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AGRICULTURE IN

AFRICA
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Transformation and

outlook

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It has brought the importance of agriculture to the continent’s economic transformation back A G R IC U T L R E I N A F R IC A 5 .The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) is now in its tenth year.

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agricultural production in Africa has increased steadily: its value has almost tripled (+). African a riculæural developmenæ paæhs over æhe lasæ 30 years Contrary to popular belief. and is al- 8 .

erty and inequalities. but is not sucient by itself. achieving agricultural devel- opment is a necessary condition for reducing food insecurity. Consequently. A G R IC U T L R E I N A F R IC A 9 .

Africa’s vision. This requires the mobilisation of the continent’s resours 4 k0 (o) (o) 0-06.men A G R IC U T L R E I N A F R IC A 11 .8( r)8. starting from within the continent.

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Africa’s agricultural sector performance and ticular. page 29 Africa in trade negotiations page 31 Hunger. SECTION 1 African agricultural paths To prepare for the future. understanding the main forces and threats inuencing agricultural development is crucial. and natural resources. and this is perhaps the rst important point. Demography and urbanisation Agriculture in Africa has undergone fundamental change be. it is important to draw lessons from the African economies are largely undiversified and highly past. Highly sought-after land and water potential Five major factors that characterise the agricultural environment page 27 are: demography and population. an issue for agriculture and beyond page 35 AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 13 . page 15 pare certain aspects of agriculture in African regions with those in other parts of the world. agriculture in Africa is pluralist. page 25 namics to achieve the desired outcome. page 17 cause of three factors: i) the threats it faces locally and interna- tionally. ii) macroeconomic and sectoral policies. The aim of this rst section is to analyse the performance heterogeneous of Africa’s agricultural sector over the last  years and to com. Approaches and performances vary from Changes in the various subsectors one region or country to another among the main subsectors and page 21 agro-climatic zones. Diversity of farming systems In order to create public policy that changes the current dy. reactions from agricultural producers when adapting to development paths such change. and according to production systems or dif- ferent types of agricultural producers. iii) and. the structure of African econ- omies. the dynamics between global markets and international Regional and international trade trade agreements. in par. a persistent problem across the continent page 33 Hunger. page 19 However.

06 Mozambique 458 Congo 2.00 Liberia 226 Côte d’Ivoire .45 Rwanda 562 Tunisia 4.68 Comoros 802 Gabon 8.4 Lesotho 86 Equatorial Guinea .06 Democratic Republic of the Congo 86 Senegal 980 Burundi 80 14 .8 Madagascar 9 Ghana .0 Kenya 809 Seychelles 0.98 Togo 458 Egypt 2.788 Guinea 448 Sudan .89 Eritrea 97 ©Issala-NEPAD Djibouti .57 Gambia 66 Namibia 5.65 Burkina Faso 597 Angola 4.248 Guinea-Bissau 508 Cape-Verde .56 Uganda 500 Swaziland .22 Ethiopia 50 Mauritania .724 Chad 767 Botswana 7. Libya .59 Benin 689 South Africa 7.8 Malawi 2 Cameroon .705 Central African Republic 45 Nigeria .477 Zimbabwe 594 Algeria 4.94 Sierra Leone 25 São Tomé and Príncipe .200 Tanzania 548 Morocco . Niger 8 Zambia .627 Mali 69 Mauritius 7.

In these three cases. Aside from the which contributes to poverty reduction and makes internal demand 3. although it is home to barely  of its pop. employmenæ and revenue The agricultural population in Africa stands at  million peo. North Africa. mies that are now industrialised or undergoing industrialisation. Global economic competition. and notable exceptions such as Nige. an Africa whose growth depends on natural resources must be ulation.. poverty reduction. have all tion of the working population. generates  of reinvested in economic diversication. and more recently Ethiopia and Rwanda. while indusæry is is how important extractive industries are in each country. compared to just a third for extractive resources in the also stands out. For  cant manufacturing sectors. mies is dicult to initiate. creaæor of jobs. countries. the vision of the continent’s GDP. and is expected to exceed  million by . But it requires a promising economic environment and clearly farmers is declining. especially in terms of employment rate of . impact of climate change are challenges that must be overcome lation relying on agriculture accounts for  of the total African in order to begin the sustainable process of economic transition. In the developed world. whose prots are not always equally and sustainably sied and integrated into the global market. The a riculæural secæor holds a dominant position. the agricultural sector is still dominant. some oil-producing coun. the number of role. Agriculture creates most of the jobs in Africa. African economies have undergone tremendous change over the last  years. A single country. The majority of jobs in the city. The popu. which have succeeded in which now makes up  of the population. very wea equal to or greater than that of agriculture. Exæracæive indusæries spur North and Southern African countries. including trade. rapid ur- becoming industrialised. African economies in the s ex- changing are extremely heterogeneous. Final consumption accounts for  of GDP ry sectors and is strongly geared towards the European market. tuous process without relying on a considerable extractive sector. curring in the s is linked to the rise in food prices and the Certain disparities in the structure of African economies are volumes of mining and oil products exported by a few African African economies evident. 2. agriculture plays a central this statistic is only . which has dynamic secondary and tertia. the impact of extractive industries on GDP is are often informal. While agriculture still perienced strong. which of these countries. articulated sectoral policies to foster development. whose economy is diver. South Africa. the transition to more diversied econo- creation. since the s. rowæh buæ have liææle impacæ on ria. A signicant proportion of growth oc. In addition.African economies are largely undiversified and highly heterogeneous The national economies within which agriculture in Africa is terised by low growth rates. Apart from these two countries. has been a precondition for transforming econo- tries in the Gulf of Guinea. Rare success sæories in very differenæ conæexæs Few counæries have be un a real economic æransiæion It is now largely accepted that growth in the agricultural sector. which were generally charac- AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 15 . owing to the emergence of a middle class (-/day). However.  countries. s. soaring population growth and the ple. growth. half of all new entrants to Africa’s experienced periods of economic development accompanied by working population have turned to agriculture. agriculture accounts for half or There are very few African countries that have initiated such a vir- more of the working population. A riculæure is æhe main tion. what distinguishes African economies banisation is rarely accompanied by the development of signi. A special feature of African However. further discussed. However. have been created in the construction and ser. with  of GDP and  of the African popula. Cote d’Ivoire and Cameroon. whereas in Asia. After the s. population (almost  in East Africa). urbanisation is rarely accompanied by economic diver. some countries with very dierent historical and geo- agriculture in comparison to the rest of the world over the last  graphic realities seem to be setting out on such a path: Ghana years is that the sector has continued to absorb a large propor. with an average annual growth 1. regular growth. while for the remaining vice sectors. remains a major secæor in mosæ sication. more dynamic.

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In fact. over the last  years.). and land pressure is mounæin of North Africa and Southern Africa. 3. This gradual change in geographic æhe rural populaæion is rowin in ve live in urban areas today. conjunction with structural changes. 2. the increase in available labour results erage is approximately . almost two the main consumption centres.  of Algeria’s population growth generally leads to an increase in the working agricultural lives in urban areas. urban populaæion has æripled of population growth. only a that have always had a high population density (the Mediterra- quarter lived in cities. coastal markets to food security and macroeconomic balances and. hike revealed the threat posed by dependence on international populaæion has doubled. which began much earlier. or even more rapidly.Demography and urbanisation While the world’s population has grown by  in the last  Only three African countries (Gabon. roots. etc. the population imported cereals (wheat. maize) rather than of the local cere- of Africa has been very unevenly distributed. has experienced population been accompanied by a relative increase in the consumption of growth lower than the global average. According to of. nean areas of North Africa. the popula. the levels and dynamics realities helps to structurally and sustainably strengthen the com- of urbanisation vary from one region to another. In addition. which has been hard hit population. suited to agriculture or used at the expense of forest areas. is. the other major population trend port infrastructure development. saw a decrease in their rural population over this period. Finally. and less than  in Ethiopia). When uctuations on international markets are working in the Gulf of Guinea. Despiæe rapid urbanisaæion. While nicantly – to reducing the costs of transporting food products to just over one in four Africans lived in cities in the s. whereas in the s. the urbanisation movement throughout Africa. Cape Verde and Botswana) years. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 17 . the Great Lakes region. with higher popu. has contributed – sometimes sig. The urbanisation petitiveness of African agriculture in domestic markets. For example. whose population diversied and richer in animal products. Urbanisation has also has just suered  years of conict. population. the Great Lakes region and along areas. to national sovereignty. $313 billion is rowin and Africa that began their demographic transition earlier. rice. East Africa is less urbanised (the regional av. Beææer infrasærucæure særen æhens æhe compeæiæiveness of Demo raphy is causin disrupæion æo African economies local producæs and a riculæure Increasing urbanisation and population density. the tensions caused in do. including in the most urbanised countries. and the Ethio- tion in rural areas has also continued to increase in absolute terms pian highlands. On the in additional land being put to use. In most cases. Africa’s companied by two structural movements. Some areas that were mestic markets can be easily understood. of course. agriculture has become more intensive in areas all Nigerians now live in urban areas. This dierentiated population growth is ac. This is also quirements in the continent have grown at the same rate as its the case of the Southern Africa region. is With the exception of the Southern Africa region. Africa’s population has more than doubled. only Somalia. In æhe lasæ 30 years. urbanisation has been extremely rapid in West Africa. Half of the other hand. as a areas that are economically attractive are more dynamic in terms result. The  food price historically sparsely populated are catching up. especially countries in North riculture in Africa now has more mouths to feed. demographic clearly more advanced. albeit land that may be less other hand. and iæs nah areas and the Congo Basin forest area. On where more than  of the population now lives in cities. only a dozen African countries have not seen their The most direct consequence of population growth is that ag- population double over this period. 1. such as the savan. along with trans- In addition to very rapid growth. Food demand esæimaæed aæ cial statistics. Historically. tubers and plantains generally consumed in many rural lation densities in North Africa. food re. als. However. as diets in urban areas are more diversifyin by the AIDS pandemic. Despite this rapid urbanisation.

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buæ producæiviæy is sæa naæin a riculæural secæor in 30 years Nonetheless. This uncertainty inuences the producæiviæy per a riculæural riculture. on the other hand. yields are bour productivity caused by the gradual mechanisation of ag. facæor of 1. showing an increase that clearly exceeds the performance of the agricultural sectors in East and Central Africa growth rate for global agricultural production over the same pe. This has not been the case in Africa. stymied by conict. been self-sucient have struggled to maintain this status. experienced a period of a net importer. This variability across the continent does not change the gen- ca. where there has strategies adopted by farmers. being self-sucient for cereals in the ’s. agricultural production in Africa has with a combination of increased labour productivity. able to meet the higher and more diversied food requirements but there has been very little improvement in yields and barely of the population. food decits have increased in countries that have tra- continent and within the dierent regions. Agricultural growth in Africa is generally achieved by cultivat. stands out with a model that export mining products).Africa’s agricultural sector performance and development paths Contrary to popular belief. Cereal producæion has tripled (+). determined by climatic conditions. Egypt. greater use of inputs and irrigation). Africa has become 3. These general dynamics population growth has exceeded growth in agricultural produc- vary considerably from one region to another. wor er has increased by a land). The variability of precipitation in time and dynamics seen in Asia or South America. to a lesser extent. and by a ing more land and by mobilising a larger agricultural labour force. eral trend: despite growth. Africa has noæ epæ pace wiæh populaæion rowæh AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 19 . Morocco and Sudan). West Africa. leads to high yield variability.5 in Asia any change in production techniques. below but comparable to growth in Asia (+). facæor of 2. in many countries and regional blocs. In æhe lasæ 30 years. a very small proportion of African model of agricultural growth diers signicantly from the land is under irrigation. while countries that have traditionally is similar to the one seen in Asia: very little land is still available. Finally. Agricultural growth in space in all areas receiving less than   mm of rain annually Asia over the last  years was due in large part to intensive ag. the 1. South Africa. A riculæural producæion in culture. both across the tion. except in North Africa and. while in South America it was due to a signicant increase in la. In fact. 32%.  of cultivated land is irrigated. North Africa. above and beyond this overall performance. for example. yields by riod (+). From but sustained agricultural growth is fostered by intensive agri. almost identical to that of South America (+).6 in Africa. Madagascar. according to several ditionally been importers of food (North Africa and countries that factors. higher yields increased steadily over the last  years: its value has almost and an expansion of the land area under cultivation. Thus. sustained growth that surpassed that of many Asian countries. political increased by 125%. With no water management (only riculture (improved varieties. and culæivaæed land by 70% Climaæe variaæions deæermine æhe performance of æhe Producæion is increasin . in West Afri. has been particularly disappointing. who are reluctant to invest in in- been very little improvement in production factors (labour and tensive agriculture. and instability and recurring poor climatic conditions. most of which is in ve countries: 2. the Despite available water resources. agricultural production has been un.

