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LESSON 4A: Excel specifications and limits

Worksheet and workbook specifications and limits

Feature Maximum limit

Open workbooks Limited by available memory and system resources

Worksheet size 1,048,576 rows by 16,384 columns

Column width 255 characters

Row height 409 points

Sheets in a workbook Limited by available memory (default is 3 sheets)

Zoom range 10 percent to 400 percent

Use the Ribbon

The Ribbon is designed to help you quickly find the commands that you need to complete a task.

Commands are organized in logical groups, which are collected together under tabs.

Each tab relates to a type of activity, such as writing or laying out a page.

To reduce clutter, some tabs are shown only when needed. For example, the Picture Tools tab is
shown only when a picture is selected.

There is no way to delete or replace the Ribbon with the toolbars and menus from the earlier versions
of Microsoft Office. However, you can minimize the Ribbon to make more space available on your
screen.

 Always keep the Ribbon minimized

1. Click Customize Quick Access Toolbar .

2. In the list, click Minimize the Ribbon.

3. To use the Ribbon while it is minimized, click the tab you want to use, and then click the
option or command you want to use.
For example, with the Ribbon minimized, you can select text in your Microsoft Office Word
document, click the Home tab, and then in the Font group, click the size of the text you want.
After you click the text size you want, the Ribbon goes back to being minimized.

function keys. CTRL+SHIFT+! Applies the Number format with two decimal places.  Restore the Ribbon 1.  Keep the Ribbon minimized for a short time To quickly minimize the Ribbon. month. CTRL+SHIFT+% Applies the Percentage format with no decimal places. and minus sign (-) for negative values.Excel shortcut and function keys The following lists contain CTRL combination shortcut keys. CTRL+9 Hides the selected rows. CTRL+SHIFT+) Unhides any hidden columns within the selection. Double-click a tab again to restore the Ribbon. click Minimize the Ribbon. and AM or PM. In the list. CTRL+SHIFT+# Applies the Date format with the day. and year. double-click the name of the active tab. along with descriptions of their functionality. CTRL+A Selects the entire worksheet. . CTRL+SHIFT+~ Applies the General number format. CTRL+SHIFT+$ Applies the Currency format with two decimal places (negative numbers in parentheses). CTRL combination shortcut keys Key Description CTRL+SHIFT+( Unhides any hidden rows within the selection. 2. TIP Keyboard shortcut To minimize or restore the Ribbon. LESSON 4B . and some other common shortcut keys. thousands separator. CTRL+0 Hides the selected columns. press CTRL+F1. Click Customize Quick Access Toolbar . CTRL+SHIFT+@ Applies the Time format with the hour and minute.

CTRL+D Uses the Fill Down command to copy the contents and format of the topmost cell of a selected range into the cells below. blank workbook. Function keys Ke y Description F1 Displays the Microsoft Office Excel Help task pane. CTRL+I Applies or removes italic formatting. SHIFT+F2 adds or edits a cell comment. ALT+SHIFT+F1 inserts a new worksheet. Other useful shortcut keys Key Description END Moves to the cell in the lower-right corner of the window when SCROLL LOCK . It also moves the insertion point into the Formula Bar when editing in a cell is turned off. ALT+F1 creates a chart of the data in the current range. CTRL+F1 displays or hides the ribbon. with the Replace tab selected. F2 Edits the active cell and positions the insertion point at the end of the cell contents. CTRL+H Displays the Find and Replace dialog box. CTRL+C Copies the selected cells. CTRL+SHIFT+O selects all cells that contain comments. CTRL+N Creates a new. CTRL+C followed by another CTRL+C displays the Clipboard.CTRL+B Applies or removes bold formatting. CTRL+F2 displays the Print Preview window. CTRL+O Displays the Open dialog box to open or find a file.

