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tbrbsUwfmpt!ufrojlvsj!vojwfstjufuj!

!
! kompiuteruli sistemebis awyoba, modernizeba da servisi.
! saxelmZRvanelo. – Tbilisi: ,,teqnikuri universiteti~.
! 2009w. – 132 gv.

b/!cfobTwjmj!
naSromSi warmodgenilia personaluri kompiuteris
mowyobilobebi, maTi standartebi, maxasiaTeblebi, muSa-
obis principebi. ganxilulia kompiuteris sxvadasxva kom-
ponentebis konfigurirebis da CarTvis, kompiuteruli
sistemebis awyobis, modernizebis da servisis sakiTxebi.
lpnqjvufsvmj!tjtufnfcjt!bxzpcb-! saxelmZRvanelo gankuTvnilia saqarTvelos teqni-
kuri universitetis informatikisa da marTvis sistemebis
npefsoj{fcb!eb!tfswjtj! fakultetis 2201 `kompiuteruli sistemebi da qselebi~
mimarTulebis studentebisa da magistrebisaTvis.

recenzenti
t.m.d. profesori l. imnaiSvili

©sagamomcemlo saxli ,,teqnikuri universiteti~, 2009
ISBN 978-9941-14-274-1

aufrojlvsj!vojwfstjufuj•!

2
Sinaarsi 5.4. Setana-gamotanis portebi . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5.5. korpusis Sasize sistemuri
Sesavali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 platis dayeneba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Tavi I winaswari momzadeba kompiuteris Tavi VI diskuri mowyobilobebis CarTva . . . . 79
awyobisaTvis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.1. personaluri kompiuteris
1.1. kompiuteris ZiriTadi komponentebi . . . 8 standartuli diskuri mowyobilobebi . 79
1.2. komponentebis montaJis Tanmimdevroba . 20 6.2. diskuri mowyobilobebis dayeneba
1.3. Tanamedrove form-faqtorebi . . . . . . . . 21 da konfigurireba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Tavi II kompiuterSi procesoris dayeneba . . . 24 6.3. Sleifebis standartebi . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.1. `boqsirebuli~ da OEM procesorebi . . . 24 Tavi VII adapterebis dayeneba kompiuterSi . . . 101
2.2. sistemur plataze procesoris dayeneba 27 7.1. videoadapteri da monitori . . . . . . . . . 101
Tavi III kompiuteris gagrileba . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7.2. audiokontroleri da akustikuri
3.1. pasiuri da aqtiuri Tboamrineblebi . . . 31 sistema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.2. Termointerfeisi da Termopasta . . . . . . 35 7.3. grafikuli adapteris dayeneba . . . . . . . 105
3.3. procesorze Termopastis datana . . . . . 41 7.4. sxva plata-adapterebis dayeneba . . . . . . 112
3.4. frialas dayeneba da CarTva . . . . . . . . . 43 Tavi VIII kvebis CarTva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Tavi IV operatiuli mexsierebis 8.1. sistemuri platis kvebaSi CarTva . . . . . 114
modulebis dayeneba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 8.2. diskuri mowyobilobebis kvebaSi CarTva 118
4.1. operatiuli mexsierebis modulebis Tavi IX periferiuli mowyobilobebis
standartebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 SeerTeba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.2. sistemur plataze operatiuli 9.1. gasarTebi periferiuli
mexsierebis modulebis dayeneba . . . . . . 54 mowyobilobebis SeerTebisTvis . . . . . . 121
Tavi V kompiuterSi sistemuri platis 9.2. klaviaturis da mausis SeerTeba . . . . . 123
dayeneba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9.3. sxva mowyobilobebis SeerTeba . . . . . . . 127
5.1. sistemuri platebis standartebi . . . . . 58 Tavi X kompiuteris CarTvis dros xSirad
5.2. sistemuri platis mikrosqemaTa warmoqmnili problemebi da maTi
krebuli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 gadaWris gzebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.3. sistemuri platis BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 literatura . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

3 4
Sesavali uteris awyobisas mowyobilobebis da maTi maxa-
siaTeblebis SerCeva xdeba im amocanebidan gamom-
gamoTvliTi teqnikis ganviTarebasTan erTad dinare, romelic personalurma kompiuterma muSa-
gamoCnda axali, wina Taobebis eleqtronul-gamom- obis procesSi unda Seasrulos. aqedan gamom-
Tvlel manqanebTan (egm) SedarebiT bevrad ufro dinare, personaluri kompiuteris awyoba xdeba
mZlavri da mcire zomis egm-ebi, romelTac per- individualurad.
sonaluri kompiuterebi ewodaT. • Tanamedrove personalur kompiuterSi realize-
saxelmZRvaneloSi ganxilulia personaluri bulia `urTierTSeTavsebadobis principi qvemodan
kompiuteris aparatura, misi struqtura da mowyo- zemoT~, rac saSualebas iZleva kompiuterSi
bilobebi (sistemuri plata, procesori, mexsiereba, SedarebiT moZvelebuli mowyobilobebis nacvlad
kvebis bloki, diskuri mowyobilobebi, video, audio, dayenebuli iqnas ufro Tanamedrove da maRali
qseluri kontrolerebi da a.S). SesaZleblobebis mqone igive daniSnulebis mow-
warmodgenili sakiTxebis Seswavlis Semdeg yobilobebi. specialistma unda SeZlos kompiute-
studenti SeZlebs iseTi operaciebis Sesrulebas, ris gadawyoba axali moTxovnebis Sesabamisad.
rogorebicaa: • dResdReobiT kompiuteruli teqnika gamoiyeneba
• mikrosqemebis, platebis, kvebis blokis, diskuri mecnierebisa da teqnikis yvela sferoSi, kavSir-
mowyobilobebis dayeneba; gabmulobaSi, audio da videoteqnikaSi, televi-
• personaluri kompiuteris awyoba, konfigurireba ziaSi da a.S. specialistma unda SeZlos saWiro
da sarealizaciod momzadeba; kontrolerebis dayeneba kompiuterSi da maTTan
• personaluri kompiuteris gadawyoba Tanamedrove Sesabamisi periferiuli mowyobilobebis dakavSi-
moTxovnebidan da momxmareblis winaSe dasmuli reba.
teqnikuri amocanidan gamomdinare; studentebi agreTve gaecnobian uaxles ten-
• personalur kompiuterTan periferiuli mowyobi- denciebs kompiuteris aparaturuli uzrunvelyofis
lobebis dakavSireba. ganviTarebis sferoSi, rac maT saSualebas miscems
warmodgenili sakiTxebis maRal doneze codna momavalSi swrafad da advilad aiTvison uaxlesi
gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria Semdegi faqtorebis gamo: kompiuteruli teqnologiebi.
• aparaturuli TvalsazrisiT personaluri kompi-
uteri warmoadgens ara erTian mowyobilobas,
aramed calkeuli komponentebis krebuls. kompi-

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Tavi I • vinCesteri;
winaswari momzadeba kompiuteris • CD/DVD damgrovebeli;
awyobisaTvis • klaviatura da mausi;
• videoadapteri da monitori;
kompiuteris awyobis dawyebamde samuSao adgi-
• audiokontroleri da akustikuri sistema;
li da aucilebeli instrumentebi unda movamzadoT.
• frialebi da radiatorebi;
samuSao adgilad SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnas sawe-
• kabelebi;
ri magida, romelzedac sakmarisi adgilia imisaTvis,
raTa kompiuteris korpusi, masSi dasayenebeli mow- • damatebiTi komponentebi (xraxnebi, samagri ele-
yobilobebi da detalebi ganvaTavsoT. damatebiT mentebi);
dagvWirdeba:
• saxraxnisi jvaredini da Cveulebrivi boloTi
(umjobesia saxraxnisebis nakrebi viqonioT, raTa 1.1. kompiuteris ZiriTadi komponentebi
SevZloT Sesabamisi saxraxnisis SerCeva konkre-
tuli xraxnebisa Tu SurupebisTvis); procesori
procesori (nax. 1.1), anu centraluri proce-
• qila SurupebisTvis, xraxnebisaTvis da sxva sa-
sori (Central Processor Unit - CPU) sistemur plataze
magri elementebisaTvis;
yendeba da kompiuteris `birTvs~ warmoadgens. pro-
• pinceti;
cesori ZiriTad gamomTvlel operaciebs asrulebs
• mcire zomis kardoni deda platis mosaTavseb- kompiuterSi.
lad.
kompiuteris awyoba, rogorc wesi, xdeba qve-
moT CamoTvlili komponentebis safuZvelze:
• korpusi kvebis blokiT;
• sistemuri plata;
• procesori TboamrinebliT;
• operatiuli mexsiereba;
• drekad diskebze damgrovebeli;
nax. 1.1. procesori

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sistemuri plata
sistemuri plata (nax. 1.2.) kompiuteris Ziri-
Tad elements warmoadgens, romelzedac yendeba da
romelsac urTdeba kompiuteris yvela komponenti.

nax. 1.3. ZiriTadi operatiuli mexsierebis modulebi

gare mexsiereba (damgroveblebi)
personaluri kompiuteris standartul kon-
figuracias Semdegi tipis damgroveblebi miekuT-
vneba:
nax. 1.2. sistemuri plata • drekadi diskuri mowyobiloba _ FDD (Floppy Disk
Drive);
operatiuli mexsiereba
sistemis mexsierebas xSirad uwodeben ope-
• vinCesteri, anu xisti diskuri mowyobiloba _
HDD (Hard Disk Drive);
ratiul mexsierebas, an mexsierebas nebismieri miR-
weviT (Random Access Memory - RAM). operatiul mex- • kompaqt-diskuri mowyobilobebi _ CDD (Compact-
siereba kvebaze damokidebuli mexsierebaa, romelSic Disk Drives);
is programebi da monacemebi iwereba, romlebic
procesoris mier muSavdeba. nax. 1.3-ze warmodgenilia
kompiuteris sistemur plataze dayenebuli ZiriTadi
operatiuli mexsierebis modulebi.

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drekadi diskuri mowyobiloba kompaqt-diskuri mowyobiloba
drekadi diskuri mowyobiloba (Floppy Disk Drive kompaqt-diskuri (CD) mowyobiloba (nax. 1.6)
- FDD) gamoyenebaSi martivia, iafia da samuSaod mox- warmoadgens damgrovebels moxsnadi matareblebiT
snad matareblebs _ drekad diskebs iyenebs (nax. 1.4). (diskebiT), romelzedac informaciis Cawera/wakiTxva
optikuri teqnologiis safuZvelze sruldeba. kom-
paqt-diskebs drekad diskebTan SedarebiT bevrad
meti sainformacio tevadoba gaaCniaT.

nax. 1.4. drekadi diskuri mowyobiloba

vinCesteri
vinCesteri (nax. 1.5), anu xisti diskuri mowyo-
biloba (Hard Disk Drive _ HDD) personalur kom-
piuterSi informaciis ZiriTadi matarebelia. vinCes-
teri didi tevadobiT, maRali swrafqmedebiT da sa-
imedobiT gamoirCeva. programebis da monacemebis
nax. 1.6. kompaqt-diskuri mowyobiloba
umetesoba vinCesterSi iwereba.
salteebi
kompiuteris sxvadasxva blokebs, kompiutersa
da periferiul mowyobilobebs Soris monacemebis
gacvla interfeisebis saSualebiT sruldeba.
termini `interfeisi~ aRniSnavs mowyobilobis
sxvadasxva maxasiaTeblebis erTobliobas, romlebic
massa da sxva mowyobilobebs Soris informaciis
nax. 1.5. vinCesteri

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gacvlis organizacias gansazRvraven. aseTi maxasi- kontrolerebi
aTeblebia: eleqtruli da droiTi parametrebi, interfeisebis SeuTavseblobis SemTxvevaSi
mmarTveli signalebis krebuli, monacemTa gacvlis (mag. sistemuri saltis da vinCesteris interfeisebi),
protokolebi, SeerTebis konstruqciuli Tavisebure- kontrolerebi gamoiyeneba.
bebi da a. S.
interfeisiT monacemTa gacvla signalebis sa- videokontroleri
SualebiT xorcieldeba. signalebis gadacema xdeba videokontroleri (nax. 1.8) aformirebs gamosa-
eleqtruli (an optikuri) xazebiT, romelTac inter- xulebas da marTavs informaciis monitorze gamo-
feisis xazebi ewodebaT. xazebis erTobliobas, rom- saxvis process.
lebic dajgufebulni arian funqcionaluri daniS-
nulebis mixedviT, interfeisis salte ewodeba.

portebi
porti saltis iseT tips warmoadgens, romlis
saSualebiTac kompiuters uSualod ukavSirdeba pe-
riferiuli mowyobiloba. nax. 1.7-ze warmodgenilia
sistemur plataze damontaJebuli portebi.

PS2 Mouse EPP/ECP RJ-45 LAN
Connector Parallel Port Connector

nax. 1.8. videokontroleri

audiokontroleri
audiokontroleri (nax. 1.9) axdens `rTuli~
xmebis generirebas. mas audiosistemis sxvadasxva
PS2 Keyboard COM 1 Port VGA USB Connectors Audio
Connectors komponentebi ukavSirdeba.
Connector Connector

nax. 1.7. portebi

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qseluri kontroleri
qseluri kontroleris (NIC – Network Interface
Card) (nax. 1.11) saSualebiT kompiuteri kompiuterul
qsels ukavSirdeba.

nax. 1.9. audiokontroleri

modemi
modemis (nax. 1.10) saSualebiT kompiuteri sate-
lefono xazs ukavSirdeba. umetesad internetSi Car- nax. 1.11. qseluri kontroleri
TvisTvis gamoiyeneba.
videokontroleri, audiokontroleri, modemi
da qseluri kontroleri plata-adapterebs warmoad-
genen, romlebic sistemur plataze yendebian.
arsebobs iseTi sistemuri platebic, romlebsac `Ca-
Senebuli~ kontrolerebi gaaCniaT. am SemTxvevaSi
sistemis Rirebuleba mkveTrad mcirdeba. Tumca unda
gaviTvaliswinoT, rom plata-adapterebis (gansakuT-
rebiT videokontroleris da audiokontroleris)
xarisxobrivi maCveneblebi `CaSenebuli~ kontro-
lerebis analogiur maCveneblebs mkveTrad aRemateba.

nax. 1.10. modemi

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korpusi klaviatura
korpusSi (Case) (nax. 1.12) Tavsdeba sistemuri klaviatura (nax. 1.14) kompiuterSi informaciis
plata, kvebis bloki, diskuri mowyobilobebi da standartuli Semyvani mowyobilobaa. kompiuteruli
plata-adapterebi, romlebic konkretuli periferi- teqnikis ganviTarebis ganmavlobaSi mxolod mcire
uli mowyobilobebis marTvas axorcieleben. cvlilebebi ganicada.

nax. 1.14. klaviatura

`mausi~
`mausi~ (nax. 1.15) ekranze kursoris pozicioni-
rebis ZiriTadi saSualebaa. grafikuli garsebis
nax. 1.12. kompiuteris korpusi
gavrcelebasTan erTad igi kompiuteris standar-
kvebis bloki tuli konfiguraciis ganuyofel nawilad iqca.
kvebis bloki (nax. 1.13) gamoimuSavebs samuSao
Zabvebs, romlebic kompiuteris sxvadasxva komponen-
tebs miewodeba.

nax. 1.15. `mausi~

sxva tipis manipulatorebis gamoSvebis mi-
uxedavad `mausis~ dominirebadi roli ar Secvlila.
umetesad optikuri da optikur-meqanikuri `mausebi~
nax. 1.13. kvebis bloki gamoiyeneba.

