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Modeling and Analysis of I.

C Engine Rocker Arm
Sai Krishna Jithendra
M.Tech, Machine Design, Associate Professor & HOD,
Nova College of Engineering and Technology, A.P- Dept of Mechanical Engineering,
India. Nova College of Engineering and Technology, A.P-
India.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:
Over the years rocker arms have been optimized in its A rocker arm is an oscillating lever that conveys radial
design and material for better performance. Durability, movement from the cam lobe into linear movement at
toughness, high dimension stability, wear resistance, the poppet valve to open it. One end is raised and
strength and cost of materials as well as economic lowered by a rotating lobe of the camshaft (either
factors are the reasons for optimization of rocker arm. directly or via a tappet (lifter) and pushrod) while the
This paper reviews the various types of rocker arms, other end acts on the valve stem. When the camshaft
based on published sources from the last 40 years in lobe raises the outside of the arm, the inside presses
order to understand rocker arm for its problem down on the valve stem, opening the valve. When the
identification and further optimization. This paper outside of the arm is permitted to return due to the
present what rocker arm is, where it is used and why it camshafts rotation, the inside rises, allowing the valve
is used, History related to rocker arm and it working is spring to close the valve. As a rocker arm is acted on
described. Various types of rocker arm used in by a camshaft lobe, it pushes open either an intake or
vehicles and different materials used for making rocker exhaust valve [1][2]. This allows fuel and air to be
arm are studied in this paper. Reasons for Failure of drawn into the combustion chamber during the intake
rocker arm are also discussed in this paper. In fast stroke or exhaust gases to be expelled during the
moving world the time is very important criteria. But exhaust stroke. Rocker arms were first invented in the
in the manual program time takes more and more for 19th century and have changed little in function since
every work in the world in the production department then.
drawing is very important for design the various parts.
Improvements have been made, however, in both
In the manual work, its takes more time and is also efficiencies of operation and construction materials [1]
very difficult to draw various components compare to [3] [4]. The drive cam is driven by the camshaft. This
CAD. So, to avoid these difficulties, CAD implements pushes the rocker arm up and down about
for quick & accurate design. Computer aided design the trunnion pin or rocker shaft. Friction may be
have various packages are Auto CAD, Pro-E, etc. Auto reduced at the point of contact with the valve stem by a
CAD is using for 2D drawing and Pro-E is the latest roller cam follower. A similar arrangement transfers
implement in CAD, Which is especially using for 3D the motion via another roller cam follower to a second
modeling. Most of the industry Pro-E is using for rocker arm. This rotates about the rocker shaft, and
creating a new Design and modification of existing transfers the motion via a tappet to the poppet valve. In
Design. ANSYS software is used for analyzing the 3d this case this opens the intake valve to the cylinder
modeling objects. The ANSYS program has much head. The effective leverage of the arm (and thus the
finite element analysis, capabilities, ranging from a force it can exert on the valve stem) is determined by
simple, linear, static analysis to a complex non–linear, the rocker arm ratio, the ratio of the distance from the
transient dynamic analysis. rocker arm's center of rotation to the tip divided by the
distance from the center of rotation to the point acted
on by the camshaft or pushrod.

