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You are on page 1of 17

Isaac Chenchiah

Isaac.Chenchiah@bristol.ac.uk

http://isaacchenchiah.weebly.com/1em.html

September 29, 2015

Contents

1 Algebra (Weeks 1 & 2) 2

1.1 Elementary operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.1.1 Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.1.2 Exponentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.1.3 Expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.1.4 Simple factorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1.5 Algebraic fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1.6 Changing the subject of formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2 Linear expressions in one variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2.1 Linear equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2.2 Linear inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2.3 Straight lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3 Quadratic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.4 The factor and integer root theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2 Calculus (Weeks 3 & 4) 8

2.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.2 Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.3 Derivatives of sums, products and compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.4 Tangents and normals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.5 Local extrema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

**3 Growth functions, exponentials & logarithms (Weeks 5 & 6) 13
**

3.1 Compound interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.2 Exponential growth/decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.3 Exponential and logarithmic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3.4 e; differentiating exponential and logarithmic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

**©University of Bristol 2014. These lecture notes are copyright of the University. It is provided exclusively for
**

educational purposes at the University and is to be downloaded or copied for your private study only.

1

Examples: 1. a0 = 1 when a 6= 0. 5. Of multiplication: a · b = b · a.1 Algebra (Weeks 1 & 2) 1. Subtraction and division are not commutative. subtraction. 4 + (7 + 3) = 4 + 10 = 14 and (4 + 7) + 3 = 11 + 3 = 14. Of addition: a + b = b + a. Commutative law: 1.1 Elementary operations 1. 2. √ √ 7. 2. am · an = am+n . √ 4. Example: 5 · (3 + 4) = 5 · 7 = 35 and (5 · 3) + (5 · 4) = 15 + 20 = 35. am/n = n am = ( n a)m . Addition is not distributive over multiplication. Examples: 1. Of multiplication: a(bc) = (ab)c. 3 · (2 · 5) = 3 · 10 = 30 and (3 · 2) · 5 = 6 · 5 = 30. Distributive law: Multiplication distributes over addition: a · (b + c) = (a · b) + (a · c). 1. Subtraction and division are not associative. 2 . also called index or power. 3. a1/n = n a. 8/(4/2) = 4 but (8/4)/2 = 1.1 Addition. Laws of indices: 1.2 Exponentiation An exponent.1. 6. am 9. Of addition: a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c. 9 − 7 = 2 but 7 − 9 = −2. (a · b)m = am · bm . 7 − (5 − 2) = 4 but (7 − 5) − 2 = 0. 2. 2. 8. a−n = 1/an (thus 1/a−n = an ). (am )n = amn .1. Example: 5 + (3 · 4) = 5 + 12 = 17 but (5 + 3) · (5 + 4) = 8 · 9 = 72. Examples: 1. Thus a2 indicates a · a and a3 indicates a · a · a. multiplication and division Associative law: 1. 2. am 2. is a number placed in a superscript position to the right to indicate re- peated multiplication. am /an = an = am−n . ( ab )m = bm . 20 ÷ 10 = 2 but 10 ÷ 20 = 21 .

3 Expansions When brackets are removed from expressions like (a + b)(c + d). (a + b)m 6= am + bm . 4m2 · 5m3 = 4 · 5 · m2 · m3 = 20m2+3 = 20m5 . (n + 1)(n + 2) = n2 + 2n + n + 2 = n2 + 3n + 2. 4. n(2n + 3) = 2n2 + 3n. 1. √ 8. (2 + 3)2 = 52 = 25. (a + b)(a − b) = a2 − b2 .1. 13 · z 0 · 2 = 13 · 1 · 2 = 26. (5 − 3)2 = 22 = 4. 3x5 = 3 · x5 = 12 · x7−5 = 12x2 . 161/2 = 16 = 4. Examples: 1. 32−4/5 = 1 4 = ( √ 5 1 32)4 = 1 24 = 1 16 . (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + b3 . Figure 1: n(2n + 3) and (n + 1)(n + 2). each term in the first bracket must multiply each term in the second bracket: (a + b)(c + d) = ac + bc + ad + bd.Examples: 1. 3. (a − b)m 6= am − bm . These are illustrated by the rectangles in Figure 1. 7. The following special cases are known as binomial formulae: 1. 81/3 = 3 8 = 2. Examples: 3 . 36x7 36 x7 2. 272/3 = ( 3 27)2 = 32 = 9. 2. 2. 6. (a − b)3 = a3 − 3a2 b + 3ab2 − b3 . (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 . 2. (5x6 )3 = 53 · (x6 )3 = 125 · x6·3 = 125x18 . (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 . 5. 5−3 = 1 1 = 125 53 . 3. whereas 52 − 32 = 25 − 9 = 16. 32 5 But: 1. 2. √ 4. whereas 22 + 32 = 4 + 9 = 13. √ 5. 9. Examples: 1.