17 18
kompiuteris awyoba umjobesia sistemur pla- 1.2. komponentebis montaJis Tanmimdevroba
taze procesoris, frialis da operatiuli mexsi-
erebis modulebis dayenebiT daviwyoT. rasakvir- kompiuteris awyoba SeiZleba pirobiTad ram-
velia, SesaZlebelia jer sistemuri platis kor- denime etapad daiyos:
pusSi damagreba da mxolod amis Semdeg masze pro- • sistemur plataze procesoris, frialis da ope-
cesoris dayeneba, magram am SemTxvevaSi procesorze ratiuli mexsierebis modulebis dayeneba;
frialis dayeneba rTuldeba. Tumca Intel oficialu- • sistemuri platis montaJi;
rad jer sistemuri platis, xolo amis Semdeg pro- • sistemuri platis dayeneba kompiuteris korpusSi;
cesoris, frialis da operatiuli mexsierebis mo- • xisti, drekadi da CD-diskuri damgroveblebis
dulebis dayenebis rekomendacias iZleva. Intel-is dayeneba;
ganmartebiT dayenebis mocemuli Tanmimdevroba sa- • videoplatis da sxva kontrolerebis dayeneba;
Sualebas mogvcems sistemuri platis meqanikuri • kvebis CarTva da kompiuteris vargisianobis sa-
dazianebebi aviciloT Tavidan. erTo Semowmeba.
amrigad, sistemur platas magidaze vaTavsebT. • saboloo daregulireba.
unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom sistemuri platis qveda miuxedavad imisa, rom saubrebi statikuri
mxares bevri wvetiani gamomyvani gaaCnia. amitom sis- eleqtrobis gamo elementebisa da mowyobilobebis
temur platas Tu uSualod magidaze movaTavsebT, mwyobridan gamosvlis Sesaxeb gazviadebulia, mainc
awyobis Semdeg magidaze bevri Rrma nafxaWni dar- sasurvelia kompiuteris awyobis dawyebamde xelebis
Ceba. amitom sistemuri plata umjobesia kardonze sapniT dabana _ es xsnis satatikur muxts. awyobisas
movaTavsoT, romlis saxiTac SesaZlebelia Tavisive yuradReba sxvadasxva komponentebisa da kvebis ga-
yuTis gamoyenebac. es arcTu ise mosaxerxebelia, sarTebis dayenebas unda mieqces: Tu rames aras-
Tumca garantirebulad daicavs magidas nafxaWne- worad SevaerTebT, kompiuteri SeiZleba mwyobridan
bisgan. gamovides, an darRvevebiT imuSaos.

19 20
1.3. Tanamedrove form-faqtorebi lebriv kompiuterebTan SedarebiT magidaze patara
adgils ikaveben, Tumca sakmaod SezRudulni arian
kvebis bloki rogorc wesi, korpusSi ukve da- kompiuteris Semdgomi modernizaciis SesaZleblobis
yenebulia. kvebis blokebis sxvadasxva konstruqci- TvalsazrisiT. Slimline sistemebSi gamoiyeneba LPX
ebi arsebobs, Tumca amJamad yvelaze metad ATX stan- standartis sistemuri platebi.
dartis sistemuri platebisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli ATX standartis dabalprofilur versias NLX
konstruqciebia gavrcelebuli. Zveli, Baby-AT stan- ewodeba. LPX da NLX standartis sistemur platebSi
dartis korpusebi amJamad faqtiurad aRar gamo- CaSenebulia praqtikulad yvela komponenti _ video,
iyeneba da ATX modelebiTaa Canacvlebuli. audio da qseluri kontrolerebi. mcire form-faq-
korpusis, kvebis blokis da sistemuri platis toris zogierT Tanamedrove sistemaSi Flex-AT stan-
zomebs da formebs form-faqtori ewodeba. korpu- dartis sistemuri platebi gamoiyeneba.
sebis yvelaze popularuli form-faqtorebia: Tanamedrove korpusebis umetesoba gaTvaliswi-
• Full Tower (maRali koSki); nebulia ATX standartis sistemuri platebisaTvis,
• Mini-Tower (mini-koSki); romelTac uaxlesi Pentium 4 da AMD procesorebis

• Desktop (samagido); mxardaWera gaaCniaT. korpusebSi, romlebic konstru-
irebulia Baby-AT sistemuri platebisaTvis, ATX
• brtyeli korpusi Low Profile (agreTve ewodeba Slim-
standartis sistemuri platebi ar yendeba.
line);
amrigad, Tu Cven gvinda iseTi korpusis da
korpusis SeZenamde unda davadginoT, Tu ra
kvebis blokis SeZena, romlebic momavalSi sistemis
aparaturuli saSualebebi iqneba dayenebuli kompi-
modernizebas xels ar SeuSlian, iseTi konfigura-
uterSi (korpusis form-faqtoris da kvebis blokis
cia unda SevarCioT, romelic ATX standartis sis-
swori SerCevisaTvis) da sad iqneba kompiuteri daye-
temuri platebis konstruqcias uWers mxars.
nebuli (monitoris, klaviaturis da mausis kabele-
mTlianobaSi axali sistemis formirebis sa-
bis sigrZis swori SerCevisaTvis).
fuZvels ATX standartis korpusi, sistemuri plata
CamoTvlili form-faqtorebidan sasurvelia
moveridoT dabalprofilian korpusebs. dabalprofi- da kvebis bloki warmoadgens. kvebis blokis sim-
Zlavre kompiuteris aparaturis mxardaWerisTvis un-
liani Slimline sistemebi komerciuli kompaniebisa da
da iyos sakmarisi. agreTve unda gaviTvaliswinoT,
organizaciebisTvisaa damuSavebuli, radgan Cveu-

21 22
rom sistemebi, romlebic maRali energomoxmarebiT Tavi II
xasiaTdebian, ATX 12V kvebis blokebis gamoyenebas kompiuterSi procesoris dayeneba
moiTxoven, romelTac damatebiTi, 12 v-iani gasarTi
gaaCniaT. swored am gasarTidan miewodeba Zabva sis- 2.1. `boqsirebuli~ da OEM procesorebi
temur plataze ganTavsebul Zabvis stabilizato-
rebs. sxvadasxva tipis procesorebi, romlebsac Se-
arsebobs specialuri ATX 12V adapterebic (nax. iZleba erTi da igive teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebi gaaC-
1.16), romlebic standartuli ATX kvebis blokis ndeT, gansxvavdebian damatebiTi komponentebis arse-
diskuri mowyobilobis erT-erT kvebis gasarTs bobiT, sagarantio vadiT da a.S.
iyeneben. Tumca mainc umjobesia ATX 12V kvebis blo- arsebobs Intel da AMD procesorebis ori Ziri-
kis gamoyeneba, romelsac Siga eleqtruli wredis Tadi realizacia _ `boqsirebuli~ da OEM proceso-
ukeTesi wyoba gaaCnia da sistemur plataze zustad rebi.
gaTvaliswinebuli +12 v Zabvis miwodebas uzrunvel- ZiriTad gansxvavebas `boqsirebul~ da OEM
yofs. procesorebs Soris maTi kompleqtacia warmoadgens.
`boqsirebuli~ procesorebi lamaz yuTebSi iyideba,
romlebSic procesorebis garda moTavsebulia Tbo-
amrinebeli (radiatori), gamagrilebeli ventilato-
ri (friala), instruqcia procesoris dayenebisTvis,
sertifikati, sagarantio valdebuleba da etiketi
`Intel inside~, an `AMD instead~, romelic yuTis wina
mxaresaa damagrebuli (nax. 2.1).
nax. 1.16. ATX 12V adapteri `boqsirebul~ procesorebs, rogorc wesi, sam-
wliani garantia gaaCniaT, romelsac Tavad firma-
kvebis blokis arCevisas aucileblad unda damamzadebeli gvTavazobs. Tu SeZenis Semdeg sami
gaviTvaliswinoT kompiuterSi dasayenebeli mowyobi- wlis ganmavlobaSi procesoris mikrosqema mwyobri-
lobebis raodenoba da maT mier moxmarebuli jamuri dan gamovida, momxmarebels SeuZlia Intel, an AMD
simZlavre.

23 24
kompaniebs mimarTos, romlebic valdebulni arian raime saxis sxva dokumentacia procesorebs ar ga-
Secvalon procesori. aCniaT. OEM procesorebis partiebis Sesyidva apara-
turis msxvili mwarmoeblebis mier xdeba.
OEM procesorebi uSualod damamzadeblis
(Intel, an AMD) mxridan sagarantio valdebulebiT uz-
runvelyofilni ar arian. sagarantio valdebulebas
Tavis Tavze iRebs Tavad kompania, romelmac proce-
sori SeiZina. sagarantio periodis xangrZlivoba da
misi uzrunvelyofis meTodi dilerzea damokide-
buli, romelic awvdis procesors momxmarebels.
`boqsirebuli~ procesorebi maRalxarisxiani
radiatorebiT da gamagrilebeli frialebiTaa da-
kompleqtebuli. gamagrilebeli sistema, romelic
`boqsirebul~ procesors moyveba, araxelsayreli
temperaturuli pirobebiT gamorCeul garemoSi samu-
Saodaa gaTvaliswinebuli da mZlavr maRalxarisxian
mowyobilobas warmoadgens. iaffasiani gamagrile-
beli sistemis gamoyeneba gamoricxulia Intel da AMD
procesorebisaTvis, romelTac samwliani garantia
nax. 2.1. `boqsirebuli~ procesori Intel Pentium 4 gaaCniaT.
OEM procesorebis realizacia gagrilebis
OEM procesorebis miwodeba didi yuTebiT sistemis gareSe xdeba. dileri Tboamrinebels da
xdeba. TiToeuli yuTi 10 ganyofilebisagan Sedgeba, frialas Tavad gvTavazobs. xSirad dilerebi pro-
xolo TiTo ganyofilebaSi 10 procesoria moTav- cesors gagrilebis sistemiT sistemur plataze aye-
sebuli (sul 100 procesori). Tboamrineblebi, gamag- neben da sagarantio valdebulebas orive komponen-
rilebeli frialebi, instruqcia procesoris dayene- tze erTdroulad gvTavazoben.
bisTvis, sertifikati, sagarantio valdebuleba, an

25 26
2.2. sistemur plataze procesoris dayeneba Tu ara berketi bolomde gaRebuli (igi ukidures
zeda mdgomareobaSi unda imyofebodes).
sistemur plataze procesori Semdegnairad
yendeba:
procesoris gasarTze avwevT berkets. soketi
(gasarTi) gaixsneba da procesoris dayenebisTvis
mzad iqneba. berketi ukidures vertikalur mdgomare-
obamde unda avwioT, Tumca didi Zala ar unda dava-
tanoT, radgan berketi SeiZleba gadatydes. mcire
Zalis dataneba saWiroa mxolod berketis gaxsnis
dros, radgan procesoris soketze gakeTebulia
mcire gamonawevi, romelic berkets qveda mdgoma-
reobaSi afiqsirebs. berketis fiqsatoridan gamoyva-
nisTvis igi soketis mxris sapirispirod odnav unda nax. 2.2. Pentium III procesori da misi dasayenebeli bude
gadavwioT da Semdeg zeviT avwioT. (Socket 370)
nax. 2.2-ze da nax. 2.3-ze warmodgenilia Pentium
III da Pentium 4 procesorebis soketebi. soketze da
procesorze Semoxazulia kuTxeebi, romlebsac ar
gaaCniaT Sesabamisad bude da gamomyvani. procesoris
dayenebisas es kuTxeebi unda SevaTavsoT. amrigad,
procesori soketSi araswori pozicionirebisagan
yovelTvis daculia.
kuTxeebis SeTavsebis Semdeg procesors soket-
ze movaTavsebT. Tu yvelaferi sworadaa gakeTebuli,
procesori soketSi yovelgvari Zaldatanebis gareSe
Tavsdeba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi unda SevamowmoT,
sworadaa Tu ara procesori orientirebuli da aris nax. 2.3. Pentium 4 procesori da misi dasayenebeli bude
(Socket 478)

27 28
soketSi procesoris moTavsebis Semdeg unda Tar SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleba (miuxedavad imisa, rom
SevamowmoT, Tu ramdenad mWidrod zis igi soketSi. sistemuri plata da sxva makompleqteblebi jer-je-
procesorsa da sokets Soris ar unda iyos sahaero robiT magidaze imyofebian, amis gakeTeba kvebis
RriCo. procesoris Casmis Semdeg soketis berketi blokis mierTebiT da CarTviT Tavisuflad SeiZ-
unda davabrunoT sawyis, anu ukidures qveda mdgo- leba). saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi kompiuteri ar Cair-
mareobaSi. berketi soketis gamonawevis qveviT Caike- Tveba, xolo uares SemTxvevaSi procesori gadaiw-
teba. veba. SesaZlebelia sistemuri platis dazianebac. so-
radgan procesoris gamomyvanebi soketSi eWi- ketSi procesoris dayenebis Semdeg masze Termo-
rebian, berketi am dros garkveuli winaaRmdegobiT pasta unda davitanoT da friala davayenoT.
unda gadaadgildebodes. CamketTan miyvanisas ber-
keti odnav unda gavwioT soketis sawinaaaRmdego
mimarTulebiT da CamketSi SeviyvanoT.
nax. 2.4-ze warmodgenilia swored dayenebuli
procesori.

nax. 2.4. soketSi dayenebuli procesori

unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom procesorze daye-
nebuli frialas gareSe kompiuteris CarTva aravi-

29 30
Tavi III aqtiuri Tboamrineblis saxiT friala gamo-
kompiuteris gagrileba iyeneba (nax. 3.2). friala pasiur elementTan Seda-
rebiT procesoris ukeTes gagrilebas uzrunvel-
3.1. pasiuri da aqtiuri Tboamrineblebi yofs, Tumca damatebiT kvebas moiTxovs da samwuxa-
rod arc maRali saimedoobiT gamoirCeva. frialebSi
Tanamedrove procesorebi bevr siTbos gamo- xSirad iaffasiani eleqtromeqanizmebi gamoiyeneba,
yofen. amitom aucileblad unda moxdes maTi gagri- amitom isini xSirad ziandebian, risi Sedegicaa
leba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi kompiuteri ar imuSa- procesoris gadaxureba da sistemis arastabiluri
vebs, an procesori gadaiwveba. arsebobs Tboamrineb- muSaoba. aqtiuri Tboamrinebeli elementis arCevisas
lebis ori tipi: pasiuri da aqtiuri. iaffasiani frialebis SeZena ar aris sasurveli,
pasiuri Tboamrinebeli metalis (Cveulebriv radgan isini, rogorc aRvniSneT, Zalian dabali
aluminis) radiators warmoadgens (nax. 3.1). proce- saimedobiT gamoirCevian.
sorsa da radiators Soris siTbos cirkulaciis
gaumjobesebisTvis specialuri pasta gamoiyeneba,
romelic avsebs procesorsa da radiators Soris
arsebul sahaero RriCoebs.

nax. 3.2. procesoris gamagrilebeli sistema radiatoriT
da frialiT

yuradReba imasac unda mivaqcioT, rom ATX
standartis sistemuri platebi iseTnairad arian
nax. 3.1. pasiuri Tboamrinebeli (radiatori)
konstruirebulni, rom korpusSi dayenebuli kvebis

31 32
bloki haeris gamagrilebel nakads UuSualod pro- platebi frialebiT, romlebic PCI slotSi yen-
cesorze mimarTavs. Tu Cven gagvaCnia maRali klasis debian, haers korpusis Signidan iwoven da korpusis
korpusi ventilaciis Zlieri sistemiT, zogierTi gareT mimarTaven.
mciresiTbogamomyofi procesoris gamoyenebis Sem-
TxvevaSi aqtiur Tboamrineblis gamoyenebaze SegviZ-
lia saerTod vTqvaT uari.
Tu kvebis blokis da procesoris frialebi
arasakmarisia maRali warmadobis mqone sistemis
gasagrileblad, mizanSewonilia iseTi sistemuri
blokis SeZena, romelSic SesaZlebelia erTi mainc
damatebiTi frialas dayeneba.
umetes SemTxvevaSi friala korpusis ukana
mxares montaJdeba (nax. 3.3), Tumca zogierT SemTxve-
vaSi damatebiT frialas korpusis wina mxaresac
amontaJeben. aseTi friala haers garedan Seiwovs da
sistemuri platis gaswvriv mimarTavs. zogjer dam-
atebiTi friala diskuri mowyobilobebis nakveTu-
rebTanac yendeba da vinCesterebis damatebiT gagri- nax. 3.3. korpusis ukana mxares damontaJebuli friala
lebas uzrunvelyofs.
iwarmoeba agreTve specialuri platebi CaSe- zogadad, kompiuteris korpusis SigniT haeris
nebuli frialebiT, romlebic diskuri mowyobilo- temperatura rac ufro axlosaa oTaxis temperatu-
bebis nakveTurebSi Tavsdeba. aseTi friala haers rasTan, miT ukeTesia kompiuterisTvis.
korpusis wina panelidan Seiwovs da kompiuteris
SigniT mimarTavs. es saukeTeso gadawyvetaa sisteme-
bisTvis SCSI vinCesterebiT, romelTac 10000 br/wT da
ufro maRali brunvis siCqare gaaCniaT da sakmaod
maRal temperaturamde xurdebian. agreTve arsebobs

