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Professor E. SICKEN BERGER I Medical School. - Cairo.


.June 1891 .





?. they increase only by the external addition to themselves of matters which are not digested.. and I shall present to you afterw:trds the particularities of Egypt. and its divisions are: - 4-L.THREE LECTURES CONCERNING THE GEOLOGY OF EGYPT 1. I begin with those generalities that are absolutely wanted.. Exc.o~d 55b. The Science of Minerals is called Mineralogy.&>&019 -p I b 0 . A mineral is the name of everything that is not of artificial origin and which has no life in the sense of the life of animals or plants. Minerals do not increase from the interior to the exterior like animals or plants. the Minister of Public Instruction. may be very useful. Minerals do not take any food that can be digested in the body to increase their substance. By permIssIOn of H. ').. I have the honour to explain to you in a short summary the actual state of our acquaint- ance with the geological formation of our country. and from which we obtain harvests.a. and the materials for our habitations and for our industry. To have some knowledge of the soil where we live.. and in consequence of an invitation from the Rector of your College.

Crystallized minemls are those of which every specimen is hounded by regular straight mathematic lines and planes. Geognosy. and there is still deeper another point where everything will he in igneous fusion.. the knowledge of the fossils or remains of former beings now petrified in the e11rth. the temperature increases by 1 C~ntigr11de to e11ch 110ft. for the knowledge of fossils. as a heat much more considemble than that of the surrounding soil. for Cryst1111ography. All minel'11ls are either crystallized or 11morphous. Fire. the knowledge of the simple minerals. There are springs whose temperature . the knowledge of the compound stones and rocks forming the globe. Paleontology. Therefore in the interior 0 of the earth 11 point will be found 11S hot as boiling water. This opinion is confirmed by the circumstance that certain springs reach the surface. The Auxiliary Sciences to Mineralogy and Geology 11re : - 1) Geometry. If a hole is made in the earth. 2) Physics and Chemistry. or the knowledge of the forms of Crystals. or to Water. Geology Proper. or to Air. 3) Botany 11nd Zoology. -4- Mineralogy Proper. The origin of all rocks is due to Fire. the science of the origin 11nd trans- formation of rocks.

If this matter refrigerates slowly the different minerals which compose the mass have time to crystallize one beside the other. This matter is so hot that if a piece of iron. If the refrigeration is more rapid. under the microscope are seen to be composed of very small crystals : they are called microcrystallized. you see. If the whole mass is refrigerated very quickly. . the quartz and mica have not had sufficient time to separate. as may be seen in granite. is put into the liquid. called lava. but which. There are stones which are in appearance without crys- tallization. they are generally called Geysers. and the other in a non-crystallized. it will he melted immediately. and a few of them have in solution 11 quantity of silica. only one part of the mass crystallized. -5- surpasses that of boiling water. Here only felspar is separated in crystals. amorphous state. In all rocks of igneous formation no remains of organic matter or fossils have been found. or of stone like granite. These sprmgs are forced up in consequence of pressure. There are mountains with an aperture from whence they throw from time to time matter in igneous fusion. hardening by refrigeration. it all appears as a stone without any crystallization like obsidian and lava. as in porphyry. There is no clearly defined limit between these three states but transition from one to the other in proportion as the refrigeration has taken place slowly or quickly.

dissolving somo parts of the stone. If a rock of ignoou~ orIgm IS undor the influence of differences of temperature. or only acting by the difference of temperature or both combined. -R- Water. lJrought down hy the stream or fallen by accident into tho water. The stone is split. If water as min or dew enters into the clefts. It is also not difficult to know if any stratum has been deposited by fresh or hy salt water. by seeing whether the fossils belong to species living in fresh water or in the sea. always carrying some of it into tho lakes or into the sea. The water takes away small pieces. and falls in small pieces. The stream deposits in its course first the heavier and aftenvards tho lighter mattor in suspension. as is evident when the water of the increasing Nile lwcomes red by the mud resulting only from the above mentioned decom- position of the rocks of monntains in the interior of Africa. tho single minerals which compose it are neither expanded now contracted in the same degree. It is possible by means of the fossils found in rocks to determine the relative age of each formation that contains them. . These remains now bedded in the mud are petrified and preserved for all time in rocks that are formed in this way. and at 1he sarno time are deposited with it the remains of animals and plants living in the same country. Their cohesion is also diminished and ultimately is completely dostroyed. the result is the same. Here the mud is dopositod in regular strata according to its specific gravity.