CTRL+SHIFT+END selects all text in the formula bar from the cursor position to the end—this does not affect the height of the formula bar. CTRL+SHIFT+END extends the selection of cells to the last used cell on the worksheet (lower-right corner). in the lowest used row of the rightmost used column. PAGE UP Moves one screen up in a worksheet. CTRL+SPACEBAR selects an entire column in a worksheet. PAGE Moves one screen down in a worksheet. CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP selects the current and previous sheet in a workbook. or selects or R clears a check box. CTRL+PAGE DOWN moves to the next sheet in a workbook. CTRL+HOME moves to the beginning of a worksheet. is turned on. performs the action for the selected button. HOME Moves to the beginning of a row in a worksheet. CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE DOWN selects the current and next sheet in a workbook. ALT+PAGE UP moves one screen to the left in a worksheet. DOWN ALT+PAGE DOWN moves one screen to the right in a worksheet. CTRL+SHIFT+HOME extends the selection of cells to the beginning of the worksheet. Moves to the cell in the upper-left corner of the window when SCROLL LOCK is turned on. SPACEBA In a dialog box. Also selects the last command on the menu when a menu or submenu is visible. CTRL+END moves the cursor to the end of the text. If the cursor is in the formula bar. . CTRL+PAGE UP moves to the previous sheet in a workbook. Selects the first command on the menu when a menu or submenu is visible. CTRL+END moves to the last cell on a worksheet. If the cursor is in the formula bar. SHIFT+SPACEBAR selects an entire row in a worksheet.

Use functions to simplify and shorten formulas on a worksheet. =5+2*3 A formula can also contain any or all of the following:  functions (function: A prewritten formula that takes a value or values. Moves between unlocked cells in a protected worksheet. For example. and reference operators.). CTRL+SHIFT+TAB switches to the previous tab in a dialog box. CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR selects the entire worksheet. especially those that perform lengthy or complex calculations. A formula starts with an equal sign (=). performs an operation. logical.Formula and name basics > Creating formulas Overview of formulas Formulas are equations that perform calculations on values in your worksheet. references. Pressing CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR a third time selects the entire worksheet. LESSON 4C . CTRL+TAB switches to the next tab in dialog box. TAB Moves one cell to the right in a worksheet. ALT+SPACEBAR displays the Control menu for the Microsoft Office Excel window. SHIFT+TAB moves to the previous cell in a worksheet or the previous option in a dialog box. Moves to the next option or option group in a dialog box. CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR selects the current region. the following formula multiplies 2 by 3 and then adds 5 to the result. and returns a value or values. operators (operator: A sign or symbol that specifies the type of calculation to perform within an expression. comparison. and . CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR selects all objects on a worksheet. If the worksheet contains data. Pressing CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR a second time selects the current region and its summary rows. There are mathematical.). When an object is selected.

and the text "Quarterly Earnings" are constants. An expression. use the following arithmetic operators. such as 2. Using constants in formulas A constant is a value that is not calculated. and the text "Quarterly Earnings" are all constants. Constants: Numbers or text values entered directly into a formula. For example. combine numbers. =30+70+110). the result changes only if you modify the formula yourself. therefore. Arithmetic operator Meaning Example + (plus sign) Addition 3+3 – (minus sign) Subtraction 3–1 . the date 10/9/2008. For example. the number 210. subtraction. or a value resulting from an expression. is not a constant. An expression.. or multiplication. the number 210. Parts of a formula Functions: The PI() function returns the value of pi: 3.142. References: A2 returns the value in cell A2. Operators: The ^ (caret) operator raises a number to a power. is not a constant.).. constants (constant: A value that is not calculated and. and produce numeric results. does not change. and the * (asterisk) operator multiplies. or a value resulting from an expression. Arithmetic operators To perform basic mathematical operations such as addition. If you use constant values in the formula instead of references to the cells (for example.

. When two values are compared by using these operators. or concatenates. two values to produce one "North"&"wind (ampersand) continuous text value " Reference operators Combine ranges of cells for calculations with the following operators. or concatenate. Text operator Meaning Example & Connects. Comparison operator Meaning Example = (equal sign) Equal to A1=B1 > (greater than sign) Greater than A1>B1 < (less than sign) Less than A1<B1 >= (greater than or equal to Greater than or equal A1>=B1 sign) to <= (less than or equal to Less than or equal to A1<=B1 sign) <> (not equal to sign) Not equal to A1<>B1 Text concatenation operator Use the ampersand (&) to join. the result is a logical value either TRUE or FALSE. one or more text strings to produce a single piece of text. Negation –1 * (asterisk) Multiplication 3*3 / (forward slash) Division 3/3 % (percent sign) Percent 20% ^ (caret) Exponentiation 3^2 ) Comparison operators You can compare two values with the following operators.