1 21 1 2v − f fv = − = =⇒ =⇒ f v = (2v − f ) · u =⇒ u = . ( x+4 − x3 ) ÷ x x2 −16 = x(x+4) · x = 2x−3x−12 x · x−4 x =. 1. 5. 1 1 2. √ x2 − a2 = a2 =⇒ x2 = 2a2 =⇒ x = ±a 2. T T2 4 . Solve for u the equation u + v = f2 . 4. 2x+3 − 4 = 4(2x+3) − 4(2x+3) = 8x+12 = 8x+12 . Sometimes we can factorise by using the binomial formulae. ap − 2bq + aq − 2bp = a(p + q) − 2b(q + p) = (p + q)(a − 2b). x2 − 25 = (x + 5)(x − 5). 6. 12n + 4 = 4 · 3n + 4 · 1 = 4(3n + 1). Solve for x the equation x2 − a2 = a. 4.1. 1.5 Algebraic fractions Algebraic fractions have properties which are the same as those of numerical fractions. 2. 1. (9m + 8)(8 − 9m) = (8 + 9m)(8 − 9m) = 64 − 81m2 . 4 + 3 = 12 + 12 = 12 . 3. 3. 3.1. (−6a − c)2 = (−(6a + c))2 = (6a + c)2 = 36a2 + 12ac + c2 . (2x − 3y)3 = (2x)3 − 3 · (2x)2 · 3y + 3 · 2x · (3y)2 − (3y)3 = 8x3 − 36x2 y + 54xy 2 − 27y 3 . 4 + a2 Ph P bh P bh T2 = =⇒ T 2 · (4 + a2 ) = P bh =⇒ 4 + a2 = 2 4 + a2 T r 2 P bh P bh =⇒ a = 2 − 4 =⇒ a=± − 4. 2 2x−3(x+4) (x−4)(x+4) 3. (−x + 2y)2 = (2y − x)2 = 4y 2 − 4xy + x2 . 2. 1. a4 + 20a2 + 100 = (a2 + 10)2 .1.6 Changing the subject of formulae Examples: √ 1. y 2 − 6y + 9 = (y − 3)2 . 32p4 + 24p3 + 16p2 = 8p2 (4p2 + 3p + 2). 2. Solve for a and b the equation T = 4+a 2. (4a + 7b)2 = 16a2 + 56ab + 49b2 . 2 (−x−12)(x−4) −x +4x−12x+48 −x2 −8x+48 = x2 = x2 = x2 . u fu v fv 2v − f q P bh 3. Examples: x 2x 3x 8x 11x 1. 2n2 − 6n = 2n(n − 3). P bh T 2 (4 + a2 ) T2 = =⇒ T 2 · (4 + a2 ) = P bh =⇒ b = . Examples: 1. Examples: 1. 5 1 5·4 1·(2x+3) 20−2x−3 17−2x 2. (5x − yz)2 = 25x2 − 10xyz + y 2 z 2 .4 Simple factorisation Factorisation is the reverse process of expansion.