33 34
3.2. Termointerfeisi da Termopasta trSi da amoweulia kideebSi. Termointerfeisi swo-
red aseTi uswormasworobebis Sesavsebad gamoiye-
procesoridan siTbos saukeTeso arinebis uz- neba. igi mniSvnelovnad aumjobesebs procesoris
runvelyofisaTvis specialuri Termuli nivTiereba kristalidan siTbos arinebas.
gamoiyeneba, romelic procesoris zedapirsa da ra- idealuri situaciaa frialas polirebuli
diatoris zedapirs Soris Tavsdeba. es nivTiereba safuZveli. am SemTxvevaSi nafxaWnebs adgili ar eq-
TeTr sagless warmoadgens da umetesad aluminis nebaT da radiatoris SeWideba procesoris kristal-
oqsidis bazaze mzaddeba. agreTve keramikis da ver- Tan maqsimaluri iqneba. TiTqos am dros Termoin-
cxlis bazaze Seqmnili saglesebic iwarmoeba. terfeisis gamoyeneba saWiro ar aris. Tumca es
zogierT masalas fazurs uwodeben, radgan mTlad ase ar aris. umjobesia ar gavriskoT da Ter-
isini garkveul temperaturaze siblantes icvlian mopasta kristalze mainc davitanoT. zambaris miWe-
(viwrovdebian), rac radiatoris zedapirsa da kris- ris Zala zedmet Termopastas mainc gamodevnis da
tals Soris sivrcis ukeTesi Sevsebis saSulebas iZ- radiators procesoris kristalTan maqsimaluri
leva. SeWidebis (Sexebis) zedapiri eqneba.
Termuli saglesebi fazur masalebTan Seda- nebismieri tipis Termuli gamtari, ginda es
rebiT ukeTesi TbogamtarobiT gamoirCevian, Tumca iyos Termuli nivTiereba da ginda fazuri masala,
naklebi siblante da meti denadoba gaaCniaT. Ter- mniSvnelovnad zrdis siTboarinebis xarisxs. Termu-
muli saglesebis datana SedarebiT rTulia. zogi- li masalebi xasiaTdebian TbogamtarobiT (rac me-
erT SemTxvevaSi pasta SeiZleba gamodindes kidec da tia, ukeTesi) da Termuli winaRobiT (piriqiT: rac
procesoris budeze, an sistemur plataze moxvdes. naklebia, ukeTesi). samwuxarod, siTbogamtarobis Se-
nebismier zedapirs gaaCnia uswormasworobani. darebis samrewvelo standartebi ar arsebobs. iseT
nafxaWnebi SeiZleba imdenad mcire zomisani iyvnen, damatebiTi faqtorebs, rogorebicaa zedapiris xor-
rom TvaliT SeuZlebeli iyos maTi danaxva, Tumca klianoba da masze ganxorcielebuli wneva, iqamde
maTi arsebobis SemTxvevaSi procesoris kristalsa mivyavarT, rom sxvadasxva masalebi, romlebic sxva-
da frialas Soris siTburi kontaqti mcirdeba. amas dasxva reitingebSi mieTiTeba, koreqtulad mainc ver
garda, procesoris saxuravis zedapiri SeiZleba ar dardeba erTmaneTTan.
iyos mTlad swori. xSirad igi odnav CaRunulia cen- Tu procesoris boqsirebul variants SeviZenT
(frialasTan erTad), frialas qveda zedapirze mwar-

35 36
moeblis mier ukve datanil Termointerfeiss davi-
naxavT.
nax. 3.4-ze procesoridan moxsnili frialaa
warmodgenili, romelzedac Termointerfeisia data-
nili.

nax. 3.5. ОЕМ kompleqtaciis Pentium III procesori

nax. 3.6. ОЕМ kompleqtaciis Pentium 4 procesori
nax. 3.4. procesori da friala standartuli
TermointerfeisiT

Tu kompiuterSi OEM kompleqtaciis proce-
sors vayenebT (nax. 3.5 da nax. 3.6), friala calke un-
da SeviZinoT.
nax. 3.7 da nax. 3.8-ze Sesabamisad Termopastis
tubi da Spricia warmodgenili.

nax. 3.7. Termopasta tubSi

37 38
agreTve unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom Termoin-
terfeisi erTjeradia. standartuli Termointer-
feisis mqone frialas procesoridan moxsnis Sem-
TxvevaSi unda movaciloT Termointerfeisis narCe-
nebi da Termopasta gamoviyenoT. winaaRmdeg SemTxve-
vaSi, Tu frialas procesorze xelmeored davaye-
nebT, kristalze didi albaTobiT miviRebT iseT
nax. 3.8. Termopasta SpricSi monakveTebs, sadac Termointerfeisi saerTod ar iq-
neba datanili (`sahaero baliSebi~) da procesoris
xSirad kamaToben, standartuli Termointer- uZlieres lokalur gadaxurebas eqneba adgili.
feisi gamoiyenon, Tu maSinve Secvalon igi Termo- TermopastasTan SedarebiT Termointerfeisis
pastiT. kidev erT uaryofiT Tvisebas misi dabali Tbo-
Termointerfeisi procesoris kristalis zo- gamtaroba warmoadgens.
gierT adgilas SeiZleba aramWidrod iyos datanili. mainc rodisaa mizanSewonili Termointerfe-
amis mizezia birTvis sxvadasxva monakveTebis araTa- isis gamoyeneba? misi datoveba mxolod Semdeg kiT-
nabari gacxeleba, rasac Termopastis araTanabar ga- xvebze dadebiTi pasuxis SemTxvevaSia umjobesi:
modevnamde mivyavarT. gamodevnis procesi progre- • procesoris mTeli samuSao vadis ganmavlobaSi
sirebad xasiaTs atarebs: metad gacxelda _ meti pas- friala mxolod erTxel iqneba dayenebuli;
ta gamoidevna _ naklebi pasta darCa _ kidev ufro • ar movaxdenT kompiuteris makompleqtebeli nawi-
metad gacxelda _ kidev ufro meti pasta gamoidevna. lebis ganaxlebas. magaliTad, Tu Cven sistemuri
amrigad, mocemul SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs krista- platis Secvlas gadavwyvetT, unda movxsnaT pro-
lis `lokalur~, anu misi calkeuli adgilebis ga- cesoric;
daxurebas. cxadia, rom amaSi kargi araferi ar aris. • procesori saStato reJimSi muSaobs. misi `aCqa-
maSin ismis kiTxva _ ratom ayeneben mwarmoeblebi reba~ ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli;
Termointerfeiss? pasuxi martivia: bevr momxmare- • procesori (magaliTad, Celeron) SedarebiT nakleb
bels ar gaaCnia sakmarisi kvalifikacia frialas da- siTbos gamoyofs.
moukidebeli, swori dayenebisTvis.

39 40
amrigad, umetes SemTxvevaSi rekomendirebulia Termointerfeisis ZiriTadi nawilis mocile-
standartuli Termointerfeisis moxsna da Termo- bis Semdeg viyenebT rbil mSral naWers, romlis
pastis gamoyeneba. es mraval problemas agvacilebs saSualebiTac Termointerfeisis darCenil nawils
Tavidan. pastis erTi tubi sakmarisia ramdenime vacilebT. amis Semdeg radiatoris safuZvels spir-
frialis dayenebisTvis. pasta (misi swori gamoye- tiT davamuSavebT.
nebis SemTxvevaSi) ukeTesad asrulebs Tavis fun- Termointerfeisis mocilebis Semdeg proce-
qcias, vidre Termointerfeisi. pastis gamoyenebis soris kristalze Termopasta unda davitanoT. data-
SemTxvevaSi procesoris kristalis lokaluri gada- nili Termopastis fena Tanabari da Zalian mcire
xurebis albaToba faqtiurad nuls utoldeba. sisqis unda iyos. Termopastis datana mosaxerxe-
belia asanTis ReriT, an kbilis jagrisiT. kristali
datanili TermopastiT warmodgenilia nax. 3.9-ze.
3.3. procesorze Termopastis datana

standartuli Termointerfeisi Tbogamtari
pastiT Semdegnairad icvleba.
movxsniT frialas procesoridan, Tu is ukve
dayenebulia, an viRebT mas yuTidan. dagvWirdeba
joxi bambiT, romelic spirtiTaa dasvelebuli. kris-
talidan Termointerfeisis narCenebs movacilebT da
gavwmendT mis garSemo arsebul vels. Termointer-
feisi Zalian martivad, praqtikulad yovelgvari
Zaldatanebis gareSe scildeba. radiatoris SemTxve- nax. 3.9. procesoris birTvze datanili Termopasta
vaSi saqme cota rTuladaa. Termointerfeisis moci-
lebisTvis SegviZlia brtyeli saxraxnisi gamovi- amis Semdeg Termopastas radiatoris safuZ-
yenoT. zedmeti Zala ar unda davatanoT, raTa ra- velze im adgilas davitanT, romlis qvemoTac pro-
diatoris safuZveli ar gaifxaWnos. cesoris kristali ganTavsdeba (sadac adre Termoin-
terfeisi iyo datanili) da didi dawoliT, TiTiT,

41 42
Termopastas SevaglisavT radiatoris safuZvelSi. gamoiwvios, romlebic pastiT ar arian dafarulni
amiT Cven SevavsebT radiatoris umcires nafxaW- da `sahaero baliSebs~ Seicaven. aman ki SeiZleba
nebsac ki da gavzrdiT Tburi kontaqtis farTs procesoris letalur gadaxurebamde da sistemis
frialasa da procesoris kristals Soris. arastabilur muSaobamde migviyvanos.

3.4. frialas dayeneba da CarTva

frialas frTxilad vaTavsebT procesorze.
yuradReba mivaqcioT, rom frialas safuZvelze, ra-
diatoris mTel siganeze, aris farTo amonaRebi. es
amonaRebi unda gaswordes soketis Sverilis mimar-
TulebiT, rogorc es naCvenebia nax. 3.10-ze. Tu
amonaRebs sxva mxridan movaTavsebT, friala gadax-
rili iqneba, ris Sedegadac procesoris kristalsa
da frialas Soris kontaqts saerTod ar eqneba
nax. 3.10. procesori dayenebuli frialiT
adgili. aman SeiZleba rogorc kristalis fizikur
dazianebamde (Pentium III procesoris SemTxvevaSi),
amitom, Tu Cven davayeneT friala da Semdeg
aseve siTburi garRvevis gamo procesoris mwyobri-
gadavwyviteT misi moxsna, pasta kristalze kidev
dan gamosvlamde migviyvanos.
erTxel unda davitanoT.
frialas dayenebis Semdeg sifrTxile unda
frialas damagrebisTvis dagvWirdeba brtyeli
gamoviCinoT. ar SeiZleba frialas daxra, triali,
saxraxnisi (SeiZleba arc dagvWirdes, gaaCnia fri-
moxsna da gansakuTrebiT masze daWera. daumagrebel,
alas samagr konstruqcias). rogorc wesi, umjobesia
an cudad damagrebul frialaze sxvadasxva manipu-
saSualo siganis saxraxnisis gamoyeneba, romelic
laciebma SeiZleba procesori fizikurad daazianos.
mTlianad ar `vardeba~ samagris naxvretSi da masSi
Termopastis datanili fenis mqone frialas moxsnam
Tavisi siganis daaxloebiT naxevarze Sedis (nax. 3.11).
da Tavidan dayenebam SeiZleba iseTi velebis gaCena

43 44
saketis erT mxares CamovacvamT soketis gamo- jvena xeliT frialas meore saketSi saxraxniss mo-
nawevs. unda davrwmundeT, rom igi saimedodaa damag- vaTavsebT (nax. 3.13).
rebuli (nax. 3.12).

nax. 3.13. saxraxnisze wamocmuli saketi

sakets gavwevT saxraxnisiT da soketis Sve-
nax. 3.11. saxraxnisis sigane
rilze wamovacvamT (nax. 3.14). unda gaviTvaliswinoT,
rom yvela moZraoba unda iyos Zlieri, magram Tana-
bari, yovelgvari biZgebisa da damatebiTi Zaldata-
nebis gareSe.

nax. 3.12. saketi soketis gamonawevze

amis Semdeg frialas da soketze ukve Camoc-
mul sakets marcxena xeliT daviWerT, xolo mar- nax. 3.14. soketis gamonawevze Camocmuli Camketi

45 46
yuradReba unda mivaqcioT saxraxnisis siganis
Sesabamisobas frialas saketis naxvretis zomasTan.
Tu saxraxnisis sigane mcirea, didia imis albaToba,
rom rodesac sakets soketis gamonawevTan mivitanT,
saxraxnisi naxvretSi `Cavardeba~ da sistemur pla-
tas, an sokets gafxaWnis. biZgis SemTxvevaSi fri-
alas daZvracaa SesaZlebeli. am SemTxvevaSi saWiro
xdeba Termopastis datanasTan dakavSirebuli sa-
muSaos Tavidan Sesruleba.
ar aris sasurveli zedmetad ganieri saxrax- nax. 3.15. frialas kveba
nisis gamoyenebac. igi SeiZleba amovardes frialas
saketis naxvretidan da sistemur plata gafxaWnos, Termopastis fenis Pentium 4 procesorze datana
ramac, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba sistemuri platis ele- xdeba iseve, rogorc Pentium III procesorze. stan-
mentebi da dengamtari xazebi daazianos. dartuli Termointerfeisis mocilebac igive sqemiT
rogorc ki frialas davayenebT, misi kvebis sruldeba (Tumca, Cveni SexedulebiT, standartuli
gasarTi sistemuri platis Sesabamis gasarTTan unda Termointerfeisi SegviZlia davtovoT kidec). proce-
SevaerToT (nax. 3.15). sistemuri platis gasarTi, soris soketSi dayenebis Semdeg frialas samagrSi
rogorc wesi, TeTri ferisaa, gaaCnia sami manWvali, ise vayenebT, rogorc nax. 3.16-zea warmodgenili.
moTavsebulia procesoris maxloblad da Sesabamisi
warwera gaaCnia _ magaliTad, `CPU_Cooler~. yuradReba
unda mivaqcioT SeerTebis polarobas. frialas da
sistemuri platis gasarTebs mimmarTvelebi gaaCniaT,
romlebic SeerTebisas erTmaneTs unda SeuTavsdnen.
Cven ganvixileT frialas dayenebis procesi
Pentium III procesorze. axla ganvixiloT, Tu riTi
gansxvavdeba frialas dayenebis wesi Pentium 4 pro-
cesorisTvis.
nax. 3.16. frialas dayeneba Pentium 4 procesorze

47 48
frialas fiqsaciisa da procesorze miWeri- Tavi IV
saTvis berketebi sawinaaRmdego mdgomareobamde unda operatiuli mexsierebis modulebis dayeneba
mobrundnen, rogorc es nax. 3.17-zea warmodgenili.
bunebrivia, unda SevaerToT kvebis gasarTic. 4.1. operatiuli mexsierebis modulebis
standartebi

ZiriTadi operatiuli mexsiereba SIMM (amJamad
moZvelebulia) da DIMM modulebis saxiT realiz-
deba. DIMM modulebs Semdegi modifikaciebi gaaC-
niaT:
• 168-kontaqtiani DIMM (SDRAM);
• 184-kontaqtiani DIMM (DDR DIMM);
• 240-kontaqtiani DIMM (DDR 2 DIMM).
nax. 3.17. Pentium 4 procesorze frialas damagreba da kveba Pentium II/III sistemebSi gamoiyeneba 168-kontaq-
tiani SDRAM DIMM, xolo Pentium 4 sistemebSi _ 184 da
240-kontaqtiani Sesabamisad DDR I DIMM da DDR 2 DIMM
modulebi. nebismieri DIMM moduli 64-Tanrigiania da
mexsierebis sruli bankis funqcias asrulebs.
mexsierebis modulebi yoveli rva Tanrigis-
Tvis SeiZleba mecxre Tanrigsac Seicavdnen, rome-
lic luwobaze kontrolisTvis gamoiyeneba. Tu sis-
temur platas luwobaze kontrolis mexsierebis
mxardaWera gaaCnia, sasurvelia swored aseTi modu-
lebis SeZena. Tumca unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom
luwobaze kontrolis mxardamWeri mexsierebis modu-
lebis Rirebuleba `Cveulebriv~ modulebTan Seda-
rebiT ufro maRalia.

