You are on page 1of 48


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the communications medium. For the former manufacturing conglomerate,
see Email Limited.
"Inbox" redirects here. For the Google product, see Inbox by Gmail.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email system, where users can see new emails and take
actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages

The at sign, a part of every SMTP email address[1]

Electronic mail, or email, is a method of exchanging digital messages between people using digital
devices such as computers, tablets and mobile phones. Email first entered substantial use in the
1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates
across computer networks, which in the 2010s is primarily the Internet. Some early email systems
required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant
messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept,
forward, deliver, and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be
online simultaneously; they need to connect only briefly, typically to a mail server or
a webmail interface, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.
Originally an ASCII text-only communications medium, Internet email was extended by Multipurpose
Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) to carry text in other character sets and multimedia content
attachments. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, has been
standardized, but as of 2016 it has not been widely adopted. [citation needed]

The history of modern Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET, with standards
for encoding email messages published as early as 1973 (RFC 561). An email message sent in the
early 1970s looks very similar to a basic email sent today. Email played an important part in creating
the Internet,[2]and the conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the
core of the current services.


 1Terminology
 2Origin
o 2.1Host-based mail systems
o 2.2LAN email systems
o 2.3Email networks
o 2.4Email address internationalization
o 2.5Attempts at interoperability
o 2.6From SNDMSG to MSG
o 2.7ARPANET mail
 3Operation
 4Message format
o 4.1Message header
 4.1.1Header fields
o 4.2Message body
 4.2.1Content encoding
 4.2.2Plain text and HTML
 5Servers and client applications
o 5.1Filename extensions
o 5.2URI scheme mailto
 6Types
o 6.1Web-based email
o 6.2POP3 email services
o 6.3IMAP email servers
o 6.4MAPI email servers
 7Uses
o 7.1Business and organizational use
 7.1.1Email marketing
o 7.2Personal use
 7.2.1Desktop
 7.2.2Mobile
 8Issues
o 8.1Attachment size limitation
o 8.2Information overload
o 8.3Spam
o 8.4Malware
o 8.5Email spoofing
o 8.6Email bombing
o 8.7Privacy concerns
o 8.8Flaming
o 8.9Email bankruptcy
o 8.10Tracking of sent mail

 9U.S. government
 10See also
 11References
 12Further reading
 13External links

Historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission.
For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document
transmission.[3][4] As a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more
specific meaning it has today.
Electronic mail has been most commonly called email or e-mail since around 1993,[5] but variations
of the spelling have been used:

 email is the most common form used online, and is required
by IETF Requests for Comments (RFC) and working groups[6] and
increasingly by style guides.[7][8] This spelling also appears in most
 e-mail is the format that sometimes appears in edited, published
American English and British English writing as reflected in
the Corpus of Contemporary American English data,[16] but is falling
out of favor in style guides.[8][17]
 mail was the form used in the original protocol standard, RFC
524.[18] The service is referred to as mail, and a single piece of
electronic mail is called a message.[19][20]
 EMail is a traditional form that has been used in RFCs for the
"Author's Address"[19][20] and is expressly required "for historical
 E-mail is sometimes used, capitalizing the initial E as in similar
abbreviations like E-piano, E-guitar, A-bomb, and H-bomb.[22]

The AUTODIN network, first operational in 1962, provided a message service between 1,350
terminals, handling 30 million messages per month, with an average message length of
approximately 3,000 characters. Autodin was supported by 18 large computerized switches, and
was connected to the United States General Services Administration Advanced Record System,
which provided similar services to roughly 2,500 terminals.[23] By 1968, AUTODIN linked more than
300 sites in several countries.
Host-based mail systems[edit]
With the introduction of MIT's Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) in 1961,[24] multiple users
could log in to a central system[25] from remote dial-up terminals, and store and share files on the
central disk.[26] Informal methods of using this to pass messages were developed and expanded:

 1965 – MIT's CTSS MAIL.[27]
Developers of other early systems developed similar email applications:

 1962 – 1440/1460 Administrative Terminal System[28]

 1968 – ATS/360[29][30]
 1971 – SNDMSG, a local inter-user mail program incorporating the
experimental file transfer program, CPYNET, allowed the
first networked electronic mail[31]
 1972 – Unix mail program[32][33]
 1972 – APL Mailbox by Larry Breed[34][35][36]
 1974 – The PLATO IV Notes on-line message board system was
generalized to offer 'personal notes' in August 1974.[23][37]
 1978 – Mail client written by Kurt Shoens for Unix and distributed
with the Second Berkeley Software Distribution included support for
aliases and distribution lists, forwarding, formatting messages, and
accessing different mailboxes.[38] It used the Unix mail client to send
messages between system users. The concept was extended to
communicate remotely over the Berkeley Network.[39]
 1979 – EMAIL, an application written by Shiva Ayyadurai, who
claims to have "invented" e-mail due to certain functionality in the
program. These claims have been disputed by various parties, and
have also been the subject of lawsuits against media
 1979 – MH Message Handling System developed at RAND
provided several tools for managing electronic mail on Unix.[45]
 1981 – PROFS by IBM[46][47]
 1982 – ALL-IN-1[48] by Digital Equipment Corporation
 1982 – HP Mail (later HP DeskManager) by Hewlett-Packard[49]
These original messaging systems had widely different features and ran on systems that were
incompatible with each other. Most of them only allowed communication between users logged into
the same host or "mainframe", although there might be hundreds or thousands of users within an
LAN email systems[edit]
In the early 1980s, networked personal computers on LANs became increasingly important. Server-
based systems similar to the earlier mainframe systems were developed. Again, these systems
initially allowed communication only between users logged into the same server infrastructure.
Examples include:

 cc:Mail
 Lantastic
 WordPerfect Office
 Microsoft Mail
 Banyan VINES
 Lotus Notes
Eventually these systems too could link different organizations as long as they ran the same email
system and proprietary protocol.[50]
Email networks[edit]
To facilitate electronic mail exchange between remote sites and with other organizations,
telecommunication links, such as dialup modems or leased lines, provided means to transport email
globally, creating local and global networks. This was challenging for a number of reasons, including
the widely different email address formats in use.