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who still account for most add value to semi-arid areas. and paved the way in the s for imports from groups of products. in order to for local change. Recent surveys dependent on pastoral systems. systems in both the cotton-producing Sudanese areas and in the in particular). beneting from high performance crop gories: cereals and other food crops (roots. Several consumption of animal protein associated with rising incomes. national and regional mar. tubers and plantains. The same occurred with wheat selection meth- analyse the main dynamics working across the continent. the dynamics of heteroge. which responds well to inputs. Despite their protability. However. This occurred with cassava for food crops. Urban population growth and the strained by restrictive health standards. Nonetheless. especially into coastal countries. to a large extent. food crop sectors are general. Even small farms use markets Central Africa. 1. a riculæural which varies from one product to another. south of the continent. 3. But purchasing food from subsectors is still very limited. which are the only systems that by overnmenæs reveal that people living in rural areas. the vast outside of Africa. producæs is rowin æoo slowly Beneting from the vibrancy of local. Maize. it is ods in Egypt. have of- neous markets and the level of organisation of each subsector. with rare exceptions. are often new to local markets and of mobility in a context of ever-increasing cultivated areas and AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 21 . ferent regions. and leads to economic and trade integration. spectacular development. The challen es facin provided by local agriculture. ten experienced remarkable growth. First. Of course. Transhumance over long distances is part- ly poorly organised. These livestock rearing systems supply traditional slaughter sub- duce and to improve the quality of products on the market. food crop sectors are among the most dynamic. which are more long-standing where ex. The supply of animal Local mar eæs drive producæion Animal products also benet from growing markets due to ris. ongoing and pre. The food crop sectors that have beneted from tech. ring drought in both the Sahel and in East Africa has aected pas- dictable over the long term. even minor ones. They are determined by dierent government incen. at a time when the European Union was heavily majority of the food consumed by urban populations in Africa is subsidising surplus exports. Moving livestock according to seasonal chang- to sell their products and to purchase food. experienced requiremenæs useful to make a distinction between certain main product cate. an in-depth in West Africa. cent years. shery products. In addition. caused by the rising food prices seen in re- subsectors. Rapid urbanisation is combined with higher kets. Despite frequent imports of certain toral systems. which beneted from research into new variet- analysis of the main agricultural subsectors across the continent ies and the distribution of eective and aordable mechanisms producæion meeæs 80% of food is outside the scope of this document. whose growth is rapid. animal products. which form the basis of the food systems in the dif.Changes in the various subsectors The performances of African agriculture vary among the dierent are. a range of technical constraints. are attempting to organise themselves in order to pool their pro. These pastoral and agro-pastoral of the continent’s population. the develop- diversication of city diets create high potential demand for fu. es and the availability of fodder is the main method of securing Despite this market dynamism. Difficulæies adapæin æradiæional livesæoc sysæems and æhe rise in populariæy of shoræ-cycle breedin 2. local ments in transport and market infrastructure facilitate the supply production has not always been able to meet this demand. Along with the challenges port products are concerned. West Africa. Recur- of crops to urban areas. ing urban demand. and the main export subsectors. But sectors. are increasingly turning to markets systems are vital to North Africa. they are often deemed incapa- these market dynamics. Driven by inæernal demand tives. ble of meeting market requirements. The rearing of ruminants is largely markets is not just for those living in urban areas. and explains this dynamism. East Africa and to meet their food requirements. improve. The agricultural producers of the continent ly transboundary. Livestock rearing is also more con. æo meeæ demand factors boost the appeal of food crop production. nological or institutional innovations. feed for large herds. ment of processing agro-industries downstream from livestock pasæoralism are ofæen ne lecæed ture agricultural subsectors in Africa.

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etc. such as processed fruits. with high value-added. these export subsectors have historically absorbed a sig. nicant portion of the tax burden of exporting countries. the fact that many countries specialise are exacerbated by failures in negotiations on shing rights and in agricultural product exports often stems from them having no erce competition between African eets and foreign ships. First.reduced rangeland. Finally. destabilised these sectors in some countries.) are rapidly losing ground. but often involve a smaller number of agricultural producers. seem unable to stimulate any major change in local agriculture. 5. Without dismissing their impor- Finally. which ing on the outskirts of cities. with the boom in mining and try and milk product sectors. animal subsectors are. at times. sesame. These subsectors provide major opportunities for di- posiæionin æhemselves versication and increasing revenues. high toralism. etc. Three main rea. Only 13 counæries have ten large trawlers. etc. Fishery subsectors must more quickly and easily generate foreign income. of. price variations in export markets discourage investment and 4. Third. Poor government policy leads many countries to prior. many African countries now have options that can exporting countries (Brazil. peanut. subject to erce international competition. traditional export subsectors (coee. Shoræ cycle animal itise sedentarisation. Europe. some vegeta- bles. alternatives. economic agents and areas concerned. rather than it being a strategic choice for the future. tance to the farmers. For these dif- often confront major resource management challenges. subsecæors are losin round alæhou h new niche mar eæs are openin up AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 23 .). have. buæ new producæs are labelling). cocoa. Tradiæional cash crops cotton. at tends to reduce their competitiveness on international markets urban demand times. they 6. Sec- Modern supply sectors depend increasingly on short-cycle ond. sons explain the loss of interest in these industries. which are heavily industrialised in oil products. but this transition is only in cut owers or targeted production in niche markets (products developed exporæ speciali灪aæion its embryonic stages. such as aquaculture production techniques. these problems pose a major threat to pas. and their local attractiveness. or biological product subsectors and origin Tradiæional exporæs are in crisis. therefore. and the poultry industry in particular has been expand. especially poul.. which ferent reasons. husbandry is beææer able æo meeæ species. Hopes are now pinned on the introduction of It should be noted that new subsectors have emerged. palm oil.

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Non-ag. Central Africans inæensive a riculæure and those living in the Gulf of Guinea consume more roots. thereby facilitating access farming systems. However. the dynamic nature and diversity of agriculture in Africa is close to city markets or involved in a more lucrative subsector. a higher concentration of land has been inherited from the colonial With few exceptions. changes in the distribution sector. provides a erning resources. commercial agriculture plays a signicant role. access to land is signicant. North Africans consume a diet based on wheat. tional standards has often fostered commercial farming methods of specialised producæion erty and the transfer of land are less favourable to women than in or the vertical integration of subsectors in the framework of con- Asia and Latin America. organisation methods and These farms can gain access to credit. family farms are not homogenous. er land use. pecially on the initiative of South African and Nigerian groups). souæhern Africa pressure for land. to equipment. Poor and unequal access æo producæion facæors hampers farms of less æhan 2 hecæares. national and local production and consumption patterns. Africa has 33 million family pected. ral population is also growing. livestock systems and agroforestry systems. period. Statistics on family agriculture are dicult to acquire. Respect for interna- labour force is comprised mostly of women. while reducing the risk of breaching local rules gov- ricultural revenue generated locally. While the agricultural The same has occurred in export subsectors. Nonetheless. linking family agriculture to mar- ly labour. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 25 . In Southern and East Africa. but is limit- that the vast majority of small farms are family-run gives an idea ed to certain countries and subsectors. seen in the many dierent structures. 1. tubers accounæin for 80% of farms and plantains. This di. In addition. reect kets and commercial agriculture have been revived because of the dominant type of agriculture in Africa. These agricultural models have been heavily funded and 3. with very little machinery and several activities. the sector. land development. diversied agriculture is to be ex. highlighting the clash between custom. Small farms are tending to shrink Debates on the balance that must be found between providing with every generation. while investment funds and banks benet. with the establishment ary laws and “modern” land law. Other forms of family agriculture are still absent from political concerns. Some are mod- versity also exists within countries like Ethiopia or Nigeria. Land concentration is far more visible in are accompanied by a gradual loss of control of production options Asia and Latin America. land resources are distributed in a rela. improved inputs and advisory services. which are neverthe- ly agriculture with farms dependent mainly on family farm labour. This agricultural diversity is reected in the unique re- gional. Subsistence farming agricultural price hikes and renewed government investment in remains important. Only 3% of farms have more Small family farms dominaæe farmin sysæems process of bringing their products to market. mini-markets and fast food restaurant chains (es. those with better soil and especially those dition. for commercial farmers. in cities or abroad. was developed on æhe basis ly less equitable between men and women. land tenure tract work (green beans in Kenya to supply the European market). in the agricultural sector. and is heightened by increasing of supermarkets. Finally. of the importance of this phenomenon. for exporæ purposes and in insecurity is prevalent. less important subsectors in several countries. ernising – the largest. in many countries. re- Despite higher levels of urbanisation. support for subsistence farming. In ad. Many of them are attempting to collectively control the 2. Small farms that are dependent on fami. with a highly varied biogeography and signicant and growing share of income for most families working myriad paths through history.Diversity of farming systems In such a vast continent. but in Africa. rules governing prop. a signicant portion of that produc. such as pastoral æhan 10 hecæares More so than in other continents. and those in Southern Africa prefer maize. Lar e-scale farmin tively equitable manner. Africa is dominated by fami. but the fact Finally. structure supply methods and standardise production. The facts and lessons are however quite clear: family tion is sold through informal channels capable of accommodating farming is best placed to create employment and to enable great- non-standardised products delivered in small quantities. the agricultural and ru.

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often described as land grabbing and with a question mark rican agro-ecosystems. This phenome. but this potential is highly imal manure). AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 27 . not always with the greatest transparen. benet from most  of the continent’s water resources and less than  of conditions that are often highly suitable for farming. est surface area of uncultivated arable land. Investors have been quick to identify the potential: since fertilisers and an occasional lack of accessible information on concenæraæed in seven counæries the food price hikes of -. and coastal regions that are exposed to anisms protecting access to land previously cultivated by indig. the management of Lake Chad’s waters and land reforms most striking illustrations of this underexploited potential. agro-pastoral systems. Many farming sys- Access æo and mechanisms for developin available land: tems are struggling to replenish soil fertility due to the lack of 2.  of African farmland is irrigated in contrast to  in Asia. But the risks of local people being dispossessed are equally Niger has undergone a farming revolution with the planting and major shoc s raised by land acquisitions and takeovers by African individuals maintenance of a covering of Acacia albida that enriches the soil and institutional investors. ticular. which would en- able changes to farming practices (slash and burn. climaæe chan e and farmin lead to productivity gains in systems that are already irrigated – a pracæices fact that does not only apply to Africa. The diculty of obtaining seasonal credit to buy coveted. to the north and south of the Congo basin. represenæs a major challen e for means that there is signicant room for improvement in terms of ous examples: the management of the Nile waters. large-scale investment contracts in Africa rearing in the Sudanian areas of Mali and Burkina Faso have pro- have covered  million hectares. The conæinenæ has subsæanæial fiercely debaæed issues investment capacity and secure land tenure. This equitable distribution of these land resources. particularly the most fragile. æransboundary resources. such as banks and agrifood industries. The links between agriculture and livestock Over the last  years. southern cy. 1. deci. eastern DRC. conicts between pastoralists and farmers in the æhe economy. The ef- has been the subject of much media coverage. Major political problems may be raised by the man. arable lands. Paradoxically. Africa is the continent that has the larg. the use of an. There are numer. fects of climate change pose a major risk to the future of Af- non. Won over by the idea of industrial farming. To draw in Southern Africa. Furthermore. Africa’s natural potential is under threat. by adding nitrogen. the conict in farmland productivity. representing more than the ar. able area of South Africa and Zimbabwe combined. Climaæe chan e has enous peoples. 3. Natural wealth is unevenly distributed.Highly sought-after land and water potential Along with Latin America. tropical storms. Outside the Nile basin and the Mediterra. It underlines the inadequacy of legal mech. moted the use of organic fertilisers. and Central Africa. but are not its population. Sudanian areas in par. optimising the use of water resources would Proæecæin resources. paræicularly waæer resources. has become a include the savannah areas of the Sahelian strip exploited by controversial issue. Sub-Saharan Africa’s other agement of transboundary natural resources as well as by the in- asset is the extensive nature of most of its farming systems. Examples over how far it will reach and how long it will last. Around  of cultiva. ed by smallholder farmers are fostering the emergence of eec- sion-makers are sometimes inclined to make it easy for overseas tive solutions for improving fertility and adapting agrosystems widespread impacæs and causes groups to acquire land. It should also be noted that the practices adopt. while the central African region contains al. yet densely populated. The mana emenæ of cultivable lands (excluding forest areas) in Africa are three times ble land still available is concentrated in seven countries in East larger than the land currently cultivated. for example. 60% of which are Africa has great natural potential. Over the last  years. peace a comparison. foreign investment in farmland soil fertility management techniques are further factors. to climate change. the limited use of water potential is one of the Sahel. environmenæ and nean agrosystems. According to FAO.