49 50
agreTve yuradReba unda mivaqcioT mexsierebis DIMM mexsierebis modulebis dasayeneblad. zogjer
modulebis kontaqtebis metalur safars. kontaqtebi gvxvdeba kombinirebuli (moZvelebuli) sistemuri
SeiZleba oqroTi, an kaliT iyos dafaruli. ram- platebic, romlebic gaTvlilia rogorc SIMM, aseve
denadac oqrosfeniani kontaqtebi ukeTesi gamta- SDRAM DIMM mexsierebis modulebis dayenebaze.
robiT gamoirCevian, nebismier sistemaSi umjobesia aseT platebSi modulebis dasayenebeli gasar-
swored maTi gamoyeneba. am dros yuradReba unda Tebi bankebad iyofa. magaliTad, Tu plataze
mivaqcioT, rom mexsierebis modulebis kontaqtebis arsebobs 4 gasarTi SIMM da 2 gasarTi SDRAM DIMM
safari Seesabamebodes sistur plataze arsebuli im modulebisTvis, maSin pirveli ori SIMM an pirveli
slotebis kontaqtebis safarvels, romlebSic mexsi- DIMM gasarTi aformireben nulovan banks (Bank 0),
erebis modulebi yendeba. unda aRiniSnos, rom Tana- xolo ori meore SIMM an meore SDRAM DIMM gasarTi
medrove DIMM modulebis da Sesabamisi slotebis _ pirvel banks (Bank 1).
umetesoba oqros feniT ifareba. unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom mexsierebis ga-
Tu mexsierebis modulebis da slotebis kon- sarTebis Sevseba unda daviwyoT nulovani bankidan
taqtebSi sxvadasxva masalis fenebi gamoiyeneba, mniS- da erTi bankis farglebSi gamoviyenoT erTnairi te-
vnelovnad Cqardeba kalis fenebis daJangva. amas ki vadobis mexsierebis modulebi. garda amisa, kombini-
kontaqtebis rRvevamde, mexsierebis problemebamde da rebul sistemur platebSi dauSvebelia nulovani an
Secdomebis warmoqmnamde mivyavarT. mexsierebis mo- pirveli bankis Sevseba SIMM da SDRAM DIMM modu-
dulis moxsna, modulis da slotis kontaqtebis lebiT erTdroulad. es niSnavs, rom Tu Cven gvaqvs
gawmenda droebiT xsnis am problemas, Tumca daax- ori 32 mb-iani SIMM moduli da erTi 64 mb-iani
loebiT erTi wlis Semdeg problema isev iCens Tavs. SDRAM DIMM moduli, isini sxvadasxva bankebSi un-
es sakmaod mniSvnelovani problemaa, Tu Cven aTe- da davayenoT. magaliTad, ori SIMM moduli _ nu-
ulobiT da aseulobiT kompiuters vemsaxurebiT. lovan bankSi, xolo erTi SDRAM DIMM moduli _
amrigad, umjobesia mexsierebis modulebis da
pirvel bankSi, an piriqiT _ SDRAM DIMM moduli
slotebis kontaqtebis safari fenebi erTmaneTs em-
nulovan bankSi, xolo ori SIMM moduli _ pirvel
Txveodes.
bankSi. mxolod am SemTxvevaSi gansazRvravs sistema
sistemuri platebis umetesobas gaaCnia ramde-
sworad dayenebuli mexsierebis saerTo moculobas.
nime gasarTi SIMM, SDRAM DIMM, DDR I DIMM, an DDR II

51 52
SIMM modulebi gamoiyeneboda mxolod Pentium I
da Pentium II personalur kompiterebSi. Tanamedrove
sistemebSi mxolod DIMM modulebi gamoiyeneba.
SIMM, SDRAM DIMM, DDR I DIMM, an DDR 2 DIMM
mexsierebis modulebs gasarTis mxridan Wrilebis
saxiT realizebuli gasaRebebi gaaCniaT, romlebic
xels uSlian modulis gasarTSi araswor dayenebas.
amrigad, mexsierebis nebismieri moduli iseT-
nairadaa daproeqtebuli, rom misi araswored da- nax. 4.2 gasarTi (sloti) mexsierebis modulisaTvis
yeneba praqtikulad SeuZlebelia. amas uzrunvel-
yofs modulSi specialuri amonaRebebis (Wrilebis),
xolo sistemuri platis gasarTebSi _ Sesabamisi 4.2. sistemur plataze operatiuli mexsierebis
gasaRebebis arseboba. modulebis dayeneba
nax. 4.1-ze warmodgenilia DIMM mexsierebis
moduli, xolo nax. 4.2-ze _ Sesabamisi gasarTi sis- sistemur plataze DIMM modulebis dayenebis-
temur plataze modulis dayenebisTvis. Tvis Semdegi moqmedebebi unda SevasruloT:
• gasarTis damafiqsirebeli Camketebi odnav gver-
diT unda gavwioT;
• moduli imgvarad unda iyos orientirebuli, rom
mimmarTveli gasaRebebi (Wrilebi) slotis gamo-
naSverebs uTavsdebodnen;
• moduls frTxilad vaTavsebT gasarTSi da
nax. 4.1. mexsierebis moduli
zemodan vawvebiT, sanam damafiqsirebeli gasaRe-
bebi vertikalur mdebareobas ar miiReben.
amrigad, slotebis saketebs gverdiT ise ga-
davwevT, rogorc es pirveli slotisTvis, nax. 4.3-zea
naCvenebi.

53 54
daWerisas sul mcire Zala unda davatanoT.
imis niSnad, rom moduli slotSi mTlianad moTav-
sda, slotis kideebSi arsebuli saketebi gatkacun-
deba. slotSi Cayenebuli mexsierebis modulebi
warmodgenilia nax. 4.5-ze.

nax. 4.3. sloti da mexsierebis moduli

amis Semdeg moduls slots mivuaxloebT da
mis orientacias ise movaxdenT, rom modulis Wri-
lebi slotis gasaRebebs SeuTavsdes. moduls slot-
Si movaTavsebT da horizontalur sibrtyeSi, daux- nax. 4.5. mexsierebis moduli slotSi dayenebulia
relad, ise, rom sistemur platasTan 90° kuTxe da-
vicvaT, modulis orive mxareze Tanabari ZaliT nax. 4.5-ze yuradReba mivaqcioT saketebs, rom-
davaWerT (nax. 4.4). lebic mTlianadaa Sesuli mexsierebis modulis
Sesabamis amonaRebebSi. es imis niSania, rom moduli
sworadaa dayenebuli.

nax. 4.4. mexsierebis modulis slotSi Cayeneba

55 56
Tavi V 5.1. sistemuri platebis standartebi
kompiuterSi sistemuri platis dayeneba
arsebobs sistemuri platebis ramdenime form-
sanam sistemuri platis montaJs daviwyebT, faqtori, romlebic gansazRvraven platis zomebs da
Semdegi operaciebi unda SevasruloT: Sesabamisad sistemuri blokis korpusis standarts.
• viRebT sistemur platas SesafuTi yuTidan da qvemoT CamoTvlilia sistemuri platebis farTod
kardonze vaTavsebT; gavrcelebuli form-faqtorebi.
• sistemuri platis Sesabamis naxvretebSi plas- moZvelebuli:
tmasis samagr klifsebs da sxva samagr elemen- • Baby-AT;
tebs vayenebT. samagri elementebis SeZena xdeba • Full-size AT (srulzomiani);
kompiuteris korpusTan erTad, kompleqtSi; • LPX.
• platas kardonze iseTnairad vaTavsebT, rom igi Tanamedrove:
idges mxolod samagr elementebze da arc erTi • ATX;
sxva elementiT ar exebodes kardonis zedapirs; • Micro-ATX;
• yuradRebiT unda SeviswavloT sistemuri platis • Flex-ATX;
gare gasarTebis da platis gadamwodebis _ `jam- • NLX.
perebis~ (Cveulebriv, plataze isini JP marki- amJamad yvelaze farTod gavrcelebuli ATX
rebiT aRiniSneba) ganlageba. jamperebi sistemuri (nax. 5.1) konstruqciaa. man TiTqmis gamodevna Baby-AT
platis aRwerilobis Sesabamisad unda davayenoT. form-faqtori. Baby-AT-gan gansxvavebiT, ATX stan-
zogierT sistemur platas gaaCnia `jamperebi~,
dartis sistemuri platebi 90°-iT mobrunebulia, rac
romlebic gaTvaliswinebulia procesoris kvebis
saSualebas iZleva gafarToebis gasarTebi (salte-
Zabvis, sistemuri saltis sixSiris da procesoris
ebis slotebi) misi viwro mxaris paralelurad gan-
samuSao sixSiris dasayenebeli gamamravlebeli ko-
Tavsdes. am dros Tavisufali adgili rCeba sxva
eficientis dasayeneblad. Tumca isic unda aRiniS-
komponentebisTvisac, romlebsac plata-adapterebi
nos, rom Tanamedrove sistemuri platebis umetesobi-
xels ar uSlian.
saTvis gamamravlebeli koeficientis dayeneba xdeba
elementebi, romlebic muSaobis dros did
programulad, Setup BIOS -Si an avtomaturad.
siTbos gamoyofen (mag. procesori, operatiuli

57 58
mexsierebis modulebi) kvebis blokis gverdiT arian paraleluri da USB portebis gamosayvanad sistemur
ganTavsebulni. ATX standartis kvebis bloki iseT- platasTan kabelebis SeerTeba ar sWirdeba.
nairadaa damuSavebuli, rom misi friala haers ATX kvebis bloki aRWurvilia gasaRebis mqone
sistemuri platis gaswvriv uberavs. gasarTiT, romelic sistemuri platis Sesabamis
gasarTTan (nax. 5.2) erTdeba. SeerTeba mxolod erTi
mimarTulebiT, sworedaa SesaZlebeli. gasarTi gan-
kuTvnilia Tanamedrove sistemuri platebisaTvis,
romlebic +3,3 v Zabvas saWiroeben. aseTi platebi
mxars uWeren kvebis gafarToebul marTvas, romelic
aqtivizirdeba BIOS-is da operaciuli sistemis saSu-
alebiT.

nax. 5.2. ATX sistemuri platis kvebis gasarTi

form-faqtori Micro-ATX (nax. 5.3) damuSavda Se-
darebiT dabali donis sistemebisTvis. Micro-ATX qve-
modan zemoT SeTavsebadia ATX form-faqtorisa.
nax. 5.1 ATX form-faqtoris sistemuri plata Micro-ATX sistemuri platis zomebi naklebia ATX
form-faqtoris sistemur platasTan SedarebiT da
ATX sistemuri platebi agreTve portebis gan- misi dayeneba SesaZlebelia rogorc sakuTriv mis-
lagebis maRali simWidroviT xasiaTdebian. Baby-AT Tvis damuSavebul, aseve ATX standartis korpusebSi.
form-faqtoris platebisgan gansxvavebiT, yvela gare Slimline sistemebSi ramdenime form-faqtori ga-
porti CaSenebulia sistemur plataSi da erT sib- moiyeneba. 90-iani wlebis dasasruls upiratesoba
rtyezea ganTavsebuli. amitom, Baby-AT form-faqto- LPX form-faqtors eniWeboda. magram SemdgomSi bev-
ris platebisgan gansxvavebiT, momxmarebels kor- rma mwarmoebelma uari Tqva mis gamoyenebaze, rac
pusis ukana panelze standartuli mimdevrobiTi,

59 60
standartizirebuli komponentebis ararsebobam da Tumca dabalprofiluri konstruqciebisTvis damaxa-
dabalprofilianma korpusma ganapiroba. garda amisa, siaTebeli problemebi gadauwyveteli darCa.
LPX form-faqtoris sistemur platebs hqondaT gar-
kveuli gansxvavebebi, rac arTulebda kompiuteris
modernizebas.

nax. 5.3. NLX form-faqtoris sistemuri plata

korpusis mcire zomebis gamo NLX standartis
form-faqtori korporatiuli klientebisTvis da
damwyebi momxmareblebisTvisaa gaTvaliswinebuli.
amisda miuxedavad, NLX standartis sistemuri pla-
tebi kompiuterul bazarze bevrad naklebia ATX da
Micro-ATX sistemur platebTan SedarebiT.
nax. 5.3. form-faqtori Micro-ATX

korporacia Intel-ma daamuSava axali Ria stan-
5.2. sistemuri platis mikrosqemaTa krebuli
darti _ NLX. igi bevri parametriT uaxlovdeba ATX
form-faqtors, magram inarCunebs Slimline-Tvis dama-
sistemuri platis SeZenisas meore mniSvne-
xasiaTebel sistemuri platis da korpusis zomebs.
lovan elementi (procesoris Semdeg), romlis maxa-
NLX standartis safuZvelze damuSavebuli sistemebi
siaTeblebic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, mikrosqemaTa
uzrunvelyofen LPX kompiuterebTan SeTavsebadobas,
krebulia (Chipset). igi ramdenime mikrosqemis krebuls

61 62
warmoadgens, romelic sistemuri platis ZiriTad • Ultra-ATA 100/133 da SATA interfeisebi;
sqemebs aerTianebs. Tanamedrove mikrosqemaTa krebu- • USB 2.0 mxardaWera.
lSi originaluri IBM AT kompiuteris 150-ze meti CamoTvlili funqciebs (ECC mxardaWeris ga-
komponentia integrirebuli. mikrosqemaTa krebuli moklebiT) mxars uWers faqtiurad yvela Tanamed-
lokaluri saltis (Cveulebriv PCI), ZiriTadi opera- rove sistemuri plata. maRalefeqturi sistemis misa-
tiuli mexsierebis, qeS-mexsierebis, wyvetebis, mexsi- Rebad, bunebrivia, maqsimalurad swrafi procesori
erebisadmi pirdapiri wvdomis kontrolerebs da sxva unda avirCioT. Tumca ZviradRirebuli procesoris
sqemebs Seicavs. SeZenas azri ara aqvs, Tu misi gamoyeneba sistemuri
mikrosqemaTa krebuli did gavlenas axdens platis mikrosqemebis krebulis SesaZleblobebiT
sistemuri platis maxasiaTeblebze da warmadobis izRudeba.
iseT parametrebs da SezRudvebs gansazRvravs, ro- sistemuri platis SeZenisas ar unda dagva-
gorebicaa: qeS-mexsierebis da ZiriTadi operatiuli viwydes misi dokumentaciis SeZenac. dokumentacia
mexsierebis moculoba da siCqare, procesoris tipi sistemis muSaobis detalebis garkvevaSi dagvex-
da sixSire, videosistemis standarti da a.S. swored mareba. dokumentaciaSi agreTve aRiwereba, Tu rogor
sistemuri platis mikrosqemebis krebuli uzrunvel- movaxdinoT mikrosqemebis krebulis gawyoba BIOS-is
yofs Tanamedrove PCI Express, USB (Universal Serial Bus) da parametrebis dayenebis saSualebiT.
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) mowyobilobebis muSaobas.
sistemuri platis SerCevisas yuradReba unda
mivaqcioT Semdeg parametrebs: 5.3. sistemuri platis BIOS
• FSB saltis sixSire;
• operatiuli mexsierebis modulebis tipi (SDRAM sistemuri platis kidev erT mniSvnelovan
DIMM, DDR I DIMM, DDR 2 DIMM); komponents BIOS (Basic Input-Output System) warmoadgens.
• ECC (Secdomebis gasworebis kodebi) operatiuli mas agreTve ROM BIOS-sac uwodeben. sistemuri pla-
mexsierebis mxardaWera; tis SeZenisas aucilebelia davrwmundeT, rom BIOS
• kvebis marTvis gafarToebuli funqciebis mxarda- mocemul sferoSi erT-erT wamyvan mwarmoebels (AMI,
Wera (ACPI); Phoenix, Award, an Microid Research) miekuTvneba da Cawe-
• PCI Express 16x, an AGP 4x/8x videokontroleri; rilia specialur programirebad mikrosqemaSi, ro-

63 64
melsac Flash ROM, an EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Pro- dinare procesors, aseve im ufro mZlavr proceso-
grammable Read Only Memory) ewodeba (nax. 5.4). es moma- rebsac, romelTa dayenebac SemdgomSia gaTvaliswi-
valSi saSualebas mogvcems CavtvirToT BIOS-is ga- nebuli. Tu sistemuri plata da mikrosqemaTa krebu-
naxlebuli versiebi. li, BIOS-gan gansxvavebiT, mxars uWers axal proce-
sors, momxmarebelma unda ganaaxlos sistemuri BIOS.