chloride of magnesium. Rivers bring to the sea. difforent salts in solution. If afterwards these deposits become dry land. it is possible to examine them. and similar or identical with those that are living now. the mother of organized beings. then sulphate of magnesium. first. . whose layers contain so many fossils may serve as an example. either by the elevation of the bottom or lJY the retreat of the water. rrhe sea. the more recent is the date of the formation. the marl and the hydrate of the oxide of iron. then carbonate of lime) then gypsum. De- posits of chlorido of potassium commence during the deposition of chlorido of sodium. Pure sea- water if it is brought to spontaneolls evaporation preci- pitates. where the salt does not evar )rate and which will also be deposited by the sea in the degree in which the content is not more soluble in sea-water in proportion to the temperature. These substances act chemically on the mud and on all subs- tances brought by the streams. and accompany all the . and to determine their quality and their relative age. following deposits. -7- Organized beings begin with animals and plants of simple construction: the more tho organization of the fossils is complicated. afterwards chloride of sodium. and they change or vary the quality of the deposits which are formed. has retained in solution all matters soluble in water since the separation of the land from the water. and finally bromides and iodides. and which constantly become more concentrat ~d by its evaporation. which augment the contents of tho sea. besides wud. The Mokattam.

The rocks of these different formations do not present any differences. -8- The rocks formed by deposition under water are called Sedimentary Rocks. In the lay~rs of the secondary formation are found mollusks and fishcs of a more developed organisation. rrhe primary formation is characterised by fossils of species which are now extinct. There appear also cycadeous and coniferous trees. . as Primary. and of terrestrial plants only cryptogams. Of vertebrated animals there are to be found only fishes with a cartilaginous skeleton. In the tertiary formation occur species of animals and plants which are of the same kind as those living to day associated with others now extinct. and of mammals only a few carnivorous marsupials. gene- rally forming an intermediate stage between those of the primary formation and those of the present time. and distinction is only possible by a comparison of their fossils. breccias. ferns. of marine vegetables only some algas. Secondary. of corals shells and crabs of a very simple organisation. some of them arboreous indicating a hot and moist climate. containing only a few of the speCIes occurring to day. sandstones. limestones and marls. rrertiary. rrhis formation is divided into three parts : - The Eocene. some echinites and insects. gigantic lizards and some flying lizards. They are classified according to their relative age. occurring in all of them. the first birds. and fur- nishing the material for pit-coal. many kinds of sharks. and Quarternary for- mations.

often Learing sand. . are found. They are accumulated or dispcrseu. if there is any little humectation by rain or dew. The air has a similar action on rocks and stones to water. carries away from the stones scraps which have been formed by dif- ferences of temperature. All contents are taken away. The Pliocene. like the hills of quick- sand near Khankah. Air. rounded by the friction operated by rolling in the wind. The wind also carries dust of marl and chalk. js solidified and 7 changed into a very hard and often much resistant sandstone. -9- The Miocene. The marine sandstone near Alexandria and the layers of Nile mud may serve as examples. and in this way. as in the desert near Oairo. >I< . and the action of humidity. under the action of the air and -under the influence of differences of temperature and humid. The wind. The Quarternary formation comprises all rocks and layers which are of recent or modern formation. chemically decomposed. and by the aid of rain or. The silicious sand. brought by the wind. Some remains of mankind. amI remains in the form of grains of sand. containing many more of the species which are now found. containing about half of them. and objects bearing signs of human labour. which soon hardens into breccias or sandstone in layers of considerable extent. dampness.ity in contact with a small quantity of fine alu- minous dust. is formed natural ashlar. the silica only resists.