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red tape protection is relatively weak. raw materials. Market uncertainties discourage agricultural producers from pursuing intensication. It is largely based on unprocessed products (less than  of African cotton is processed. but  of these products account for it must be noted that North Africa heavily inuences the conti. Trade barriers are an complemenæariæies and inæe raæion base. tea. tax and trade fragmentation. coee. times the value of exports. Between  and . These exports have several producæs port food from the international market with varying degrees of special features.Regional and international trade Agriculture in Africa is focused primarily on national markets. Di- versication. mainly to the European Union. Only  countries are net exporters of agri- subregions. These barriers increase price instability and aect food secu- rity. The entry of imports is facilitated for traders). Animal prod. valued at  billion. when they are subsidised by exporting countries. level. A few With the dual eect of the loss of competitiveness of African countries have developed cash crops (tropical products) to ex. West Africa. monetary. extractive industries. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 29 . for which there are obvious witnessed a signicant increase in exports. and only  of cocoa). sh and shellsh. Imported products represent . coee. limits the development of the region’s trade poten. cereals and oils. are the most traded products in the dierent African in a decit situation. fruit and vegetables. Cross-border trade is comprised of ows of lo. Africa is integrated into global markets. African agricultural product exports have which grants them trade preferences. regional trade is increasing thanks to free trade 1. However. both within agricultural products and towards other Re ional ærade in a riculæural producæs: industrial products. Although there are Africa and East and West Africa. They also include exports of fruit (pineapple and bananas). Naæional mar eæs are æhe areas. only  of the total foreign exception of cocoa. these products are some of the main items trad. Cereal trade is also important. Finally. In addition. as most obsæacle æo æhe developmenæ of The level of intra-African trade in agricultural and food prod. of the processing is done in importing countries. there has also been a corresponding rise in imports. They are comprised of a very small number of dependence. al food prices and the high growth in African demand. Market fragmentation (a lack of important dierences among countries and subregions. because over æhe lasæ 15 years complementarities between production centres and consump. 3. for which Africa is the main producer. All subregions are in a decit adopted to circumvent protectionist policies put in place by some situation and the agrifood trade balance has generally declined countries against imports from the international market. rica therefore imports products that compete with its own: meat. in particular because of the rise in glob. However. agricultural products on international markets and the rise of the main desæinaæion for African port outside of the continent. Africa exporæs very liææle buæ includes a wide range of products (tobacco. cal products and of import/re-export ows boosted by strategies dairy products. etc. the producæion trade of African countries was conducted at the intra-regional continent is unable to inuence international prices (price taker). they are still tion centres. has sæabilised iæs mar eæ share half of all intra-African imports. fallen by half since the mid-s. All African countries im. sugar. East Africa and Southern Africa have ucts — often live cattle and sh —.). border infrastructure. nent’s trends. Ne aæive a rifood ærade balance Nonetheless. has not been enough to increase the export 2. especially in Southern food products in these latter three regions. tial.  African countries were products: cocoa (which alone accounts for  of the continent’s net importers of food and  were net importers of agricultural agricultural exports). cotton. Af- ed domestically. Trade over the last  years. beverages. However. with the ucts is low: by the end of the s.

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In light of the failure of the WTO negotiations (multilateral liber- gotiations still focus on aid to agriculture and the integration in alisation). Although launched in . are gaining market share. China. The RECs highlight several a reemenæs are ma in liææle nou Agreement between the European Union and the African.). as a resulæ. jeopardising the regional integration process. coee. Japan and Brazil. whose particular. negotiations are ties is in conict with the EU’s budgetary constraints. Latin America. aid expected by ACP countries to build their productive capaci- terest to the African countries. The lations with the EU. etc. European Union with a “preferential margin”. and the emerging countries in sheries issue is also a bone of contention with the EU. thereby automatically reducing ACP preferential mar- safeguard clause. They also focus on food security challenges (the cocoa. ii) the need to implement a common external a riculæural specificiæies tari. iii) the additional development Launched in . Af. But. EU ærade wiæh Africa is ricultural trade. access to the EU market. They perpetuate the specialisation that African countries have in liææle æo help African re ional Trade preferences enabling access of duty free ACP products exporting unprocessed or minimally processed natural resourc- to the EU are considered discriminatory. etc. and West Africa. although some countries are involved in dierent RECs in bein ne oæiaæed Central Africa and Southern Africa. and on the protection of gins on the European market. to conclude. public storage. these negotiations are 1.). in exchange for investment in infrastructure and imports of inæe raæion from the “Everything but Arms” regime) that wish to export to the manufactured products. Tuna caught by European ships is only remuner- communiæies ated at  of its value. in return. WTO a riculæural the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in the context of ongoing. given its future market prospects. Trade a reemenæs wiæh objective of the EPAs is to establish free trade areas between rica is already engaged with other partners: the United States the EU and the African subregions so that the trade regime is (AGOA). bilateral shing partnership agreements are of interest to fewer paræicular and fewer countries and require a veritable regional and conti- EPA ne oæiaæions: diver enæ inæeresæs wiæhin African nental strategy. The EPAs concern all subregions in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Central Africa ments negotiated with countries with mining and oil resources.Africa in trade negotiations Africa is involved in two sets of negotiations that are essential competitors must. 2. Both negotiations are slow LDCs willing to open up their markets to the EU in exchange for headway and. stalled on numerous issues. the EC stepped up parallel negotiations with Asia and trade regulations of concerns regarding the unique nature of ag. a far lower rate than other natural resourc- es (usually ). Twelve years on. is to strengthen regional integration. The EPAs must be concluded be. the Doha Development Round is of great in. declinin in favour of ærade wiæh the livelihood of smallholder farmers. China in is on the table. some countries will sign bilateral “special and dierential treatment” for developing countries that agreements. in relation to their AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 31 . History and proximity lead African countries to prioritise re- while North Africa has a free trade agreement with the EU. whereas the latter. East Africa. challenges: i) divergent interests within the RECs between non- Caribbean and Pacic Group (ACP). ne. Non-LDCs (LDCs benet es. and those who fear that this market lib- eralisation would destabilise their production sectors and deprive bilaæeral ærade a reemenæs are The Doha Round and æhe challen e of inæe raæin them of tax revenue. developed counæries have done “WTO compatible”: Southern Africa. Where agriculture is concerned. it is the future of fore October . 3. Undertaken with the RECs. Failing this. the aim of the negotiations the implementation of the trade provisions contained in the Coto. The emer in counæries. etc. In fact. which are Africa’s competitors (bananas. open up their markets to imports to its international market integration: the WTO Doha Round and from the EU. Most are preferential agree.

32 . . children under  who are underweight. . GHI  is calculated with - data. the mortality of children under . undernourished persons. Denition: ©Issala-NEPAD The GHI score is the average num- ber of undernourished persons calculated using the following: .

In rural rural poverty. One in four undernourished is. in the Sahel region or East Africa and temporary workers in East Along with South Asia. prices are thus higher. Sudan and Kenya). are home to over half the undernourished people living in Sub-Saharan Africa. the only continent where the absolute ed and relatively isolated from regional markets. and breastfeeding women are more liable to suer from nutrition- stantial state subsidies covering basic foods. Africa is the continent most seriously af. Angola. DRC. most of them having ed Food insecurity also varies according to the season. and rural commu- nities are poorer and struggle to buy the food they are missing. particularly during years when the harvest is poor and ability of more diverse foodstus. weaker in the urban environment. manure. whereas the more afflu- rural households buy at least some of their food supplies from the ent sections of society have beneted from the increased avail- market. to increase the concentration of numbers are increasing in the cities. etc. within families where the best food is ca. Food insecurity has a particularly strong impact on young chil- However. This is the knock-on eect of food insecurity in rural areas. with both Food insecurity is a problem that aects the rural world more agricultural and economic growth. Burundi. the food insecurity prole is changing. Five countries (Ethiopia. Rural incomes are low and irregular. children and æheir developmenæ The effecæs of hun er are felæ unequally wiæhin each Food availability has certainly increased. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 33 . Malnuæriæion mainly affecæs AIDS pandemic (Zambia. Most on this production are poor communities. and  of cases where schoolchildren repeat a year are linked Tanzania. the more peo. The people who are most dependent Food insecurity remains an essentially rural phenomenon. the situation varies in dierent areas. dren and their mothers. The instability of pric.Hunger. young children along with pregnant 2. to means of production (land. Between  si nificanæly hindered by price the most severely aected region. insæabiliæy region. the growing number of urban dwellers. East Africa is ardise the future of entire swathes of the population. 1. people in æhe world live in Africa period. Cameroon and Malawi). In North Afri. It is also linked to the instability of living and work- areas. Africa of local markets and the fact that national markets are restrict. less than one undernourished person in ve was ly dependent on the market for their food. es throughout the year is exacerbated by the contained nature security has become less frequent over the last  years. mainly due to sub. risk communities are still concentrated in the countryside. fected by food insecurity. and However. only one of which lies outside this to malnutrition. Although at- this factor combines with the instability of food markets. mainly due to conicts and the enough to feed their families due to the lack of adequate access 3. the longer the period since harvest time. but the per capita pro- counæry duction of cereal grains is lower than it was in the s and has poæenæial been stagnant for  years. despite a strong and growing dependency on imported food. such as pastoralists living in Africa. according to the FAO. but to less than a third of its overall pop. Child malnutrition can have a long-lasting eect lin ed æo food mar eæs and also aected to a lesser degree. DRC. on children’s intellectual and physical capacities and can jeop- nities often suer from insecure food situations. and Southern Africa. In . although the poorest commu. a persistent problem across the continent Despite signicant progress in farming and the fact that food in. ing conditions as well as family and neighbourhood ties that are ple’s food stocks diminish and prices rise.). A number of countries have seen marked progress in recent years (Ghana. Southern Africa is al deciencies. The situation has deteriorated than cities because the people producing food often do not make in a smaller number of countries. This seasonali- number of undernourished people has increased over the same ty has a particularly strong impact on households that are high. partic. their ularly in areas with shortages. Rural communiæies are food insecurity remains a marginal problem. sometimes kept for the men. tools). while today’s gure has risen to over one in four. Hun er is also affecæin æhe urban poor ulation.

Country Capital Rural Environment Year Benin 88 66 200 Burkina Faso 9 5 200 Cameroon 9 58 2007 Côte d’Ivoire 92 5 2002 Ghana 00 74 2006 Guinea 95 49 2007 Mali 97 56 2006 Mauritania 00 88 2004 Niger 99 50 2007 ©Issala-NEPAD Nigeria 82 64 200 Senegal 00 87 2005 Sierra Leone 99 58 200 Chad 98 58 200 Togo 00 72 2006 34 .

certain climatic. but is not sucient by itself. are aæ æhe hearæ of have seen this gure drop. They all ban. such as drought and oods. have contributed food insecurity. food is their main expenditure item. So why has food insecurity risen? nant and breastfeeding women are all factors underpinning child Simply because food availability is only one of the factors in hun. Food insecurity is rst and foremost about poverty and and regional markets. en household resilience and to reduce inequalities in health and ticularly equality between women and men. A riculæural developmenæ is a tries regardless of their level of economic and agricultural devel. Political crises can gradually plunge countries into structural food insecurity. hunger and malnutrition: policies that aim to develop agriculture and healæh iniæiaæives ant as the quantity of calories available per person. has been experiencing a succession of crises since . While household food security is usually threatened by isolat. an issue for agriculture and beyond Increased agricultural production and economic growth have nance institutions are the key to making major progress. while recurring droughts in some re. and their cities in particular. education and health as well as women’s integration in local gover- AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 35 . to ensure surplus food that can A combinaæion of economic. such as the Sahel and the Horn of Africa. social and healæh causes cover households’ occasional shortages and. more complex. and the distribution of A combination of policies is therefore needed in the ght against food within the family unit are all elements that are just as import. a ainsæ food insecuriæy. economic erning food preparation and consumption. political and economic problems aect The relaæionship beæween a riculæure and food securiæy noæ sufficienæ by iæself entire regions. conflicæs and food insecuriæy  years. were hard hit the poorest communities’ main economic activity. Consequently. agriculture greatly to exacerbating food situations that were already fragile. None- Economic access to food has become the decisive factor in theless. among others. food Southern Africa as well as countries destabilised by conicts diversity for very young children and the burden of work on preg. pushed up theoretical per capita food availability by around  To an even greater degree than food insecurity. 2. to strength- family economic conditions are important. whether rural or ur. The link to agricultural production is even cereal grains. For the poorest communities. malnutrition. At-risk areas are not always those with shortages of undernourishmenæ and ger and malnutrition. political instability and demographic booms. malnuæriæion requires a generate income so that they can buy diversied foods and oth- Food quality and diversity. which reduce the local production. Over the last Poveræy. result from a combination of factors. Only a handful of countries in East and multiples causes. Poveræy and inequaliæies  over the last  years. combinaæion of social. The case of West Africa illustrates the multiplicity and complexity malnuæriæion of the factors leading to food and nutritional security. most importantly. provides resources that enable rural inhabitants to reduce varia. making them yet more vulnerable to further shocks. (including land reforms) and non-agricultural activities. Access to trade. buæ is ed events. These successive shocks have eroded households’ living systems. This applies to all coun. the health and safety conditions gov. necessary condiæion in æhe fi hæ inequalities. are decisive. including in several landlocked Sahel countries. Access to mother and child health services. per capita food production has climbed at the same rate as in Asia. malnutrition has 1. The fi hæ a ainsæ tions in the quantities produced. its development by the food price hikes in - and -. 3. the instability of international opment. Essentially. Since it represents Most coastal countries. Agricultural development is a necessary condition for reducing gions. the area has an alarming rate of child malnutrition and food insecurity. par.Hunger. but social factors. er basic goods. is an indirect factor underpinning food security. such as loss of employment or the death of a family member.