5.4. Setana-gamotanis portebi

Zvel sistemur platebSi portebi ar iyo CaSe-
nebuli da maTi realizacia calke plata-adaptere-
bis saxiT xdeboda, rac slotebis dakavebas da da-
matebiT energodanaxarjebs ganapirobebda. Tanamed-
rove sistemur platebSi Setana-gamotanis portebi
CaSenebulia (nax. 5.5). sistemebis umetesobas Semdegi
nax. 5.4. EEPROM mikrosqema portebi gaaCnia:

agreTve unda davrwmundeT, rom sistemuri
plata da BIOS mxars uWeren Plug&Play teqnologias.
es mniSvnelovnad amartivebs axali plata-adapte-
rebis, gansakuTrebiT Plug&Play adapterebis dayene-
bas. am SemTxvevaSi plata-adapterebisTvis paramet-
rebi avtomatutad yendeba da avtomaturadve wydeba
aparaturuli konfliqtebi Tanamedrove operaciuli
sistemebis (Windows 98/Me/2000/XP) doneze.
sistemuri platis SeZenisas agreTve unda
davrwmundeT, rom BIOS mxars uWers rogorc mim-
nax. 5.5. Setana-gamotanis portebi

65 66
• klaviaturis SesaerTebeli porti (PS\2, Mini-DIN); iZleva da slotebs aTavisuflebs, rac gansakuT-
• mausis SesaerTebeli porti (PS\2, Mini-DIN); rebiT iaffasiani sistemebisTvisaa aqtualuri.
• erTi, an ori standartuli mimdevrobiTi porti Tumca integrirebul da calkeuli plata-

(UART 16550A buferiT); adapterebis saxiT realizebul komponentebs Soris
xarisxobrivi sxvaobac unda gaviTvaliswinoT. pla-
• paraleluri (EPP/ECP) porti;
ta-adapterebi, integrirebul komponentebTan Sedare-
• ori, an oTxi USB porti (Tu Cven gadawyvetili
biT, Cveulebriv ufro maRali maxasiaTeblebiT gamo-
gvaqvs videomonacemebis damuSaveba, SegviZlia da-
irCevian, Tumca maTi gamoyeneba mkveTrad zrdis kom-
vamatoT Fire-Wire porti);
piuteris Rirebulebas.
• integrirebuli qseluri adapteri 10/100 Ethernet, an
integrirebuli adapterebis mqone sistemuri
10/100/1000 Ethernet; platis SeZena momxmarebels umetes SemTxvevaSi sa-
• gasarTi audio/saTamaSo/MIDI/joistiki/dinamikebi/ Sualebas utovebs momavalSi daayenos calke plata-
mikrofoni; adapterebi. rogorc wesi, audio da videoadapte-
zogierT sistemur plataSi standartuli mim- rebis dayeneba sistemur platebze, romelTac Sesa-
devrobiTi, paraleluri da mausis portebis nac- bamisi integrirebuli komponentebi ukve gaaCniaT,
vlad mxolod USB porti gamoiyeneba. Tu Cven iseTi problemas ar warmoadgens, Tu ar CavTvliT zedmet
periferiuli mowyobilobebi gagvaCnia, romlebic danaxarjebs sistemur plataSi CaSenebul mikrosqe-
sxva portebsac sWiroeben, `Legacy-Free~ sistemuri mebze.
platis SeZenisagan Tavi unda SevikavoT. bevr Micro- yuradReba unda mivaqcioT, rom audio da
ATX sistemur platas integrirebuli audio da vi- videoadapterebis dayenebis dros iseT sistemur
deokontrolerebic gaaCnia. platebze, romelTac Sesabamisi integrirebuli kom-
integrirebuli portebis mxardaWera uzrun- ponentebi ukve gaaCniaT, Windows 98/Me/2000/XP ope-
velyofilia sistemuri platis mikrosqemebis krebu- raciul sistemebSi aqtiuri adapteris avtomatur
liT, an damatebiTi Super I/O mikrosqemiT da inter- gansazRvrasTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba sirTuleebi
feisuli komponentebiT. sistemur plataSi integri- Seiqmnas. am SemTxvevaSi araaqtiuri CaSenebuli kon-
rebuli audio da videokontrolerebis gamoyeneba troleri Setup BIOS-Si unda gaiTiSos. nebismieri in-
Tanxis da energomoxmarebis mniSvnelovan ekonomias tegrirebuli komponentisTvis sistemuri platis

67 68
BIOS-is meniuSi gansazRvrulia parametrebi Enable/Di- xmeba kvebis da diskuri mowyobilobebis kabelebi.
sable (CairTos/gamoirTos). mowyobilobebs, rogorc wesi, moyveba misi CarTvis-
oTxi, an meti USB porti, rogorc wesi, or Tvis saWiro kabelebi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi isini
salteze nawildeba. gasarTebis erTi jgufi damon- calke unda SeviZinoT. ATX sistemis erT-erT upi-
taJebulia sistemuri platis ukana mxares, xolo ratesobas sistemuri platis ukan arsebuli CaSe-
meore jgufi _ Tavad sistemur plataze. kabeli, nebuli Setana-gamotanis portebi warmoadgens. es
romelic mocemul gasarTTan erTdeba, meore USB Tavidan gvacilebs Sesabamisi kabelebis gamoyenebis
saltis portis korpusis wina panelze gamotanis aucileblobas, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo Baby-AT
saSualebas iZleva. USB portebis aseTi wyoba Ta- konstruqciebisTvis.
namedrove korpusebis umetesobaSi gamoiyeneba da
Zalian amartivebs kompiuterTan iseTi mowyobi-
lobebis SeerTebas, rogorebicaa Flash-damgroveb- 5.5. korpusis Sasize sistemuri platis dayeneba
lebi, cifruli kamerebi, MP3 fleerebi da a.S.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, umciresi Rirebu- bazarze farTodaa warmodgenili korpusebis
lebiTi kategoriis zogierT Tanamedrove sistemur ori tipi. erTs gaaCnia moxsnadi paneli sistemuri
platas saerTod ar gaaCnia Super I/O mikrosqema. ase- platis dasayeneblad, xolo meoreSi es paneli ar
Tive sistemuri platebiTaa aRWurvili portatiuli aris moxsnadi.
kompiuterebis umetesoba. ramdenadac `Legacy-Free~ is garemoeba _ paneli ixsneba, Tu ara, ar Se-
sistemebs klaviaturis, mausis, paraleluri da stan- iZleba CavTvaloT korpusis dadebiT, an uaryofiT
dartuli mimdevrobiTi portebi ar gaaCniaT, gare mxared, radgan TiToeul variants Tavisi dadebiTi
mowyobilobebis SesaerTeblad SegviZlia mxolod da uaryofiTi Tvisebebi gaaCnia. magaliTad, Tu
USB portis gamoyeneba. aqedan gamomdinare, Cvens mier paneli moxsnadia, awyoba nawilobriv martivdeba,
SeZenili klaviatura, mausi, printeri, skaneri da magram moxsnadi paneli iaffasian korpusSi SeiZ-
yvela sxva gare mowyobiloba USB interfeisiT unda leba gaxdes xmauris wyaro daubalansebeli fri-
iyos aRWurvili. alas vibraciis dros.
kompiuteris komponentebis dasakavSireblad imavdroulad aramoxsnadi paneli zrdis kor-
dagvWirdeba kabelebis garkveuli krebuli. igulis- pusis sixistes (igulisxmeba `No-Name~ korpusi, rad-

69 70
gan safirmo korpusebs, imisda miuxedavad, paneli nax. 5.8-ze paneli agreTve ar ixsneba. magram
moxsnadia, Tu ara, isedac sakmarisi sixiste gaaC- nax. 5.7-ze naCvenebi korpusisgan gansxvavebiT es
niaT) da korpusi ganbalansebuli frialas dayenebis korpusi Zalian pataraa da masSi sistemuri platis
dros ar vibrirebs. Tumca aramoxsnadi paneli gar- dasayeneblad korpusidan kvebis bloki unda moix-
kveulwilad mouxerxebelia korpusSi sistemuri snas.
platis dayenebisTvis.
nax. 5.6-ze warmodgenilia korpusi moxsnadi
paneliT. misi moxsnisTvis ori xraxni (suraTze Se-
moxazulia) unda movatrialoT da paneli Cvensken
gadmovwioT, ris Semdegac paneli SegviZlia Car-
Codan gamoviRoT. CarCoSi Semavali Sasis mimmarTve-
lebi isriTaa naCvenebi.

nax. 5.7. korpusi aramoxsnadi paneliT

nax. 5.6. korpusi moxsnadi paneliT

nax. 5.7-ze warmodgenilia `koSkis~ tipis kor-
pusi. masSi paneli ar aris moxsnadi.
nax. 5.8. korpusi aramoxsnadi paneliT

71 72
amis Semdeg, imisda mixedviT, Tu ra tipis
korpusi gvaqvs SeZenili, panels, an korpuss davdebT
magidaze. samagrebs davayenebT ise, rogorc es nax.
5.9-zea warmodgenili.

nax. 5.10 naxvretebi

korpusis Sasize platis mixraxvnis Semdeg
unda movaxdinoT korpusis wina panelze ganTav-
sebuli indikatorebis sistemur platasTan SeerTeba.
maTi SesaerTebeli gasarTi or rigad ganTavsebuli
nax. 5.9. sistemuri platis samagrebi manWvlebis jgufisgan Sedgeba. magaliTebi warmodge-
nilia nax. 5.11 da nax. 5.12-ze.
bevri mwarmoebeli uSvebs korpusebs samag-
rebis gareSe. am SemTxvevaSi sistemuri plata Sasis
gamonawevebze magrdeba, romlebSic xvrelebia gabur-
Ruli da kuTxvilia amoWrili.
vayenebT samagrebs. vaTasebT maTze sistemur
platas, rogorc es nax. 5.10-zea naCvenebi. Seva-
TavsebT sistemur plataze vintebis naxvretebs sa-
magrebis naxvretebTan, an Sasis Sesabamis naxvre-
tebTan, Tu samagrebi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli.
sistemur platas vintebiT vamagrebT. vintebis
mTeli ZaliT moWera saWiro ar aris. nax. 5.11. koneqtorebi

73 74
indikatorebis araswor SeerTebas fatalur
Sedegebamde ar mivyavarT, Tumca mouxerxebelia Sem-
dgomSi kompiuterTan muSaobisTvis. amitom kvebis
pirveli CarTvis dros yuradReba unda mivaqcioT,
funqcionirebs Tu ara yvela indikatori. Tu es ase
ar aris, unda davrwmundeT, rom SeerTebebi swore-
daa gakeTebuli. aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi SeerTe-
bebi Tavidan unda SevasruloT.
indikatorebis SeerTeba umjobesia Sasize da-
magrebuli sistemuri platis korpusSi moTavsebamde
movaxdinoT. es ufro mosaxerxebelia. Tu sistemuri
plata uSualod korpusze yendeba, umjobesia jer
nax. 5.12. koneqtorebi indikatorebis SeerTeba, xolo Semdeg sistemuri
platis korpusSi dayeneba.
SeerTebis dros unda davicvaT polaroba. fe- indikatorebis SeerTebis Semdeg sistemuri
radi gamtari yovelTvis unda iyos SeerTebuli plata korpusSi unda davayenoT.
plusTan, xolo Savi an TeTri _ minusTan. yvelaze korpusSi, rogorc wesi, ar aris amotexili
ufro ukeTesi iqneba, Tu sistemuri platis dokumen- CamxSobebi, romlebic faraven portebisTvis arsebul
taciidan gavarkvevT, Tu romeli indikatori sad naxvretebs. nax. 5.13-ze naCvenebia CamxSobebi, romle-
erTdeba. Tu dokumentacia ar gagvaCnia, orientacia bic unda amovtexoT.
sistemur plataze arsebuli warwerebiT unda mo- am mizniT yvelaze ufro mosaxerxebelia sax-
vaxdinoT. nax. 5.12-ze warmodgenil yovel koneqtors raxnisis gamoyeneba, romelsac CamxSobis gare mxri-
warwera gaaCnia, rac mniSvnelovnad amartivebs maT dan davawvebiT. CamxSobi gaiRuneba, xolo aqeT-iqiT
SeerTebas. Tu koneqtorebs warwerebi ar gaaCniaT, amoZravebiT amotydeba. zedmeti CamxSobebis mocile-
unda SevxedoT, Tu korpusis wina panelze romeli bis Semdeg Sasize damagrebul sistemur platas kor-
wyvili sad aris mirCiluli. aqedan gamodinare mo- pusSi davayenebT da korpusze xraxnebiT mivamagrebT.
vaxdenT maT SeerTebas.

75 76
nax. 5.13. CamxSobebi, romlebic unda amovtexoT

korpusSi dayenebuli sistemuri platebi naCve-
nebia nax. 5.14-ze da nax. 5.15-ze.
nax. 5.15. sistemuri plata dayenebulia korpusSi
aramoxsnadi paneliT

nax. 5.14 sistemuri plata dayenebulia
korpusSi moxsnadi paneliT

77 78
Tavi VI rac Seexeba Zip, LS-120 da sxva formatis dam-
diskuri mowyobilobebis CarTva groveblebs drekad diskebze, albaT maTze ukve uari
unda vTqvaT CD/DVD diskuri mowyobilobebis sasar-
6.1. personaluri kompiuteris standartuli geblod.
diskuri mowyobilobebi
vinCesteri
drekad diskebze damgroveblebi vinCesteri (nax. 6.2) personaluri kompiute-
bolo periodSi monacemebis ZiriTad mata- rebis ZiriTad diskur mowyobilobas warmoadgens.
rebels optikuri diskebi warmoadgenen. Tumca dre- Tanamedrove sistemebSi rekomendirebulia araumci-
kad diskur mowyobilobebze damgrovebeli 1,44 mb res 80 gb tevadobis vinCesterebis gamoyeneba, Tumca
diskebTan samuSaod (nax. 6.1) kvlav rCeba kompi- kargad gawyobil kompiuters 160 gb da meti teva-
uteris erT-erT standartul diskur mowyobilobad dobis vinCesteri unda gaaCndes.
da misi mxardaWera amJamadac faqtiurad yvela Tana-
medrove sistemur platas gaaCnia.

nax. 6.2. vinCesteri

nax. 6.1 drekad diskebze damgrovebeli tradiciulad, vinCesteris yvelaze gavrcele-
bul interfeiss ATA (IDE) warmoadgenda. Tanamedrove

79 80
sistemuri platebis umetesoba aRWurvilia SATA in- moirCeva da ATA (SATA) sistemebTan SedarebiT ufro
tefeisiTac (nax. 6.3). `inteleqtualuria~.

nax. 6.3. ATA da SATA kontrolerebi
nax. 6.4. SATA damgrovebeli
Tanamedrove SATA da ATA 100/ 133 vinCesterebs
faqtiurad erTi da igive warmadoba gaaCniaT. Tumca
Tanamedrove sistemebSi optimaluria mainc SATA
damgroveblebis (nax. 6.4) gamoyeneba. es dakavSire-
bulia sistemur platasTan damakavSirebeli kabelis
sigrZis zrdasTan da siganis SemcirebasTan, rac
amartivebs vinCesteris SeerTebas da aumjobesebs
kompiuteris ventilacias. agreTve SATA vinCestere-
bis warmadobis Semdgomi zrdis perspeqtivac unda
nax. 6.5. SCSI sistema
gaviTvaliswinoT.
serverebSi umetesad SCSI sistema gamoiyeneba.
SCSI sistemas Setana-gamotanis funqciebTan
(nax. 6.5). igi vinCesterebis masivis mxardaWeriT ga-
dakavSirebuli procesoris samuSaos nawilis Tavis

81 82
Tavze aReba SeuZlia. es ki gansakuTrebiT mniSvne- 6.2. diskuri mowyobilobebis dayeneba da
lovania serverebisTvis, romlebSic mravali momxma- konfigurireba
reblis mxardaWera da rTuli failuri moTxovnebis
damuSavebis SesaZlebloba unda iyos re-alizebuli. sistemuri platis, operatiuli mexsierebis da
adapterebis dayenebis Semdeg unda davayenoT dis-
CD/DVD damgroveblebi kuri mowyobilobebi _ vinCesteri, CD/DVD-diskuri
dReisaTvis CD/DVD damgrovebeli (nax. 6.6) kom- mowyobiloba da drekadi diskuri mowyobiloba. Tum-
piuteris ganuyofel nawils warmoadgens. Tanamed- ca am ukanasknelis dayeneba Tanamedrove kompiute-
rove programuli uzrunvelyofa praqtikulad mTli- rebSi aRar aris aucilebeli, radgan drekad dikze
anad CD-diskebis saSualebiT, xolo multimedia-in- Senaxuli informaciis moculoba mizerulad mcirea,
formacia DVD-diskebis saSualebiT vrceldeba. xolo sistemuri problemebis SemTxvevaSi kompiute-
ris diagnostikisaTvis da sistemis aRdgenisaTvis
SesaZlebelia kompiuteris CD-diskidan CatvirTvac.
pirvel rigSi sicxade SevitanoT gamoyenebul
terminebSi, romlebic diskuri mowyobilobebis fi-
zikur zomebs axasiaTeben. arsebobs 5,25-duimiani da
3,5-diuimiani diskuri mowyobilobebi. am parametre-
biT sinamdvileSi ar izRudeba absoluturad yvela
diskuri mowyobilobis zomebi, Tumca standarti
nax. 6.5. DVD damgrovebeli
swored aseTia.
5,25-diuimiani diskuri mowyobilobebi korpu-
ufro universaluria DVD diskuri mowyobilo-
sis zeda nakveTurebSi yendeba. rogorc wesi, mcire
bebis gamoyeneba, radgan maT gaaCniaT rogorc CD-, gamonaklisiT, 5,25-diuimian diskur mowyobilobebs
aseve DVD diskebis mxardaWerac. praqtikulad yvela wina paneli gaCniaT, romelzedac mowyobilobis mar-
Tanamedrove sistemas gaaCnia CD/DVD diskebidan Cat- Tvis organoebia ganTavsebuli. 5,25-diuimiani disku-
virTvis SesaZleblobac. ri mowyobilobebis yvelaze gavrcelebuli saxeobaa
CD/DVD-diskuri mowyobilobebi. korpusi SeiZleba