4. The following does not appear at first to be a linear equation but can be reduced to one: (3x − 5)2 − (2x + 3)2 = 5(x − 2)(x + 2) − 2(14x + 3) 9x2 − 30x + 25 − (4x2 + 12x + 9) = 5(x2 − 4) − 28x − 6 9x2 − 30x + 25 − 4x2 − 12x − 9 = 5x2 − 20 − 28x − 6 5x2 − 42x + 16 = 5x2 − 28x − 26 −14x = −42 x = 3. −2x > 8 =⇒ x < −4.1. 5 We check the answer by substituting x = 17 5 into the left hand side (LHS) and into the right hand side (RHS) of the equation and comparing both results. 8x + 6 = 23 x + 2 · 3 =⇒ 8x + 6 = 8x + 6 =⇒ 0 = 0. 7x − 1 1 4x + 2 − = 4 2 3 3 · (7x − 1) − 6 · 1 4 · (4x + 2) = 12 12 21x − 3 − 6 16x + 8 = 12 12 21x − 9 = 16x + 8 5x = 17 17 x= .2 Linear inequalities When both sides of an inequality are multiplied (or divided) by a negative number the sign reverses. 3. RHS: 5(3 − 2)(3 + 2) − 2(14 · 3 + 3) = 5 · 1 · 5 − 2(42 + 3) = −65.2. 7· 17 −1 119 −5 114 LHS: 54 − 12 = 5 4 5 − 21 = 54 − 12 = 114 1 1 57 5 52 26 5 · 4 − 2 = 10 − 10 = 10 = 5 . This is a false statement for any value of x. 5.2 Linear expressions in one variable 1. 5 . 1 4· 17 +2 68 + 10 78 RHS: 53 = 5 3 5 = 35 = 78 1 26 5 · 3 = 5 . This is a true statement for any value of x. We check the answer by substituting x = 6 into the original equation: 5 · 6 + 7 = 30 + 7 = 37.1 Linear equations Examples: 1. 2. Since we obtain the same number both times our solution is correct. So there is no solution. Examples: 1. We check the answer by substituting x = 3 into the left hand side and into the right hand side of the equation: LHS: (3 · 3 − 5)2 − (2 · 3 + 3)2 = (9 − 5)2 − (6 + 3)2 = 42 − 92 = 16 − 81 = −65. 5x + 7 = 37 =⇒ 5x = 30 =⇒ x = 6. 1. So all real numbers solve this equation.2. 10x + 5 = 10x − 3 =⇒ 5 = −3.

2. So all real numbers solve this inequality. y = 0. Thus it is of the form y = 23 x + c. when x = 3. This is a false statement for any value of x. c is called “y-intercept” because it indicates that the line intersects the y-axis at (0. −2) and (4. x − 1 < x + 2 =⇒ x < x + 3 =⇒ 0 < 3.e. 4).3 Straight lines The graph of the function f (x) = mx + c is a straight line. Thus: −2 = m(−3) + c.. 3. 3 Subtracting the equations we obtain −3 = m(−7). is the slope. y = 1. Then 0 = 23 x + 2. 1). 4). which gives x = −3. The graph of the function f (x) = 32 x + 1 is shown in Figure 2. c). Let the line be y = mx + c. So there is no solution. Since it passes through (3. The desired equation is y = 23 x + c. 2. 3. Figure 2: The graph of the function f (x) = 23 x + 1. y = −2 and when x = 4. 3x − 3 > 4x − x + 6 =⇒ 3x > 3x + 9 =⇒ 0 > 9. Then y = 32 0 + 2 = 2. y = 4. Examples: 1. When the line intersects the x-axis. 1. 1. which indicates the steepness of the line. Thus the desired equation is y = 37 x − 75 . They can be solved by “completing the square”: 6 . Where does it intersect the axes? A line which is parallel to the one above has slope 23 .. When the line intersects the y-axis. c = 2. Find the equation of the line which is parallel to the line above and passes through (3. This is a true statement for any value of x. m. m = 7. When x = −3. i. 2. Substituting this in either equation gives c = − 57 . Thus 4 = 23 3 + c. 1 = m(4) + c. i. x = 0.3 Quadratic equations Equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 (with a 6= 0) are called quadratic equations. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through (−3.e.

Thus: f (x) = x3 − 5x2 + 2x + 8 = (x + 1)(x − 2)(x − 4). To factorise a polynomial whose coefficients are integers the integer root theorem is helpful: Theorem 2 (Integer root theorem) If the coefficients of f (x) = xn + an−1 xn−1 + . we can conclude that p must be 4. then f (k) = 0. 2a 2a 2a Example: Solve: 4x2 − 6x + 1 = 0. ax2 + bx + c = 0 b c x2 + x + = 0 a a b c x2 + x = − a a b b c b x2 + x + ( )2 = − + ( )2 a 2a a 2a b 2 4ac b2 (x + ) = − 2 + 2 2a 4a 4a r b b2 − 4ac x+ =± 2a 4a2 √ √ b b2 − 4ac −b ± b2 − 4ac x=− ± = . At this point we know that f (x) can be written as (x + 1)(x − 2)(x − p).. and c: a = 4. therefore (x + 1) is a factor. Example: Determine if x − 3 is a factor of f (x) = x3 + 5x2 − 17x − 21. • f (−1) = (−1)3 − 5 · (−1)2 + 2 · (−1) + 8 = 0. As (+1)(−2)(−p) will give the constant term 8. therefore (x − 1) is not a factor.. therefore (x − 2) is a factor. 8 8 8 4 1.. Example: Factorise f (x) = x3 − 5x2 + 2x + 8. b. ±1. ±2. Hence x − 3 is a factor of the polynomial f (x) = x3 + 5x2 − 17x − 21. • f (2) = 23 − 5 · 22 + 2 · 2 + 8 = 0. Then we replace a. then they are factors of the constant term a0 .4 The factor and integer root theorems The factor theorem and can be used to factorise a polynomial: Theorem 1 (Factor theorem) For a polynomial f . 7 . b. c = 1.e. if (x − k) is a factor of f (x). i. ±4. Conversely. and c in the formula by these numbers: p √ √ √ −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 · 4 · 1 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 6± 4·5 x= = = = 2·4 √8 √ 8 √ 8√ √ 6± 4· 5 6± 2 5 2(3 ± 5) 3 ± 5 = = = = . ±8: • f (1) = 13 − 5 · 12 + 2 · 1 + 8 = 6 6= 0. First we identify a. We have to check if f (3) = 0: f (3) = 33 + 5 · 32 − 17 · 3 − 21 = 27 + 45 − 51 − 21 = 0. b = −6. We search for integer roots by considering the factors of the constant term 8. + a1 x + a0 are integers and the equation f (x) = 0 has any integral roots. if there exists a constant k such that f (k) = 0 then (x − k) is a factor of f (x).