IBM PCs running DOS could link with FidoNet for email and shared bulletin board posting. a forerunner of the Internet. which initially used the UUCP protocols via dial-up to provide networking and mail-relay services for non-ARPANET hosts.)[53]  The mail client included in 4BSD (1980) was extended to provide interoperability between a variety of mail systems. the Berkeley Network.bharat[57] in 8 languages/scripts in 2014.  CSNET. Email address internationalization[edit] Globally countries started adopting IDN registrations for supporting country specific scripts (non- English) for domain names. RFC 724. (August 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Early interoperability among independent systems included:  ARPANET. In 2010 Egypt.[39]  The delivermail tool.[54]  BITNET (1981) provided electronic mail services for educational institutions. that only had dial-up communications available. written by Eric Allman in 1979 and 1980 (and shipped in 4BSD). In 2016 Data Xgen Technologies was credited as World's first email platform offering EAI in India and Russia. was written by Eric Schmidt in 1978 and included first in the Second Berkeley Software Distribution.[37]  Unix mail was networked by 1978's uucp. UUCP.  PLATO IV was networked to individual terminals over leased data lines prior to the implementation of personal notes in 1974.[52] which was also used for USENET newsgroup postings. and the United Arab Emirates started offering IDN registrations.  In 1971 the first ARPANET email was sent. the Russian Federation. The Unix mail tool was extended to send messages using BerkNet. became a standardized working system. The government of India also registered . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. and finally 1977's RFC 733.[56]  In 1984. This was the first commercial public email service to use the internet. It provided support for sending and receiving messages over serial communication links. with similar headers. (It also provided support for mail user aliases. Saudi Arabia. provided support for routing mail over dissimilar networks. defined protocols for dissimilar computers to exchange email. and BerkNet.[58][59] Attempts at interoperability[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. including Arpanet.  Action Technologies developed the Message Handling System (MHS) protocol (later bought by Novell.  BerkNet. RFC 680.[51] and through RFC 561.  uucp implementations for Unix systems.[55]  1983 – MCI Mail Operated by MCI Communications Corporation. and later for other operating systems. MCI Mail also allowed subscribers to send regular postal mail (overnight) to non-subscribers. It was based on the IBM VNET email system.[60][61][62] which .

JANET. the project manager for the ARPANET development. and a help system. when he sent a message from one Digital Equipment Corporation DEC-10 computer to another DEC-10.[31][66] Tomlinson's work was quickly adopted across the ARPANET. Operation[edit] The diagram to the right shows a typical sequence of events [69] that takes place when sender Alice transmits a message using a mail . Tomlinson is internationally known as the inventor of modern email. As the influence of the ARPANET spread across academic communities.[64] Barry Wessler then updated RD and called it NRD. John Vittal then updated this version to include three important commands: Move (combined save/delete command). MSG is considered to be the first integrated modern email programme. With inclusion of these features.400. which dumped all "recent" messages onto the user's terminal. X. BITNET. The system was called MSG. Answer (determined to whom a reply should be sent) and Forward (sent an email to a person who was not already a recipient). abandoned it after purchasing the non-MHS WordPerfect Office— renamed Groupwise). SMTP/MIME.[63]  The Coloured Book protocols ran on UK academic networks until 1992. and called the utility WRD. which was later known as BANANARD. which permitted access to individual messages. which significantly increased the popularity of email.400. username@hostname[68] but were extended to "username@host.[67] Initially addresses were of the form. and mandated for government use under GOSIP. but abandoned by all but a few in favor of InternetSMTP by the mid- 1990s.  X. example. cc:Mail. from which many other applications have descended.[65] Marty Yonke rewrote NRD to include reading.domain" with the development of the Domain Name System (DNS).[27] Ray Tomlinson is generally credited as having sent the first email across a network. initiating the use of the "@" sign to separate the names of the user and the user's machine in 1971. Ray Tomlinson updated an existing utility called SNDMSG so that it could copy messages (as files) over the network. took the idea of READMAIL.[64] ARPANET mail[edit] Experimental email transfers between separate computer systems began shortly after the creation of the ARPANET in 1969.  HP OpenMail was known for its ability to interconnect several other APIs and protocols. This often involved addresses such as: hubhost!middlehost!edgehost!user@uucpgateway. gateways were developed to pass mail to and from other networks such as CSNET. access to SNDMSG for which routes mail to a user with a "bang path" address at a UUCP host. including MAPI. The two machines were placed next to each other.somedomain. and X.  Soft-Switch released its eponymous email gateway product in 1984. acquired by Lotus Software ten years later. Lawrence Roberts. and FidoNet.400 in the 1980s and early 1990s was promoted by major vendors. and wrote a programme for TENEX in TECO macros called RD. From SNDMSG to MSG[edit] In the early 1970s.

alternatives and complications exist in the email system:  Alice or Bob may use a client connected to a corporate email system.user agent (MUA) addressed to the email address of the (ns.b. in this case mx. 5. often the username of the recipient. These systems often have their own internal email format and their clients typically communicate with the email server using a sends the message to mx. such as IBM Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange. The MUA formats the message in email format and uses the submission protocol. and the part after the @ sign is a domain responds with any MX records listing the mail exchange servers for that in this case bob@b. The DNS server for the domain using SMTP.a. The MSA determines the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol (not from the message header). The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address. Bob's MUA picks up the message using either the Post Office Protocol (POP3) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).[70] 4. The MSA resolves a domain name to determine the fully qualified domain name of the mail server in the Domain Name System (DNS). The server sends or . a profile of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). The MDA delivers it to the mailbox of user to send the message to the local mail submission agent (MSA). a message transfer agent (MTA) server run by the recipient's ISP. proprietary protocol. 6. This server may need to forward the message to other MTAs before the message reaches the final message delivery agent (MDA). In addition to this example. smtp. 1.b. 2. in this case 3.