An array . arrays (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. Arguments. followed by the function name. an opening parenthesis. The syntax of functions The following example of the ROUND function rounding off a number in cell A10 illustrates the syntax of a function. click a cell and press SHIFT+F3. and a closing parenthesis. For a list of available functions. (comma) Union operator. which produces on B7:D7 C6:C8 reference to cells common to the two references Using functions and nested functions in formulas Functions are predefined formulas that perform calculations by using specific values. the arguments for the function separated by commas. which produces one B5:B15 reference to all the cells between two references. or structure. which combines multiple SUM(B5:B15. Structure of a function Structure. in a particular order. logical values such as TRUE or FALSE. Function name. text. Arguments can be numbers.Reference operator Meaning Example : (colon) Range operator. including the two references . called arguments.D5:D15 references into one reference ) (space) Intersection operator. The structure of a function begins with an equal sign (=). Functions can be used to perform simple or complex calculations.

The argument you designate must produce a valid value for that argument. formulas. The difference between absolute. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes. For example.). it automatically adjusts from =A1 to =A2. range shares a common formula. type =ROUND( and the tooltip appears. Argument tooltip. For example. For . the reference automatically adjusts. if you copy or fill a relative reference in cell B2 to cell B3. Copied formula with relative reference Absolute references An absolute cell reference in a formula. is not a constant. the reference of the cell that appears at the intersection of column B and row 3 is B3. Arguments can also be constants (constant: A value that is not calculated and. Tooltips only appear for built-in functions. or other functions. such as A1. For example. the number 210. A tooltip with the syntax and arguments appears as you type the function. For example. If you copy or fill the formula across rows or down columns. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes. the reference is changed. and you may need to switch them to absolute references. and the text "Quarterly Earnings" are constants. the absolute reference remains the same. or a value resulting from an expression. error values such as #N/A. is based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell the reference refers to. new formulas use relative references. does not change. therefore. If you copy or fill the formula across rows or down columns. the absolute reference does not adjust. By default. An expression. new formulas use relative references. relative and mixed references Relative references A relative cell reference in a formula. or cell references (cell reference: The set of coordinates that a cell occupies on a worksheet. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. such as $A$1. always refer to a cell in a specific location.). By default.).

it adjusts from =A$1 to =B$1. B$1. use a 3-D reference. or absolute row and relative column. and so on. For example. and so on. the relative reference is changed. the relative reference automatically adjusts. =SUM(Sheet2:Sheet13!B5) adds all the values contained in cell B5 on all the worksheets between and including Sheet 2 and Sheet 13.example. Copied formula with mixed reference The 3-D reference style Conveniently referencing multiple worksheets If you want to analyze data in the same cell or range of cells on multiple worksheets within the workbook. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes. . it stays the same in both cells =$A$1. Excel uses any worksheets stored between the starting and ending names of the reference. A 3-D reference includes the cell or range reference. An absolute column reference takes the form $A1. Copied formula with absolute reference Mixed references A mixed reference has either an absolute column and relative row. An absolute row reference takes the form A$1. If you copy or fill the formula across rows or down columns. if you copy or fill an absolute reference in cell B2 to cell B3. For example. $B1. and the absolute reference does not change. and the absolute reference does not adjust. if you copy or fill a mixed reference from cell A2 to B3. preceded by a range of worksheet names.

STDEV. and different solutions. If cell C10 contains the formula =B5:B15*5. However.). Below are some tools to enable you to find and investigate the causes and determine solutions. If an error is ignored. STDEVP. STDEVA. MIN. MINA. MAXA. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. and to create formulas by using the following functions: SUM. Correct a ##### error . Correct common errors when entering formulas Cell with a formula error An error can be resolved by using the options that appear. and VARPA. Microsoft Office Excel will display an error value. STDEVPA. comparison. that is calculated like a single cell. AVERAGE.Find and correct errors in formulas Formulas can result in error values as well as cause unintended results. COUNTA. 3-D references cannot be used in array formulas (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values.). and then returns either a single result or multiple results.) (a single space) or in formulas that use implicit intersection (implicit intersection: A reference to a range of cells. You can use 3-D references to refer to cells on other sheets. VARP. to define names. There are mathematical. and reference operators. MAX. logical. Excel multiplies the value in cell B10 by 5 because cells B10 and C10 are in the same row. AVERAGEA. it does not appear in further error checks. all previously ignored errors can be reset so that they appear again. PRODUCT. VARA. LESSON 4D . 3-D references cannot be used with the intersection operator (operator: A sign or symbol that specifies the type of calculation to perform within an expression. or it can be ignored. VAR. instead of a single cell. Correct an error value If a formula cannot properly evaluate a result. Each error type has different causes. COUNT.

