Air Valve H Hour.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Hot F / C Flight Crew HCU Hydraulic Control Unit FCDC Flight Control Data Concentrator HDG Heading FCU Flight Control Unit HDG/S Heading Selected FD Flight Director HDL Handle FDIU Flight Data Interface Unit HI High FDU Fire Detection Unit HI High Intensity Instr.

Mach.0 SUMMARY Abreviations Page : 146 of 148 HLD Hold LLS Left Line Select Key HMU Hydraulic-Mechanical Unft LOC Localizer HP High Pressure LONG Longitude HPTCC HP Turbine Clearance Control LP Low Pressure HPV High Pressure Valve LPTCC LP Turbine Clearance Control HUD Head Up Display LRRA Low Range Radio Altimeter HYD Hydraulics LRU Line Replaceable Unit HZ Hertz LSK Line Select Key LT Light I LVL Level IAF Initial Approach Fix LVL/CH Level Change IAS Indicated Airspeed LW Landing Weight IDENT Identification IDG Integrated Drive Generator IFR Instrument Flight Rules M IGN Ignition M Magenta. North LS Localizer Inertial Smoothing NACA National Advisory Committee for LK Lock Aeronautics LL Latitude / Longitude NAV Navigation Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Meter IGV Inlet Guide Vane MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord ILS Instrument Landing System MAG Magnetic IMM Immediate MAG DEC Magnetic Declination INB Inbound MAG VAR Magnetic Variation INBO Inboard MAINT Maintenance INCREM Increment MAN Manual INIT Initialization MAX CLB Maximum Climb INOP Inoperative MAX DES Maximum Descent INR Inner MAX END Maximum Endurance INST Instrument MB Millibar INTCP Intercept MCT Maximum Continuous Thrust I/O Inputs / Outputs MCDU Multifunction Control and Display I/P Input or Intercept Profile Unit IP Intermediate Pressure MCU Modular Concept Unit IPC Intermediate Pressure Check-valve MDA Minimum Descent Altitude IPPU Instrumentation Position MECH Mechanic Pick-off Unit MEL Minimum Equipment List IRS Inertial Reference System MFA Memorized Fault Annunciator ISA International Standard Atmosphere MI Medium Intensity ISOL Isolation MIN Minimum MKR Marker K MLS Microwave Landing System KG Kilogram MLW Maximum Landing Weight KT Knot MMEL Master Minimum Equipment List MMO Maximum Operating Mach L MN Mach Number MRIU Maintenance and Recording L Left Interface Unit LAF Load Alleviation Function MSA Minimum Safe Altitude LAT Latitude MSG Message LAT REV Lateral Revision MSL Mean Sea Level LAV Lavatory MSU Mode Selector Unit (IRS) LCN Load Classification Number MTBF Mean Time Between Failure LDG Landing MTOW Maximum Take-Off Weight L / G Landing Gear MZFW Maximum Zero Fuel Weight LGCIU Landing Gear Control Interface Unit LGPIU L/ G Position Indicator Unit LH Left Hand N LIM Limitation N Normal.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.05.07 .