In the process of transporting email messages between systems. The header is separated from the body by a blank line.  Alice may not have a MUA on her computer but instead may connect to a webmail service. Each field has a name and a value. The header is structured into fields such as From. for example logging into mx. Message format [edit] The Internet email message format is now defined by RFC 5322. CC.[72] Internet email messages consist of two major sections. Many MTAs used to accept messages for any recipient on the Internet and do their best to deliver them. Date. each line of text in the header that begins with a printable character begins a separate field. Published in 1982. so avoiding the transfer at step 1. Informally. RFC 5322 replaced the earlier RFC 2822 in 2008. To. as unstructured text. [citation needed] However. RFC 822 was based on the earlier RFC 733 for the ARPANET. The field name starts in the first character of the line and ends before the separator . The body contains the message. this mechanism proved to be exploitable by originators of unsolicited bulk email and as a consequence open mail relays have become rare.  Domains usually have several mail exchange servers so that they can continue to accept mail even if the primary is not available.[71] and many MTAs do not accept messages from open mail relays. the entire transaction may happen completely within a single corporate email system. sometimes containing a signature block at the and reading it directly.  Alice's computer may run its own MTA. receives email via the Internet through the product's Internet mail gateway which also does any necessary reformatting. SMTP communicates delivery parameters and information using message header fields. If Alice and Bob work for the same company. which is structured into fields. This was very important in the early days of the Internet when network connections were unreliable. and in turn RFC 2822 in 2001 replaced RFC 822 – which had been the standard for Internet email for nearly 20 years. with multimedia content attachments being defined in RFC 2045 through RFC 2049. Such MTAs are called open mail relays.b. collectively called Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions or MIME. and other information about the email. Message header[edit] Each message has exactly one header. Subject. RFC 5322 specifies the precise syntax. the message header and the message body.  Bob may pick up his email in many ways. or by using a webmail service.

Non-ASCII values may be represented using MIME encoded words. and each line should be at most 78 characters long and in no event more than 998 characters long. to allow UTF-8 encoded Unicode characters to be used within the header. Header fields[edit] Email header fields can be multi-line. a syntax specified in RFC 2047 can be used.  Cc: Carbon copy. for encoding characters in other sets. and promoted by some governments.[75][76] replacing previous experimental extensions. Certain abbreviations are commonly used in the subject. netnews.  Precedence: commonly with values "bulk".  Date: The local time and date when the message was written. including also fields defined for MIME. Like the From: field. In particular. (Bcc: Blind carbon copy. this allows email addresses to use non-ASCII characters. and optionally name(s) of the message's recipient(s). or "list". In many email clients not changeable except through changing account settings. The recipient's client may then display the time in the format and time zone local to him/her. and not usually listed in the message header.[77] The message header must include at least the following fields:[78][79]  From: The email address. to prevent vacation notices from being sent to all other subscribers of a mailing list. and referencing relevant RFCs. it provides for permanent and provisional field names.g. Field names and values are restricted to 7-bit ASCII characters.[73] Header fields defined by RFC 5322can only contain US- ASCII characters. RFC 3864 describes registration procedures for message header fields at the IANA. used to indicate that automated "vacation" or "out of office" responses should not be returned for this mail. Such addresses are supported by Google and Microsoft products.  Subject: A brief summary of the topic of the message. for secondary recipients see Cc: and Bcc: below.character ":". e. "junk". Common header fields for email include:[80]  To: The email address(es). and optionally the name of the author(s). Indicates primary recipients (multiple allowed). addresses are usually only specified during SMTP delivery. The separator is then followed by the field value (the "body" of the field).[74] Recently the IETF EAI working group has defined some standards track extensions. including "RE:" and "FW:". and HTTP. usually a MIME type.)  Content-Type: Information about how the message is to be displayed. many email clients fill this in automatically when sending. Sendmail uses this field to affect prioritization of . Many email clients will mark email in one's inbox differently depending on whether they are in the To: or Cc: list. The value is continued onto subsequent lines if those lines have a space or tab as their first character.

[81]  Message-ID: Also an automatically generated field. Microsoft Exchange respects a fine-grained automatic response suppression mechanism.  In-Reply-To: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to. This field only applies for reply messages. used to prevent multiple delivery and for reference in In-Reply-To: (see below). which may or may not originally have been extracted from the header content. the "From:" field does not have to be the real sender of the email message. list manager. SMTP defines the trace information of a message. The "To:" field is similar to the addressing at the top of a conventional letter which is delivered according to the address on the outer envelope. SMTP. Some mail servers apply email authentication systems to messages being relayed. Note that the To: field is not necessarily related to the addresses to which the message is delivered. queued email. which is also saved in the header using the following two fields:[82]  Received: when an SMTP server accepts a message it inserts this trace record at the top of the header (last to first). etc.).[84]  Received-SPF: stores results of SPF checks in more detail than Authentication-Results. etc.[83]  Authentication-Results: when a server carries out authentication checks. with "Precedence: special-delivery" messages delivered sooner.  Sender: Address of the actual sender acting on behalf of the author listed in the From: field (secretary. as defined below. it can save the results in this field for consumption by downstream agents. The actual delivery list is supplied separately to the transport protocol. Data pertaining to server's activity is also part of the header.  References: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to. the X-Auto-Response- Suppress field.[85]  Auto-Submitted: is used to mark automatically generated messages. Other fields that are added on top of the header by the receiving server may be called trace fields. and the message-id of the message the previous reply was a reply to.  Return-Path: when the delivery SMTP server makes the final delivery of a message. in a broader sense.  Reply-To: Address that should be used to reply to the message. Used to link related messages together. delivery priority is less of an issue than it once was.  Archived-At: A direct link to the archived form of an individual email message. In the same way.[86]  VBR-Info: claims VBR whitelisting[87] Message body[edit] . With modern high-bandwidth networks. it inserts this field at the top of the header.

[citation needed] Plain text and HTML[edit] Most modern graphic email clients allow the use of either plain text or HTML for the message body at the option of the user. but this should be avoided unless the recipient is guaranteed to have a compatible email client. for international character sets. In some countries. HTML email messages often include an automatically generated plain text copy as well. by default.[92] Servers and client applications[edit] . use emphasis such as underlines and italics. when the sender and receiver use the same encoding scheme). The MIME standard introduced character set specifiers and two content transfer encodings to enable transmission of non-ASCII data: quoted printable for mostly 7-bit content with a few characters outside that range and base64 for arbitrary binary data. wrap naturally on any display. with 72 or 80 characters per line[90][91] for all the above reasons.Content encoding[edit] Email was originally designed for 7-bit ASCII. for compatibility reasons.[88] Most email software is 8-bit clean but must assume it will communicate with 7-bit servers and mail readers.[89] Some web-based mailing lists recommend that all posts be made in plain-text. as the result. Advantages of HTML include the ability to include in-line links and images. The 8BITMIME and BINARY extensions were introduced to allow transmission of mail without the need for these encodings. privacy concerns about web bugs. Some Microsoft email clients allow rich formatting using their proprietary Rich Text Format (RTF). several encoding schemes coexist. abuse of HTML email as a vector for phishing attacks and the spread of malicious software. but also because they have a significant number of readers using text-based email clients such as Mutt. the message in a non-Latin alphabet language appears in non-readable form (the only exception is coincidence. Therefore. Unicode is growing in popularity. Disadvantages include the increased size of the email. and change font styles. but many mail transport agents still do not support them fully. set apart previous messages in block quotes.

Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange Servers. Messages are exchanged between hosts using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol with software programs called mail transfer agents (MTAs). and managing email are called mail user agents (MUAs). The files are plain text in MIME format. Lotus notes. The specific format used is often indicated by special filename extensions: eml Used by many email clients including Novell GroupWise. Accepting a message obliges an MTA to deliver it. Filename extensions[edit] Upon reception of email messages. Many current email users do not run MTA. often proprietary. on the server side. msg Used by Microsoft Office Outlook and OfficeLogic Groupware. mbx . reading. Mozilla Thunderbird. Programs used by users for retrieving. The interface of an email client. LDAs). but use a web-based email platform. Hotmail. that MTA must send a bounce message back to the sender. Server-side storage is often in a proprietary format but since access is through a standard protocol such as IMAP. Thunderbird. A historical standard of storage is the mbox format. MDA or MUA programs themselves. moving email from one server to another can be done with any MUA supporting the protocol. Some clients save individual messages as separate files. and delivered to a mail store by programs called mail delivery agents (MDAs. indicating the problem. and Postbox. also sometimes called local delivery agents. Microsoft Outlook Express.[94] Such webmail interfaces allow users to access their mail with any standard web browser. emlx Used by Apple Mail. rather than relying on an email client. or Yahoo! Mail. for collective storage. email client applications save messages in operating system files in the file system. Windows Mail. Users can retrieve their messages from servers using standard protocols such as POP or IMAP. such as Gmail. that performs the same tasks. with a proprietary protocol specific to Novell Groupwise. while others use various database formats. Standard formats for mailboxes include Maildir and mbox. from any computer. containing the email header as well as the message contents and attachments in one or more of several formats. Mail can be stored on the client. or in both places. Several prominent email clients use their own proprietary format and require conversion software to transfer email between them. or. as is more likely in a large corporate environment.[93] and when a message cannot be delivered. URLs of this form are intended to be used to open the new message window of the user's mail client when the URL is activated.Used by Opera Mail. Though its use is not strictly defined. Mail is typically not downloaded to the client. defines the mailto: scheme for SMTP email addresses. Others separate attachments from messages and save them in a specific directory. Small portable devices like smartphones are increasingly used to check email while travelling.g.[96] IMAP email servers[edit] The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) provides features to manage a mailbox from multiple devices. and to make brief replies. Usually mail is left in folders in the mail server. AOL Mail. URI scheme mailto[edit] Main article: mailto The URI scheme. with the address as defined by the URL in the To: field.[95] Types[edit] Web-based email[edit] Main article: Webmail Many email providers have a web-based email client (e. KMail. and Apple Mail based on the mbox format. so can't be read without a current Internet connection. Some applications (like Apple Mail) leave attachments encoded in messages for searching while also saving separate copies of the attachments. larger devices with better keyboard access being used to reply at greater length. the sender and the subject and the device needs to request to download specific messages. IMAP shows the headers of messages. Received messages are often deleted from the server. POP3 email services[edit] The Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) is a mail access protocol used by a client application to read messages from the mail server. POP supports simple download-and-delete requirements for access to remote mailboxes (termed maildrop in the POP RFC's). This allows users to log in to the email account by using any compatible web browser to send and receive their email. Outlook. Hotmail and Yahoo! Mail). . as registered with the IANA.

and to a range of other email server products such as Axigen Mail Server. governments and non-governmental organizations in the developed world. Email allows asynchrony: each participant may control their schedule independently. HP OpenMail. IBM Lotus Notes. and Bynari where vendors have added MAPI support to allow their products to be accessed directly via Outlook. setting up and attending an in-person meeting. area. and it is one of the key parts of an 'e-revolution' in workplace communication (with the other key plank being widespread adoption of highspeed Internet). Kerio Connect. including: Facilitating logistics Much of the business world relies on communications between people who are not physically in the same building. Reducing cost . and each participant must spend the same amount of time in the meeting or call. Scalix. knowledge workers felt email was critical to their success and productivity at work. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. A sponsored 2010 study on workplace communication found 83% of U. (November 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Business and organizational use[edit] Email has been widely accepted by business. time-consuming. Email provides a method of exchanging information between two or more people with no set-up costs and that is generally far less expensive than a physical meeting or phone call. Zarafa. Zimbra. and costly.S.[97] It has some key benefits to business and other organizations. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. MAPI email servers[edit] Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI) is used by Microsoft Outlook to communicate to Microsoft Exchange Server . Helping with synchronisation With real time communication by meetings or phone calls. telephone call. or conference call can be inconvenient. Uses[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. participants must work on the same schedule. or even country.

[99] email sent without permission—such as an "opt-in"—is likely to be viewed as unwelcome "email spam". Email marketing[edit] Email marketing via "opt-in" is often successfully used to send special sales offerings and new product information. users could only access email on desktop computers. the identity of the sender(s) and recipient(s) and the date and time the message was sent.Sending an email is much less expensive than sending postal mail. Alerts can also be sent to the smartphone or other device to notify them immediately of new messages. Mobile "apps" for email increase accessibility to the medium for users who are out of their home. or long distance telephone calls. Creating a "written" record Unlike a telephone or in-person conversation. as each email has the date and time recorded on it. in the 2010s. While in the earliest years of email. saved emails can be used to prove that an individual was advised of certain issues. email by its nature creates a detailed written record of the communication. it is possible for users to check their email when they are away from home. telex or telegrams. whether they are across town or across the world. . Personal use[edit] Desktop[edit] Many users access their personal email from friends and family members using a desktop computer in their house or apartment. Increasing speed Much faster than most of the alternatives. In the event of a contract or legal dispute.[98] Depending on the recipient's culture. Mobile[edit] Email has become widely used on smartphones and Wi- Fi-enabled laptops and tablet computers.