X is the domain and Y the codomain of the function. First we try to find some ordered pairs (x.1 Functions A function or map is a rule that assigns to every element x of a set X a unique element y of a set Y . f (x + h) − f (x) (x + h) − x f 0 (x) = lim = lim = 1. where f denotes the function. f (x) = x. The set of all the elements f (x) is called the image or range of f . h→0 h h→0 h h→0 h h→0 8 . written as y = f (x). and is denoted by f (X). see Figure 3. f (x)) is plotted on rectangular coordinate axes for x in X. Figure 3: The graph of f (x) = x2 − 2x + 3. It is a subset of the codomain. Example: Plot the graph of the function f (x) = x2 − 2x + 3. h→0 h h→0 h 2.2 Calculus (Weeks 3 & 4) 2. 2. Such pairs can be written as a table of values: x −1 0 1 2 3 f (x) 6 3 2 3 6 These pairs are plotted as points in a coordinate system and the points are connected. Examples: 1. f (x + h) − f (x) (x + h)2 − x2 x2 + 2xh + h2 − x2 f 0 (x) = lim = lim = lim = lim 2x + h = 2x. f (x) = x2 . f (x)). A function f can be represented graphically if (x.2 Derivatives The derivative of a function f at x is f (x + h) − f (x) f 0 (x) = lim h→0 h (pronounced “f prime x”).

2 f 0 (x) = 13 (5x2 − 4x)− 3 · (10x − 4).3 Derivatives of sums. 1 f 0 (x) = 12 x− 2 = 2√ 1 x . f (x) = 20x5 + 9x4 . • If f (x) = xp . √ 3 x 5 x Derivatives of compositions (chain rule): If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g(x) then f ◦ g is differentiable at x and (f ◦ g)0 (x) = f 0 (g(x)) · g 0 (x). then f ± g is also differentiable at x and (f ± g)0 (x) = f 0 (x) ± g 0 (x). f (x) = (2x − 5)3 . f (x) = 3 5x2 − 4x. √ √ 1 2 2. then f 0 (x) = p · xp−1 . f 0 (x) = 12(7x − 20)11 · 7 = 84(7x − 20)11 . where p is a real number. 2. f 0 (x) = 100x4 + 36x3 . 3. 2. • If a is a real number and f is differentiable at x. f (x + h) − f (x) (x + h)3 − 2x3 f 0 (x) = lim = lim h→0 h h→0 h (x3 + 3x2 h + 3xh2 + h3 ) − x3 = lim = lim 3x2 + 3xh + h2 = 3x2 . Examples: √ 1 1. f (x) = (7x − 20)12 . products and compositions Derivatives of sums: If two functions f and g are differentiable at x. √ 3. 5 2 3 f 0 (x) = − 15 2 x −4 + 36 5 x −5 + 13 x− 3 − 25 x− 5 = − 2x 15 36 4 + 5x5 + √1 3 2 − 2 5 3. f 0 (x) = −6x−4 = − x64 . Examples: 1. f 0 (x) = 3(2x − 5)2 · 2 = 6(2x − 5)2 . f (x) = x(x + 3)4 . f (x) = x3 . f (x) = 2x5 3 − 5x9 4 + 3 x − x2 = 52 x−3 − 59 x−4 + x 3 − x 5 . f (x) = x23 = 2x−3 . f 0 (x) = 1 · (x + 3)4 + x · 4(x + 3)3 = (x + 3)3 (x + 3 + 4x) = (5x + 3)(x + 3)3 . h→0 h h→0 It can be proved that: • The derivative of a constant function is zero. then a · f is also differentiable at x and (a · f )0 (x) = a · f 0 (x). f (x) = x = x 2 . 2. Examples: 1. 9 . Note that in such a case the function and the derivative are not always defined for all real numbers x. Derivatives of products: If f and g are differentiable at x then f g is also differentiable at x and (f · g)0 (x) = f 0 (x) g(x) + f (x) g 0 (x). Examples: 1.