.

page 39 it has managed to remove the barriers between institutions and stakeholders and to encourage international coordination to sup. the CAADP has been encouraging a Pan-African NEPAD’s agricultural mandate: creating an agricultural process to put agriculture back at the centre of the agenda for revolution African states and regional economic communities. Regional integration and policies port policies and programmes initiated by Africans. By doing this. at the same time. This is The rise of agriculture producer organisations especially the case for the agricultural organisations that became page 49 key players in formulating and implementing agricultural policies. Most agricul- tural producers do not have the institutional and nancial environ. funding for agriculture multaneous state and private sector disinvestment and reduced page 45 international assistance for the agricultural sector. Agricultural institutions and public policy in. page 47 ronmental and market changes. page 43 This progress is all the more important as it was achieved in a challenging context. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 37 . institutions and stakeholders For  years. The failures of development and financing institutions ment that enables them to manage their farms and adapt to envi. However. SECTION 2 Policies. new stakeholders have emerged and structured themselves. Public struments have been considerably weakened by  years of si.

– Encourage planning and implementation on lopment of trade-related capacity. to the public. and provide information semination and adoption. med land within the framework of sustainable – Support institutions in order for them to be land management. reducing the vulnerabi. . and public sectors. ciency of implementation. knowledge – Increase production of and access to quality sharing and management. on improving rural infrastructure and the deve. The four fundamenæal pillars Due to structural constraints that burden agricul- tural development. and technology dis. and improve ©Issala-NEPAD Pillar : Market access. Africa to be a strategic player in agricultural science and technology. data and knowledge. Active farmers in the market economy and the continent to become a net exporter of agricul- tural produce. . liances both within and between the private lity of rural households and risk management. with emphasis – Foster public investment in agriculture. with the – Strengthen policy design processes and e- objective of increasing the surface area of far. placed on research development. by focusing interventions governance of natural resources. – Improve coordination. partnerships and al- sing the food supply.. Dynamic agricultural markets within and between African countries and regions. more ecient and accountable. . The five objecæives æo be reached by 2015 as seæ by African leaders . CAADP has chosen to struc- ture investment programmes and development The six areas for acæion around four fundamental pillars: Pillar : Land and water management. Pillar : Agricultural research.. A n agricultural production that causes no harm to the environment and a sustainable management of natural resources in Africa. 38 . . A more balanced distribution of wealth in fa- vour of rural populations. against hunger. with priority given to increa. more inclusive foundations based on expe- Pillar : Supply of food products and the ght rience.

NEPAD’s agricultural mandate:
creating an agricultural revolution
After ten years, the CAADP is establishing itself as a locus for in- This is one of the only initiatives to have enabled the constitu-
terest in sustainable development in the agricultural sector in Af- tion of a multi-donor fund that is managed in a unique way. The 1. CAADP is noæ a pro ramme
rica. Many former sceptics have now become fervent supporters CAADP has therefore been a catalyst for African initiatives to de-
of the dynamic, whether from the public sector or the African civil ne national priorities, as well as for the process of Africans’ re- buæ a meæhod and a poliæical acæ
society, bilateral and multilateral, or technical and nancial part- gaining control of the dialogue with nancial partners.
ners. CAADP has now become a recognised ‘’brand’’ throughout
Africa and the rest of the world. CAADP, a player’s ame

CAADP: æhe expression of ærue pan-Africanism CAADP has not escaped political contingencies. In the early
stages, some international institutions competed to nd favour 2. Iæ is open æo discussions on
CAADP has established itself as the expression of the reappro- with NEPAD and the AU and to ensure their assigned exper-
priation of agricultural policy by the African states. It is therefore a tise. Technical and nancial partners, who previously prioritised conæroversial quesæions raæher
means of breaking away from the conditions, ties and restrictions ‘’their own countries’’ or ‘’their own RECs’’, have sought to direct
imposed by structural adjustment. This rupture can also be seen support towards specic regions based on the inuence gained æhan providin ready-made
by the states’ renewed eorts, with the commitment to allocate through the funding provided. In view of the CAAPD’s visibility 
of national budgets to agriculture. and legitimacy, it is therefore logical that it should arouse either soluæions
CAADP is not a programme but an approach and a political act. extreme interest in order to win its favour or even protection, or
It is an approach in the sense that the NEPAD Agency (NPCA) is complete rejection, in particular from organisations that had not
not involved in the implementation of policies or investments and found it to be the platform they had hoped for. The programme
does not have a normative role. It proposes a method to coun- therefore acts as a business for several interest groups, some of
tries and regions that enables them to establish agricultural pri- which attempt to claim ownership and use it as leverage to mo-
orities based on key principles: i) coordination between nation- bilise funds. Others, its detractors, exploit it by attacking it from
al stakeholders, including agricultural organisations, ii) alignment a distance. The most frequent disputes revolve around the role
with major macro-economic balances (hence a phase of econom- of biotechnology or of the private sector in development. In real-
ic modelling in order to calibrate the required investments), iii) ity, CAADP leaves countries to manage such issues themselves.
subsidiarity, by leaving countries to dene their own priorities, Nor is the approach monolithic from within the process. The
entrusting regional economic communities with alignment and debate, or sometimes the controversy, focuses on the precise
regional actions and, nally, by asking the NPCA and the Afri- role of the state and the private sector, the position of technology
can Union Commission to ensure technical support and strate- and the role of social and institutional relations in development
gic management; iv) collaboration and dialogue with donors; v) dynamics. CAADP also becomes, at times, a stake in ideological
accountability; and vi) for some time now, seeking alliances with struggles surrounding insertion in the international market, redis-
the entrepreneurial sector over and above agricultural producers. tributive intervention of production factors (land, access to wa-
It is also a political act, however, as it is centred on international ter and roadways) and the validity of price signals in stakehold-
commitments in terms of the eciency of assistance for strength- er strategies, among others. This applies to all groups, including
ening African leadership. It has taken the Paris Declaration at face African institutions, experts, technical partners and even agricul-
value in its creation of a support system capable of channelling tural organisations.
the renewed enthusiasm in the agricultural sector. ‘’Alignment’’ is CAADP has endeavoured to minimise the risk of cleavage
certainly the CAADP’s most important keyword. through the organisation of an open and pluralist debate. How-

AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 39

A riculæure, one of NEPAD’s six æhemaæic The CAADP process aæ counæry level
areas
CAADP’s implementation prioritises the na-
Agriculture and food security are at the fore- tional level. The structure of the National Agri-
front of NEPAD’s six thematic priority areas. The culture Investment Plan (NAIP) is based on a re-
other ve areas, however, also have a signi- view of the agricultural sector; the modelling of
cant impact on agriculture and food; (i) climate investments required to ensure annual agricul-
change and natural resource management; (ii) tural growth of at least , which is essential in
regional integration and infrastructure; (iii) hu- order to meet the ambitious CAADP targets and
man development; (iv) economic and corporate the Millennium Development Goals, especially in
governance; (v) cross-cutting issues (gender, terms of reducing hunger and extreme poverty.
ICT, capacity-building). National investment planning is carried out on
the basis of modelling and within the framework
of close cooperation between socio-profession-
al stakeholders. It is subject to an external re-
RECs in æhe CAADP process view organised by NEPAD. The NAIP project
is discussed at a round table during which the
Regional Economic Communities, with the commitments and responsibilities of the various
support of leading technical institutions select- stakeholders (state, producer organisations, pri-
ed by NEPAD, oer support to countries in the vate sector, development partners) are dened
design and implementation of NAIPs. They mo- and registered in a national pact known as the
bilise their states in order to dene regional poli- “the Compact’’. A meeting is held to discuss na-
cies and programmes that are complementary to tional funding and contributions from external
the NAIPs. RAIPs makes it possible to: (i) achieve partners.
economies of scale by pooling technical and -
nancial resources; (ii) manage interdependen-
cies of agricultural economies and shared natu-
ral resources; (iii) promote regional markets and
manage the interface with global markets. The
RAIP has also been the subject of external re-
views, round tables, the signing of a pact and a
business meeting.

40

ever, faced with the current challenges, it has to assume a higher added value across sectors and ownership of natural resources
number of political positions, which it is able to do thanks to the and land. If this discourse is not suciently addressed at state 3. Laæe 2013: 37 counæries
legitimacy and authority acquired by Africans. level, then NEPAD’s involvement will be required. A vision of ag-
riculture at the continental level is now needed. This is a process have si ned a “compacæ”, i.e. a
Challen es faced by CAADP that CAADP has undertaken, entitled “sustaining the CAADP mo-
mentum”. This exercise should help to better understand the role conæracæual a reemenæ beæween
The rst challenge is to respond to hopes raised at country and of agriculture in rural and global development.
REC level and to thereby arm the impact of CAADP by ascer- The third risk stems from centrifugal tendencies of dierent or- sæa
eholders
taining whether or not the process has really contributed to an igins: experts and institutions have a high capacity to invent new
increase in production and to resource mobilisation. It is too soon concepts that become the norm for action, yet whose lifespan
to tell and the answer depends on how investments are articu- is aligned with that of the emergence of a new paradigm. These
lated with economic and institutional policy reforms, which could can, however, divert decision-makers from the structural path-
create an environment that encourages farms to increase invest- ways and commitments necessary for the creation of a devel-
ment. The issue of investments has attracted attention since the opment dynamic. The risk of dispersion is also internal: national 4. 28 counæries have compleæed
African party and donors agree on it, but economic policy reforms authorities remain sensitive to promises from partners and com-
may seem like a mineeld. In practice, however, speaking only of petition is created for often limited resources, particularly when æheir NAIPs and seæ up a
investment runs the risk of creating dependence with regard to lists of priority countries are drawn up. In the medium term, this
funding strategies by donors. Economic regulation will need to could jeopardise the continental dynamic and runs the risk of business meeæin
be at the core of CAADP, and this concern has been present from causing African leaders to lose control of events.
the beginning. Since Africa has asserted its leadership of CAADP, This competition also applies to private sector resources, which
these controversial issues are going to be easier to approach in administrations admit they cannot do without. The concern for
an independent manner. NEPAD is therefore to ensure that investor interests converge
A second risk is that of increased bureaucracy within CAADP. with those of the main stakeholders, and it is thus important that
Some stakeholders consider that CAADP “does not speak producer organisations put their opinions forward and engage in
enough to their problems”. They view CAADP as overly focused dialogue with the other private investors.
on method and process – which coincides with NEPAD’s mandate Almost  years after its launch, CAADP is at a crossroads,
– and lacking focus on farmers’ priorities. Such priorities include while most African countries have initiated their process, and
prices, sources of funding, market opportunities, distribution of some are already eight years down the line.

AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 41

©Issala-NEPAD 42 .

COMESA and SADC Re ional a riculæural policies are becomin more — have been committed since  to creating a vast “tripar. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 43 . Many transactions are never recorded. Trade The deepening of the regional integration process at the REC within SADC is estimated to be  of the total trade of all its level. Trade decits. standing at a mere . playing on com. In East and Southern Afri- ca. the three regional organisations – EAC. intraregional trade is very low (. where the level of lenges and discourage economic operators. tural policies being developed to complement national policies. widespread tite” free trade area comprised of  countries and accounting 2. The two development policy since . This region’s mon Agricultural Policy in July . SADC extremely dicult to accurately dene the parameters of a cus. Regional ag- ricultural policies contribute to this process. Africa is still the least integrated continent in opportunities for regional trade are underexploited due to a lack low aæ beæween 1 and 15% of æoæal the world: a mere  of the external trade of its  countries is of transport infrastructure. Intra-area trade is valued at between  and The African Union has initiated a process that should ultimate-  of total trade. These two regions are prepar- internal trade volume is very low. ing the RAIP that will make the regional policies operational. area by . although countries of- ten prioritise a national vision of agricultural development. The Minimum Integration Programme (MIP) is dependent on the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and the convergence mechanism they implemented amongst themselves. Conflicæ and insæabiliæy for half of Africa’s GDP and a population of  million. making it in  by a regional agricultural investment programme. statistics (customs declarations) that underestimate the volume in æhe re ional process. began the same process and adopted the Regional Agricultural toms union. Multiple currencies. inæra- parative advantages and trade-os among countries in case of of trade conducted. West Af. economic and trade globalisation has Re ional ærade volume is underesæimaæed buæ low been accompanied by an acceleration of the regional integra. and the diculty of obtaining authorisations ærade This renewed momentum aects all subregions in Africa. complex and un- conducted within Africa ( for the EU. which was supplemented inæe raæion several countries belong to other subregional groups. all exacerbate the chal- though it is clearly less visible in North Africa. from administrations. has led to regional agricul. with trade in agricultural goods (cattle. and . al. followed by a Customs Union and then monetary secæor union. 1.Regional integration and policies Since the early s. security in  that is aligned with CAADP priorities. black-eyed beans) accounting for a signif. Despiæe æhe pro ress made tion process. outlined six stages. Regionalisation is deemed a powerful method of Estimates of intra-regional trade volumes are based on ocial creating opportunities for agricultural producers. re ional ærade volume remains abling countries to unite to better protect their interests in the in. The rica also has two integration areas — WAEMU comprising eight East African Community has had an agricultural policy and a rural 3. along with the NEPAD initiative. It has developmenæ of æhe a riculæural fruit and vegetables. Inæe raæion aæ æhe REC level countries of the CFA franc zone. is an imporæanæ facæor in æhe mon external tari. ECCAS adopted Central Africa’s Com- is signicantly hampering the integration process. It adopted an action plan for food institutions have just established a customs union with a com.  for Asia). hamper economic and ærade member states. ECOWAS adopted the ECOWAP. In tion institutions — ECCAS and CEMAC (CFA franc zone) —. among other things. there are two regional integra. ly lead to the creation of an African Economic Community. In Central Africa. and ECOWAS with . It aims to improve cross-border trade policies while en. Political instability in several countries in the region Policy (RAP) in June . The next stage is to establish a vast free trade icant portion. The potential ternational arena. cereals.). familiar regulations. Corruption at borders increases transaction costs. is still being hampered by numerous formal and informal barriers.

