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)

**Standard Guide for
**

Analysis of Spatial Variation in Geostatistical Site

Investigations1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation D5922; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of

original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A

superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

INTRODUCTION

**Geostatistics is a framework for data analysis, estimation, and simulation in media whose
**

measurable attributes show erratic spatial variability yet also possess a degree of spatial continuity

imparted by the natural and anthropogenic processes operating therein. The soil, rock, and contained

fluids encountered in environmental or geotechnical site investigations present such features, and their

sampled attributes are therefore amenable to geostatistical treatment. This guide is concerned with the

analysis, interpretation, and modeling of spatial variation. The purpose of this guide is to offer

guidance based on a consensus of views but not to establish a standard practice to follow in all cases.

**1. Scope a given professional service must be judged, nor should this
**

1.1 This guide covers recommendations for analyzing, in- document be applied without consideration of a project’s many

terpreting, and modeling spatial variation of regionalized unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this

variables in geotechnical and environmental site investigations. document means only that the document has been approved

through the ASTM consensus process.

1.2 The measures of spatial variation discussed in this guide

include variograms and correlograms; these are fully described 2. Referenced Documents

in Refs. (1-4).2

2.1 ASTM Standards:3

1.3 This guide is intended to assist those who are already D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained

familiar with the geostatistical tools discussed herein and does Fluids

not provide introductory information on the analysis, interpre- D5549 Guide for The Contents of Geostatistical Site Inves-

tation, and modeling of spatial variation. tigation Report (Withdrawn 2002)4

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the D5923 Guide for Selection of Kriging Methods in Geostatis-

safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the tical Site Investigations

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- D5924 Guide for Selection of Simulation Approaches in

priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- Geostatistical Site Investigations

bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.5 This guide offers an organized collection of information 3. Terminology

or a series of options and does not recommend a specific 3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:

course of action. This document cannot replace education or 3.1.1 anisotropy, n—in geostatistics, a property of the var-

experience and should be used in conjunction with professional iogram or covariance stating that different spatial variation

judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all structures are observed in different directions.

circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to repre-

sent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of 3.1.2 correlogram, n—a measure of spatial variation ex-

pressing the coefficient of correlation between two variables as

a function of the lag separating their locations.

1

This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D18 on Soil and Rock

and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D18.01 on Surface and Subsurface

3

Characterization. For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or

Current edition approved May 1, 2010. Published September 2010. Originally contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM

approved in 1996. Last previous edition approved in 2004 as D5922–96(2004). Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on

DOI: 10.1520/D5922-96R10. the ASTM website.

2 4

The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end of The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on

the text. www.astm.org.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

1

D5922 − 96 (2010)

3.1.3 drift, n—in geostatistics, a systematic spatial variation common and successful analytical tools in most practical

of the local mean of a variable, usually expressed as a situations. Other methods exist and may enhance the develop-

polynomial function of location coordinates. ment of an appropriate model of spatial variation.

3.1.4 estimation, n—a procedure by which the value of a 4.3 For the interpretation of spatial variation, this guide

variable at an unsampled location is predicted using a weighted emphasizes the importance of site-specific quantitative and

average of sample values from the neighborhood of that qualitative information. Quantitative information includes the

location. number and configuration of the available data, their precision,

3.1.5 experimental variogram, n—an experimental measure and their univariate statistics; qualitative information includes

of spatial variation usually calculated as one half the average items such as local geology and geomorphology, site usage,

squared difference between all pairs of data values within the and history. All of these are necessary for a sound interpreta-

same lag. tion of spatial variation.

3.1.6 geometric anisotropy, n—a form of anisotropy in 4.4 For the modeling of spatial variation, this guide recom-

which the variogram range changes with direction while the sill mends attention to the short-scale behavior of the mathematical

remains constant. model of spatial variation and to its anisotropy as reflected in

3.1.7 lag, n—in geostatistics, the vector separating the the directional changes in the range.

locations of two variables, as used in measures of spatial

5. Significance and Use

variation.

3.1.8 nugget effect, n—the component of spatial variance 5.1 This guide is intended to encourage consistency in the

unresolved by the sample spacing including the variance due to analysis, interpretation, and modeling of spatial variation.

measurement error. 5.2 This guide should be used in conjunction with Guides

3.1.9 range, n—in geostatistics, the maximum distance over D5549, D5923, and D5924.

which a variable exhibits spatial correlation in a given direc-

tion. 6. Analysis of Spatial Variation

3.1.10 regionalized variable, n—a measured quantity or a 6.1 The principal tools for analyzing spatial variation are the

numerical attribute characterizing a spatially variable phenom- variogram and the correlogram; whenever possible, both

enon at a location in the field. should be used.