83 84
daproeqtebuli iyos rogorc ori, aseve eqvsi 5,25-di- vinCesterebisaTvis 2-4 slotia gaTvaliswinebuli.
uimiani diskuri mowyobilobis dayenebisTvis. yvela- servere-bisTvis maTi raodenoba SeiZleba metic
feri korpusis modelzea damokidebuli. iyos. vinCesterebis dasayenebeli nakveTurebi sxva
3,5-diuimiani diskuri mowyobilobebis yvelaze nakveTurebis qvemoT imyofebian da maT korpusis
gavrcelebuli warmomadgenlebia vinCesteri da dre- wina panelze naxvretebi ar gaaCniaT.
kadi diskuri mowyobiloba. korpusebs, rogorc wesi, drekadi diskuri mowyobiloba Semdegnairad
ar gaaCniaT bevri nakveTuri gare panelis mqone 3,5- unda dayendes:
diuimiani diskuri mowyobilobebis dayenebisTvis. • vacilebT 3,5-duimiani diskuri mowyobilobis Cam-
maTi raodenoba, Cveulebriv, 2-3-ia. xSobs. Cveulebriv, amisTvis korpusis wina panel-
3,5-diuimiani drekadi diskuri mowyobilobebis- ze plastikuri firfita unda moixsnas.
Tvis korpusis wina panelze gaTvaliswinebulia Cam- • wina panelis mxridan diskur mowyobilobas va-
xSobi, sadac standartuli drekadi diskuri mow- TavsebT misTvis gankuTvnil nakveTurSi da kor-
yobilobebis garda SesaZlebelia Jaz, Zip da sxva da- pusze WanWikebiT vamagrebT.
matebiTi damgroveblebis dayeneba. • interfeisul kabels, romelic, rogorc wesi, Se-
yuradReba unda mivaqcioT, rom zogjer SeiZ- dis sistemuri platis kompleqtSi (sur. 6.6), vaer-
leba saWiro gaxdes vinCesteris 5,25-diuimian ganyo- TebT erTis mxriv deda platis FDD gasarTTan,
filebaSi dayeneba. es iZulebiTi RonisZiebaa, rode- xolo meores mxriv _ diskuri mowyobilobis
sac korpusSi 3,5-diuimian ganyofilebebs (otsekebs) interfeisul gasarTTan. interfeisuli kabelis
Soris manZili imdenad mcirea, rom ori vinCesteri feradi mavTuli unda SeuerTdes orive gasarTis
erTmaneTTan Zalian axlos Tavsdeba. am SemTxvevaSi pirvel kontaqtebs.
mZlavri damatebiTi gagrilebac ki araefeqturi iqne-
• vaerTebT diskur mowyobilobasTan kvebis kabels,
ba imis gamo, rom erTi vinCesteris eleqtruli pla-
romelic kvebis blokidan gamodis. gasarTi aR-
ta meore vinCesters TiTqmis exeba.
Wurvilia gasaRebiT gamonawevis saxiT, amitom
vinCesteris dasayenebeli nakveTurebis raode-
misi araswori CarTva SeuZlebelia.
noba gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva modelis korpusebis-
nax. 6.7-ze warmodgenilia gasarTebi IDE dis-
Tvis. Cveulebrivi korpusebisTvis, romlebic orien-
kuri mowyobilobebis da drekadi diskuri mowyobi-
tirebulia saofised da saxlSi gamoyenebisaTvis,
lobebis sistemur platasTan SesaerTeblad.

85 86
IDE mowyobilobebis SesaerTebel pirvel
ports pirvel, an pirvelad arxs uwodeben. Tanamed-
rove sistemuri platebis umetesobaze igi lurji
ferisaa. IDE mowyobilobebis SesaerTebeli meore
porti, romelsac meore, an meorad arxs uwodeben,
Tanamedrove sistemuri platebis umetesobaze Savi
ferisaa. SedarebiT mcire zomisaa drekadi diskuri
mowyobilobis porti. Tu portebi ferebiT ar gan-
sxvavdebian, sistemur plataze aucileblad data-
nilia markireba IDE1 (Primary) da IDE2 (Secondary).
axla ganvixiloT rogor konfigurirdebian da
sur. 6.6. interfeisuri kabeli drekadi diskuri irTvebian vinCesterebi da CD-diskuri mowyobilobe-
mowyobilobebisTvis bi.
yoveli vinCesteri, an CD-diskuri mowyobilo-
ba SeiZleba iyos ZiriTadi (Master), an meoradi (Slave).
SesaZlebelia diskur mowyobilobebs mkacrad davu-
niSnoT (Master/Slave), an avirCioT Cable Select reJimi. am
SemTxvevaSi Sleifis SeerTebis mixedviT gadawydeba,
Tu romeli mowyobiloba iqneba Master, xolo romeli
_ Slave. dadgena imis mixedviT moxdeba, Tu diskuri
mowyobiloba Sleifis romel gasarTTan iqneba Seer-
Tebuli. parametri (Master/Slave/Cable Select) diskur mo-
wyobilobebze damontaJebuli specialuri jamperebis
saSualebiT moicema. jamperi warmoadgens gadam-
rTvels, romelic manWvlisgan da SesarTavisgan
Sedgeba.

nax. 6.7. IDE da FDD portebi sistemur plataze

87 88
vinCesterebze da CD-diskur mowyobilobebze,
rogorc wesi, specialuri cxrili daitaneba, rom-
lis safuZvelzec xdeba jamperebis konfigurireba
(nax. 6.8, 6.9).

nax. 6.9. warwerebi CD-diskur mowyobilobaze. igi
konfigurirebulia, rogorc Slave

nax. 6.8. cxrili vinCesterze

nax. 6.9-ze warmodgenili CD-diskuri mowyo-
biloba konfigurirebulia, rogorc Slave. nax. 6.10-
6.12-ze naCvenebia jamperebis ZiriTadi mdgomareobebi
vinCesteris konfigurirebisaTvis. Tu SevadarebT
vinCesteris cxrils, SegviZlia vTqvaT, jamperebis
romeli mdgomareoba vinCesteris muSaobis romel
reJims Seesabameba.

nax. 6.10. Master

89 90
bamisad, konfigurirebas. aucileblad unda gvaxsov-
des, rom erT Sleifze SeiZleba SeerTebuli iyos
mxolod erTi mTavari da erTi marTuli diskuri
mowyobiloba. yvelaze ufro xSirad gavrcelebuli
kombinaciebia:
• sistemas erTi vinCesteri da erTi CD-diskuri
mowyobiloba gaaCnia. am SemTxvevaSi vinCesters
erTi SleifiT sistemur plataze pirvel arxTan
vaerTebT da vinCesterze Master-s vayenebT. meore
SleifiT CD-diskur mowyobilobas sistemuri
platis meore arxTan vaerTebT da afreTve Master-
s vayenebT. amrigad, sistemuri platis TiToeul
nax. 6.11. Slave
arxTan TiTo diskuri mowyobiloba iqneba Seer-
Tebuli.
• sistemas vinCesteri da ori CD-diskuri mowyobi-
loba gaaCnia. am SemTxvevaSi vinCesters erTi
SleifiT sistemur plataze pirvel arxTan va-
erTebT da Master-s vayenebT. meore SleifiT orive
CD-diskur mowyobilobas sistemur plataze me-
ore arxTan vaerTebT. erT CD-diskur mowyobilo-
baze vayenebT Master-s, xolo meoreze _ Slave-s. am
SemTxvevaSi kontroleris pirvel arxTan erTi
diskuri mowyobiloba iqneba SeerTebuli, xolo
meore arxTan _ ori diskuri mowyobi-loba.
nax. 6.12. Cable Select
• sistemas ori vinCesteri da erTi CD-diskuri mow-
yobiloba gaaCnia. am SemTxvevaSi erTi SleifiT
amis Semdeg unda ganvsazRvroT, Tu rogor va-
pirvel vinCesters sistemur plataze pirvel ar-
pirebT diskuri mowyobilobebis SeerTebas, da, Sesa-

91 92
xTan vaerTebT da vinCesterze Master-s vayenebT. • Tu sistemur bloks moxsnadi nakveTuri gaaCnia,
meore vinCesters amave SleifiT vaerTebT, magram romelic vinCesterisa da drekadi diskuri mo-
masze Slave-s vayenebT. CD-diskur mowyobilobas me- wyobilobebis dasayeneblad gamoiyeneba, igi unda
ore SleifiT sistemur plataze meore arxTan gamoviRoT.
vaerTebT da Master-s vayenebT. amrigad, pirvel • movxsniT damgroveblebs mimmarTvelebs (Tu ga-
arxTan ori vinCesteri aRmoCndeba SeerTebuli, aCnia).
xolo meore arxTan _ mxolod CD-diskuri mowyo- • diskur mowyobilobebSi jamperebs iseTnairad va-
biloba. yenebT, rom muSaobis arCeul reJimebs (Master, Sla-
• sistemas ori vinCesteri da ori CD-diskuri mow- ve, Cable select) Seesabamebodnen;
yobiloba gaaCnia. am SemTxvevaSi erTi SleifiT • vayenebT diskur mowyobilobebs Sesabamis nakve-
pirvel vinCesters sistemur plataze pirvel ar- TurebSi da xraxnebiT vamagrebT (rogor wesi,
xTan vaerTebT da vinCesterze Master-s vayenebT. xraxnebis raodenoba oTxia). farTod gavrcelebu-
meore vinCesters imave SleifiT vaerTebT, magram li Secdomaa diskuri mowyobilobebis saerTod
masze Slave-s vayenebT. meore SleifiT pirvel CD- ardamagreba, an mxolod erTi xraxniT damagreba.
diskur mowyobilobas sistemur plataze meore davimaxsovroT, rom diskuri mowyobilobebis
arxTan vaerTebT da Master-s vayenebT. meore CD- (gansakuTrebiT vinCesteris) yvela xraxniT kor-
diskur mowyobilobas imave SleifiT vaerTebT, pusze mWidro damagreba nakleb vibracias da uke-
magram masze Slave-s vayenebT. Tes Tboarinebas uzrunvelyofs. am SemTxvevaSi
zogjer gvxvdeba sistemebi, romlebSic auci- korpusi radiatoris funqcias asrulebs. vinCes-
lebelia 4-ze meti IDE diskuri mowyobilobis (vin- teri naklebad xurdeba da monacemebis dakargvis
Cesterebi, CD da sxva tipis diskuri mowyobilobebi) albaTobac mcirdeba.
gamoyeneba. am problemis gadasaWrelad damatebiTi • Tu sistemas moxsnadi nakveTuri gaaCnia, vayenebT
IDE kontrolerebi unda SeviZinoT, romlebic PCI masSi damgrovebels da kompiuteris korpusSi va-
slotSi yendeba. TavsebT. damgrovebels xraxnebiT vamagrebT (Se-
amrigad, diskuri mowyobilobebis dayeneba sabamisi standartis xraxnebi, rogorc wesi, kor-
Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT sruldeba: puss moyveba).

93 94
• Sleifs grZeli mxriT (lurji gasarTiT) sis-
temuri platis gasarTTan vaerTebT. Sav gasarTs
vaerTebT im diskur mowyobilobasTan, romelic
konfigurirebulia, rogorc Master. nacrisfer ga-
sarTs Slave diskur mowyobilobasTan vaerTebT
(Tu aseTi arsebobs).
• igive operaciebis Tanmimdevrobas vasrulebT me-
ore Sleifze. masTan danarCen diskur mowyobi-
lobebs vaerTebT (Tu isini arseboben)
SATA interfeisSi wamyvani da marTuli (Mas-
ter/Slave) mowyobilobebis cneba ar arsebobs. gasar-
Tebi mxolod kabelis boloebSia ganTavsebuli. yo- nax. 6.13. 80-gamtariani Sleifi

veli SeerTebuli diskuri mowyobiloba damouki-
debel mowyobilobas warmoadgens da Zveli standar- yuradReba unda mivaqcioT, rom lurj da Sav
tis mixedviT rogorc Master with no Slave Present gani- gasarTebs Soris manZili metia, vidre Sav da nac-
xileba. Tumca, Zvel standartTan SeTavsebadobis risfer gasarTebs Soris. igive suraTia 40-gamta-
dacvis mizniT, Master/Slave reJimSi muSaobacaa neba- riani kabelisTvisac (nax. 6.14) im gansxvavebiT, rom
darTuli. am dros mimarTvebi sxvadasxva SATA por- yvela gasarTi Savia. gvaxsovdes, rom Sleifi sis-
tebs Soris gadanawildeba. temur platis gasarTebs (rogorc pirvelads, aseve
meorads) yovelTvis grZeli mxriT, an lurji gasar-
TiT uerTdeba. Master diskuri mowyobiloba Sav ga-
6.3. Sleifebis standartebi sarTs uerTdeba, xolo Slave diskuri mowyobiloba _
nacrisfer gasarTs. 40-gamtariani kabelisaTvis Mas-
axali standartis, 80-gamtarian IDE Sleifebs ter diskuri mowyobiloba uerTdeba Sua, xolo Slave
feradi gasarTebi gaaCniaT. pirveli gasarTi lur- diskuri mowyobiloba _ gare gasarTs.
jia, meore _ Savi, xolo mesame _ TeTri. 80-gamta- yuradReba unda mivaqcioT, rom sistemuri pla-
riani Sleifi warmodgenilia nax. 6.13-ze. tis da diskuri mowyobilobebis gasarTebs

95 96
gasaRebebi gaaCniaT, rac SeuZlebels xdis Sleifis TavsebT sistemuri platis gasarTs. diskuri mowyo-
araswor SeerTebas. bilobebisTvis (vinCesteri, CD-diskuri mowyobiloba)
pirveli kontaqti, rogorc wesi, kvebis gasarTis
gverdiT imyofeba.
Tu Cven zedmetad CavTvliT jamperebSi da
SleifebSi garkvevas, yvela diskur mowyobilobis
jampers Cable select mdgomareobaSi davayenebT, Sleifs
grZeli mxridan SevaerTebT sistemuri platis gasar-
TTan, xolo Sleifis darCenil gasarTebTan Sevaer-
TebT diskur mowyobilobebs. maTi konfigurireba
avtomaturad moxdeba.
gamtarebis raodenoba SATA kabelSi (nax. 6.15)
nax. 6.14. 40-gamtariani Sleifi bevrad ufro naklebia paralelur ATA kabelTan Se-
darebiT, amitom igi bevrad ufro kompaqturi da mo-
saxerxebelia.
nax. 6.14-ze kargad moCans gasaRebi (П-tipis ga-
monawevi gasarTze). samwuxarod, bevr Zvel Sleifs
ar gaaCnia gasaRebebi, rac SesaZlebels xdis maT
araswor SeerTebas. gadabrunebuli SleifiT disku-
ri mowyobilobis sistemuri platis gasarTTan Seer-
Teba sistemas ar daazianebs, Tumca SeuZlebels gax-
dis muSaobas. bevr Sleifze kiduri mavTuli wiT-
ladaa markirebuli. igi warmoadgens pirvel kon-
taqts Sleifze da gasarTze. Tu Cven gvaqvs Sleifi
gasaRebis gareSe, yuradReba unda mivaqcioT sis-
nax. 6.15. SATA kabeli
temuri platis markirebas gasarTis gverdiT. iq
aucileblad iqneba cifri 1. swored igi warmoadgens
unda aRvniSnoT, rom SATA interfeisis kvebis
pirvel kontaqts. Sleifis markirebul gasarTs vu-
gasarTi (nax. 6.16) paraleluri ATA interfeisis kve-

97 98
bis gasarTs zomiT aRemateba. es dakavSirebulia CD-ROM diskuri mowyobilobaze interfeisul
SATA interfeisSi damatebiT +3,3 v Zabvis gamoyene- da mkvebav gasarTebTan erTad agreTve audio gamo-
basTan. sasvlelis ori gasarTi da damiwebis klemacaa gan-
Tavsebuli.
analoguri audio gamosasvleli, specialuri
Sleifis saSualebiT, kompiuterSi dayenebul zogi-
erT audioplatas uerTdeba. cifruli audio gamo-
sasvleli gankuTvnilia cifrul audiomowyobilo-
bebTan mierTebisaTvis. damiwebis klema Cveulebriv
nax. 6.16. SATA interfeisis kvebis gasarTi kompiuteris korpuss uerTdeba.

ramdenadac SATA paraleluri ATA interfeisis
Semdgom ganviTarebas warmoadgens, momxmarebels,
specialuri adapterebis gamoyenebiT, ATA-100 da ATA-
133 vinCesterebis SATA interfeisTan SeerTebac Se-
uZlia.
nax. 6.17-ze warmodgenilia erT-erTi aseTi
adapteri _ HighPoint RocketHead-100.

nax. 6.17. SATA-adapteri HighPoint RocketHead-100.