4 billion email users worldwide and 50 billion non- spam emails that are sent daily. (October .This has given email the ability to be used for more frequent communication between users and allowed them to check their email and write messages throughout the day. there are an estimated 1. For example. making email the most popular activity for users to do on their smartphones. and 91% were likely to check their email at least once per day on their smartphone.[101] Issues[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. in comparison to 75% of those consumers in the US who used it. It was found that US adults check their email more than they browse the web or check their Facebook accounts. Today.[100] It was also found that 30% of consumers use only their smartphone to check their email. Individuals often check email on smartphones for both personal and work-related messages. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. However. 78% of the respondents in the study revealed that they check their email on their phone. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. the percentage of consumers using email on smartphone ranges and differs dramatically across different countries. only 17% in India did.

and generally suggested.[102][103][104] Furthermore. 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Attachment size limitation[edit] Main article: Email attachment Email messages may have one or more attachments. but in practice email clients. or complete email . attachment sizes as seen by these transport systems can differ to what the user sees. servers and Internet service providers implement various limitations on the size of files. pdf docume nts and scanned images of paper documents.[108][109] This . In principle there is no technical restriction on the size or number of attachments. file hosting services of various sorts are available. which are additional files that are appended to the email. Where larger files need to be shared. due to technical reasons. such as digital photos. color presentations and video or music files are too large for some email systems.[105] which can be confusing to senders when trying to assess whether they can safely send a file by email. Typical attachments include Microsoft Word documents.typically to 25MB or less. Information overload[edit] The ubiquity of email for knowledge workers and "white collar" employees has led to concerns that recipients face an "information overload" in dealing with increasing volumes of email.[106][107] Some large files.

Email spoofing[edit] Main article: Email spoofing Email spoofing occurs when the email message header is designed to make the message appear to come from . Spam[edit] Main article: Email spam Email "spam" is the term used to describe unsolicited bulk email. email bombardment and email worms.[115] but the volume sent is still very high—and increasingly consists not of advertisements for products. to phishing. and some observers even argue it could have a significant negative economic effect. The low cost of sending such email meant that by 2003 up to 30% of total email traffic was already spam. but malicious content or links. decreased satisfaction with work. including "social engineering" scams such as advance-fee scam "Nigerian letters".[111][112][113] and was threatening the usefulness of email as a practical tool.[110] as efforts to read the many emails could reduce productivity.can lead to increased stress. and a number of effective anti-spam techniques now largely mitigate the impact of spam by filtering or rejecting it for most users.[116] Malware[edit] A range of malicious email types exist. The US CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 and similar laws elsewhere[114] had some impact. These range from various types of email scams.

An example of a potentially fraudulent email spoofing is if an individual creates an email which appears to be an invoice from a major company. Internal mail systems. or as part of a criminal effort to defraud an individual or organization. these fraudulent emails incorporate the logo of the purported organization and even the email address may appear legitimate. although information technology personnel and others whose function may . Privacy concerns[edit] Main article: Internet privacy Today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal email systems. and then sends it to one or more recipients. Email spam and phishing methods typically use spoofing to mislead the recipient about the true message origin. The overloading of the target email address can render it unusable and can even cause the mail server to crash. in which the information never leaves the organizational network. Internet email may travel and be stored on networks and computers without the sender's or the recipient's control. During the transit time it is possible that third parties read or even modify the content. In some cases. Email bombing[edit] Main article: Email bomb Email bombing is the intentional sending of large volumes of messages to a target address. may be more secure.a known or trusted source. Email spoofing may be done as a prank.

SMEmail.  many Internet Service Providers (ISP) store copies of email messages on their mail servers before they are delivered.  email messages have to go through intermediate computers before reaching their destination. can be compromised because:  email messages are generally not encrypted. preventing anonymous communication. despite deletion from the mailbox. . For example. meaning it is relatively easy for others to intercept and read messages. Virtual Private Networks or the Tor anonymity network can be used to encrypt traffic from the user machine to a safer network while GPG. There are cryptography applications that can serve as a remedy to one or more of the above. The backups of these can remain for up to several months on their server. Email privacy. and SMTP STARTTLS or SMTP over Transport Layer Security/Secure Sockets Layer can be used to encrypt communications for a single mail hop between the SMTP client and the SMTP server.[117] or S/MIME can be used for end-to- end message encryption.  the "Received:"-fields and other information in the email can often identify the sender. PGP.involve monitoring or managing may be accessing the email of other employees. without some security precautions.

As a solution. Flaming[edit] Flaming occurs when a person sends a message (or many messages) with angry or antagonistic content. and that they are in the process of clearing out all the messages.[119] . Harvard University law professor Lawrence Lessig is credited with coining this term. people occasionally send a "boilerplate" message explaining that their email inbox is full. The term is derived from the use of the word "incendiary" to describe particularly heated email discussions. many mail user agents do not protect logins and passwords. The ease and impersonality of email communications mean that the social norms that encourage civility in person or via telephone do not exist and civility may be forgotten. The reason for falling behind is often due to information overload and a general sense there is so much information that it is not possible to read it all. but he may only have popularized it. Attached files may contain trojans or viruses.[118] Email bankruptcy[edit] Main article: Email bankruptcy Also known as "email fatigue". making them easy to intercept by an attacker. Finally. email bankruptcy is when a user ignores a large number of email messages after falling behind in reading and answering them.Additionally. Encrypted authentication schemes such as SASL prevent this. attached files share many of the same hazards as those found in peer-to-peer filesharing.

but both software bugs and system failures can cause messages to be lost.Tracking of sent mail[edit] The original SMTP mail service provides limited mechanisms for tracking a transmitted message. however.[121]) Many ISPs now deliberately disable non-delivery reports (NDRs) and delivery receipts due to the activities of spammers:  Delivery Reports can be used to verify whether an address exists and if so. see RFCs 3885[120] through 3888. these are not universally deployed in production. (A complete Message Tracking mechanism was also defined. then the innocent email address that was used can be flooded with NDRs from the many invalid email addresses the spammer may have attempted to mail. the IETF introduced Delivery Status Notifications (delivery receipts) and Message Disposition Notifications (return receipts). . It requires that each mail server must either deliver it onward or return a failure notice (bounce message). To remedy this. and none for verifying that it has been delivered or read. These NDRs then constitute spam from the ISP to the innocent user. this indicates to a spammer that it is available to be spammed.  If the spammer uses a forged sender email address (email spoofing). but it never gained traction.