©Issala-NEPAD 44 .

most countries that allocated more than  did just declare our commitment to breathe new life into the agricultural the opposite and increased their eorts. From -.Public funding for agriculture “We. was a turning point for national authorities. with an average of between  and . but the renewed inter. the  threshold agreed to by the con. lotted at least  of their national budgets to spending on agricul. donor coordination and the alignment of international support ture. On the agreements for their NAIP totalling  billion. Since . spent is an important factor to consider. tial often receive government support. a modest increase has been observed. etc). In addition to the level of spending. Aid is deployed ouæside æhe æar eæ and social importance of the agricultural sector and resource al- location. by introducing specific policies and strategies to assist tra. the way in which funds are ies. The GAF- spending on agriculture is approximately . In the last  local institutions are hampering the real exercise of local political years. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 45 . however. and very few are ready to com- taxed. This multi-donor fund brings togeth- into the sector. It is below  in  countries. ignored in trade-os. there is a complete disconnect between the economic 2. Generally. Weak in the s. in overnmenæ bud eæs in æhe ditional small farms in rural areas (…). only the  food crisis. This A riculæural ODA is increasin sli hæly spending does not include measures required to improve rural infrastructure (roads. Agricultural ODA exceeds  of total country ODA in scope of local insæiæuæions. forest resources and fisher. when agricultural expenditure exceeded . tinent is in line with the average level of investment to be made in commiæmenæ order to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). we agree to al expenditure accounts for a signicant proportion of resourc- adopting sound agricultural and rural policies and to allocating es. beneciaries and agricultural producer organisations. operation. Two trends have been observed over this period. including livestock rearing. which furæher wea ens æhem  had reached or exceeded the target. Production areas with the greatest growth poten- cies within five years (…)”. but does encompass agricul. er donors. an eort by donors to channel and coordinate support for agri- est in agriculture has not yet been matched by nancial injection culture and food security. The percentage of net ows to production subsectors varies vasæ majoriæy of counæries and at least 10% of our national budgets to implementing these poli. This are slow in implementing aid reform. Similar to government budget Fewer æhan 20% of AU member sæaæes are meeæin æhe 10% analysis. A riculæure is sæill ne lecæed sector. schools. The  food crisis SP (Global Agriculture and Food Security Program) is. considerably. Livestock rearing is largely æhis falls shoræ of æhe Mapuæo Based on IFPRI models. Ocial development assistance (ODA) earmarked for agricul- tural research. To this end. However. What is the situation  years after the Maputo Declaration? In only eight African countries. Heads of State and Government of the African Union (…) other hand. ture has declined signicantly in the last  years: from  of total ODA in  to  in . of the  countries for which information is available. Countries that allotted less than  of their budget to agriculture Some  African countries have already beneted from funding in  have often reduced their spending in the sector. Structural adjustments led to a signicant drop in spending mit to pooling resources and supporting local structures. Africa experienced three phases: the rst with government policy to improve aid legitimacy and eciency in the s. Average regional leadership and the capacity to manage aid resources. A total of  countries al. Very often. portance to the impact of agriculture on food security. 1. donors “shop was also the time when the agricultural sector was quite heavily around” within NAIPs and RAIPs. donors have been attaching increasing im.

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but their ability to fund investment spending AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 47 . combining access to credit with aging services — ll the role previously played by public institu. insurance or collateral. index-based weather insurance and. i. protability levels. and are incompatible with the sector’s construction of a true factor market based on the private sector. Risk is one of the main barriers to investing in designed to manage the activities of smallholder farmers. Mulæiple innovaæions. infor. project structures or producer or- ganisations — which are ill-prepared for implementing and man. ii) involve. rarely is the support they deliver sustainable tems of inventory credit (warehouse receipts) for coee and cere- in the long term.The failures of development and financing institutions The farming sector needs a wide range of institutions: nancial and growing seasons is limited. cutting the cost of access have access æo crediæ partners able to oer economic and technical support. mation systems to assist in positioning in markets. to nance.e. tainable institutions and delivering technical and nancial services storage. deaths have met with little success. These als. Insurance for harvests and insurance against livestock 2. No invesæmenæ wiæhouæ ly for export) in order to be sure of repayment. A riculæural ris s are hi h. such as sys- tions. 3. The use of payment systems that rely on mobile telephone eties and identify new production and processing techniques. fertilisers and seed. with harvests used often not prepared to provide the requisite nancial backing even as collateral. quire. insurance companies to ing to the close supervision of beneciaries that such systems re. for large-scale farmers. many obstacles remain. ance cover. Farmers operate in a very uncertain economic environment with Such mechanisms existed prior to the s and s. but without addressing the issue of creditworthiness. Often high price volatility. In either case. Two palliatives are proposed to remedy this situation: i) policies nance to producers. Fewer æhan 10% of producers cover risks. building sus- links in the chain are equally decient: input distribution networks. ment by states acting as economic agents and the establishment As a rule. and nancial institutions will not oer credit without insur- swept away by rounds of structural adjustments. Farm banks have often adapted to suit the diversity of the agricultural sector as a whole. tal lack of public policies to support them during growing seasons æhe leasæ access æo finance and to assist them in the modernisation of their farms. Micronance systems have been established in many countries. New approaches are emerging. Other aid actions are the two main barriers to scaling up. thereby disrupting the hed in sysæems high (over  annually). However. and so forth. states are 4. Some of these are promising. these agriculture: farmers avoid innovating and reduce their reliance on mechanisms were not always particularly ecient and have been inputs. able to pay the full amount. effecæive public-privaæe ris nancial products either directly or via their cooperatives. the interest rates applied to the farm sector are very of activities supported articially by donors. buæ scalin up is difficulæ æo achieve For a minority of producers. been restructured or dismantled. ceasing once external funding dries up. to provide subsidies for equipment. Where they do still provide . and microcredit remains costly ow- institutions to provide access to credit. 1. networks is developing considerably. Crediæ and ris covera e: æhe alpha and æhe ome a The absence of a policy for nancing agriculture — aside from barrier æo invesæmenæ ad hoc fertiliser subsidies — combined with episodic development The absence of production loans is the biggest hurdle. they tend to favour structured sectors (usual. etc. preventing one-o initiatives and are æhus æhe primary from becoming available to the majority of producers. marketing. processing plants. Food producæion secæors have The vast majority of producers are isolated and suer from a to. Commercial farmers are able to access stock market in the face of demonstrable impacts and protability. support services are too costly for small-scale producers to be access to the futures market (South African Futures Exchange). scientic research institutions to improve crop vari.

organisations in Confederation of ges involved in feeding the people. – help to promote trade in farming products and regional African economic integration. platform of farmer Southern African – develop shared positions on the main challen. Members:  national Members:  national – inuence agricultural policies and strategies producer organisation organisations from  at the continental and international levels […]. prosperous and lasting African agricul- tural sector. develo. Africa terests of African farmers and producers and Founded in  their organisations at the continental and in. (…) an agricultural sector that guar- antees food security and food sovereignty and EEAF that is capable of fullling the economic. Founded in  ral resources. social and ecological functions involved in creating East African Farmers wealth. NEPAD countries namic. 48 . experiences and knowledge […]. – share information.” Network of Peasant Members:  national Organizations and organisations from  The seven PAFO objectives: Producers in West countries – defend the social and economic rights and in. Members:  national PROPAC ternational levels. PAFO UMAGRI Panafrican Farmers’ Maghreb Farmers’ Organisation Union Founded in  Founded in  and ©Issala-NEPAD Made up of ve reactivated in  regional networks Members:  The PAFO vision:: organisations from  “PAFO works towards the emergence of a dy. protecting family and national solidarity ROPPA Federation and equitably and sustainably managing natu. Central Africa Agricultural Unions ping modern and competitive agriculture and Founded in  Founded in  protecting African natural resources. producer organisation SACAU – promote solidarity and partnership between platforms Subregional African farmer and producer organisations. platforms countries – represent African farmer and producer orga- nisations at the continental and international levels.

stakeholders in negotiating agricultural policies and programmes. and going up to national played. their diculties in becoming more profes- riculture. cocoa and sugar. However. at the subregional level in the early s. With very few exceptions. Producers had to organ. often adopting interventionist approaches. The contemporary context for these organisations is displayed by public bodies at a time when states were massive. the nature of their members. but also in most other countries led by gov. They are universally recognised by the public authorities as In the post-independence period. states took over and be. support and advice. storage and marketing. the agricultural sector. By withdrawing extensively and suddenly from an increasin ly imporæanæ role forms of organisations that dier in the way they are structured. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 49 . arranging oversight and al organisations that inuence economic strategies and political supporæin a riculæure harvesting products. Their neæwor s are now ernments with authoritarian leanings. states contributed to the emergence of their missions. and UMAGRI in North Africa). Buæ æhey remain fra ile and The colonial powers organised the rural world so they could highly dependent on external funding. tries concerned (SACAU in Southern Africa. They have become active partners erate prices for urban populations. producer organisations have a limited economic impact and are 2. sometimes.The rise of agriculture producer organisations The smallholder farmer movement in Africa has not one but many The drop in prices for tropical products and lack of eciency histories. These regimes as. with a greater or lesser degree of success. These regional net- ulation and continued to specialise in export crops. cannoæ replace public services as groundnut. subre ional and the Cotonou Agreement in ). This period saw the rise of cooperatives overseen …æo or anised neæwor s in differenæ subre ions aæ æhe by the state in countries as varied as Tanzania. served to speed up the structuring of producer organisations reco nised as ey paræners æo sumed strict economic and social control over the farming pop. coee. included the supply of inputs. conæinenæal level ger and Cameroon. which ise themselves in order to take over the roles states had formerly performs economic and social functions. Benin. naæional. their insuciently representative nature. life. the grouping of supply. In the food-pro. 1. structural adjustments marked a new era for ag. these networks remain fragile due to their In the s. etc. Egypt. underpinned by the political liberalisation of several re. It covers multiple cial institutions. South Africa) have also formed the basis of agricultur- ers was a driver for introducing crops. sional and. Other organisations positioned From æhe emer ence of rassrooæs farmer or anisaæions… themselves in the trade union sphere. Producer or anisaæions play indissociable from Africa’s colonial history and from the ensuing ly in debt led to drastic revisions imposed by international nan- actions taken by independent African states. negotiating works met in  to create the Panafrican Farmers’ Organization æhe public auæhoriæies aæ æhe favourable trade agreements with Europe along the same lines (PAFO). the African Union were an essential link in the chain. babwe. 3. the organisation of plant. EAFF in East Africa ducing sector. A number of cash crop control it. members’ vulnerability. their size. In the areas selected for producing export crops such sectors such as cotton and coee or a powerful trade sector (Zim. gan to structure the rural world. and NEPAD. Ni. Marketing boards ensured that PA in West Africa and PROPAC in Central Africa) and (ii) those prices for producers were low enough to use levies to nance the that are direct members of producer organisations in the coun. Marxist-Leninist regimes or The rise of regional integration and sector-based policies governments ghting colonial aggressions. public trade monopolies aimed to guarantee mod. starting at the village level. Cooperative organisations of Regional Economic Communities (RECs). It brings together two types of regional networks: (i) those as the colonial trade paths (from the Yaoundé Conventions to made up of national platforms of smallholder organisations (ROP. in særucæurin value chains often have a pyramid structure. These roles federations and umbrella organisations. gimes. They a more autonomous farmer movement. conæinenæal levels modernisation of economies and infrastructure.

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Agriculture and the entire agrifood sector is the productive sec- tor with the greatest job creation potential. this implies prioritising the modernisation and intensication of family farms. with millions of young peo- ple entering the labour market every year. based on the potential for improving labour productivity and land already de- veloped. Challenges for agriculture and food security sectoral and global challenge. But it is the agricultural development model that is being challenged. promoting sectors with many job opportunities is a challenge of paramount importance. However. the potential for agricultural growth. as poverty and hun. higher in- comes and a reduction in inequalities is. Harnessing opportunities and potential ger are the visible results of poor development in rural areas. above all. linked in many obvious ways to page 53 standards of living and living conditions. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 51 . SECTION 3 Challenges and opportunities for African agriculture Ensuring the continent’s food and nutritional security is a multi. In page 57 light of expected population growth. Africa has cultivable land and water available that could enable it to signicantly boost its production. But to avoid jeopardising natural resources.

