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Question & Answers

Gopala Krishna Palepu
Assistant Divisional Engineer
400KV / APTRANSCO / Hyderabad
1. What are the Protections adopted 1. Main-1 Protection : Distance Protection
in 400KV Lines (21M1/L1)
2. Main-2 Protection : Distance/ Differential
(21M2/L2 or 87M2/L2)
3. Over Voltage Stage-1 Prot (59-1)
4. Over Voltage Stage-2 Prot (59-2)
5. Auto reclosure with check synchronization
(79 + 25)
6. Sensitive IDMT Directional E/F Relay
2. What are the Protections adopted 1. Main Protection: Differential Protection
for 400/220KV ICT (87T)
2. Backup Protection: IDMT Directional Over
Current & Earth Fault Protection on HV side
3. Backup Protection: IDMT Directional Over
Current & Earth Fault Protection on LV side
4. Over Flux Protection on HV side (99T HV)
5. Over Flux Protection on LV side (99T LV)
6. Additional Protection: REF Protection or
High Impedance Differential Protection
7. Additional Protection: Neutral
Displacement Protection (151N)
8. Additional Protection: Under Impedance/
Distance Protection (21T)
9. Additional Protection: Neutral Current
10. Over Load Alarm Protection (51 O/L)
3. What are the Protections adopted 1. Main Protection: Differential Protection
for 400KV Shunt Reactor. (87R)
2. Backup Protection: Under Impedance/
Distance Protection or Definite Time Over
Current & Earth Fault Protection(21R/51)
3. REF Protection (64R)
4. What are the inbuilt Protections 1. Gas Detector or Oil Surge detector or Say
available for 400KV ICT / Shunt Buchholz Relay or Oil Surge relay
Reactor? 2. Similarly for OLTC Buchholz Relay or Oil
Surge relay
3. Oil Temperature
4. Winding Temperature

0 % rd 3 : 26.1 % th 6 : 3. After initiation. 7. Quadrilateral Characteristics for distance 2. Transformer full load current will flow. 5. on which principle the Merz-Price Principle differential relay operates 11. 8. it acts as a simple Inductance and a magnetizing in rush current which will be several times. Oil Level 6. 5. As the inrush current flows in the Primary of the Transformer only.7 % th 7 : 2.1 % 5th : 4. it appears to the Differential relay as an internal fault. is switched on. Why line protection need For redundancy and Reliability. 3. A Harmonic analysis of typical magnetic inrush current wave is shown below 2nd : 63. How many zones are required in Minimum 3 Zones and some manufacturers Distance Protection are giving more than 3 zones. the second harmonic component is predominant in the Magnetizing Inrush Current. Name at Least 2 types of 1. 10. Pressure Relief. Any protective relay operates will initiate LBB operation LBB.4 % as seen from the above. Mho . Why 2nd harmonic restraint When a Power Transformer with its required for Differential Relay secondary circuit open. duplicate Distance protection? 9. 12. timer starts & waits for 200ms. Meaning of LBB/BFR Local Breaker Backup Protection / Breaker Failure Relay 6. Why we need Bus bar Protection? To Provide High Speed Sensitive Clearance of Bus bar Faults by tripping all the Circuit Breakers connected to faulty Bus. What are the requirements for 1. After elapse of stipulated time still initiation is there and currents are available in LBB then it will Operate and give trip signal to adjacent Breakers connected to the Bus. A Differential Relay which Extracts the 2nd Harmonic Current and fed to the restraint coil to make the relay inoperative due to Magnetic inrush current. 2.8 % th 4 : 5.

What types of unit protections 1. What is the accuracy limit of < 5% Zone-1 reach 15. Switched scheme is relatively slow in operation and has the risk of total scheme failure in the event of failure of the only one measuring unit is available. This scheme is faster and more accurate but is costly. there will scheme and non switched be 6 starters. Need of Over Voltage Protection Normally 400KV transmission lines are for Transmission Lines. This leads to a rapid temperature rise in the bolts and destroying their insulation and damaging coil . Necessity of Over Flux Protection If Flux increases causes on increase of the for Transformers. 14. ground faults. Why Fuse Failure Protection is The distance relays being voltage restraint required as an inbuilt feature in O/C relays. 3. If the line is idle charged condition or lightly loaded condition the sending end voltage is more than the receiving end voltage due to line mutual capacitance. totaling 18 units. The fuse failure relay will sense such condition by the presence of residual voltage with out residual current and blocks the relay. To safe guard the equipment. iron losses and disproportionately large increase in magnetizing current. This is called Ferranti effect. 18. In the switched scheme. Differentiate switched Distance In an Ideal Non switched scheme. fuse failure or inadvertent removal of Fuse in one or more phases will cause the relay operation. for all 3 zones. Phase Comparison Protection are available for Line? 2. loss of Voltage due to main PT Distance Protection. Triangular 13. Optical/Lens 4. schemes. This single measuring unit is switched to the correct fault loop impedance by switching-in the respective voltages and currents by the starter. Bullet 5. This may cause the failure of equipment. There will be independent Measuring units for both Phase faults and earth faults for each phase. 3 for Phase Faults and 3 for distance scheme. only one measuring unit will be used for all types of faults. meant for Transmission of Bulk Power to Long Distances to Load center area. over voltage protection is adopted. 16. Phase segregated Line Differential Relay 17.