99 100
Tavi VII romelic faqtiurad yvela Tanamedrove videoadap-
adapterebis dayeneba kompiuterSi terSia CaSenebuli.

7.1. videoadapteri da monitori

mcire zomis elementebTan samuSaod minimum 17-
diuimian monitorebis gamoyenebaa rekomendirebuli,
radgan ufro mcire zomis monitorebs 1024X768 ga-
dawyvetis mqone gamosaxulebis detalebis xarisxi-
ani gadmocema ar SeuZliaT da saWiro xdeba 800X600
gadawyvetaze gadarTva. rasakvirvelia, 1024X768 ga-
dawyvetiT muSaoba 15-diuimian monitorebsac SeuZ-
liaT, magram problema imaSi mdgomareobs, rom gamo-
saxulebis mcire detalebis garCeva rTuli iqneba. nax. 7.1. Samsung syncmaster 793 monitori
Tu Cven vyidulobT monitors eleqtronul- eleqtronul-sxivuri milakiT
sxivuri milakiT (nax. 7.1), yuradReba unda mivaqcioT
wertilebs Soris dacilebas (unda iyos 0,28 piq-
seli/diuimze, an ufro naklebi).
amJamad umetesad Txevadkristaluri (LCD) mo-
nitorebi gamoiyeneba (nax. 7.2). 15-diuimiani Txevad-
kristaluri monitori ekranis xedvadi nawilis zo-
mebis mixedviT 17-diuimiani eleqtronul-sxivur mo-
nitoris eqvivalenturia. umetes SemTxvevaSi monito-
rebi Cveulebriv analogur VGA ports uerTdebian,
Tumca Txevadkristaluri monitorebis bevri Tana-
medrove modeli mxolod DVI gasarTTan muSaobs,

nax. 7.2. Samsung 913N LCD monitori

101 102
Tu Cven monitoris `sakuTari~ gadawyvetiT mu-
Saobas vapirebT (17-diuimiani Txevadkristaluri mo-
nitorisTvis 1280X1024, 15-diuimiani Txevadkristalu-
ri monitorisTvis 1024X768), umjobesia Txevadkrista-
luri monitoris gamoyeneba. Tu gvWirdeba gadawyve-
tis xSiri cvla (gansakuTrebiT grafikasTan muSa-
obis dros) umjobesia eleqtronul-sxivur milakiani
monitori SeviZinoT.
videoadapteri da monitori erTmaneTs rege-
neraciis sixSiris mixedviT unda uTavsdebodnen. nax. 7.3. PCI Express 16x standartis videpoadapteri
gamosaxulebis cimcimis Tavidan asacileblad kad-
rebis sixSire unda iyos araumcires 72 hercisa (rac
meti, ukeTesi). Tu videoadapters iseT sixSireze
davayenebT, romlis mxardaWerac monitors ar gaaC-
nia, monitori SeiZleba daziandes.
amJamad ZiriTadad videoadapterebis ori stan-
darti gamoiyeneba: Tanamedrove Pentium 4 kompiutereb-
Si PCI Express 16x (nax. 7.3), xolo Pentium II-III da Seda-
rebiT Zveli modelis Pentium 4 kompiuterebSi _ AGP
4x/8x (nax. 7.3).
dResdReobiT mcire raodenobiT PCI videoadap-
terebic iwarmoeba, romelTa dayenebac ori moni-
toris erTdrouli gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba
dagvWirdes. es funqcia sakmaod sasargebloa zogi- nax. 7.4. AGP 8x standartis videpoadapteri

erT gamoyenebiT programaSi muSaobis dros da mas
mxars uWers yvela Tanamedrove operaciuli sistema Tumca Tu sistema Tavidanve ormonitorian re-
_ Windows 98/Me/ 2000/XP. JimSi muSaobisTvisaa gankuTvnili, umjobesia speci-
aluri orgamosasvleliani videokontroleris daye-

103 104
neba. es saSualebas mogvcems Tavidan aviciloT Se- lebelia API DirectX-is mxardaWera. amJamad parale-
saZlebeli aparaturuli konfliqtebi, draiverebis luri PCI da mimdevrobiTi PCI Express 1x standartis
da BIOS-is konfliqtebi, romlebmac ori videoadap- audiokontrolerebi iwarmoeba (ISA standartis
teris dayenebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iCinon Tavi. audiokontrolerebi moralurad moZvelebulia).
videoadapteris SeZenis dros yuradReba unda nax. 7.5-ze warmodgenilia paraleluri PCI
mivaqcioT mis SesaZleblobebs or- da samganzomi- standartis audiokontroleri.
lebian grafikaSi muSaobis dros. Tanamedrove Tama-
Sebi grafikuli monacemebis damuSavebis siCqaris mi-
marT sakmaod momTxovni arian, amitom umjobesia
NVIDIA, an ATI kompaniebis maRalmwarmoebluri video-
adapterebi SeviZinoT.

7.2. audiokontroleri da akustikuri sistema

nebismieri multimediuri kompiuterisTvis au-
diokontroleris da gare akustikuri sistemis (di- nax. 7.5. audiokontroleri AUDIGY2-VALUE
namikebi, yursacmebi da a.S) arseboba aucilebel
moTxovnas warmoadgens. Tanamedrove sistemuri pla-
tebis umetesobas integrirebuli audiokontrole- 7.3. grafikuli adapteris dayeneba
rebi gaaCniaT. Tumca maRali xarisxobrivi maCve-
neblebis mqone audiosistemis uzrunvelyofa mxo-
sistemuri platis dayenebisa da korpusSi da-
lod audioadapterebis gamoyenebiTaa SesaZlebeli.
magrebis Semdeg SegviZlia daviwyoT adapterebis
audioadapteri unda iyos SeTavsebadi Creative dayeneba. imisaTvis, rom davrwmundeT Cvens mier
Labs korporaciis Sound Blaster standartisa. es auci- awyobili kompiuteris gamarTulobaSi, aucilebelia
lebeli moTxovnaa MS-DOS operaciuli sistemisaT- sistemur plataze videoplatis dayeneba, raTa
vis. Windows sistemaSi muSaobis dros agreTve auci-

105 106
SevZloT Cveni kompiuteris muSaobis Semowmeba moni- videoadapteris gasarTze Camketi gaaaCnia, romelic
toris ekranze. videoadapters amagrebs (nax. 7.7).
videokontroleri erTaderT aucilebel adap-
ters warmoadgens. mis fareSe kompiuteri ar Cair-
Tveba, ufro swored gamoscems erT xangrZliv da
sam xanmokle signals, riTac video-adapteris prob-
lemis Sesaxeb gvatyobinebs da Cerdeba. nax. 7.6 da
nax. 7.7-ze warmodgenilia kompiuterSi dayenebuli
videoadapterebi.

nax. 7.7. kompiuterSi dayenebuli videoadapteri

arsebuli videoadapteris Secvlisas (an in-
tegrirebuli videodan srulfasovan videosistemaze
gadasvlisas) unda wavSaloT videokontroleris
arsebuli draiveri, gamovrToT kompiuteri da Sev-
cvaloT plata.
nax. 7.6. kompiuterSi dayenebuli videoadapteri dResdReobiT videoplatebis ori ZiriTadi
standarti gamoiyeneba _ platebi PCI express da AGP
yvela Tanamedrove sistemur plataze video-
interfeisebiT. amJamad iSviaTad gamoyenebuli pla-
adapteris gasarTi slotebs Soris pirvelia. igi
tebi paraleluri PCI interfeisiT sistemuri pla-
imyofeba yvelaze maRla, rodesac sistemuri plata
tis nebismier PCI-slotSi SeiZleba iqnan dayene-
korpusSi dayenebulia da korpusi vertikaluradaa
bulni da kvebis CarTvisas sistema maT avtomaturad
dadgmuli. gasarTis feri agreTve gansxvavdeba sxva
aRmoaCens. AGP interfeiss videoplatis dasayeneblad
gasarTebis ferebisagan. zogierT sistemur platas
mxolod erTi gasarTi gaaCnia amitom videoplatis

107 108
dayenebis adgili calsaxad gansazRvrulia. igive raTa plata gasarTSi bolomde moTavsdes (nax.
SegviZlia vTqvaT PCI express standartis video- 7.8). amasTan erTad, sistemuri platis dazianebis
platebzec. Tavidan asacileblad, unda vecadoT, rom
kompiuteris korpusis ukana panelze, im adgi- videoadapterze daWerisas sistemuri plata mniS-
lebis gaswvriv, sadac SesaZlebelia sistemur pla- vnelovnad ar iRunebodes. amisTvis unda vecadoT,
taze damatebiTi plata-kontrolerebis dayeneba, rom adapteri ara horizontalur sibrtyeSi, ara-
aris sworkuTxa naxvretebi, Caketili CamxSobebiT. med mxolod vertikalurad qveviT vamoZravoT. Tu
CamxSobebi WanWikebiT damagrebul nawilobriv CaW- videoplatis dayeneba garTulda, masze msubuqad
ril naxvretebs an metalur firfitebs warmoad- davaWerT. Tu saWiroa, dawolas gavzrdiT rig-
genen. rigobiT, xan erT da xan meore mxares manam, sanam
kontroleris dayenebamde igi unda movazomoT adapteri gasarTSi mTlianad ar moTavsdeba.
AGP, PCI Express an PCI gasarTs, korpusis ukana pa-
nelis Sesabamisi CamxSobis gansazRvrisaTvis.
es CamxSobi unda movaciloT, raTa gavxsnaT
gza videoplatis gamosasvleli gasarTisaken.
• vacilebT metalur CamxSobs korpusis ukana pa-
nelidan. amisTvis amoviRebT xraxns da movxsniT
im slotis gaswvriv arsebul saxuravs, romelSic
videoadapters vayenebT.
• Tu Cven damiwebis mavTuls ar viyenebT, kvebis
bloks unda SevexoT, rac aparaturuli kom-
ponentebis dazianebas agvacilebs Tavidan. nax. 7.8. videoadapteris dayeneba
• videoadapters saWiro slotSi vayenebT. kom-
piuteris korpuss imgvarad vaTavsebT, rom sis- • rodesac videoadapteri gasarTSi bolomde mo-
temurma platam horizontaluri mdebareoba mi- Tavsdeba, misi samagri sistemuri blokis ukana
iRos. vayenebT videokontrolers misTvis gankuT- panelTze unda mivaxraxnoT. am mizniT videop-
vnil gasarTSi da frTxilad vaWerT zemodan, latis Tamasaze aris specialuri CanaWeri, xolo

109 110
kompiuteris korpusSi _ naxvreti WanWikisaTvis, 7.4. sxva plata-adapterebis dayeneba
an SurupisaTvis. Tu videoadapters ar mivax-
raxniT, igi droTa ganmavlobaSi saltis slo- videoadapteris dayenebis Semdeg unda dava-
tidan SeiZleba amovardes (Tundac monitoris ka- yenoT sxva adapterebic.
belis moxsna-SeerTebis dros) da kompiuteri yoveli damatebiTi mowyobilobis damontaJeba,
aRar CairTveba. romelic kompiuteris sistemur plataze dayenebis-
• adapteris gasarTs monitoris kabels vuerTebT. Tvisaa gankuTvnili (xmovani da qseluri qseluri
Tu axali videoadapteri DVI-I gasarTiTaa aRWur- kontrolerebi, modemebi, sxvadasxva damatebiTi adap-
vili, xolo monitori _ mxolod 15-kontaqtiani terebi), xdeba iseve, rogorc videoplatis dayeneba.
VGA-gasarTiT, Sesabamisi gadamyvani unda gamovi- personalur kompiuterebSi umetesad Semdegi
yenoT (xSirad aseTi gadamyvani adapters moyveba, saxis plata-adapterebi yendeba: qseluri, audio,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi calke unda SeviZinoT). video, SCSI-kontrolerebi. maTi dayenebisTvis siste-
Tu videosistema CaSenebulia sistemuri pla- mur plataze gaTvaliswinebulia gafarToebis gasar-
tis mikrosqemaTa krebulSi, axali videoadapteris Tebi (slotebi).
PCI Express/AGP/PCI slotSi dayenebisas CaSenebuli platas frTxilad vkidebT xels kuTxeebSi.
grafikuli procesori avtomaturad iTiSeba. zogi- mikrosqemebs da eleqtrul kavSirebs ar unda Se-
erT SemTxvevaSi amisTvis SeiZleba sistemuri pla- vexoT. platas qveda mxriT, romelzedac metaluri
tis jamperis Sesabamis mdgomareobaSi dayeneba kontaqtebia datanili, Sesabamis gasarTSi CavuSvebT
(dokumentaciis mixedviT), an Setup BIOS-dan CaSene- da platas zeda mxridan davaWerT, raTa is Tavis
buli grafikuli procesoris gaTiSva gaxdes sa- adgilas moTavsdes.
Wiro. nax. 7.9-ze warmodgenilia kompiuteri dayene-
buli adapterebiT.
Cvevad unda miviRoT yvela adapteris kor-
pusze vintiT damagreba. nax. 7.9-ze warmodgenili
yvela carieli sloti, romelSic adapteri ar aris
dayenebuli, CamxSobiTaa daxuruli. es gakeTebulia
ara silamazisTvis, aramed Semdegi saWiroebisaTvis:

111 112
CamxSobebi xels uSlian korpusSi haeris Sesvla- Tavi VIII
gamosvlas, rasac didi mniSvneloba gaaCnia sistemis kvebis CarTva
ventilaciisaTvis.
8.1. sistemuri platis kvebaSi CarTva

Tu Cven kvebis bloki sistemuri platis daye-
nebamde movxseniT, amJamad swored is droa, rom
davayenoT igi. amisTvis kvebis blokis naxvretebs
vuTavsebT sistemuri blokis korpusze arsebul
naxvretebs, erTi xeliT viWerT kvebis bloks, xolo
meore xeliT vuWerT oTxive xraxns.
imis Semdeg, rac kompiuteris yvela kompo-
nents davayenebT da SevaerTebT, sistemuri platisa
da diskuri mowyobilobebis kvebaSi CarTva unda mo-
nax. 7.9. kompiuteri dayenebuli adapterebiT vaxdinoT.
upirveles yovlisa, sistemur plataze nax. 8.1-
ze warmodgenili gasarTi unda vipovoT. am gasarTis
saSualebiT kveba sistemur platas, procesors da
adapterebs miewodeba.
nax. 8.2-ze warmodgenilia kvebis blokis Ziri-
Tadi gasarTi sistemur platasTan SeerTebul mdgo-
mareobaSi.
Pentium 4 kompiuterebSi Semotanilia kvebis da-
matebiTi gasarTi _ ATX12V (nax. 8.3). igi oTxi budis-
gan Sedgeba, kvadratuli forma gaaCnia da pro-
cesoris damatebiT kvebas uzrunvelyofs. specifi-

113 114
kaciis mixedviT ATX12V gasarTi maqsimalurad sta-
biluri ZabviT gamoirCeva.

nax. 8.3. kvebis damatebiTi gasarTi ATX12V

ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom mocemuli gasarTi
mxolod im sistemur platebs gaaCniaT, romelTac
nax. 8.1. kvebis gasarTi Pentium 4 procesorebis mxardaWera gaaCniaT. gasarTs
gaaCnia gamonawevi, romelic SeerTebis dros siste-
muri platis Sesabamisi kvebis gasarTis Camkets unda
daemTxvas.
axali sistemuri platis dayenebisas SeiZleba
aRmoCndes, rom mas damatebiTi kveba sWirdeba, xolo
kvebis bloks ATX12V gasarTi ar gaaCnia. es problema
advilad daZlevadia, radgan +12 v diskuri mowyobi-
lobebis kvebis gasarTebsac miewodeba. am SemTxve-
vaSi diskuri mowyobilobebis erT-erT gasarTs da
specialur adapters iyeneben (nax. 8.4).
kompiuterSi SeiZleba gamoiyenebodes damatebi-
Ti kvebis gasarTic. misi gamoyeneba maSinaa auci-
nax. 8.2. kveba CarTulia
lebeli, rodesac +3,3 v Zabvaze 18 a-ze meti, xolo
+5v-ze _ 24 a-ze meti deni moixmareba da mowyobilo-

115 116
bebis mier moxmarebuli simZlavre 250-300 vt-s aRema- 8.2. diskuri mowyobilobebis kvebaSi CarTva
teba.
amis Semdeg kvebaSi unda CavrToT yvela dam-
grovebeli. nax. 8.6-ze warmodgenilia standartuli
da drekadi diskuri mowyobilobebis gasarTebi.

nax. 8.4. diskuri mowyobilobis gasarTi adapteriT

nax. 8.6. standartuli da drekadi diskuri
ATX kvebis blokis damatebiTi gasarTi siste- mowyobilobebis gasarTebi
mur platas uerTdeba da 6-kontaqtian Molex (Aux) ti-
pis gasarTs warmoadgens. mas gasaRebi gaaCnia, rome- SeerTebis dros yuradReba unda mivaqcioT,
lic SeuZlebels xdis gasarTis sistemur platasTan
rom rogorc vinCesteris, aseve kvebis blokis gasar-
araswor SeerTebas (nax. 8.5).
Tebs or-ori CamoWrili kuTxe gaaCniaT. swored maTi
arasimetriuli formis gamo aris SeuZlebeli kvebis
araswori SeerTeba. Tu SeerTeba ver xerxdeba, ar
aris saWiro mTeli ZaliT dawola. pirvel rigSi
unda SevamowmoT, uTavsdebian Tu ara erTmaneTs
kuTxeebi.
erTaderTi mowyobiloba, romelzedac teqni-
kurad SesaZlebelia kvebis araswori miwodeba, dre-
kadi diskuri mowyobilobaa. misi gasarTi vinCes-
teris da CD-diskuri mowyobilobebis gasarTebTan
nax. 8.5. Molex tipis gasarTi
SedarebiT ufro mcire zomisaa (nax. 8.7).