The column is not wide enough to display the content Do one or more of the following:  Increase the width of the column  Select the column by clicking the column header. . Review the following possible causes and solutions. Missing data. and names. cell references. Review the following possible causes and solutions. and then click Show Calculation Steps if it appears. LOOKUP. Giving an inappropriate value for the lookup_value argument in the HLOOKUP. Correct a #DIV/0! error This error occurs when a number is divided by zero (0). or a negative date or time is used. The type of argument a function uses is specific to the function.) is the correct type of value — for example. Review the following possible causes and solutions. Optionally. Common arguments that are used within functions include numbers. or VLOOKUP worksheet function Make sure that the lookup_value argument (argument: The values that a function uses to perform operations or calculations. Optionally. and then click Show Calculation Steps if it appears. click the cell that displays the error. but not a range reference. click the button that appears . and #N/A or NA() has been entered in its place Replace #N/A with new data. Formulas that refer to those cells will then return #N/A instead of attempting to calculate a value. Note You can enter #N/A in those cells where data is not yet available. click the button that appears . =5/0 Change the divisor to a number other than zero. Using the cell reference to a blank cell or to a cell that contains zero as a divisor Correct a #N/A error This error occurs when a value is not available to a function or formula. MATCH. text. Entering a formula that contains explicit division by zero (0) — for example. click the cell that displays the error. a value or a cell reference.This error occurs when a column is not wide enough.

press F3. such as Sales!C20:C30. Optionally.) . Select the name in the formula bar (formula bar: A bar at the top of the Excel window that you use to enter or edit values or formulas in cells or charts. Use easy-to-understand names. click the name that you want to use. SUM(A1:C10). Referencing another sheet not enclosed in single quotation marks . the following formula joins the piece of text "The total amount is " with the value in cell B50: ="The total amount is "&B50 Omitting a colon (:) in a range reference Make sure that all range references in the formula use a colon (:). For example. and then see if the name is listed.Correct a #NAME? error This error occurs when Microsoft Office Excel doesn't recognize text in a formula. range of cells. and then click OK. Entering text in a formula without enclosing the text in double quotation marks Excel tries to interpret your entry as a name even though you intended it to be used as text. to refer to hard to understand ranges. and then click Show Calculation Steps if it appears. add the name by clicking New. Insert the correct function name into the formula by clicking Function Wizard in the Function Library group on the Formulas tab. Misspelling the name Verify the spelling. On the Formulas tab. Displays the constant value or formula stored in the active cell. such as Products.) exists. Misspelling the name of a function Correct the spelling. Review the following possible causes and solutions. for example. formula. in the Defined Names group. click Name Manager. Enclose text in the formula in double quotation marks. or constant value. click the button that appears . If the name is not listed. Using a name that does not exist Make sure that the name (name: A word or string of characters that represents a cell. click the cell that displays the error.

the color is green. you must enclose its name within single quotation marks ( ' ).If the formula refers to values or cells on other worksheets or workbooks and the name of the other workbook or worksheet contains a nonalphabetical character or a space. functions. and the cell range has a green border with square corners. Review the following possible causes and solutions. SUM(A1:A10) refers to the range from cell A1 to cell A10 inclusive. The intersection operator is a space between references. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). . make sure that a comma separates the two ranges (SUM(A1:A10. cell references and the borders around the corresponding cells are color-coded. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. Ranges do not intersect Change the reference so that it intersects.). Optionally.).C1:C10)). When you enter or edit a formula (formula: A sequence of values. Correct a #NULL! error This error occurs when you specify an intersection of two areas that do not intersect. if the formula sums two ranges. use the union operator. For example. and then click Show Calculation Steps if it appears. For example. names. Using an incorrect range operator To refer to a contiguous range of cells. The second cell reference is C3. cell references. the comma (. the color is blue. use a colon (:) to separate the reference to the first cell in the range from the reference to the last cell in the range. To refer to two areas that don't intersect. Color-coded cell references The first cell reference is B3. click the cell that displays the error. and the cell range has a blue border with square corners. click the button that appears .