we need to find m and c. f (x) = (x + 3)2 2x2 + 1 = (x + 3)2 (2x2 + 1) 2 . f (x)). 1 5x − 1 5 · (4 − 3x) − 5x · (−3) f 0 (x) = ·( ) 2· 2 4 − 3x (4 − 3x)2 r 1 4 − 3x 20 − 15x + 15x = · · 2 5x (4 − 3x)2 √ 10 · 4 − 3x =√ 5x · (4 − 3x)2 10 3 = √ · (4 − 3x)− 2 . As (2. The normal to a curve at a point is a straight line passing through the point which is perpendicular to the tangent 1 at that point (Figure 4).4 Tangents and normals The derivative of a function f at x is also the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f (x) at the point (x. Now we have to find c. First we simplify: f (x) = 4 + 2x + 2x2 . m2 6= 0 are perpendicular if m1 m2 = −1. m can be found by evaluating the derivative at the point (2. Example: Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = f (x) = 2(2 + x + x2 ) at the point where x = −1. m = f 0 (2) = 4 · 2 − 3 = 5. g (g(x))2 Examples: 2x+3 1. Thus the equation of the tangent at the point (2. The tangent is a straight line. 6) is y = 5x − 4. 6) is a point on the tangent we have: 6 = 5 · 2 + c =⇒ c = −4. f (x) = 4−3x . √ 1 2. 6): f 0 (x) = 4x − 3. (1 − 5x) (1 − 5x) (1 − 5x)2 q 5x 2. 6) to the curve y = f (x) = 2x2 − 3x + 4. Example: Find the equation of the tangent at the point (2. 2x2 + 1 f Derivatives of quotients: If f and g are differentiable at x and g(x) 6= 0 then g is also differentiable at x and 0 f f 0 (x) g(x) − f (x) g 0 (x) (x) = . So the equation of the tangent is y = 5x + c. so it can be written in the form y = mx + c. 1 1 1 f 0 (x) = 2(x + 3) · (2x2 + 1) 2 + (x + 3)2 · (2x2 + 1)− 2 4x p 2 (x + 3)x = 2(x + 3) 2x + 1 + √ 2 2x2 + 1 2(x + 3)(3x2 + 3x + 1) = √ . If a line has slope m 6= 0. f (x) = 1−5x . the slope of the line perpendicular to it is − m . 2 · (1 − 5x) − (2x + 3) · (−5) 2 − 10x + 10x + 15 17 f 0 (x) = 2 = 2 = . 5x 2. 10 . Two lines with gradients m1 .

Points where f 0 (x) = 0 are called stationary points (regardless of whether they are local extrema or not). x is a local minimum of f if for some > 0. f (x) 6 f (y) for all y between x − and x + . f 0 (0) = 0. 4) is: 1 1 1 m2 = − =− = . it is possible that f 0 (x) = 0 without x being an extremum of f . 2 Since the normal passes through (−1. f (x) = x2 . x is a local maximum of f if for some > 0. Then we determine f 0 (x): f 0 (x) = 2 + 4x. m1 −2 2 So we can write the equation of the normal is of the form: 1 y= x + c.e. 4). we have 1 1 9 4= (−1) + c =⇒ 4 = − + c =⇒ c2 = . Example: 1. 1. Hence the point is (−1. 2 2 2. Figure 4: Tangents and normals Then we find the point whose x-coordinate is −1: f (−1) = 4 + 2 · (−1) + 2 · (−1)2 = 4 − 2 + 2 = 4. 4) is: 1 9 y= x+ .. 2. The slope m1 of the tangent at (−1. 3. The converse is false. f has a local minimum at 0: Since f 0 (x) = 2x. 11 . i. 4) is: m1 = f 0 (−1) = 2 + 4(−1) = 2 − 4 = −2. f (x) > f (y) for all y between x − and x + . Therefore the slope m2 of the normal at (−1. If x is a local extremum of f then f 0 (x) = 0. x is a local extremum of f if it is either a local minimum or a local maximum of f . 2 2 2 Therefore the equation of the normal at (−1. 4).5 Local extrema Let f be a function.