if it is the result of the decomposition of pegmatite rocks. like the rest of Nature. submittod to the same action of the air.10- It is always possible to ascertain the origin of stones formed in this m:mnor hy oxamining romains of the original rock which has furnishod tho sand. are found fragments of hornblendo) which proves that it is derived from the Syenitic granite. a) OF OLD IGNEOUS FORMATION. as in Upper Egypt in the neighbourhood of layers of : imo stone. Let us now enquire into the properties of rocks of different origins. moved by the wind. These formations. gnaws and polishes the rocks. The chief stone of this formation is granite and its varieties. If the wind carries lime the action is complicat d. the \Vadies in the desert are a good example of this. arc again decomposed and reconstituted so that the desert is always undergoing change. These pri- mary stones are in genoral not far from tho sandstones of the derived formation. Rocks formed by the action of the air are called eolie formations. This latter circumstance greatly facilitatos the formation of sandstone. The sand. and tho formation of calcareous sand-stone takes pIa ). and has the same effect of erosion as water. -. This is the primary material of all other rocks. In tho Nubian sandstone occurring in so large an extent in Upper Egypt. in another sandstone is found white mic'l. Its ongm is due to slow refrigeration under a .

2) Pegmatite. because there is often no difference or only a very slight one in their appearance. The quartz is pure silica and the others are multiple silicates of alkali) earths. -11- very high pressure. . the mica substituted partially or entirely by hornblende. and transition or intermediary rocks occur.the potassic felspar is substitllted par- tially or entirely by sodic felspar. Mica schists and amphybolic schists are called granites when the mica or the hornblende are in regular layers so that the stone splints like slate. 'rhe stone is called " granite" because the component crystals resemble grams. 4) Diorite. felspar. 5) Amphybolic rock. and the mica by horn blende. and mica. The following are the most important rocks· which occur in Egypt : - 1) Granite proper. Granite is composed of quartz. and they furnish by decomposition material for other rocks. potassic felspar. Numbers 4 and 5 are generally in practice cll11ed Diorite. one beside the other. and coloured mica. iron and manganese. . . . . which was as much greater as the temperature of the earth was higher than to day. potassic felspar. . and white mICa.quartz. Gneiss is stratified granite .quartz. 3) Syenitic granite or syenite proper in the old sense. The crystals of the component matters are well developed. this pressure having been caused by the weight of the atmosphere.quartz and hornblende.

the liquid ejections of actual rocks not friable of amorphous felspathic mass with magnetic iron. These are classified : - (I) According to their structure. The heterogeneous are: - 1) Pudding stones and Breccias . 1) Trachite . 3) Heterogeneous sand without cement. that occurs only when the sedimentary rocks are older than the igneous. 2) Basalt and its varieties . . The age of these rocks is to be determined by the circumstance that the sedimentary rocks in contact with those igneous rocks are altered in their stratification or composition if volcanic rocks have passed through them in a liquid state.small cemented fragments of dif- ferent stones. with crystals of felspar or mica. 3) Lava . Tho transformation of the sedimentary rocks lJY heat is called metamor- phism. or vitreous structure. cemented together. -12 - b) OF RECENT IGNEOUS OR VOLCANIC FORMATION. in heterogeneous and homogeneous rocks. If the Redimentary rocks touching the igneous rocks are not chang0d the former are more recent. 2) Sandstones .a grey felspathic friable mass. c) OF SEDIMENTARY AND EOLIC FORMATION. indurating to a scoriaceous and vesiculous.big fragments of different stones.