3.1.11 sill, n—in geostatistics, a stable level of spatial NOTE 1—Features that appear on both the variogram and correlogram

variation observed for lags greater than the range. are usually worthy of interpretation and should be reflected in the

mathematical model for spatial variation. Features that appear on one but

3.1.12 simulation, n—in geostatistics, a Monte-Carlo proce- not the other may reflect artifacts of the calculation or peculiarities of the

dure for generating realizations of fields based on the random available data and their configuration; such features require further

function model chosen to represent a regionalized variable. In investigation before a decision can be made on whether they should be

reflected in the mathematical model for spatial variation.

addition to honoring a random function model, the realizations

may also be constrained to honor data values observed at 6.2 If univariate data analysis has revealed that the data

sampled locations. have a skewed distribution or if study objectives require that

3.1.13 structure, n—in geostatistics, a source of spatial the data be transformed, then the analysis of spatial variation

variability with a characteristic length scale. should be performed on an appropriate transform of the data.

3.1.14 variogram, n—a measure of spatial variation defined NOTE 2—One of the most important aspects of a mathematical model of

spatial variation is the direction and degree of anisotropy. This is often

as one half the variance of the difference between two variables much better revealed by variograms and correlograms of transformed data

and expressed as a function of the lag; it is also sometimes values, such as logarithms or normal scores. Even if the study ultimately

referred to as the semi-variogram. makes use of the original data values in estimation or simulation, the

analysis of spatial variation on transformed data values often leads to the

3.1.15 zonal anisotropy, n—a form of anisotropy in which

development of a more appropriate model of spatial variation.

the variogram sill changes with direction.

6.3 The choice of lag spacing and tolerance should take into

3.2 For definitions of other terms used in this guide, refer to account the data configuration, particularly the minimum

Terminology D653 and Guides D5549, D5923, and D5924. A spacing between the available data and the average spacing

complete glossary of geostatistical terminology is given in Ref between the available data. Whenever possible, the choices of

(5). lag spacing and tolerance should ensure that at least 20 paired

4. Summary of Guide data values will be available for each lag.

4.1 This guide presents advice on three separate but related NOTE 3—With data configurations that are pseudo-regular, it is common

to use the spacing between the columns and rows of the sampling grid as

components of the study of spatial variation: the analytical the lag spacing and to use half of this distance as the lag tolerance. If the

tools that are used, the interpretation of the results, and the data configuration is irregular, then the lag spacing and tolerance may also

development of an appropriate mathematical model. need to be irregular (see Refs (3), and (6)).

4.2 For the analysis of spatial variation, this guide empha- 6.4 Spatial variation should be analyzed in different direc-

sizes the use of variograms and correlograms on both trans- tions; the choice of directions and directional tolerances should

formed and untransformed variables since these are the most reflect the configuration of the available data and should also

2

D5922 − 96 (2010)

take into account qualitative information about the physical 7.3 The nugget effect shown by the experimental variogram

and chemical characteristics of the regionalized variable being and correlogram should be consistent with the precision of the

studied. data values.

NOTE 4—Omni-directional variograms or correlograms often are ap- NOTE 7—The nugget effect reflects a combination of the very short

propriate for refining decisions on lag spacing and lag tolerance; they also scale variability and variance due to various sampling errors. Even in

provide preliminary insight into the range of correlation and the short- situations where there is no short-scale variability, the nugget effect of an

scale variability of the data. However, omni-directional calculations of experimental variogram must be at least as large as the variance of the

spatial variation do not constitute a thorough analysis of spatial variation errors that accumulate during sample collection, preparation, and analysis.

since they offer no insight into directional anisotropies that commonly

occur in geologic data. For two-dimensional (2D) problems, contour maps 7.4 Directional anisotropy in the ranges shown by the

of the spatial variation for all possible distances and directions can assist experimental variogram and correlogram should be supported

with the identification of directions of maximum and minimum continuity by information on the physics and chemistry of the regional-

(see Ref (2)). ized variable under study or by information on site history and

6.5 Once the directions of maximum and minimum conti- usage.

nuity have been identified, the experimental variogram values 7.5 If the experimental variogram or correlogram does not

and correlogram values should be plotted as a function of reach a stable sill, then the report on spatial variation should

distance for these two directions. These plots should be specifically address the issue of whether the data values show

accompanied by tables that provide for each lag the following a trend or drift.

information:

6.5.1 The number of data pairs within the lag, NOTE 8—A drift often causes the sill of an experimental variogram to

increase steadily rather than stabilize. Both estimation and simulation

6.5.2 The average separation distance between the data studies will usually be improved by an explicit attempt to remove any

pairs in the lag, drift, and to add it back after the residuals have been geostatistically

6.5.3 The average squared difference between the paired analyzed and modelled.

data values in the lag, and 7.6 If the sill of the experimental variogram or correlogram

6.5.4 The coefficient of linear correlation between the paired oscillates in a periodic manner, then the report on spatial

data values in the lag. variation should specifically address the issue of whether

6.6 Supplementary information that often assists with an chemical or physical processes have imparted any cyclicity or

appropriate interpretation of the pattern of spatial variation periodicity to the data values.

includes: NOTE 9—Temporal fluctuations may manifest themselves as periodic

6.6.1 The average separation direction between the data fluctuations in vertical profiles through soils and sediments. Such periodic

pairs in the lag, fluctuations often cause the sill of an experimental variogram to show a

dampened oscillation. Both estimation and simulation studies will usually

6.6.2 The average difference between the paired data values be improved by an explicit attempt to remove any periodicity as a drift,

in the lag, and to add it back after the residuals have been geostatistically analyzed

6.6.3 The variance of the differences between the paired and modeled.

data values in the lag, 7.7 If the experimental variogram and correlogram show

6.6.4 The average of the data values within the lag, and directional anisotropy, then the report on spatial variation

6.6.5 The variance of the data values within the lag. should specifically address the reasons for improved continuity

in certain directions.