and names. Do one of the following: To move a cell or range reference to a different cell or range. cell references. such as IRR or RATE. Common arguments that are used within functions include numbers. In the formula.) range. range of cells. text. then the reference is not to a named range. The type of argument a function uses is specific to the function. click the button that appears . such as Products. Using a worksheet function that iterates. formula. Use easy-to-understand names. Using an unacceptable argument in a function that requires a numeric argument Make sure that the arguments (argument: The values that a function uses to perform operations or calculations. to refer to hard to understand ranges.000. drag the color-coded border of the cell or range to the new cell or range. . select the reference. such as Sales!C20:C30. click the cell that displays the error. Microsoft Office Excel highlights each cell or range of cells with a different color. Optionally. even if the value you want to enter is $1. If there are squares at each corner of the color-coded border. Review the following possible causes and solutions. enter 1000 in the formula.If there are no squares at each corner of the color-coded border. Do one of the following: Change references that are not to a named range Double-click the cell that contains the formula you want to change. Press ENTER. Correct a #NUM! error This error occurs with invalid numeric values in a formula or function. and type a new one. For example. or constant value. then the reference is to a named (name: A word or string of characters that represents a cell. To include more or fewer cells in a reference. and the function cannot find a result Use a different starting value for the worksheet function.) used in the function are numbers. drag a corner of the border. and then click Show Calculation Steps if it appears.

type the number of iterations in the Maximum Iterations box. click the button that appears . and then click the Formulas category. the more time that Excel needs to calculate a worksheet. or restore the cells on the worksheet by clicking Undo immediately after you delete or paste the cells. Deleting cells referred to by other formulas. Correct a #REF! error This error occurs when a cell reference (cell reference: The set of coordinates that a cell occupies on a worksheet. To set the maximum amount of change that you will accept between calculation results. The higher the number of iterations. Running a macro that enters a function that returns #REF! . select the Enable iterative calculations check box. Optionally. or pasting moved cells over cells referred to by other formulas Change the formulas. Click the Microsoft Office Button . For example. type the amount in the Maximum Change box. click Excel Options. Linking to a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) topic such as "system" that is not available Make sure that you're using the correct DDE topic.) is not valid. Using an Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) link to a program that is not running Start the program. and then click Show Calculation Steps if it appears. The smaller the number. To set the maximum number of times that Excel will recalculate. the reference of the cell that appears at the intersection of column B and row 3 is B3. the more accurate the result and the more time that Excel needs to calculate a worksheet.Change the number of times Microsoft Office Excel iterates formulas. Review the following possible causes and solutions. Entering a formula that produces a number that is too large or too small to be represented in Excel Change the formula so that its result is between -1*10307 and 1*10307. click the cell that displays the error. In the Calculation options section.

.Check the function to see if an argument (argument: The values that a function uses to perform operations or calculations. the number 210. labels. For example. and then returns either a single result or multiple results. and names. text.) or operand (operand: Items on either side of an operator in a formula. Entering or editing an array formula. Entering text when the formula requires a number or a logical value. does not change. and functions. if cell A5 contains a number and cell A6 contains the text "Not available".). if the macro enters a function that refers to a cell above the function. Optionally. Correct a #VALUE! error This error occurs when the wrong type of argument (argument: The values that a function uses to perform operations or calculations. or function. For example. the function will return #REF! because there are no cells above row 1. operands can be values. The type of argument a function uses is specific to the function. and that the cells that are referenced by the formula contain valid values. An expression.) is used. the formula =A5+A6 will return the error #VALUE!. In Excel. For example. therefore. formula. cell references. cell references. such as TRUE or FALSE Microsoft Office Excel cannot translate the text into the correct data type. Entering a cell reference. click the cell that displays the error. The type of argument a function uses is specific to the function. click the button that appears . Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. press F2 to edit the formula.) is not a cell reference. or a function as an array constant Make sure that the array constant (constant: A value that is not calculated and. text. and then click Show Calculation Steps if it appears. and the text "Quarterly Earnings" are constants. and names. names. Review the following possible causes and solutions. and the cell that contains the function is in row 1. cell references. is not a constant. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. a formula. Common arguments that are used within functions include numbers. Common arguments that are used within functions include numbers. and then pressing ENTER Select the cell or range of cells that contains the array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values.) refers to a cell or range of cells that is not valid. or a value resulting from an expression. Make sure that the formula or function is correct for the required operand or argument.

">32". If a cell in criteria is empty. "32". or text that defines which cells are averaged.AVERAGEIF Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria.average_range) Range is one or more cells to average. AVERAGEIF ignores it. range is used. criteria can be expressed as 32. If omitted. arrays. including numbers or names. or B4. AVERAGEIF returns the #DIV0! error value. expression. For example. cell reference. AVERAGEIF treats it as a 0 value. . "apples". Remarks Cells in range that contain TRUE or FALSE are ignored. If a cell in average_range is an empty cell. Criteria is the criteria in the form of a number. or references that contain numbers.criteria. If range is a blank or text value. Average_range is the actual set of cells to average. Syntax AVERAGEIF(range.