©Issala-NEPAD 52 .

income among the poor and the diversication of local produc- aging the use of local products or services. market due to pressure caused by the structural increase in glob. sources creates very few jobs and most countries are and will conæinenæ population growth. Secur. There is also considerable job creation potential. hand. Despite its signicant potential. The mining of these re- several structural factors: competition for food and energy use. en. etc. ricultural risks (for example. særaæe ic challen es for æhe expect the price of agricultural products to remain high due to tractive resources are often exhaustible. the development of livestock rearing and mar. this would be the wrong choice Ex. people enæerin æhe labour subsectors and. thereby enabling access to food for the poorest rural Boosting the income and consumption of those working in the and urban dwellers. for bringing balance to regions and societies. has now begun. can create jobs that are properly remunerated.) low. Promoting agricultural growth ket gardening subsectors. thereby generating tion: in particular. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 53 . The reappropriation of food and agricultur. However. this will occur either by mar eæ tion of food. and rising incomes in emerging and poor be faced with mass underemployment. higher agricultural produc- generally improve the living conditions of one in two Africans. often. Although not all countries agricultural activity systems and sources of income (encouraging can expect to meet all of their needs with national production.. essential and tering agricultural growth means working to boost income and to priority element of this process. Although agricultural development alone is incapable of elim- ture for all or part of their livelihood. the position of agriculture The region as a whole can at least satisfy most of its demand if it on national and regional political agendas has been reassessed. performance in the use of resources. Improving diets depends on an increase in 3. Africa can develop iæs still not reected in agricultural budgets. Depending on keting and processing of agricultural products and the distribu. Industrial agriculture. although this is than modernised family farming. the development of also spurs economic development in upstream and downstream enriched or fortied products (infant cereals. etc. food prices. by improving market regulation. cultural development is at stake. the use of irrigation to reduce yield ic challenges. A riculæural developmenæ The volatility of agricultural product prices on the international positioning itself as a net agro-exporter. developing the agricultural sector meets macroeconom. Based on this premise. but agriculture is a powerful tool tegic challenges faced by most of the countries of the continent. the areas and the factors of vulnerability. particularly. variability related to risks associated with rainfall). fos. don their agricultural sectors as long-term prots may seem too namic. on the other countries. in those related to the storage.Challenges for agriculture and food security Since the Maputo Declaration of . In addition. ture. is aæ æhe crossroads of major al demand and deregulated supply-side policies changed the dy. Africa is a net im. mar. Economic challen es: reducin poveræy by promoæin Human challen es: reducin food and nuæriæional proæecæin naæural resources inclusive rowæh insecuriæy and ensurin hi h producæiviæy More than half of all people living in Africa depend on agricul. by diversifying porter of agricultural products today. ing rural activity systems is a determining factor. a riculæure while creaæin jobs. manages to exploit its internal complementarities. perhaps even 1. the tivity and more ecient markets for agricultural products reduce majority of whom are poor. it is an obligatory. FAO. inating hunger and malnutrition. 2. A riculæural value chains can agricultural sector is also the most eective method of encour. the model of agri. for example). securing land (through land reform perhaps). Except in rare cases. Once again. by controlling ag- Finally. absorb a lar e number of youn growth in the rest of the economy. Countries with extractive resources may be tempted to aban. OECD. besides the issues it raises in terms of al challenges by states and regional economic communities. Agriculture. Pursuing agricultural disinvestment would involve major risks there are varying labour needs for the dierent forms of agricul- for African countries. clearly creates fewer jobs couraged by the CAADP process. very most can nevertheless aim for a positive agri-food trade balance. or. rural multiactivity). through a combination of dierent incentives. but also. etc. It meets four major stra. First. most analysts (World Bank. at times.

Agricultural development and the sustainable develop. its impact on climate change. Environmenæal challen es: æhe susæainable mana emenæ Poliæical challen es: affirmin soverei næy. consequently. Supplying urban populations lation increase. a key issue for peace. protecting forestry and shery resources is a major ca. with its considerable and underexploited agricultural potential. promises the capacity of traditional production systems to renew but greater market penetration in rural areas and an increase in soil fertility. and of naæural resources conæribuæin æo sæabiliæy. has a strong case to put forward on the international geopolitical sity conservation. control of quires agricultural development models that prioritise increasing the production and marketing of agricultural products by African land productivity rather than expanding the amount of land under farmers and entrepreneurs. At the same bution. An The challenge in coming years is to accelerate growth in produc. which puts pressure on land resources and com. the development of Africa’s agricultural reminder that within the context of more rapid information distri- sector has mobilised more and more cultivable land. to become a key player in dening fairer rules for the game. Addressing carry the risk of destabilisation and even of crises between neigh- these issues requires a systemic and lasting boost in the productiv. water and energy re- sources. quire sustainable productivity growth in order to enhance the val- African forests are a global public good and their protection re. This raises questions concerning the cultivation. With regard to forests. (water pollution by pesticides or nitrate residue). securing a supply of food is not only critical from a human time. bouring countries. development perspective. and popu. At times. of rules to protect the long-term interests of people living in these In a context of structural tensions in global food markets. the challenge also lies in stage. water and energy. Finally. The development of Africa’s agricultural sector is linked to cru- ment of natural resources are inextricably linked. securiæy and Africa’s inæernaæional sæandin Agriculture uses but also manages land. Afri- areas. challenge for Africa and the rest of the world in terms of biodiver. which are the foundations after land has been purchased or as a result of colonial heritage for the development potential of future generations. security and eective land management. Yielding a prot from this dormant political asset would re- carbon capture and. farmers and conicts caused by the expropriation of populations sources such as land. The - food riots were a harsh Over the last  years. 54 . for the continent’s political stability. poses a threat to Properly managing access to natural resources and their use is the environment and to consumer health. above all. the sustainability of some agrarian systems has been threat. with food was perceived in the past as the most sensitive issue. but also the formulation and implementation capital pave the way for sedition movements and social uprisings. ue of Africa’s agricultural export potential and. access to information and education will only heighten political for example in very intensive suburban market gardening systems sensitivity regarding food and agricultural issues. but it is in fact becoming a prerequisite ened by several factors: the eects of climate change. increase in the number of clashes between farmers and livestock tion while controlling its impact on the environment and natural re. cial political challenges. position that the continent will take in international trade negotia- tions. The extreme inequality of access to land and ity of natural factors. the unbridled use of some agricultural inputs.

By inæe raæin iæs mar eæs. 4. Proæecæin naæural resources is a major issue for Africa and æhe resæ of æhe world 6. Africa can avoid dependence and uaranæee iæs food securiæy AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 55 . Increasin æhe resilience of farmin sysæems is a prioriæy 5.

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regions with considerable pressure on land in and Southern Africa basins. Africa can pur. the availability of land. as well as incentives to under cultivation than to invest in intensive agriculture. only a small amount of water is used West Africa and on the outskirts of cities. accelerated and more widely implemented. im- ging behind. Apart from the Nile. 3. at times. 2. Necessary trade-os between tax increases for dierent than other continents. buæ are agriculture is often given as evidence that the continent is lag. research is needed and must be stepped up to en- estry or hunting and gathering. etc. Africa has a higher and more rapid growth potential nities. It is estimat- ed that barely a third of the irrigation potential provided by the resources Apart from a few exceptions in North Africa. The limited use of water re- than half those obtained in Asia. these yields sources for agricultural purposes is often explained by reduced have increased less rapidly in Africa than anywhere else in the cost-eectiveness in the recent socio-economic context. in particular. However. Africa can increase Low yields in Africa are the result of many obstacles. enabling the regular ex. biological pest control). to the management of transboundary resources. someæimes available in Contrary to popular belief. for. while the majority of the countries types of uses. Niger Southern Africa. have been exhausted in the more (conservation practices. fertilisers. the exisæ in lar e quanæiæies. In fact. and not being used in extensive agriculture. Land re. regional governance issues related models that are less harmful to the environment. Of course. pesticides and better seed vari. intensication processes underway must be context fostered by the unprecedented combination of a more fa. to improve local practices and to adapt scure the reality. is truly available. use of traditional inputs. there is considerable surface based on an extensive model. is very limited and should not ob. some parts of continent’s main rivers is harnessed. and veterinary products. nally. companion planting. animal manure and densely populated areas. In addition to this. In the last  years. has contributed to the imple. Land and waæer resources world. implement intensive practices based on sustainable techniques sources. are just some sue this objective of sustainable development by increasing its of the risks of conicting uses that are. in terms of availability. it is often simpler to seek to increase land of seeds. To improve Sustainable intensive agriculture must ensure the conservative agricultural production in a context characterised by high avail. fra ile and exhausæible tage. Africa has abundant water resources and æhe proæecæion of naæural abundance that are very unevenly distributed and underutilised. Available æechnolo ical meæhods æo rapidly boosæ inpuæs wiæhouæ harmin æhe tion. and investment in number of countries around the Congo Basin. The distribution and im- AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 57 . and the use of fertilisers. On average. agriculture in Africa is for agriculture. pesticides. of major concern agricultural productivity. namely the challenges associated with funding agricultural intensica. Next. This low level of intensication for African require major investment in infrastructure and. 1. and international in scope. They are largely concentrated in a small organic amendments. proved use of water resources implies both risks and opportu. land that equipment to increase productivity.. environmenæ mentation of this extensive agricultural growth model. First. implementation of appropriate governance methods.Harnessing opportunities and potential The agricultural sector in Africa is operating in an entirely new agricultural sector. hance certain varieties. risks caused by climate change and its eects on of the world attempt to redirect their agricultural sectors towards water resources and. cereal yields are less irrigation potential at the local level. However. Available nowled e already vourable international environment and major structural changes on the African continent itself. To overcome the challenges faced by Africa’s certain equipment to specic contexts. An enhanced and more eective use of water resources will eties remains limited. Waæer resources are ofæen underexploiæed enables producæiviæy rowæh Underused culæivable land. But it is also and above all a considerable advan. better varieties ability of family labour. producæiviæy pansion of land under cultivation.

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there is a major disconnect between ODA However. Economic capital is increasing. in the dynamism of food The economic situation of African States is now conducive to markets. when iæ is the continent depends on the renewal of agricultural advice market possibilities with higher value-added. as have national resources. This possibility is one way of attracting new $1. and is calling for more diversied local knowledge and know-how enables major progress in land products (more vegetables. there is no doubt that the greatest opportunities. ble industrial sector. standing far below that of many ward trend in agricultural prices. and resources and capabilities on the one hand. as Africa is could be valued at more than . but also the nicant national budget contributions to nance the agricultural very uncertain impact of climate change on global agricultural sector. to changes in diet. The African middle class (whose per capita plement scal policies to reduce economic and social inequali- income is between  and  per day) accounts for almost  ties. motion of a modern artisanal agri-food sector and/or of a verita- ganisations at the regional and subregional levels. putting pressure on the prices of cereals and oilseed and protein Nevertheless. countries in the West. Now the economic and nancial crisis aecting countries production. especially re ional mar eæs An improved macroeconomic framewor However. The World Bank estimates that Africa’s market for food proactive policies. compared ranked as the second region in the world in terms of economic to  billion today. Indeed. fruits. Promisin mar eæs. The food mar eæ in Africa and labour productivity to be envisaged in the short term. the nancial landscape in Africa The increase in global demand is linked to population growth. international markets for agricultural were  years ago. and increasing amounts of processed and standardised prod- Eectively encouraging the distribution of technologies across ucts. billion by . above all. 4. Its nancial resources bear no resemblance to what they Since the mid-s. Africa now has the means to achieve its goals. and many countries have sound public nanc- products have entered a new phase. the major opportunity for transforming Africa’s ag- ricultural sector lies. State income accounted for  of Af- (higher consumption of animal protein linked to rising incomes. After  years of a down. Foreign direct investment has certainly increased. are in regional mar. In addition. to agricultural products being used for new purposes (especial. growth. expecæed æo represenæ more æhan institutes. and the scope of - those that can be controlled the most directly. National income has more than tri- ly energy) and. has changed. Structural growth in demand.plementation of technologies now available as well as the use of of the continent’s population. development institutes and agricultural producer or. This kets. dairy products. Prospects for the continent’s population growth and urban. nancing needed for an agricultural revolution on the other. meat and sh). rica’s sources of nancing by the end of the s. compels African countries and regional communities to promote isation will continue to alter demand for food on local. public authorities have become accustomed to crops). es. the pattern has now changed. seeking external assistance at the expense of making more sig- its on agricultural productivity (particularly in Asia).000 billion entrants to the labour market. combined with possible lim. with their debt under control. This dynamic can mechanisms and the development of networks linking research accelerate the development of food subsectors through the pro. national greater solidarity among sectors and among countries and to im- and regional markets. sistance. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 59 . The current and future changes in demand for food open up will æriple by 2030. without a doubt. particularly in Asia pled in less than  years. leads most analysts to think that global food prices in the North has led to considerable uncertainty surrounding as- will remain high but more volatile.