II. 3. Oalcareous Rocks. gneiss~ and amphybolic rocks. and of transitions from one to the other. and particularly at \Vady HaIfa and at Assouan. In the range between the Nile and the Red Sea there is more porphyry. Some of its summits attain the height of 6. of Syenitic granite. This chain sends out in a west- ern direction other branches which occasion the cata- racts of the Nile. high. Granite without hornblende and pegmatite is not much developed. (II) According to their chemical composition: - 1. Two of these belong to Egypt proper. and the cataract of Assouan. 8000 ft. 2. These mountain branches are composed of granite. but reappears in the Sinai Peninsula forming the mass of Sinai. Silicious Rocks . This branch ends near Gebel Zed. -13 - The homogeneous are: - 1) Homogeneous rocks. diorite. porphyry. The rocks of different origin are distributed in the country as follows: - From the high mountains of igneous origin in Abys- sinia comes a branch in a northern direction between the Nile and the Red Sea. or marls. neither is porphyry. Argillous Rocks.500 ft. All rocks which are easily divided in leaves are called slates. the cataract of vVady HaIfa. or limestones. . or schists. the granite and the amphibolic rocks occupying only the second rank. . 3) Homogeneous sand.

The primary sedimentary formation occurs in small development in the Wady Arabah between tte Nile and the Red Sea. It contains a few minerals and small crystals. The sandstone continues downwards. -14 - The diorite at the cataract. The granitic formations ofWady HaIfa and of Assouan are accompanied by a sandstone without fossils.s is often microcrystallized. and taken it for basalt. and of great value. There is also some very good black porphyry. black. On account of that some ancient authors have called it. because it has an almond-like structure. Here are some small eruptions of a kind of basaltic rock termed Dolerite. Here there are limestones with fossils of . Near these quarries are to be seen ruins of ancient Roman buildings. This red porphyry is even now much desired in Europe. and formed like tmp rock. and on account of that I shall treat them in that chapter. and under Emperor Hadrian a large penal settlement was there. especially oli vine. ano has been considered to be of sedimentary origin. spotted with white. Volcanic rocks proper only occur near Aboo Zabel. SEDIMENTAlty FORMATIONS.which was employed to decorate palaces belonging to the Roman and Byzantine emperors. In the Gebel Doohan are quarries of the imperial red and white porphyry .portido rosso antico . but it becomes now more and more evident that these rocks belong to the Eolic formation.

including the oyster Ostrea janigena and Ostrea pterygota. and in the Wady Redisieh are some carboniferous slates. -15 - the Devonian formation. and as the basic phosphate of lime is almost insoluble in water. near Aboo Roash) at the foot of the Gebel Attaka near Suez. and at some places between the Nile and the Red Sea. comprising in Egypt the cretaceous formation supports in the Upper country the tertiary formation. and reaches the soil to the West of the Gizeh pyramids. characterised by nummulites and echinites. The secondary formation is characterised by a quantity of flints. The splendid limestone of the Gebel Haridi belongs also to the Londinian layers. which begin immediately and which extend without interruption from Edfoo to Minyeeh. Formerly people believed that these were the petrified remains of lentils which served as food to the builders of the Pyra- mids. The secondary formation. begins at 25° 10' near Edfoo with the layers called Suessonian. This Suessonian forms only a border to the Londinian strata. the . But all researches for fossil coal have been fruitless. These nummulites are the remains of foramini- ferous animals. These strata belong to the lower part of the tertiary which is called Eocene. and as this acid is not a volatile one. and fossils called ammonites and hippurites. The tertiary formation. The nummulites in the Eocene vary in size from a lentil to a florin. containing in life a quantity of phosphoric acid. where the Parisian strata set in and close the nummulite part with the Mokattam near Cairo.