Example: Identify and classify the stationary points of f (x) = x4 + 2x3 . 2. 300) = 90. However 0 is a local minimum for f . Next we evaluate f 00 at these points: Since f 00 (x) = 12x2 + 12x = 12x(x + 1). If f 0 (x) = 0 and f 00 (x) < 0 then x is a local maximum of f . at 0: Since f 0 (x) = 3x2 . f 0 (0) = 0. The corresponding y is 600 − 300 = 300.) Example: A company that manufactures dog food wishes to pack the food in closed cylindrical tins. However since f 00 (0) = 0 we cannot conclude what kind of stationary point 0 is without further investigation of f . f (x) = −x2 . The perimeter of such a rectangle is 2x + 2y which is given to be 1200. ˜ y) = xy. 3. Since A00 (300) < 0 we conclude that x = ˜ 300 maximises A(x). It is sometimes possible to distinguish between the stationary points by evaluating the second derivative of f : 1. The volume of such a tin is πx2 y which is given to be 128π. f (x) = x3 . (Note that we can deduce a general result: For fixed perimeter. Find the largest possible area that can be enclosed in this way and the corresponding dimensions of the rectangle. A00 (x) = −2. This gives us x = 300. 0 is a stationary point of all three functions and both the first and second derivatives of all three functions vanish at 0. f has a stationary point. 2. g(x) = −x4 and h(x) = x3 . The following two examples illustrate applications of these results: Example: A rectangular enclosure is formed by using 1200m of fencing. but not a local extremum. We differentiate A twice to obtain A0 (x) = 600 − 2x. A0 (x) = 0. So we obtain: x2 y = 128. Note: If f 0 (x) = 0 and f 00 (x) = 0 then x could be any of the three kinds of stationary points. f 00 (0) = 0 and f 00 (− 23 ) = 9. 000. the rectangle with maximum area is a square. ˜ y) = 2πx2 + 2πxy. If f 0 (x) = 0 and f 00 (x) > 0 then x is a local minimum of f . a local maximum for g and neither for h. x x 12 . Example: Consider the functions f (x) = x4 . What should the dimensions of the tins be if each is to have a volume of 128π cm3 and the minimum possible surface area? Suppose each tin has radius x (cm) and height y (cm). of x alone: 128 256π S(x) = 2πx2 + 2πx 2 = 2πx2 + . Using the equation above we can write this as a function The surface area of such a tin is S(x. A(x) = x(600 − x). Consider a rectangle with length x (meters) and width y (meters). and the corresponding area is A(300. Using the equation above we can write this as a function of x alone: The area of such a rectangle is A(x. the stationary points are x = 0 and x = − 23 . First we solve f 0 (x) = 0 to find the stationary points of f : Since f 0 (x) = 4x3 + 6x2 = 2x2 (2x + 3). So we obtain: x + y = 600. f 0 (0) = 0. Since f 00 (− 32 ) > 0 we deduce that − 23 is a local minimum of f . When x maximises or minimises A(x). f has a local maximum at 0: Since f 0 (x) = −2x.