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Economic and budget stability allows countries to put agriculture back in its rightful place within national budgets. etc. Growth in demand and its diver sica. Re- gional market integration and controlling the international inte- gration of African economies are two other conditions for nding the way back to sovereignty. SECTION 4 Guidelines and tools for action Feeding . and meeting the needs of consumers. protecting natural resources. billion people by  and  billion by  is the Challenges and courses of action challenge that Africa intends to meet. This transformation must assist in providing solutions to Africa’s challenges: creat- ing jobs. oer a new opportunity for African agricultural producers page 68 and subsectors. This market potential is a veritable economic tool for transforming the agricultural sector. Africa must reinvest heavily in ag- riculture. Tools for action tion. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 61 . Success requires a vision page 63 shared among the dierent stakeholders in agricultural develop- ment and food security. But to meet this challenge and to avoid dependence on inter- national markets for its food.

 in  to . fertilizer. Women play a ey role in African a riculæure and in iæs fuæure “Women’s formal and informal work plays a crucial role in the economic development of Sub-Saharan African countries.” Extract from Beaujeau R. credit and education. their access to land is limited (according to FAO. Not only are they discriminated against in the labor market. has the highest num- ber of working women although that number has declined in the last  years. of women of active working age were em- ployed. Sub-Saharan Africa. and of the  of women employed in the agricultur- al sector. (…). ©Issala-NEPAD (…) Although the issue of employment has returned to the centre of political concerns. only . they possess less than  of land and of lower quality than men) and they are often ignored in rural development projects which tend to target male-dom- inated activities. women having better access to agricultural land. dropping from . ).. et al. the issue of gender must be part and parcel of these policies (…). ) (…). 62 . women are the backbone of African rural agriculture and the guardians of the continent’s food security. À savoir no. ). women participating more in the decision-making process and better salaried job oppor- tunities. (…). In . AFD. in  (ILO.  were subsistence farmers. . “Transition démographique et emploi en Afrique subsaharienne”.. It is estimated that they produce  of food resources (ILO. after East Asia. This means improved produc- tion techniques. This high level of participation by African women in the labor market comes with challenging working conditions. With more than  of women working in the agricultural sector (ILO.

This segmentation is reected in producers and farmers with appropriate nancial services (credit the need for diverse products depending on the degree of prod- and insurance) to enable family farms. inter alia by are not always in the best position to supply them. agriculture in Africa must often meet Securing access to land and land transfers is also a shared several major challenges. shing and forestry value chains. and mosæ dynamic desæinaæion challenge with numerous implications for encouraging invest.) and lifestyle and age (rise in popularity of fast food production and revenue. demand is highly segmented according to income level. naæural resources depends on Finally. working-class neighbour. integrating women and reducing social inequal. It must do this by helping to create jobs courses. training must be more comprehensive. also requires support for investment. are faster and easier to use. exploit such opportunities. Meeting this challenge means investing in training. farmers the above. to improve the way in which markets operate. The latter requires in. including small farms. the ever increasing number of multi-active young people in rural tential to achieve food security. while of adapting to climate change. techniques Promoæin diversificaæion based on hi h qualiæy 2. To be fully effecæive and to combat erosion by rain and wind. While promoting the sharing of cli. markets are likely to be highly competitive and African farmers ond. ent categories of users of natural resources are being implement. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 63 . Current training is too often focused on the widespread network of traditional and industrial processing businesses. In real. efforæs musæ be eared æo family igate climate and market risks. while preserving natural resources and the environment. which prioritises an agricultural development susæainable. dle class. often requiring at least one processing The training of future generations of farmers is a major work in stage between the eld and the shopping basket. etc. agriculture. With source their supplies locally. The sector will need to manage increasing uncertainty. seeds) and agro-environmental techniques to manage soil fertility levels and to enhance productivity (organic manuring. in terms of taste. these local procedures and monitoring. creasingly. Guidelines for achieving this goal are emerging: promoting the and anticipating the practice changes required is therefore prob- controlled use of inputs (fertilisers. capital cities. These should not focus only on the farming profession. livestock rearing. there are numerous challenges to meet in achieving (rural. regulation ed and should be encouraged. in a more susæainable manner. area However. reducing its dependence on the areas. are unprecedented. must be sustained by more comprehensive responses in terms Urban consumers need and will continue to need products that of government policies. improved lematic. pesticide products. Producing for markets with higher value-added means oering ment and intensication strategies. but also on all professions relating to the dierent links in the ities. these lucrative invest in modernising and intensifying their practices. The rst is undoubtedly reducing risks to agricultural hoods. the most sensitive challenge ahead is undoubtedly that Producin more. and sec. to uct processing and packaging. the extent of climate change and its impact on agriculture in Africa remain dicult to assess. in urban areas in particular. for a riculæural producers and resolution initiatives involving local communities and dier. Developing a progress.). Local mar eæs are æhe main combating price volatility. it is important The markets opened up by the emergence of an African mid- to promote agricultural practices and nancial instruments to mit. Many conict prevention more standardised products. which implies rst providing agricultural restaurants and supermarkets). combining sound 1. processed producæs creased labour. compliance with health and environmental standards. Finally. secondary towns. etc. proæecæin æhe conæinenæ’s for young people. in. However. inæensificaæion model based on modernising family farms. etc. In order to 3. which use of one technique or on a specic technical package. Nonetheless. shelf-life and. Developin a riculæure while international market and contributing to global economic growth basic training with a wide range of vocational technical training and regional integration. susæainable inæensificaæion absorbin a rowin labour force mate resilient practices makes sense. ity.Challenges and courses of action Agriculture in Africa must accelerate growth by exploiting its po.

64 . are all strat- egies that can provide security for value chain agricultural pro- ducers and agents. However. Nonetheless. This is one of the keys to ensuring that the signing of contracts will not harm agricultural producers if they remain fragmented. the increase and the segmen- tation of demand requires ecient value chains. Supporting. poultry. labelling. young chickens). African farmers nd it dicult to compete with imported products because of the high prices or low quality of inputs (for example. Promoting contracts between stakeholders. with var- ious types of institutions all responding to domestic. etc. producers need to organise themselves collec- tively to gain inuence in the subsector and to defend their inter- ests when competing with other. could be more complicat- ed for agricultural institutions and administrations whose role is to provide support for agricultural development. marketing. processed dairy products. often better structured operators. etc. and to improve the distribution of value-add- ed. and encourage them to target and boost their production in order to better respond to demand. Promoæin efficienæ and more equiæable value chains Responding to the diversication. This is therefore also a challenge in terms of access to food. milk. Improving subsector eciency and reducing trans-action costs will limit consumer prices..).) is a promising avenue. Promoting interprofessional approaches involving various subsec- tor stakeholders in order to better respond to market demand and to the specicities of its dierent segments (quality. etc. supply frequency. For some product groups (for example. degree and type of processing. Several experiments already exist. in terms of both volume and quality. regional and international markets. and protected geographical indications. cohesive interventions and support for dierent links in the value chain will enable production process support to be fully enhanced. Understanding agriculture as a link in the value chain. or the lack of adequate subsector organisation. especially for the poorest. packaging. including support for links other than production. some- times protecting and constantly structuring these subsectors to enable them to meet the challenge of competitiveness is crucial.

af. plementation of regional tax policies. LDC or-LDC. and customs duties rarely cluded in these approaches. but also to is another tool that can be used to meet this challenge. to increase productivity and to safeguard their sources fact that some countries are members of several regional groups of income. smallhold. the willingness of states to provide the best trained professionals inæe raæion. æhe priority: social insurance. obstacles. therefore also a key way of ensuring protection against interna. help to fund REC institutions (except in West Africa). the path to more integrated regional markets has its producers ten forced to decapitalise their assets to weather the storm. at the expense of regional integration. moving towards more coherent trade policies at borders so that ied and complementary. Mar eæ re ulaæion. When there is a crisis. complicates the issue when establishing a common border poli. People are more exposed tional competition and price volatility in international markets.Ma in farms and a riculæural sysæems more resilienæ are integrated is evidence of this. A low level of inter-state solidarity limits the im- cover their education. The regionalisation of markets. 5. There are many challenges to overcome. prices. The unstable livelihoods of the poorest producers ex. Increasing occurrences of abnormal or unusual weather tural adjustment period and local governments are not always conditions attributed to the eects of climate change. However. is one of the most eective means æar eæed social safeæy neæs food prices. etc. Buæ producæion musæ ing the Horn of Africa and the Sahel strip. ter which they nd themselves even more vulnerable to other National governments have often been weakened by the struc- shocks. pests. Input subsidy coupons for small producers or cash transfers Funding regional policies is a sensitive issue as REC resources facilitating accumulation processes and enabling households to are often limited. Developin re ional mar eæs and conærollin Admittedly. and tools to reduce and manage risks regional institutions remain fragile. etc). the interests of countries within regional economic to these crises is critical in the short term in order to reduce their communities are sometimes at odds with one another (the size be driven by value chains impact on food security and. ing specic tools towards vulnerable households as a matter of Although they have become stronger since the early s. ity to carry out assignments entrusted to them and to respond to naæural drivin force of re ional from the local level to that of the Regional economic communities. exacerbate risks for populations. political expectations. national self-suciency. in the medium to long term. The of stabilising prices and securing domestic market supply. and the way in which regional markets the voices of African countries may be more audible in interna- AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 65 .). It is most exposed rural populations include pastoralists. but they do not have a WTO trade negotiation mandate. falling agricultural prices or rising with their smooth integration. 4. is a ey challen e to work at the regional level. Greater regional integration would enable African agricultural sectors to fully exploit opportu. in arid and semi-arid areas. National agricultural policies still too often pri- market instability. Developing resilience In addition. ooding. Most of them lack the capac- (natural disasters. etc. they are of. they entail target. 6. landlocked or able agricultural and rural households to secure their production non-landlocked. along or collective (drought. enhances æhe resilience of poor er farmers and female farm owners. along with strong enough. health and nutritional requirements are in. oritise national challenges and the search for ways of achieving bility is the cause of the serious food and nutritional crises aect.). Discussions are developing on the links to be built be. these regional institutions generally benet from for æhe fuæure inæernaæional inæe raæion a transfer of sovereignty on trade issues. The combinaæion of This challenge encompasses several agricultural. this. This vulnera. infectious diseases among livestock. diversified food demand tween agricultural policy and social protection policy to achieve cy between RECs and the rest of the world. More generally. This issue is linked to funding. agro-environmental zones and types of specialisation based on a riculæural policies and pose them to risks that are either individual (family “accidents”) comparative advantages. of the national economy and market. The or anised æo meeæ increasin ly systems. with or without extractive resources. This is an important aspect in Africa’s economies and individual agricultural sectors are var. to en. Promoting food security reserves. food and so. nities in regional markets by mobilising the complementarities of cial factors.

tional trade negotiations and so that their interests can be better defended. Desi nin and implemenæin særucæural policies and insærumenæs Although short-term results can be obtained through tempo- rary action. with a high degree of coherence. the legal context of relations within the value chain. certain issues need to be better addressed within international trade reg- ulations. The same applies to food challeng- es. as demonstrated by national response plans to the  food crisis. etc. resources allocated to agriculture remain well below what is needed to ensure a true 66 . infrastructure. geographic and segmented projects cannot take the place of policies. Addressing agricultural and food challenges requires policies in numerous areas – agriculture. environ- ment. trade in inputs. structural transformation of the agricultural sec- tor in Africa will be the result of interventions that are structured over time and veritable national and regional policies. the issue of price sta- bility. must be based on clear choices and guidelines. The addition of temporary. Despite the political will demonstrated. social protection. and standards. –. which must be driven by the gov- ernment as a whole. Africa must also defend its support for agriculture. the livelihoods of rural populations. The revival of the agricultural sector calls for the mobilisation of the authorities at the highest level. which are developed in the nal section of the document. etc. For a successful revival of agriculture in Africa. as it cannot be the result of one single agricultural policy. such as the right to food sovereignty in countries and regions. and the de- velopment of government interventions in markets. These pol- icies. trade. as well as the possibility of deploying protection mech- anisms and tools to manage instability and rapid response mech- anisms for unfair trade practices in international markets. especially to protect its food security. etc. Fostering investment in agriculture means attaching greater im- portance to the economic environment that will provide security for agricultural producers and other agents in the agrifood value chains. This encompasses credit policies.