7. Interpretation of Spatial Variation

NOTE 10—The direction of maximum continuity is usually identified as

7.1 If there are fewer than 20 pairs of data within a lag, the the direction in which the experimental variogram or correlogram shows

experimental variogram and correlogram values for this lag the longest range. In situations where the experimental variogram or

should not influence the interpretation of spatial variation. correlogram shows several components or structures, each with a different

range, the direction of maximum continuity is usually identified as the one

NOTE 5—For lags that contain fewer than 20 pairs, the variogram and in which the experimental variogram or correlogram shows the lowest

correlogram values should still be tabulated and plotted, but should be slope at the origin.

annotated or marked in such a way that it is clear that the lag contains

insufficient data to influence any interpretation of spatial variation. 8. Modeling of Spatial Variation

7.2 If the variance of the data within each lag depends on 8.1 The mathematical model selected to approximate the

the average distance of the paired data values within the lag, behavior of the experimental correlogram should be positive

then the experimental variogram should not influence the definite (see Ref (1)).

interpretation of spatial continuity.

NOTE 11—In practice, this requirement of positive definiteness is

NOTE 6—With data sets in which there is intentional clustering of usually satisfied by fitting the experimental variogram or correlogram with

additional samples in areas with high data values, the variance of the most one of a handful of well-studied functions that are known to be positive

closely spaced data pairs is often much higher than that of the overall data definite. These include the spherical, exponential, and gaussian variogram

set. In such situations, the fluctuations in the variogram often mirror the models described in any of the references given in the reference list at the

changes in the lag variance and do not directly convey meaningful end of this guide. Linear combinations of positive definite functions are

information about spatial variation. The correlogram is often more easily also positive definite, and many practical applications require the math-

interpreted since it takes into account fluctuations in the lag means and the ematical model of spatial variation to include two or more components to

lag variances. adequately describe the spatial variation.

3

D5922 − 96 (2010)

8.2 The mathematical function of spatial variation should situation described as “zonal anisotropy,” an appropriate mathematical

provide a good approximation of the short-scale behavior of model can still be fit to the experimental data by expressing the directional

anisotropy solely through appropriate changes in the ranges of the

the experimental variogram or correlogram and of any direc- different components, as described in Ref (2).

tional anisotropies.

8.4 The results of automatic fitting procedures should be

NOTE 12—Geostatistical simulation and estimation algorithms that reviewed visually.

make use of the mathematical model of spatial variation are usually most

sensitive to the behavior of the model at very short distances and to the NOTE 14—Though automatic fitting procedures often expedite the

direction and degree of anisotropy. The mathematical model should process of developing a mathematical model of spatial variation, their

therefore capture the nugget effect and any directional anisotropy in the results should not be used without careful review. The results of such a

slope near the origin of the experimental variogram or correlogram. procedure should be plotted along with the experimental variogram or

8.3 If the pattern of spatial variation of a regionalized correlogram and any significant differences should be reconciled. Though

additional components in the mathematical model may improve an

variable is directionally anisotropic, as is usually the case, the automatic fit, the need for these additional components should be

mathematical function of spatial variation should use a consis- reconciled with the objective of the study and with qualitative informa-

tent shape and sill in all directions and should express the tion; if additional components cannot be explained by the physics or

directional anisotropy solely through appropriate changes in chemistry of the attribute and they cannot be justified by the goals of the

the range(s) of the different components. study, then a simpler model with fewer components should be used.

**NOTE 13—Usually, the experimental sill is the same in all directions 9. Keywords
**

although the ranges may vary. This is known as a “geometric anisotropy.”

Even where the experimental sill appears to change with direction, a 9.1 correlogram; geostatistics; variogram

REFERENCES

**(1) Journel, A. G., and Huijbregts, C., Mining Geostatistics, Academic (5) Olea, R. A., ed., Geostatistical Glossary and Multilingual Dictionary,
**

Press, London, 1978. Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.

(2) Isaaks, E. H., and Srivastava, R. M., An Introduction to Applied (6) Yates, S. R., and Yates, M. V., Geostatistics for Waste Management:

Geostatistics , Oxford University Press, New York, 1989 . A User’s Manual for the GEOPACK (Version 1.0) Geostatistical

(3) Deutsch, C. V., and Journel, A. G., GSLIB Geostatistical Software Software System, EPA/600/8-90/004 (NTIS PB90-186420), 1990.

Library an User’s Guide, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992.

(4) Srivastava, R. M., and Parker, H. M., “Robust Measures of Spatial

Continuity,” Geostatistics, M. Armstrong, ed., Reidel, Dordrecht,

1988, pp. 295–308.

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