2 Exponential growth/decay In the limit as k → ∞ in the equation above we obtain exponential growth/decay: f (t) = abt 13 .06 = £1191.1 Compound interest Example: A person invests £1000 in a building society account which pays interest of 6% annually. is 1. x2 Since S 00 (4) = 12π > 0 we conclude that x = 4 minimises S(x). It follows the rule: r n T = P (1 + ) 100 where T is the total of the initial amount plus interest. This is because the amount on which the 6% is calculated has gone up from £1000 to £1124. 3. the final value of the investment will be £7277. after interest has been added.We differentiate S twice to obtain 256π S 0 (x) = 4πx − .59.59. 100 · 12 After 10 years.06 times the amount in the account at the beginning of the year. but in the eighth year it is £67.06 = £1060. corresponding surface area is S(4. and P is the initial amount (invested or borrowed). k = 12. The interest in any year is 0. r (nk) T = P (1 + ) 100k where T . Example: If we invest £4000 at an annual rate of 6% compounded monthly. P . So Amount after 1 year = £1000 · 1. This is added on to the sum of money already in the account. so. The amount at the end of each year. r is the rate of interest per year expressed as a percentage. exponentials & logarithms (Weeks 5 & 6) 3. what will be the final value of the investment after 10 years? In this case. x2 512π S 00 (x) = 4π + 3 . Thus we obtain 6 T = 4000(1 + )120 = 4000(1 + 0. n and r are the same as before and k is the number of interest periods per year. Since the interest is compounded monthly. and the ˜ 8) = 96π. x To find x for which S(x) is a minimum we first solve S 0 (x) = 0: 256π 4πx − = 0 =⇒ 4πx3 − 256π = 0 =⇒ x3 = 64 =⇒ x = 4. Amount after 3 years = £1124 · 1. 3 Growth functions. n is the number of years.06 = £1124. Interest calculated this way is called compound interest. Amount after 2 years = £1060 · 1. The corresponding y is 128 42 = 8. there are 12 periods per year. we obtain the following amounts to the nearest whole number of pounds: Number of years 0 1 2 3 Amount (£) 1000 1060 1124 1191 Notice that in the first year the interest is £60. In our example: r = 6 and P = 1000. Calculate the amount in the account over the next 3 years.06 times the amount at the beginning of the year.005)120 = 4000(1. Continuing in this way.005)120 ≈ 7277.

we can answer the original question (a = 85. (If a = 10 we refer to this as the common logarithm. b = 0. t = 5): r 5 5 30 5 30 30 = 85b =⇒ b = =⇒ b = ≈ 0. Figure 6: A logarithmic function loga x for a > 1 and 0 < a < 1. So far we know a = 85. Since exponential and logarithmic functions with the same base are inverse functions their graphs are reflected around the line y = x (Figure 7). a = 85. Hence. If a > 1 then the function is increasing. If b > 1.) By “inverse” we mean that the following relations hold: loga ax = x and aloga x = x. 1).where a > 0 is the initial value (earlier we called this P ).5. 85 85 Now. The temperature of the coffee decreases exponentially. 1) the function is decreasing (Figure 5). What is the temperature after 3 minutes? We use the formula f (t) = abt . we deal with “exponential growth” and if 0 < b < 1 we deal with “exponential decay”. Example: A cup of coffee at 85℃ is placed in a freezer at 0℃. The inverse of the exponential function with base a is the logarithmic function with base a: f (x) = loga x. t = 3): f (3) = 85(0.3 Exponential and logarithmic functions Let a > 0 and a 6= 1. Figure 5: An exponential function ax for a > 1 and a ∈ (0. the function defined by f (x) = ax is called the exponential function with base a.811970902. Then. if 0 < a < 1 it is decreasing (Figure 6). 14 . Examples: Find x.811970902)3 ≈ 45. so that after 5 minutes it is 30℃. To find b we use the information that after 5 minutes the temperature of the coffee is 30℃ (f (5) = 30. if a ∈ (0. after 3 minutes the cup of coffee has a temperature of about 45. 3.5℃. b > 0 is the growth factor. t is a real number and f (t) represents the quantity after t units of time (earlier we called this T ).811970902. If a > 1 then the function is increasing.

88 = log10 0.88)t =⇒ 0.1.88 Hence half the radioactive material will be left after about 5.42 hours. It is easy to prove that logarithms obey the following laws (compare with §1. log3 x = 2. 5. Then: logc a by = a =⇒ logc by = logc a =⇒ y logc b = logc a =⇒ y = . namely f (1) = 88. √ 1 1 2 b log 2 − log a + 2 log b = log 2 − log a + log b 2 = log a . loga xn = n · loga x. log3 81 = x =⇒ 3x = 81 =⇒ 3x = 34 =⇒ x = 4. f (t) = abt : To find b we use the information we have. 2. Example: A radioactive substance decays at a rate of 12% per hour. log3 81 = x. a = 100 and t = 1: 88 = 100b1 =⇒ b = 0. logx 125 = 3 =⇒ x3 = 125 =⇒ x3 = 53 =⇒ x = 5. loga ( xy ) = loga x − loga y. 1. Express log 2 − log a + 2 log b as a single logarithm.88t = 0. 3. 2.2): 1.88.42. A base of a logarithm can be “changed” as follows: Let y = logb a. loga (xy) = loga x + loga y.5 =⇒ t log10 0. logc b Example: log3 5 = log 10 5 log10 3 . log10 0. Next we evaluate t such that f (t) = 50: log10 0. Express log(a2 bc) in terms of log a. 4.5 =⇒ t = ≈ 5. log b and log c. Figure 7: An exponential function ax and the corresponding logarithmic function loga x for a > 1.5 50 = 100(0. loga 1 = 0. log(a2 bc) = log a2 + log b + log c = 2 log a + log b + log c. After how many hours will half the radioactive material will be left? We apply the formula for exponential growth and decay. log3 x = 2 =⇒ 32 = x =⇒ x = 9. logx 125 = 3. 1 2. loga a = 1. 15 . 1. 3. Examples: The following logarithms are with respect to an arbitrary base: 1.