[125] Webmail providers can also disrupt web bugs by pre-caching images.S. E- COM provided a method for the simple exchange of text messages. In 2011. when email volume overtook postal mail volume. The USPS explored an electronic messaging initiative in 1977 and later disbanded it. shortly after the USPS reported its state of financial bankruptcy.[122][123][124] and only work with email clients that support rendering of HTML. the USPS was again urged to embrace email. the USPS Office of Inspector General (OIG) began exploring the possibilities of generating revenue through email .[126] U. and the USPS declined to provide email as a service. However. Starting in 1977. a range of system based around the use of web bugs have been developed. the U. Many mail clients now default to not showing "web content". Postal Service (USPS) recognized that electronic messaging and electronic transactions posed a significant threat to First Class mail volumes and revenue. state and federal governments have been involved in electronic messaging and the development of email in several different ways. in 1997.In the absence of standard methods.[127][128][129] The USPS initiated an experimental email service known as E-COM. these are often seen as underhand or raising privacy concerns. government[edit] The U.S.S. Twenty years later.

printed out.[134][135][136][137][138] The early ARPANET dealt with multiple email clients that had various. an individual had to transmit at least 200 messages. but which was not fully effective.[133] Three years after initiating the service.servicing.[27] The Department of Defense DARPA desired to have uniformity and interoperability for email and therefore funded efforts to drive towards unified inter- operable standards. "Standard for the Format of ARPA Network Text Message" (November 21. and in 1979. in the Multics. To take advantage of the service. the "@" sign meant "kill line" and anything before the "@" sign was ignored. formats. and Austin Henderson publishing RFC 733. USPS canceled E-COM and attempted to sell it off. Kenneth Pogran. Both the Postal Regulatory Commission and the Federal Communications Commission opposed E-COM. This led to David Crocker.[130][131][132] Electronic messages were transmitted to a post office. a subset of which provided a stable base for common use on the ARPANET. The delivery time of the messages was the same as First Class mail and cost 26 cents. a meeting was held at BBN to . and delivered as hard copy. so Multics users had to use a command-line option to specify the destination system. 1977). and at times incompatible. The FCC concluded that E- COM constituted common carriage under its jurisdiction and the USPS would have to file a tariff. John Vittal. For example.

resolve incompatibility issues. A part of the NSFNet AUP forbade commercial traffic. that were being developed at the same time. Within a few years the commercial traffic restriction was removed from NSFNETs AUP. led to the release of David Crocker's RFC 822. and initiated a series of procedures on spam. which includes an appendix listing the varying email systems at the time. The National Science Foundation took over operations of the ARPANET and Internet from the Department of Defense. Jon Postel recounted the meeting in RFC 808. "Summary of Computer Mail Services Meeting Held at BBN on 10 January 1979" (March 1. 1982). 1982).[142] Several other U. and phishing. In the late 1990s.S. This. fraud. The following year Compuserve email interconnected with NSFNET. notably enhancing the host portion. "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages" (August 13. the Federal Trade Commission grew concerned with fraud transpiring in email. Vint Cerf arranged for an interconnection of MCI Mail with NSFNET on an experimental basis. in turn. FTC jurisdiction over spam was codified into law in the form of the CAN SPAM Act. and initiated NSFNet. . to use Domain Names.[139] RFC 822 is a small adaptation of RFC 733's details. a new backbone for the network.[141] In 2004. and NSFNET was privatised.[140] In 1988.

NASA has provided email capabilities to astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station since 1991 when a Macintosh Portable was used aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-43 to send the first email via AppleLink.[146] See also[edit]  Anonymous remailer  Anti-spam techniques  biff  Bounce message  Comparison of email clients  Dark Mail Alliance  Disposable email address  E-card  Electronic mailing list  Email art  Email authentication  Email digest  Email encryption  Email hosting service  Email storm  Email tracking  HTML email  Information overload  Internet fax  Internet mail standards .federal agencies have also exercised jurisdiction including the Department of Justice and the Secret Service. comparable to home DSL connection speeds.[143][144][145] Today astronauts aboard the International Space Station have email capabilities via the wireless networking throughout the station and are connected to the ground at 10 Mbit/s Earth to station and 3 Mbit/s station to Earth.

Styleguide. Jump up^ Ron Brown. Jump up^ "Yahoo style guide". This is suggested by the RFC Document Style Guide 7. Network Working Group. No. 3 (March 1973). Fax invades the mail 4. page 85 5. IETF. Jump up^ Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 2013-04-21. Books. Jump up^ "RFC 5321 – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol". Retrieved 19 January 2015. List of email subject abbreviations  MCI Mail  Netiquette  Posting style  Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail  Push email  RSS  Telegraphy  Unicode and email  Usenet quoting  Webmail. Jump up^ (Partridge 2008) 3. Comparison of webmail providers  X-Originating-IP  X. Retrieved 2014-01-09. What's News: Electronic-mail delivery gets started.400  Yerkish References[edit] 1. 56. 6. Popular Science. 2. Jump up^ Herbert P. Vol. No. 1972). New Scientist. Jump up^ "RFC Editor Terms List". . pages 218– 221. Luckett. Vol. 817 (Oct.

Fourth Edition 13. Retrieved September 26. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 15th National Conference of the American Copy Editors Society (2011. 2002 15.8. Retrieved 9 May 2014. "AP changes e- mail to email".com 9. 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2009. Jump up^ ""Email" or "e-mail"". English Language & Usage – Stack Exchange. Jump up^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Jump up^ AskOxford Language Query team. Jump up^ The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Daniel Hunt. ACES. Jump up^ "Reference. "What is the correct way to spell 'e' words such as 'email'. Merriam-Webster. Dictionary. O xford University Press. 2010. huffingtonpost. 18 March 2011. FAQ. 'egovernment'?". Phoenix). 2006 12. . Jump up^ Princeton University WordNet 3. Jump up^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2008. 17. ^ Jump up to:a b "AP Removes Hyphen From ‘Email’ In Style Guide".com". 11. 16. We recommend email. Jump up^ Gerri Berendzen. 'ecommerce'. August 25. as this is now by far the most common form 10.reference. Jump up^ "Merriam- Webster Dictionary". Archived from the original on July .0 14.