Page 502

With this it may be concluded that every arm still performs the same basic function.e 410 and 493 that look physically different from each other. though some applications can make use of inputted in ANSYS Workbench and Equivalent Stress heavier duty materials. rotational motion is induced in the crank shaft results provided by ANSYS Workbench are compared as the pistons cause it to rotate. it pushes open either an intake or ANALYSIS OF ROCKER ARM exhaust valve. The CAD model was steel. Sumo victa that was designed and analyzed to find the Improvements have been made. while overhead valve engines to its light weight. while others composite. A 2-D finite element analysis has been in the US. but regulations have contributed to the carried out to find out the maximum stresses decline of overhead valve applications elsewhere in the developed in the rocker arms made of steel and world. Glass fibre the camshaft which contact each rocker arm directly. reinforced (10% volume fraction) High Density while overhead valve engines utilize lifters and Polyethylene (HDPE) composite rocker arm of fuel pushrods. LITERATURE SURVEY DESIGN AND a camshaft lobe.e steel and the actually use two rocker arms per valve. However. These that of the theoretical calculated strength from failure improvements have resulted in arms that are both more point of view. As the arm is acted on by 2.2. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ROCKER into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke ARM or exhaust gases to be expelled during the exhaust Syed Mujahid Husain and Siraj Sheikh stroke. Overhead cam engines have lobes on polymer matrix composite rocker arm. This rotation is to the results obtained by manual calculation. CAD models of Rocker Arm was efficiency of operation and construction materials. translated to the camshaft via a belt or chain. The obtained engines. This can be achieved either Antaryami Mishra through direct contact between a camshaft lobe and An attempt has been made in this investigation to find rocker arm or indirectly though contact with a lifter out various stresses under extreme load condition for a driven pushrod. however. Some designs can are developed for both the materials i. in both critical regions. higher strength and good frictional have the camshaft in the block. ROCKER ARM: II engines use a 1:1 (neutral) ratio. its composite.1. the camshaft can injection pump has been considered for analysis owing be located in the head. lobes on the camshaft are used to push open Rocker Arm by Finite Element Method the valves via rocker arms. created using Pro/E and ANSYSV11software was used Many modern rocker arms are made from stamped for analysis of rocker arm. Stress Analysis of Glass/HDPE Composite In turn. In overhead cam engines. around 1473 Pa which is much less compared to These variations in design can result in rocker arms tensile strengths of steel and composite i. Maximum von Misses stress developed is utilize a "rundle" roller bearing to depress the valve. Further comparison has been made with function has been studied and improved upon. Throughout the history of the rocker arm. Both varieties are seen characteristics. Many pre-World War 1. In many internal combustion and Maximum Shear Stress was found. A rocker arm is a valve train component in internal combustion engines. in the past smaller composite may be considered as an alternate material positive ratios (the valve lift is greater than the cam for steel to be used as rocker arm. Therefore the proposed about 1.5:1 to 1. It is observed that almost same stresses efficient and more resistant to wear.8:1.Current automotive design favors rocker arm ratios of the limits without failure. Rocker arms were first invented in the 19th In this paper we discussed about Rocker arm of Tata century and have changed little in function since then. the stresses developed in the composite is well within Page 503 . though MPa respectively. This allows fuel and air to be drawn 2. lift) and even negative ratios (valve lift smaller than the cam lift) have been used. 2.

0L SOHC engine. Rocker arms provide a balance between weight and durability. for example. simply aren’t what they used to be. advancements in the upper valve train components mean there's a much broader list of components to choose from when it comes to designing the perfect engine. no matter if Regardless of application. their weight can be an important clearance-to-bore is so minute that the inside has to be consideration.may be outdated now. As it turns out. pushrods and lifter bore. It's topped off with a plastic cap to pivot on the valve tip what a challenge it is to make this part: you have a metal roller bearing pinned to an aluminum body with a metal hydraulic lifter bored Fig.1. which is found in Altimas.Since energy is required to move a rocker arm and inside the aluminum arm. one constant remains . Engines such as modeling and manufacturing. Many automotive applications make use of lobe with an encapsulated hydraulic lifter built inside stamped steel for these reasons.2. particularly diesel engines. That engine has a steel rocker arm consideration. The hydraulic lifter unit's depress a valve. two encapsulated hydraulic lifters rides on two exhaust valves. In modern Fig.Form & Function: tend to be a fickle bunch. Contrast that with another popular prevent the engine from achieving the desired speed of engine. Take the Chrysler Neon 2. Rocker arms have come a long way since just opening valves with a pushrod. not only for racing . according to manufacturers we've spoken with. With lighter. it's just a couple of guys trying to outdo each other stoplight to stoplight.or 10 minutes ago . Steel or aluminum?Lightweight For all the changes in the performance engine over the components or heavy duty? What was popular 10 years. because racers 3. even at the standard production engine level. the Nissan KA24. Rocker Arm automotive engines today. as this material can on the other end to open the valve. If a rocker arm is excessively heavy. they're running. The strength of the material can also be a 240SX and pickups. The rocker arm has a roller bearing on one end. opening the valves. Luckily. Drawing of rocker arm Page 504 . while the other end. Otherwise the lifter may not leak may require too much energy to move.no matter what series years ago . allowing such materials as cast iron faster time. Engine builders are faced with the challenge of answering that call. as well as computer-aided design. it thermally deburred. it is easier and faster for these can operate at higher torques and lower rocker arm manufacturers to develop new parts in rotational speeds. racers will often spend money General drawing of rocker arm: they don't have in search of the most horsepower from hopefully. rocker arms serve double- duty. riding on a single camshaft lobe. no matter what the payout. a durable engine. keeping up with those changes can be a challenge. make use of heavier duty materials.performance is apparent everywhere today. Some applications. as weak material may stress or wear too with a sintered hardened pad that rides on the camshaft quickly. demands of their customers. the demand flip-flops. Rocker Arm. may stronger materials. in an effort to keep up with the latest or forged carbon steel to be used. This may down properly.1. rotation. The exhaust rocker arm is designed like a wishbone.

Fig.3.19. Draw the profile and extrude Step:1 Step 4: Fig. Assembly of Rocker Arm 5.Draw the profile and revolve.17.18. Draw this profile and extrude. remove the material Page 505 .15. Draw this profile and remove the material. DESIGN OF ROCKER ARM IN PRO-E: Fig. Step 3: Fig. Draw the profile and extrude Step 2: Step 5: Fig.16. Fig.2.