117 118
swor CarTvas. SeerTebis swori varianti warmod-
genilia nax. 8.8-ze.

nax. 8.7. drekadi diskuri mowyobilobis kvebis gasarTi

diskur mowyobilobaze arsebuli gasarTi mxo-
lod manWvlebis erTobliobas warmoadgens. amitom,
nax. 8.8. drekadi diskuri mowyobilobis kvebaSi sworad
garkveuli Zalis datanebis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZlebe-
CarTuli gasarTi
lia kvebis blokis gasarTis diskuri mowyobilobis
gasarTze ukuRma wamocma. kvebis CarTvis dros, Tu
gasarTi ukuRmaa wamocmuli, +5 v-is nacvlad diskur
mowyobilobas +12 v miewodeba. Tu gasarTs erT an
ramdenime manWvalze daZrulad SevaerTebT, miwis
nacvlad kontaqtze moxdeba +12 v Zabvis miwodeba. am
SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia rogorc diskuri mowyo-
bilobis gadawva, aseve kvebis blokis dacvis amoq-
medeba, ris Sedegadac kompiuteri gamoirTveba.
swored amitom gansakuTrebuli yuradReba un-
da mivaqcioT drekadi diskuri mowyobilobis kvebaSi

119 120
Tavi IX 6. gasarTi COM 2. igive daniSnulebisaa, rac COM 1.
periferiuli mowyobilobebis SeerTeba Tamamedrove kompiuterebis umetesobas aRar gaaC-
nia.
9.1. gasarTebi periferiuli mowyobilobebis 7. LPT gasarTi. Cveulebriv erTdeba printeri da ska-
SeerTebisTvis neri.
8. dinamikebis, yursacmebis da sxva audiomowyobi-
imis Semdeg, rac kompiuteris yvela mowyobi- lobebis SesaerTebeli budeebi. audiokontrole-
loba kvebaSi CairTveba, unda movaxdinoT kompiuter- ri SeiZleba iyos integrirebuli sistemur pla-
Tan periferiuli mowyobilobebis SeerTeba. ganvixi- taSi, an realizebuli calke plata-adapteris sa-
loT TanmimdevrobiT: xiT.
1. gasarTi 220 v kvebis kabelis SesaerTeblad. 9. joistikis SesaerTebeli gasarTi. SeiZleba integ-
2. gasarTi PS\2 klaviaturis SesaerTeblad. igi, ro- rirebuli iyos sistemur plataSi, an audiopla-
gorc wesi, iasamnisferi ferisaa. Tu Cven gvaqvs taSi.
USB standartis klaviatura, igi erT-erT (4) ga- 10. gasarTi monitoris SesaerTeblad.
sarTTan unada SevaerToT. 11. gasarTi qseluri kabelis SesaerTeblad. qselu-
3. gasarTi PS\2 mausis SesaerTeblad. igi, rogorc ri kontroleri SeiZleba iyos integrirebuli
wesi, mwvane ferisaa. Tu Cven gvaqvs USB standar- sistemur plataSi, an realizebuli calke plata-
tis mausi, igi agreTve erT-erT (4) gasarTTan un- adapteris saxiT (lokaluri qseli).
da SevaerToT. yvela gasarTs gaaCnia dacva mowyobilobebis
4. USB gasarTi. masTan SeiZleba SeerTdes klavi- araswori SeerTebisgan dasacavad. mowyobilobis ka-
belis gasarTTan SeerTebis dros didi Zala ar
atura, mausi, printeri, skaneri, modemi, Flash-dam-
unda davatanoT. Tu SeerTeba ver xerxdeba, unda
grovebeli da a.S.
SevamowmoT, sworedaa Tu ara gasarTi orienti-
5. gasarTi COM 1. gamoiyeneba Zveli standartis pe-
rebuli, an gaRunuli xom ar aris kontaqtebi.
riferiis, umetesad mausis da modemis Sesaer-
Teblad.

121 122
9.2. klaviaturis da mausis SeerTeba gasarTebiT (nax. 9.1) aRWurvili sistemuri platebi
da klaviaturebi iwarmoeba.
bunebrivia, kompiuterTan muSaobisTvis auci-
lebelia klaviatura da kursoris pozicionirebis
raime saSualeba, Cveulebriv mausi. mocemuli mowyo-
bilobebis modifikaciis arCeva momxmarebelzea da-
mokidebuli. sxvadasxva momxmarebels klaviaturis
sxvadasxva tipi SeiZleba moswondes. zogierT mom-
xmarebeli `xist~ klaviaturas amjobinebs, romelic nax. 9.1. kontaqtiani Mini-DIN gasarTebi klaviaturisTvis
klaviSebis kargad `SegrZnebis~ saSualebas iZleva, (iasamnisferi) da mausisTvis (mwvane)
xolo zogierTi momxmarebeli upiratesobas `rbil~
klaviaturas aniWebs, romlis klaviSebzec TiTebis klaviaturis yvelaze Tanamedrove interfeiss
msubuqi daWeraa SesaZlebeli. USB salte warmoadgens. USB klaviaturebis farTo
arsebobs standartuli klaviaturebis gasar- gavrcelebaSi erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli roli `Lega-
Tebis ori tipi. amitom klaviaturis yidvamde unda cy-Free~ kompiuterebis farTo gavrcelebam iTamaSa,
davrwmundeT, rom misi gasarTis konstruqcia sis- romelTac mxolod USB porti gaaCniaT.
temuri platis Sesabamisi gasarTis konstruqcias em- USB klaviaturis gamoyenebisaTvis aucilebe-
Txveva. originaluri 5-kontaqtiani DIN da Tana- lia USB mxardaWera sistemuri BIOS-is doneze. Tu
medrove 6-kontaqtiani Mini-DIN gasarTebi eleqtru- gvinda USB klaviaturis gamoyeneba Windows grafi-
lad SeTavsebadia, amitom, gadamyvanis saSualebiT, kuli interfeisis fareSe, BIOS mxars unda uWerdes
nebismieri klaviaturis nebismier sistemur platas- teqnologias, romelsac Legacy USB, an USB Keyboard and
Tan SeerTeba SeiZleba. Mouse ewodeba. am funqcias mxars uWers faqtiurad
Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom es sakiTxi aqtu- yvela Tanamedrove BIOS. SegviZlia SeviZinoT univer-
aluria mxolod Zveli klaviaturebisTvis da sis- saluri klaviaturac, romelic muSaobs rogorc USB
temuri platebisaTvis (Pentium II da ufro Zveli portTan, aseve tradiciul PS\2 portTan. es sa-
modelebi). amJamad mxolod 6-kontaqtiani Mini-DIN Sualebas mogvcems klaviatura gamoviyenoT rogorc
Tanamedrove, aseve Zvel sistemebSic. universalur

123 124
klaviaturebs, rogorc wesi, gaaCniaT USB porti da USB standartis mowyobilobebis speqtri sak-
adapteri _ USB/6-kontaqtiani Mini-DIN (nax. 9.2). maod didia. iwarmoeba USB standartis klaviatu-
rebi, mausebi, gare modemebi, printerebi, skanerebi,
akustikuri sistemebi, joistikebi, sxvadasxva tipis
damgroveblebi, videokamerebi, mobiluri telefo-
nebi, MP3-fleerebi da a.S. gansazRvruli problemebi
SeiZleba gaCndes ramdenime mowyobilobis dabalsiC-
qarian USB 1.1 portTan SeerTebis dros. amitom sis-
temuri platis SeZenis dros yuradReba unda mivaq-
cioT Tanamedrove maRalsixSiruli USB 2.0 portebis
arsebobas.
Tu Cven ugamtaro Semyvani mowyobilobebis ga-
moyenebas vamjobinebT, umjobesia SeviZinoT klavi-
atura radiosixSiruli da ara infrawiTeli inter-
feisiT. agreTve sasurvelia, rom klaviatura da ma-
nax. 9.2. adapteri _ USB/6-kontaqtiani Mini-DIN
usi erT, saerTo mimReb/gadamcems iyenebdnen. ra-
diosixSirul diapazonSi Cveulebriv gamoiyeneba
universaluri mimdevrobiTi salte (USB) Tan-
sakuTari, mcire radiusis moqmedebis, an ugamtaro
daTanobiT gamodevnis PS\2, standartul mimdevrobiT
qselebis Bluetooth samrewvelo standartis sixSireebi.
da paralelur portebs. USB interfeisi mxars uWers im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ugamtaro kavSiris mqone
Plug&Play teqnologias da erT portTan 127-mde gare klaviaturas da mauss ramdenime kompiuteri iyenebs,
mowyobilobis SeerTebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. an klaviatura da mausi klaviaturidan sakmaod
bevri gare mowyobilobis gamoyenebis dros sistemur daSorebulia, umjobesia Bluetooth interfeisis mqone
plataSi integrirebul USB portTan erTdeba kon- mowyobilobebis gamoyeneba.
centratori, xolo Tavad koncentratorTan _ USB
standartis gare mowyobilobebi.

125 126
9.3. sxva mowyobilobebis SeerTeba Tavi X
kompiuteris CarTvis dros xSirad warmoqmnili
amrigad, kompiuteri ukve awyobilia. mas saxu- problemebi da maTi gadaWris gzebi
ravi unda davaxuroT da gare mowyobilobebi Sevaer-
Tu kompiuteri CarTvisas ar muSaobs, an ver
ToT. rogorc wesi, korpusis saxuravis xraxnebiT
gadis TviTtestirebas, es niSnavs, rom misi awyo-
damagreba manamde ar xdeba, sanam kompiuteris tes-
bisas erTi, an ramdenime Secdomaa daSvebuli.
tireba ar Sesruldeba da ar davrwmundebiT, rom
aRvweroT yvelaze ufro xSirad warmoqmnili
kompiuteris gamarTulad muSaobs.
Secdomebi da maTi aRmofxvris gzebi:
vasrulebT Semdegi operaciebis Tanmimdev-
1. kvebis CamrTveli knopis daWerisas araferi ar
robas.
xdeba (igulisxmeba, rom qseluri kabeli SeerTe-
• korpusze saxuravs vamagrebT.
bulia), frialebi ar trialeben, indikatorebi
• vaerTebT yvela gare kabels (kompiuteris gamor-
Camqralia. erT-erT mizezi SeiZleba iyos wina pa-
Tul mdgomareobaSi yofnis dros). gasarTebi ara-
nelze ganTavsebuli CamrTvelis araswori Seer-
simetriulia, amitom gare mowyobilobebis aras-
Teba. am SemTxvevaSi unda gadavxedoT dokumenta-
wori SeerTeba praqtikulad SeuZlebelia.
cias da CamrTveli sworad SevaerToT. bunebri-
• 15-kontaqtian VGA (videoadapteris) gasarTTan mo-
via, am dros kvebis bloki unda iyos gamorTuli.
nitoris kabels vaerTebT.
Tu kvebis bloks CamrTveli ar gaaCnia, kvebis ka-
• Tu dayenebuli gvaqvs qselis kontroleri, an mo- beli unda gamovaZroT. mizezi agreTve SeiZleba
demi, maTTan Sesabamisad qselis da satelefono iyos kvebis blokis dacva mokle CarTvebisgan da
kabelebs vaerTebT. gadatvirTvisgan. am SemTxvevaSi unda SevamowmoT,
• vaerTebT klaviaturas da mauss. yvela mowyobiloba swored aris Tu ara SeerTe-
• vaerTebT danarCen mowyobilobebs, mag. akustikur buli. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba drekad diskur
sistemas, joistiks da a.S. mowyobilobas unda mivaqcioT.
2. CavrTeT kompiuteri, frialebi datrialda, Tumca
mwvane indikatori wina panelze ar anTia. es mi-
uTiTebs, rom igi sistemur platasTan araswora-
daa SeerTebuli. kompiuteri unda gamovrToT da

127 128
SeerTebis polaroba SevcvaloT. anu sadac TeT-
ri gamtari iyo SeerTebuli, vaerTebT mwvane gam-
tars, xolo sadac mwvane gamtari iyo SeerTe-
buli _ TeTr gamtars. agreTve vamowmebT, rom ga-
sarTi namdvilad Sesabamis kontaqtebTanaa Seer-
Tebuli (Semowmeba sistemur plataze arsebuli
warwerebis, an misi dokumentaciis safuZvelze
xdeba). es rekomendacia sxva indikatorebisTvi-
sac samarTliania.
3. vinCesteris aqtiurobis indikatori (Cveulebriv
mwvane, an wiTeli) mudmivad anTia. albaT Sleifi
sistemur platasTan, an vinCesterTan araswora- nax. 10.1. awyobis dasawyisi
daa SeerTebuli (samarTliania mxolod Zveli
SleifebisTvis, romelTac gasaRebebi ar gaaC-
niaT). SeerTebas gavasworebT.
4. drekadi diskuri mowyobilobis indikatori (mwva-
ne) mudmivad anTia. am SemTxvevaSic arasworedaa
SeerTebuli Sleifi, oRond drekad diskur mow-
yobilobasTan. SeerTebas gavasworebT.
5. kompiuteri CarTvisas sxvadasxva xmebs gamoscems,
xolo ekrani Savia. es aparaturul problemebze
miuTiTebs.
amrigad kompiuteri awyobilia. nax. 10.1-ze naCv-
enebia is, rac gvqonda awyobis dawyebamde, xolo nax.
nax. 10.2. awyobis dasasruli
10.2-ze _ is, rac miviReT awyobis Semdeg.

amrigad kompiuteri awyobilia da mzad aris
samuSaod. Tumca CarTvamde umjobesia kidev erTxel

129 130
SevamowmoT, yvela mowyobilobasTan miyvanilia Tu literatura
ara kveba, SeerTebulia Tu ara yvela friala,
swored aris Tu ara SeerTebuli Sleifebi. es 1. a. benaSvili. personaluri kompiuteris arqi-
Tavidan agvacilebs kompiuteris zedmet CarTva-ga- teqtura. Tb. `saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv mecni-
morTvebs. erebaTa universiteti~. 2007 – 433 gv.
2. Upgrading and Repairing PCs 14th Edition Scott Mueller. 2003
3. a. benaSvili. periferiuli mowyobilobebis inter-
feisebi. Tb. `teqnikuri universiteti~. 2006 - 125
gv.
4. Скотт Мюллер. Модернизация и ремонт ПК. 15-е юбилейное
издание. Пер. с англ. – М.: издательский дом «,Вильямс»
2004.- 1344 с.: ил.
5. Резников В.Н. Быстро и легко. Сборка, диагностика, опти-
мизация и апгрейд современного компьютера. Практ.
пособие. М. Лучшие книги. 2002 - 368 с.
6. a. benaSvili. personaluri kompiuteris standar-
tuli diskuri mowyobilobebi. Tb. `teqnikuri
universiteti~. 2006 - 146 gv.
7. a. benaSvili. kompiuteris periferiuli mow-
yobilobebi (I nawili). Tb. `teqnikuri uni-
versiteti~. 2007 – 137 gv.
8. Таненбаум Э. Архитектура компьютера. 5-е изд. - СПб.:
Питер, 2007. — 844 с: ил.

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