Chapter IV: Systems. 19. 2006).usage. University of South Alabama. 25. "The History of Electronic Mail". Retrieved 2014-01-09. web: Multicians- 7094. Postal Service. Multicians. 23. Table of decisions on consistent usage in RFC". D. Jump up^ an IBM 7094 26. 1440/1460 Administrative Terminal . 2004). ^ Jump up to:a b c Tom Van Vleck. Compatible Time- Sharing System" (September 4. Jump up^ "RFC 524 (rfc524) – A Proposed Mail Protocol". Faqs. USA- CTSS. 1976. Faqs. 24. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 22. Louis T Rader. ^ Jump up to:a b "RFC 3501 (rfc3501) – Internet Message Access Protocol – version 4rev1".18. 1973-06-13. Jump up^ IBM.C. Chair. Jump up^ "Excerpt from the FAQ list of the Usenet newsgroup alt.. Retrieved 2016-11-18. Alt- usage-english. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Faqs.english". Jump up^ "CTSS. 28. Electronic Message Systems for the (M ultics). Jump up^ "''"RFC Style Guide"''.S. 20. 21. pages 27– Jump up^ Tom Van Vleck. Retrieved "The IBM 7094 and CTSS" (September 10. ^ Jump up to:a b USPS Support Panel. National Academy of Sciences. ^ Jump up to:a b "RFC 1939 (rfc1939) – Post Office Protocol – Version 3".

org.a u. 36. which features . Scientific Time Sharing Corporation. 7:08. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Archived from the original on 2011-02-27. including Leslie Goldsmith's story of the Mailbox 35. Jump up^ "Version 3 Unix mail(1) manual page from 10/25/1972". Retrieved 2017-01- 06. Jump up^ IBM. 1979). Promotional video for Scientific Time Sharing Corporation. Jump up^ IBM. 33. ^ Jump up to:a b Ray Tomlinson. System/36O Administrative Terminal System DOS (ATS/DOS) Program Description Manual. actewagl. Jump up^ "Version 6 Unix mail(1) manual page from 2/21/1975". "The First Network Email". p. "The STSC Story: It's About Time". System (1440-CX-07X and 1460-CX-08X) Application Description (PDF). (c. Minnie. Openmap.bbn. Jump up^ "Home > Communications > The Internet > History of the internet > Internet in its infancy". System/360 Administrative Terminal System-OS (ATS/OS) Application Description Manual. H20-0508 30. 10. Retrieved 2016-11-03. Jump up^ APL Quotations and Anecdotes. IBM.tuhs. Jump up^ Catherine Lathwell. 32. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Second Edition. IBM. 34. H20-0129-1 29. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Minnie.tuhs. H20-0297 31.

Boston Business Journal". University of California. Jump up^ Harris. 41. Jump up^ Shiva Ayyadurai v. PLATO: The Emergence of an Online Community. Joseph (22 February 2012). innovation and the birth of a system". Berkeley. "A history of e- mail: Collaboration. Jump up^ Stromberg. ^ Jump up to:a b David Wooley. Smithsonian Institution.. 37. 38. 39. "Cambridge man who claims he invented email sues Gawker for $35M . Washington Post. David L. David (20 March 2012). Boston Business Journal. "A Piece of Email History Comes to the American History Museum". Jump up^ The Mail Reference Manual. filed May 10. Kurt Shoens. President Jimmy Carter's press secretary Jody Powell explaining how the company's "APL Mailbox" enabled the 1976 Carter presidential campaign to easily move information around the country to coordinate the campaign. Retrieved 11 June 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 2016) 42. al. (May 10. 1979. Retrieved 2016-05-16. . 1979. Mass. Complaint (D. 40. et. University of California. Berkeley. Gawker Media. Eric Schmidt. 43. ^ Jump up to:a b An Introduction to the Berkeley Network. 2016). 1994. Jump up^ Crocker.

44. The Rand Corporation. National Museum of American History. Jump up^ Ray Tomlinson. "The First Network Email". 1998-01-30. collaborated and approached work when it was introduced by IBM's Data Processing Division in 1981. Jump up^ ". called the Professional Office System (PROFs). Jump up^ "Version 7 Unix manual: "UUCP Implementation Description" by D.A. A. from IBM. Jump up^ with various vendors supplying gateway software to link these incompatible systems 51.PROFS changed the way organizations Jump up^ "HP Computer Museum". Retrieved 2014-01-09. 46.. Shiva Ayyadurai" (Press release)..".".. Jump up^ "Statement from the National Museum of American History: Collection of Materials from V. 47. . and "A Dial-Up Network of UNIX Systems" by D. Jump up^ "1982 – The National Security Council (NSC) staff at the White House acquires a prototype electronic mail system. Research. Jump up^ A Mail Handling System. 45. Nowitz. 1979. Jump up^ "Gordon Bell's timeline of Digital Equipment Corporation". IBM. fas. 48. 23 February 2012. Bruce Borden.. A.. Retrieved 19 February 2013..

offers improved performance. Retrieved 2016-10-17. 54.". greater reliability and much more flexibility in everything from communications hardware to scheduling. Joy. Berkeley. 58. MCI Mail 57. Jump up^ Mail(1). Jump up^ Setting up the Fourth Berkeley Software Tape. University of California. Microsoft . Nowitz and M. Jump up^ "MHS: Correct Addressing format to DaVinci Email via MHS". UNIX Programmer's Manual. 4BSD. Keith 56. Network World 62.indiatimes. Network World 61. University of". 03/07/ ernet/datamail-worlds- first-free-linguistic-email- service-supports-eight- india- languages/articleshow/5 4923001. Jump up^ "MCI Mail"... Jump up^ "Delivering the Enterprise Message.. Jump up^ "BITNET History". E. 1980. livinginternet..cms 59. Jump up^ http://economictime s. Lesk". 53. Jump up^ http://digitalconqure r. Mark india-datamail- empowers-russia-email- address-russian- language/ 60. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 1980. William N. 19 Sep 1994. Jump up^ "Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) | Registry. 55. Jump up^ ". Ozalp Babaoglu. Berkeley. Daniel Blum. registry.