24.12 HDPE > Constants Page 506 . Maximum Shear Stress in HDPE at Ends Fig. Static Structural Force Fig.25.Equivalent Stress in HDPEat Ends Fig. Fig.23.26. Total Deformation in HDPE at Ends Material Data HDPE TABLE.

32 Mpa and T max = 37. The load acting the hole maximum stress values of steel and aluminum alloy is T max =20.31.The deformed shape has been depicted in Fig. stress concentration and effect of loading and other factors. Maximum Shear Stress in HDPE at Hole Results and discussion: It is observed from the results that maximum shear stresses are developed at sharp corners and hole of the rocker arm. To compare the hdpe. Aluminum alloy is Fig.Total Deformation in HDPE at Hole Fig.30. So the above results are to given steel as the high strength and stiffness than aluminum alloy. The finite element method is the most popular approach and found commonly used for analyzing Page 507 .86 Mpa) load acting on the both ends of the rocker arm. A comparison of maximum shear stress. total deformation and equivalent stress values forhdpe. Equivalent Stress in HDPEat Hole light weight and less cost to replace easy. CONCULSION: Rocker arm is an important component of engine.36.934. the maximum shear stress values nearly equal to the steel (T max =50.7 Mpa) and aluminum alloy (T max =50. 40. steel and aluminum alloy. An extensive research in the past clearly indicates that the problem has not yet been overcome completely and designers are facing lot of problems specially.Fig.29. 47 and 51. steel and aluminum alloy. failure of rocker arm makes engine useless also requires costly procurement and replacement.

aluminum. “Multibody 2010..211.230-232.L. 598-6. Qi. So we can say that steel is the better material in terms of strength and aluminum is good for [9]Chung.940-945. June 2006. Volume Huang. System Dynamics Modelling and Characteristic Prediction for One Diesel’s Valve Train”. [2]Chin-Sung Chung. Soo-Jin Lee.31 (2). “Failure Analysis of Diesel Engine Rocker Arms”. 4. Central Engineering Laboratory. [5]James M.824- REFERENCES: 828. Yokohama-shi.” steel and aluminum alloy low strength and stiffness. Ho-Kyung Kim "Safety 2012. Kanagawa 230 [Japan). but strength is Dynamics Modelling and Characteristic Prediction for also essential to prevent failure. miller “Rocker arm having perpendicular geometry at valve mid lift” united states patent Appl. 6-1. Nissan Motor Co. pp. pp. In recent years. Vol. pp. Pages 598-605. Materials and Design. Mohammad Esteghamatian.2084-2089. 2nd [3]Dong-Woo Lee. Rongrong and rocker arms” Engineering Failure Analysis. [1]Z. Seok-Swoo Cho . Now we can conclude that both steel and aluminum alloy is better for design a rocker arm based on [10]Kun Cheng. Vol. 1980. “Finite element analysis of Rocker strength. of Applied Polymer Science. Issue 2. cylinder SOHC engine”. upgrade for the most demanding racing applications. 638. Mark.Dec1. Yu. 13.fracture mechanics problems. [6]M. Ltd. HDPE is compare to Evaluation of the Rocker Arm of a Diesel Engine. Page 508 . Vol. High Density Polyethylene Composites. Changxing. Watt and Nader G. pp. Volume 31. “Safety making low cost rocker arms. Issue 4.February [12]Wenjie Qin and Jie Shen (2009). Tanimoto “Wear resistance properties of ceramic rocker arm pads” Materials Development Department. Li. 2011. Daikoku-cho. Computing Science. No. Zamani“Design of engine steel has better fatigue strength and stiffness than cover system using FEA” University of Windsor. after One Diesel’s Valve Train” 2009 Second International market steel roller tip rockers have become a popular Conference on Information and Computing Science.” Jou. Engineering Failure [4]Dong Woo Lee. Lightweight rocker arms [7]Wenjie QIN Jie SHEN “Multibody System are a plus for high rpm applications..” Glass Fibre/Wood Flour Modified 13. International Conference on Information and Won-Sik Joo “Failure of rocker arm shaft for 4. Arm of Vertical Roller Mill on ANSYS work Bench “Advanced Materials Research. Some of these steel rockers are nearly as light as [8]Lori Coon. [13]Yu Z W and Xu X L (2006). 2010. Pages 940-945`. David Fast aluminum rockers. No. Seok Swoo Cho and Won Sik Joo Analysis. Chin-Sung and Kim Ho-Kyung. But their main advantage is that Daniel F. TsumLmi-ku. Kano and I. “An estimation of failure stress condition in rocker arm shaft through FEA and microscopic fractography”. X.123. Guan.W. Xu “Failure analysis of diesel engine [11]Yang. weight and cost. Vol. evaluation of the rocker arm of a diesel engine” Materials & Design.