The middle part of the tertiary is called the Miocene. It is believed that the petrification of the wood and the for- mation of the sandstone and of the quartzite of the Gebel Ahmar have taken place through the effect of hot springs . Near Cairo arc quarries of this stone. while Tunis and Sicily. It begins with the northern front of the Mokattam and includes the Gebel Ahmar and other hills like it. like the Gebel Ahmar. To the cooperation of the Nile with the decomposition of these rocks is to be attributed the fact that the greater part of the country is so fertile. In Egypt not only does the Nile bring down much organic refuse but in the mountains in the nummulite part on both sides of the stream is stored an inexhaustible treasure of phosphoric acid. To this system belongs also the petrified wood on both sides of the Nile. where the soil has been exhausted through the excessive exportc1tion of wheat. and which countries have not this stock of phosphoric acid. in the layers of rough limestone in the Mokattam. -16 - phosphoric acid of the living nummulites has been pre- served in the fossils and now enters into the soil through the successive decomposition of the stones. Sometimes this wood occurs enclosed in rocks of silicious sandstone. It is likewise thc lower part of the tertiary formation which furnishes building-stone for a large part of the country. and greatly ameliorates its quality: it forms the best manure for the cultivation of cereals and beans. furnish no more redundant harvests. From this circumstance it may well be understood why fot' many thousand years Egypt has had abundant crops.

The small echinite which exactly resembles a biscuit~ occuring to wards the Red Sea. which it is possible to dissolve and separate from the crystallized quartz by chemical treament. This Saharian system covers a large part of the desert~ and the desert sand belongs almost entirely to it. We reach at last the quarternary formation. which appears to the South of the Pyramids of Gizeh. consisting of the alluvium of the Nile. and very good fossil echinites are found. It extends to the neighbourhood of Alexandria where the quarternary formation begins. The fossils. This theory is sup. proving that this silica has been deposited from solution in water. near Alexandria.ported by the fact that in the silicious sandstone of the Gebel Ahmar the pebbles of crystal- lized quartz are cemented by amorphous silica. and to this belongs the formation which is called Saharian. More to the North. like the Geysers of Iceland and of the Yellowstone Park in N. -17 - containing silicious acid in solution. and all . the hills called Korns. and is sold under the name of " shell" by the Bedouins to visitors of the Pyramids. The hard stones of these layers furnish mill-stones of superior quality. occurring here are nearly all of species living in the sea at present but a few are extinct like the big echinite clypeastre gyzehensis. America. the marine sandstone at Mex. is to day living in the sea between South Africa and Mauritius. The upper part of the tertiary formation is called Pliocene. near the Suez Canal (Gebel Geneffe) the formation belonging to the middle tertiary becomes calcareous.

remains of animals of species now living. needles and hammers. knives. the remainder constitutes a sand of mica. I shall now speak about the Eolic formation. Both the former of these. and the sodium and potassium are taken away by solution in water. . its aluminium forms clay. hornblende and quartz. III. The granitic mountains of Upper Egypt are always submitted like all others to the influence of the atmos- pheric agents. which acts like water in the mechanical destruct- ion of the rocks. and furnish the iron and magnesia found in the soil. and objects evidently worked by human hands. of the sand of the desert. and assume by rolling and friction a roundish shape. The first to be decomposed is felspar. As fossils we find traces of mankind. I shall only instance the instruments of flint. belonging presumably to the time when iron was unknown. The differences of temperature and humidity cause the stones to split. Only the crystals of quartz are persistant in their resistance. as it is in Egypt of an extraordinary im- portance. are now destroyed. though having so long resisted decomposition. -18 - that is now in process of formation. known as sand- corns. \Ve now have reached the province of archmology which I do not enter. and the wind carries sand. Having considered the rocks of igneous and of sedi- mentary formation.