5.0001 h=0.0992 1. (Note: ln x = y ⇐⇒ ey = x. 3 3. Examples: Differentiate the following functions: 1. f (x) = e7x .001 h=0.42 hours earlier the substance had twice the current amount of radioactive material.88t =⇒ 0. ef (x) x Examples: Differentiate the following functions: 1. f (x) = x2 · e−3x .0987 1.) Its derivative can be deduced as follows: Let f (x) = ln x. 2 f 0 (x) = 2xex . 3. f 0 (x) = 2x · e−3x + x2 · (−3)e−3x = e−3x (2x − 3x2 ).6956 0.1 h=0. 16 .000001 a=2 1 0.01 h=0.6931 0.7177 0.42. When f (x) = ex then f 0 (x) = ex .71828 (correct to 5 decimal places).6934 0. this function is known as the exponential function. 2 2.88 Hence. differentiating exponential and logarithmic functions To find the derivative of an exponential function f (x) = ax we use the definition: f (x + h) − f (x) ax+h − ax ax (ah − 1) (ah − 1) f 0 (x) = lim = lim = lim = ax · lim .1612 1. 3 f 0 (x) = 15x2 e5x . √ 4. we evaluate t such that f (t) = 200: log10 2 200 = 100 · 0. h=1 h=0.00001 h=0. f (x) = ex . its value is 2. log10 0. about 5.0986 1. The inverse (function) of the exponential function is the natural logarithm loge x.4 e. h→0 h This number is called e. f (x) = e x . Then: ef (x) = eln x = x.88t = 2 =⇒ t log10 0. more commonly written as ln x.6931 a=3 2 1. √ f 0 (x) = 2√ 1 x e x.1047 1. f 0 (x) = 2x 1 · 2 = x1 . f (x) = e5x . f 0 (x) = 7e7x .88 = log10 2 =⇒ t = ≈ −5. Taking the derivative on both sides we obtain: 1 1 ef (x) f 0 (x) = 1 =⇒ f 0 (x) = =⇒ f 0 (x) = . How many hours earlier did the substance have twice the current amount of radioactive material? Again. 2. h→0 h h→0 h h→0 h h→0 h ah −1 The table below shows the values of h (correct to four decimal places) for a = 2 and a = 3 as h decreases.6932 0.0986 This suggests that there exists an a between 2 and 3 for which ah − 1 lim = 1. f (x) = ln 2x.

How can we differentiate the function f (x) = loga x for some a > 0? We rewrite f as: ln x 1 f (x) = = · ln x. 2. f (x) = ln 4x − 5 = ln(4x − 5) 2 = 2 ln(4x − 5) f 0 (x) = 21 · 4x−5 1 2 · 4 = 4x−5 . 6 17 . f (x) = ln x2 . 6 f 0 (x) = (−1) · (log6 x)−2 · x ln 1 1 6 = − x·ln 6·(log x)2 . f 0 (x) = ex + 21x · ln 21. We see that the derivative of an exponential function is proportional to the function itself. 4. How can we differentiate the function f (x) = ax for some a > 0? We see that ln f (x) = ln ax = x ln a. 2. Thus we can rewrite f as f (x) = eln f (x) = ex ln a . 1 − 32 f 0 (x) = √ 1 3 x·ln 2 · 3 x = √ 1 3 x·ln 2 · 1 √ 3 = 1 3x ln 2 . √ 1 1 3. Then f 0 (x) = ex·ln a · ln a = ax · ln a. f 0 (x) = 8x · ln 8 − 3. f (x) = log1 x = (log6 x)−1 . 3· x2 2. f (x) = ex + 21x . f (x) = x · (ln x)2 . f 0 (x) = 1 · (ln x)2 + x · 2 · ln x · 1 x = (ln x)2 + 2 ln x. ln a ln a Then: 1 1 1 f 0 (x) = · = . f (x) = log2 3 x. ln a x x · ln a Examples: √ 1. Examples: 1. f (x) = 8x − 3x. f 0 (x) = x12 · 2x = x2 .

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