The CAADP has provided a and national institutions. Not all countries are in the same sit. Sæaæes and RECs musæ gional economic communities.green revolution. Major challenges exist for governance at multiple levels: in terms of the agricultural sector itself. The second level entails eorts by donors to respect æo æhe hearæ of developmenæ the decisions and priorities dened by countries and subregions and to gradually align aid practices with these. African states and RECs must enhance their leadership and position themselves at the centre of the coordination of external support. It is not development assistance that will be able to supplement insucient investment from states and re. inclusive growth and social cohesion. The inæernaæional communiæy governance and trade-os. policies and processes uation. First. This requires eorts at two levels. a riculæural developmenæ gets. at the level of states and RECs to develop eective coordination coordinaæion framewor æhaæ practices for locally selected policies (alignment). musæ avoid rollin ouæ mulæiple Reformin developmenæ aid aimed aæ faciliæaæin æhe iniæiaæives æhaæ disrupæ local særucæural reform process a endas Aid agencies are fully aware of their responsibilities but are still struggling to change their practices. These will op- erate with greater legitimacy if they are transparent and involve reæurns African overnmenæs socioprofessional stakeholders very closely in the decision-mak- ing process. but it can never replace the responsibilities of regional 9. policies the challenge is to rebuild ecient and sustainable institutions and to implement long-lasting tools. Coordination among donors may help to improve aid management by bene- ciaries. given the challenges relating to social integration. AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 67 . in terms of intersectoral 8. More specically. but the interdependences between countries must drive those that are better equipped to reect on the eorts of solidar- ity needed for regions to live in peace and security and to control internal migration ows. exercise ærue leadership of ploiting extractive resources should help to refocus discussions on the importance of agricultural spending in government bud. The stabilisation of public nances and the increase in public nancial resources generated by ex. and in terms of the articulation be- tween national and regional policies. 7.

and knowledge management. unless it succeeds in drastically reducing the poverty level un. contributing to ecient. nomic communities must be revisited. and After  years of existence. invent an agricultural growth model that and addresses concerns about the employment of young people simultaneously responds – or helps to respond – to its dierent and the integration of women. port and communication. reduction of inequalities. organisations and civil society. sustainable change in the agri- ic communities and the African Union are currently engaged is cultural sector to meet the region’s challenges requires massive one of the main assets that the region’s countries and stakehold. divergent interests are being expressed. risk management. ii) it has social foundations curity. ment. of these diculties. time to regroup. to conrm commitments made in Maputo and to move on to the next stage. billion and then  billion Africans in  and  ing forms of agriculture based on entrepreneurship (if suciently respectively is a challenge that Africa is capable of meeting. Whaæ role musæ overnmenæs play? A clearly aræiculaæed objecæive and a shared vision The public sector must drive the political ambition and develop policies structured around three main intervention areas: The objective for the coming decades is to “ensure food secu. the ised. Tools for action Feeding . due to the dermining its production capacity and its food and nutritional se. In light suring its food security and sovereignty. This choice ty. nomic. energy and market infrastructure. deployment of ecient services (support and advice. government investment in the sector and in food security – that ers possess. Without reinventing agricultural policies guided by widespread The regional integration process in which the regional econom. demography. cannot be met and regulated by the private sector alone. gender). revolution by integrating and modernising its network of farms quired. process by and for Africans and by and for regional products. These challenges source management and improving the region’s capacity for en. Africa will be unable to achieve food security with family-based capital. – The use of economic policy instruments with the capacity to This objective is part of an overarching vision involving choices guide strategies for economic producers and stakeholders. Agriculture is facing eco- cultural performance. etc. while reducing inequalities and vulnerability and protecting ple). for agricultural growth and development models. environment corresponds to the expectations of the continent’s agricultural (protection of natural resources and biodiversity). helping to create wealth and jobs. The role and method of intervention by states and regional eco- Regional cooperation and integration are tools for boosting agri. tainable development and territorial development. settlement regulation) and food. shared natural re. This will be an important long-term management on the other. land (develop. governments) must achieve progress made on the occasion of the African Union’s Year for trade-os between the general interest on the one hand. environmental and human capital”. labour and relationships (family farms). and inecient interventionism. Indeed. mainly by investment in trans- rity for a population that is increasing and becoming more urban. It must. Africa is committing to undertake its agricultural much food is needed and the amount of agricultural growth re. It is not simply a matter of how management). relating to agriculture. in  the CAADP can assess democratic institutions (parliaments. productivity growth potential of farms. employment. in rural areas in particu. Food Security and Nutrition. social and environmental challenges. iii) it has foundations based on sus- challenges. Without exclud. for exam- lar. Promoting agriculture and agricultural trade is one is if Africa really has the ambition and the will to end hunger and of the tools for building and deepening the regional integration dependence and feed its population with dignity. and Agriculture. This mainly involves credit policies. But controlled in terms of their impact on land and natural resource there is more to this challenge. therefore. This choice is threefold: i) it has economic foundations. investment in research. society (pover. and 68 . – The production of public goods.

the CAADP must draw on several funda- mental principles and guidelines: – Giving much more importance to farming as a protable activi- ty. – Ensuring change in agriculture according to Africa’s vision must start from within the continent. etc. and through greater mobilisation of nation- al resources. better partnerships with farmers. – rearm African leadership and facilitate its expression through improved articulation with organisations across the continent. NEPAD action should go in three main directions in order to: – capitalise on results obtained so far and foster the creation of an economic environment conducive to sustainable agricultur- al intensication. for example). – coordinate talks on the future of the agricultural sector. market regulation. its men and women. requires the mobilisation of the continent’s resources. with a particular fo- AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 69 . and legislation in the area of cooperatives or interprofessional organisations. A majority of countries will have investment programmes by . – Regulations in areas as varied as rules governing access to and use of resources (land and forest codes. Særon principles for acæion To contribute more decisively to sustainable change in the Af- rican agricultural sector. Countries and stakeholders must now be assisted in eective- ly honouring the commitments made. clarify scenarios. the for- mulation and monitoring of compliance with sanitary and phy- tosanitary standards. and raising the prole of the farming profession. Whaæ are æhe prospecæs for æhe CAADP process? The momentum sparked by NEPAD within the CAADP frame- work enabled all member states and professionals to be involved in an unprecedented eort to streamline agricultural policies. predict trends and promote a vision for the sector and its role in solving the general problem of development in Africa. farmers’ organisations and the private sector. etc.

ve intervention areas are outlined: – Increasing agricultural production and productivity. In straightforward terms: “Africans must stop begging and importing food: arable land must not be sold for oil at the expense of agriculture. cus on small farms. the promotion of agroecology and agroforestry). transhumant pastoralists and agrifood businesses must be included in discussions affect- ing the agricultural sector. – Encouraging subsidiarity and adapting it to the political maturity of the various levels of CAADP implementation.” (CAADP Impact Survey) Five prioriæy inæervenæion areas To achieve the general objective of transforming agriculture. – Promoting the systematic preference for sustainable agricultural systems from a socio-economic perspective (use of labour) and also from an environmental perspective (limited use of high-car- bon inputs. policies that benefit urban consumers at the expense of rural agricultural producers must be stopped. 70 . – Fostering trans-sectoral dialogue and encouraging partner- ships to ensure the appropriation and alignment of the agricul- tural development strategy. These principles coincide with the results of a survey among social stakeholders consulted on the CAADP. Africa must stop paying lip service to agricultural investment. the unsustainable use of land and the sale of land must be stopped. – Arming Africa’s interests in international negotiations and in- uencing standards and rules of the game by supporting the new international balance of power. which make up the majority of Africa’s farms and have the greatest development potential. the pub- lic sector must stop marginalising other stakeholders. the CAADP must be appropriated by all sectors. but also the con- solidation of nancial resources. – Basing economic change on a political economy approach. producers. – Improving the functioning of national and regional agricultur- al markets. institutions and technical ca- pacity for agriculture. and Africans should stop depending exclusively on donors to invest in agriculture.

It entails prioritising land tenure systems that egy so that it becomes a food sovereignty and regional prefer. ing research eorts on local products. al producers. making large-scale invest- make optimal use of land and labour on small surface areas. research of producers oering the greatest potential for productivity gains support. the production of public goods (transport in. an increase in agricultural commodity exchanges and the dissemination of information through modern 2. The management of natural resources is key to protecting Finally. but with greater attention paid to the issues of women’s ing consumers and agri-processors being aected by unjustied access to productive resources. and. This means fostering access It also entails facilitating contractual relationships between rms to inputs – including the use of “smart” subsidy policies –. This involves preventing the eviction provision of public goods (rural infrastructure. national interests.– Fostering entrepreneurship and investment in agrifood value This implies more exibility in regional tari policy. but also Support will be oered as a matter of priority to family farms that when economies of scale are justied. information sharing. absence of markets such as credit. Fostering access to food and good nutrition will be the result frastructure. encour. concentrat- chains. the goal is to improve the African food security strat. Africa’s interests are defended in international negotiations to im- prove access to developed and emerging countries. safety nets. It entails better use of agricul. risks (economic and productive) and the establishment of social tions caused by international markets. State intervention should focus on the assist in alleviating poverty. and investment in their farms. The issue of nutrition is not simply about agricultural cient in the use of available production resources and prevent. the management of and certain regulations of markets in particular regarding distor. insurance). specic actions to reduce risks. and between employers and agricultural work- aging the adoption of innovations and securing access to resourc. It involves being more ef. The ments in upstream and downstream sectors. and in the medium will also entail being better organised collectively to ensure that term must seek other sources of income. it can be a strong contributor. information on prices) of better living conditions among producers. extension and professional training). access to energy and water. family farms especially. policy. It due to a lack of resources – especially land –. sustain value-added on the continent and ensure the protection ence strategy. tural land by intensifying production. territorial balances. The best distribution of value-added within value chains must es for women. ers. Lastly. in the customary framework or those formalised by modern law. price variability. limits rural exodus and lowers production access to credit. Promoting investment assumes better income forecasting through sustainable intensication of agriculture that creates sur. Improving the functioning of markets is based on eliminating communication channels should be encouraged.. in particular. use of genetic resources that defend the interests of agricultur- – Improving the management of natural resources. irrigation. It is also vital to secure costs while increasing individual incomes and curtailing the ex. Increasing agricultural production can only be achieved 3. therefore. 4. whether those acquired with- pansion of land under cultivation. as already mentioned. Investment in de- increase in public spending on agriculture (at least at the same velopment corridors is an important tool that should not penalise rate as GDP growth) is a priority. and regulations on the – Fostering access to food and improved nutrition. market failures (monopoly situations. and within rms. 1. of the natural capital as well as the rights of local and national AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 71 . as well as better pluses for urban areas. 5. Social policies will be especially sensitive to very small farmers Integrating global markets requires a gradual approach based who have no prospects of becoming integrated into the market on an “infant industry” strategy for Africa’s agricultural sector. the rights to factors of production.

It contributed signicantly to placing African challenges at the core of the agendas of member states and regional eco- nomic communities. NEPAD. its programmes modied according to results and lessons learned. The agricultural programme is cen- tred specically around three components: i) economic policies. and supplemented by new guidelines. as it involves the reform of several policies. (See above) Conclusion The main lesson learned from consultations with African stake- holders in the CAADP process is the following: “the AU  de- cision on the CAADP remains one of the rmest decisions and expressions of Africa’s commitment to agriculture and agricul- ture-driven development.” AU-NEPAD aims to ensure the coherence of eorts across the continent through CAADP. and iii) nancing. This also applies to the way in which forestry and shery resources should be handled. It is a long process. The relevance of methods of natural resource use must be ensured by peer assessment and approved by local communities. launched the process to enable development challenges to be reappropriated by Africans them- selves. 72 . coherence eorts and behavioural changes in the rules of the game. not only states. But today. governance reforms. It is also important to encourage a preference for sustainable agricultural systems that are “climate smart”. institutions and leadership. The impact can- not be measured in the very short term with the usual quantita- tive indicators. as the issues are constant- ly changing. of coordination and of alignment. The importance of this progress is not fully appreciated. communities. through the CAADP. the CAADP process could be continuously enhanced. as it forms the basis of the initiatives of the dierent stakeholders. Conse- quently. ii) knowledge and experience shar- ing. But it is the foundation on which the eciency and eectiveness of agricultural development and food security pol- icies in the coming years will be built. but also RECs and agri- cultural producer organisations see this process and the vision it carries as their common good.

AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA 73 .

74 .

ACRONYMS ACP: African. Water MDG: Millennium Development Goals and Natural Resources MIP: Minimum Integration Programme AIDS: Human immunodeciency virus infection (HIV) NAIP: National Agricultural Investment Plan AU: African Union NEPAD: New Partnership for Africa’s Development AUC: African Union Commission NPCA: NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency CAADP: Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development ODA: Ocial Development Assistance Programme OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and CEN-SAD: Community of Sahel-Saharan States Development CIRAD: Agricultural Research for International Development PAFO: Panafrican Farmers’ Organization Centre PROPAC: Subregional Platforms for Smallholder Farmer COMESA: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Organisations in Central Africa DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo RAIP: Regional Agricultural Investment Plan EAC: East African Community REC: Regional Economic Community EC: European Commission ReSAKSS: Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support ECCAS: Economic Community of Central African States System ECOWAP: ECOWAS Regional Agricultural Policy ROPPA: Network of Peasant Organizations and Producers in ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States West Africa EEAF: East African Farmers Federation SACAU: Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions EPA: Economic Partnership Agreements EU: European Union SADC: Southern African Development Community FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations SSA: Sub-Saharan Africa GAEZ: Global Agro-ecological Zoning UMA: Arab Maghreb Union GAFSP: Global Agriculture and Food Security Programme UMAGRI: Maghreb Farmers’ Union GDP: Gross Domestic Product UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme GHI: Global Hunger Index WAEMU: West African Economic and Monetary Union ICT: Information and Communication Technologies WHO: World Health Organization IFPRI: International Food Policy Research Institute WTO: World Trade Organization IGAD: Intergovernmental Authority on Development A G R IC U T L R E I N A F R IC A 75 . Caribbean and Pacic Group IMF: International Monetary Fund AGOA: African Growth and Opportunity Act LDC: Least Developed Countries AGTER: Association to Improve the Governance of Land.