or only pure quartz. and others con- tain only the white mica of pegmatite. and at last we fin~ another sandstone that contains only oxide of iron resulting from the decomposition of the mica and the hornblende. are quickly destroyed. -19 - In this part of Upper Egypt lime is absent. . and only a very minute quantity of argile in powder is necessary. and multiplies the results of the forma- tion of the sandstone. the only mollusks found in the desertic sand. . As the distance increases.a sandstone of eolic formation. which is known as Nubian Sandstone. There are Nubian sandstones which contain small fragments of the mica and the hornblende of the Syenitic granite. and as no sedimentary formations exist in the neighbourhood. With the appearance of limestone. these remains become rarer. the calcium enters into association. to cement it and form it into a sandstone without fossils . In the true silicious Nubian sandstone there are no fossils. or only of the hornblende of the amphibolic rocks.vhere all other con- tents are removed. In most of the samples of Nubian Sandstone it is cognizable whether they result from the decomposition of Syenitic granite or of other primitive rocks. because the snails. their fossils cannot occasionally enter. and the nearer one layer Nubian Sandstone is placed to the pri- mitive rock. when brought by the wind and mixed by it with the sand. so it is easier to acknowledge its origin after examination of the undecomposed remains of the primitive rocks which it contains.

In this way we may see that geological formation is yet unfinished. (All these have been employed for making valuable monuments and precious vases). Limestone. Red imperial Porphyry. -20 - As soon as limestone detritus onters into the formation of sandstone. for paving floors. the fossils of the respective layers can enter with it. for making quicklime. But that does not prove anything about the age of the sandstone itself as it would be possible to find all fossils occurring in the primary formations. Porphyries of different other colours. Diorite. Limestone. There also occur frequently in the compound calcareous sandstone romains as horn- blende or white mica. Micpocrystallized black Diorite. for building. Limestone. and are of any technical use. spotted hlack and white. . Green Porphyry. and that we are living in the midst of actual present geological development. which conduce to settle the original mother-stones. This eolic formation extends largely over the deserty and occasions immense layers of breccias and of sandstones of different ages. older than the sandstone itself. They are : - Syenitic granite with red felspar. I shall now show you samples of stones and minerals which occur in Egypt.

Rock crystals. Flint. Iceland spar. 21- Silicious Limestone. from Geziret Sbergeh. from Koseir. Quartzite. Onyx. Jasper. and in the Nile Sand. Agate. Gold. Turquoise. from Upper Egypt. exported in great quantity to Darfur and Wady. This marble has been used to a great extent in the Citadel Mosque of Cairo. for cement. Emerald. both ~n crystals and amorphous. . from Sinai. Marble of Upper Egypt (wrongly called alabaster). Copper Ore. Its constitution is carbonate of lime. . Hydraulic Limestone. " Tafl " a kind of fullers' earth. Sulphur. from Zabara. . from Abou Roash. Iron. of the Gebel Ahmar and the upper layers of the Mokattam. while alabaster is sulphate of lime. Granate. Gypsum. Chalcedony. employed in making gun- flints. from vVady Nasb. for durable works of art. Zircon. furnishing millstones of the first quality. from Wady Hof. Fireproof Clay. as silicate everywhere in the desert. from Gebel Dib and Gebel Bara. from the Londinian Strata of the Gebel Harida. or Aqua marina. Beryl. from Fashoda. of the Mokattam. Galena.

Sulphate of Barium. He Ims also noted and measured the strata to which these stones belong. at Cairo. Asphalt and petroleum. who. \Villcocks has confided his collection to the mu- seum of the School of Medicine. Coal Slate. I take the opportunity afforded by this publication warmly to thank W. and I hope to come back to it on another occasion. Alum. assisted by Mr. from the Oasis el Khargheh. Willcocks J£sq. . where it is now preserved. from Gebel Zed. Nitre. Natron. . Mr. Sulphate of Strontium. Effendi Saber of the Public vVorks. and Moh. 1891. F. SICKENBERGER. This circumstance has rendered possilJle the settlement of the question of the Nubian sandstone. used III the preparation of Strontium salt for red fire. June 30th. from Bir el Fachme. Roux. 22-- Anthracite. from Wady Redisieh . • Salt. Cairo. which has been under discussion for nearly a century. E. has very kindly collected specimens of all stones of interest from vVady HaIfa to Minyeeh.


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