07 . Red OFF / R Off Reset RA Radio Altitude OFST Offset RACC Rotor Active Clearance Control O/P Output RAT Ram Air Turbine OPP Opposite RCDR Recorder OPT Optimum RCL Recall OUTB Outbound RCL Runway Centerline Lights OUTR Outer RCLM Runway Centerline Markings OVBD Overboard RCVR Receiver OVHD Overhead REL Release OVHT Overheat REL Runway End Lights OVRD Override REV Reverse OVSPD Overspeed RH Right Hand R /1 Radio / Inertial P RL Runway (Edge) Lights RLSK Right Line Select Key P-ALT Profile Altitude RMI Radio Magnetic Indicator P/B Push-Button RMP Radio Management Panel P-CLB Profile Climb RNG Range PCU Power Control Unit RPM Revolution per Minute P-DES Profile Descent RPTG Repeating PDU Pilot Display Unit RQRD Required PERF Performance RSV Reserves PFD Primary Flight Display RTE Route PHC Probes Heat Computer RTOW Regulatory Takeoff Weight P-MACH Profile Mach RWY Runway POB Pressure Off Brake RWYM Runway Markings P-SPEED Profile Speed POS Position PPOS Present Position PPU Position Pick-off Unit S PR Pressure S South PRED Prediction SC Single Chime PROC Procedure S / C Step Climb PROC T Procedure Turn SD System Display PROF Profile STAT INV Static Inverter PROG Progress S / D Step Descent PROTEC Protection SDAC System Data Acquisition PSU Passenger Service Unit Concentrator PT Point SDCU Smoke Detection Control Unit PTP Purser Test Panel SEC Spoiler Elevator Computer PTR Printer SEL Selector PTU Power Transfer Unit (Hydraulic) SFCC Slat / Flap Control Computer PVI Paravisual Indicator SFCS Slat / Flap Control System PWR Power SFE Seiler Furnished Equipment Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19.0 SUMMARY Abreviations Page : 147 of 148 NAVAID Navigation Aid (VOR / DME) QAR Quick Access Recorder ND Navigation Display QFE Field Elevation Atmosphere NDB Non Directional Beacon Pressure NM Nautical Miles QFU Runway Heading NW Nose Wheel QNE Sea Level Standard Atmosphere Pressure (1013 MB) QNH Sea level Atmosphere Pressure QT Quart (US) QTY Quantity O OAT Outside Air Temperature R OBRM On Board Replacable Module R Right.05.

West.Go-Around XPDR Transponder TOGW Take-Off Gross Weight XTK Cross Track Error TOW Take-Off Weight T-P Turn Point Y T-R Transmitter-Receiver Y Yellow TRANS Transition TROPOTropopause Z TRK Track ZFCG Zero Fuel Center of Gravity TRU Transformer Rectifier Unit ZFW Zero Fuel Weight TTG Time to Go U Instr. A320 LINE TRAINING Version : 1. Total VMIN Minimum Operating Speed TACT Tactical VMO Maximum Operating Speed TAS True Air Speed VOR VHF Omnidirectional Range TAT Total Air Temperature VOR-D VOR-DME TBD To Be Determined VR Rotation Speed T/C Top of Climb VREF Landing Reference Speed TCAS Traffic Collision Alert System or V/S Vertical Speed Threat Analysis / Collision VSI Vertical Speed Indicator Avoidance System VSV Variable Stator Vane T / D Top of Descent TDZ Touchdown Zone Lights W TEMP Temperature W White. Weight TGT Target WHC Window Heat Computer THR Thrust WPT Waypoint THRL Threshold Lights WTB Wing Tip Brake THS Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer WXR Weather Radar TK Tank TK Track Angle TKE Track Angle Error X TMR Timer XCVR Transceiver TLA Throttle Lever Angle XFR Transfer TO.07 .05.0 SUMMARY Abreviations Page : 148 of 148 SID Standard Instrument Departure UFD Unit Fault Data SIM Simulation ULB Underwater Locator Beacon SLT Slat UNLK Unlock SOV Shutoff valve UTC Universal Coordinated Time SPD Speed SPD LIM Speed Limit SPLR Spoiler V SRS Speed Reference System V Volt STAR Standard Terminal Arrival Route V1 Critical Engine Failure Speed STEER Steering V2 Take Off Safety Speed STRG Steering VBV Variable by pass valve STS Status Vc Calibrated airspeed SW Switch VEL Velocity SWTG Switching VFE Maxi Velocity Flaps Extended SYNC Synchronize VFEN VFE Next SYS System VFTO Vetocity Final Take-Off VHF Very High Frequency VHV Very High Voltage VIB Vibration T VM Maneuvering Speed T True.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 19. Turn. Take Off XMTR Transmitter TOGA Take-Off .