Zone 2/3/4 of Distance protection for blocking Auto reclosure Relay. The time between the Auto-reclosing Scheme reclosure operation. The trip command is only given when both a discriminating & check zone system operates. Why Main and Check Bus bar Bus bar differential protection should have protection is required. 26. In other words. Meaning of dead time In auto.Configuration . over all sensitivity above heaviest loaded feeder current. Circuit Breaker Problems 5. Direct Transfer Trip signal received. To safe guard the Transformer. 24. What is the Percentage of Around 85% Transient Faults in Transmission Lines in total faults? 20. over flux protection is provided. of REF relay? 28. carrier Fail conditions 7. The Time Following a successful closing reclosure operation operation measured from the instant the Auto-Reclosing relay closing contacts make which must elapse before the Auto-Reclosing relay initiates another reclosing attempt. insulation. Meaning of reclaim time In auto. How many Configurations 1. Bus bar Protection 6. Over Voltage Protection 4. unless separate check zone has been provided. Normally high impedance Bus bar protection needs check zone protection to over come this problem. for ICT 21T may be utilized as a Backup Main-1 is 21L & Main-2 is 87L Protection. LBB relay is Current Operated or It is current operated. 22. I. In which condition Auto – Zone-1 and Phase to Earth Faults only reclosure Relay operates. it may be said to be the time between 1st and 2nd Auto-Reclosure. 23. Voltage operated or both 25. 19. For 400/220 KV ICT Main-1 is 87T & B/U 21T is it possible to utilize. D. Line Reactor Protection 8. LBB/BFR relay Operation 3. What are the conditions required 1. 27. being energized and the operation of the contacts which energize the Circuit Breaker closing circuit. 21. 2. What is the principle of Operation Circulating Current Principle. utilized.Configuration available in One & Half Breaker 2. For 400KV lines Yes.

If power swing occurs whether It will block Distance scheme will operate or block 37. Which CT Method is fault free in 6 CT method ( GIS Version) Protection and not having blind zones? 32. Explain the need of SOFT This is required where there are line voltage protection transformers. Tie CT & Line CT are Physically Protection located in T shape in case of 5 CT Method. 33. the line protection includes the area between the two CT’s. than 2.(i. 39. What are the CT methods 1.e the area between the line isolator and CT’s) (stub = dead end) To provide protection for a fault in this area. Condition for ND Relay Operation Due to Unbalanced Load condition the in case of Transformer shifting of Neutral will takes place from zero Protection. to provide fast tripping in the Event of accidental line energisation with maintenance earthing clamps left in position. However. 6 CT Method (GIS Version) 5. voltage to some voltage. Which CT Method is More 3 CT Method Economical? 31. then it is connected to Differential relay in the principle of Main CT current + Tie CT current = Line Current. Why Over Load Relay is provided Over Load relay shall be set at 100% of in ICT Protection rated current with delay of 5 seconds. Explain the Relevance of STUB When a Line is supplied via 2 Circuit Protection? Breakers in a One & Half Circuit Breaker arrangement. Distance Protection is Provided with a STUB protection which gives a bus over current trip if the line isolator is open and the current exceeds the set value in any phase. In which case the Auto Where Transformation ratio HV to LV is less Transformers are utilized. 34. 4 CT Method System? 3. For identification of Fault in between these three CT’s. 3 CT Method available in One & Half Breaker 2. 5 CT Method 4. Explain the Relevance of TEED The Main CT. This may cause . when the line isolator is open the line CVT‘s for the Distance Protection are connected to the line and cannot provide the correct voltage for the STUB end. System 29. 6 CT Method (AIS Version) 30. 38. 35. This shall be connected to give alarm only. for alertness and arranging a load relief.

. failure of Transformer. To safe guard the Transformer this relay will be provided in LV winding. Give the drawing of SLD of One & Half Breaker System (one dia Only) with CT. Bus CVT with nomiclatures. LA/SA. CVT. CB. 40. WT/LT. Isolators & Earth Switches.