1996-05-13. Jump up^ "MX Record Explanation".32. IMC Reports. Jump up^ How E-mail Works (internet video). NPR.linkedin . Paul (2002-08- 20). p. 2008). Livinginternet. 30 (2): 3– 29.cornell. 64. 2009. Craig (April–June 2008). "Allowing Relaying in SMTP: A Series of Surveys". Jump up^ "Ray Tomlinson. Inventor Of Modern 71. Support Knowledge Base. Ken (October 3. Internet Mail Consortium. Berlin: IEEE Computer Society.Time Magazine. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 72. 70. it. Jump up^ https://www.20 08. 2008. Jump up^ RFC 805. October 19. "An update to the email standards". Retrieved 2008-04-13.1109/mahc. 68. Dies". ^ Jump up to:a b "Email History" Retrieved 2007- 01-15. Jump up^ Simpson. 6 March 2016. Computer Mail Meeting Notes 69. Jump up^ Wave New World. Jump up^ * Partridge. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 66. . Archived from the original on 2007-01-18.48 67. doi:10. 65. 8 February 1982. Jump up^ Hoffman. howstuffworks. "The Technical Development of Internet Email"(PDF). MailChannels Blog

80. Jump up^ "RFC 5322. Retrieved 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2014-01-09.4. Jump up^ P. Retrieved 2014- 01-09. Identification Fields".6. Jump up^ "Now. Tools. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. IETF. 3. Jump up^ Microsoft. Jump up^ John Klensin (October 2008). Internationalized Email Headers". 79. October 2008. RFC 5321. 78. get your email address in Hindi . Retrieved 2014- 01-09. SMTP Extension for Internationalized Email Addresses".4. IETF.The Economic Times". Jump up^ "RFC 5064". Auto Response Suppress. K (November 1996).ietf. October 2008. 2010. Tools. 74. Jump up^ Moore. IETF. 81. 77. 3. Ed. Yao. Ed. "RFC 6532. December 2007. microsoft reference. (February 2012).org. ISSN 2070-1721.ietf. IETF. (October 2008). Jump up^ J. sec. Ed. ISSN 2070-1721. 76. Tools. Jump up^ "RFC 5322. W. "RFC 6531. Retrieved 2016- 10-17.. 2010 Sep 22 82. IETF. "RFC 5322. Internet Message Format". Ed.73.ietf. Jump up^ A Mao. (February 2012). 75. Field Definitions". . The Economic Times. "Trace Information". "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non- ASCII Text". 4.

that also defines an IANA registry of Email Authentication Parameters. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 93. Helpdesk. may be inaccessible to the recipient Retrieved 2014-01-09. Jump up^ Defined in RFC 3834. TCP/IP Network Administration. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Jump up^ In practice. but instead to a Spam or Junk folder which. 85.. Jump up^ ". 91..83. ISBN 978- 0-596-00297-8. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Jump up^ This extensible field is defined by RFC 7001. email message.dat File from Being Sent to Internet Users"..rootsweb. Openbsd. 88. there are many more trace fields than those two 84... Jump up^ "How to Prevent the Winmail. Jump up^ "When posting to a RootsWeb mailing list. 86. 92. "Trace headers". O'Reilly Media. Jump up^ RFC 5518. 87. p. 90. IETF. Jump up^ "Email policies that prevent viruses".com. and updated by RFC 5436. Jump up^ Craig Hunt (2002). Jump up^ John Levine (14 January 2012). especially in a corporate 89. 72 characters per line. Support.".Plain text. some accepted messages may nowadays not be delivered to the recipient's InBox. 2010-07-02. 70.".. Jump up^ RFC 7208.

Prentice Hall. Jump up^ "The ultimate mobile email statistics overview". 98. Jump up^ "Google updates file size limits for Gmail and YouTube". Windows to Linux. 43 (3): 293– 300. Amir. Jump up^ Allen. 97. 96. "Is Email a Curse or a Boon?" September 22. Jump up^ RFC 2368 section 3 : by Paul Hoffman in 1998 discusses operation of the "mailto" URL.1017/s00218 business_and_economy/ business_to_business/c ommunications_and_net working/internet_and_w orld_wide_web/email_pr oviders/free_email/ 95. 192. Jump up^ "Email Is Top Activity On Smartphones. 103. part 1: China". Jump up^ Martin. Brett A. Jump up^ "Setting Message Size Limits in Exchange 2010 and Exchange 2007".yahoo. 2010. doi:10. "E-mail Marketing: Exploratory Insights from Finland" (PDF). Journal of Advertising Research. Jump up^http://dir.. 104. 101. geek. Raulas. Joel. Mika. "Spam culture. 100. 28 March 2013. Jump up^ By Om Malik. Jump up^ "Maximum . S. 99. Jump up^ Lev. Ahead Of Web Browsing & Facebook [Study]". Retrieved October 11. 2010. 102. p. Merisavo. David (2004).94. Marko (2003). Van Durme.

com 2012. 105. Jump up^ How Microsoft is losing the war on spam Salon.". Randall (2008-04- 20). securelist. "Email Statistics 114. makeuseof. The New York Times. . ITvibe. 2006. Jump up^ "Spam and phishing in Q1 2016".9 Percent of Gmail Spam". attachment size". Jump up^ Radicati. Jump up^ Rich Kawanagh. Microsoft. Jump up^ Spam Bill 2003 (PDF) 115. Jump up^ "8 ways to email large attachments". The top ten email spam list of 2005.. Jump up^ Stross. Jump up^ "Send large files to other people". Jump up^ Gross. Jump up^ "Exchange 2007: Attachment Size Increase. ITVibe news. 2011).com 107. 106. "Happy Information Overload Day!".. 2016. Retrieved May 1. 2010" (PDF). December 21. Doug (July 26. Microsoft. January 113. 109. Sara.. TechNet 116. July 09 2015. 2010. May 12. 2010-03-25. Cade Metz. Jump up^ "Growth of Spam Email" 112. 111. Jump up^ "Google Says Its AI Catches 99. 110. "Struggling to Evade the E-Mail Tsunami". Chris Hoffman. wired.

2007). Jump up^ SMEmail – A New Protocol for the Secure E-mail in Mobile Environments. Retrieved 2012-01-13. Jump up^ RFC 3885. pp. Australia. Kiesler. "Software That Tracks E-Mail Is Raising Privacy Concerns".about. Grant (December 23. 120. V. SMTP Service Extension for Message Tracking 121. doi:10. 2008.". 123. Zubrow. Jump up^ "Webdevelopersnot es. Adelaide. 1: 77– 104. Human- Computer Interaction. "All We Are Saying.". Email. Retrieved 2007- 12-24. 119. Jump up^ S. Jump up^ Amy Harmon (2000-11- 22)". "Affect in computer- mediated communication: an experiment in synchronous terminal-to- terminal discussion". Geller (1985). Dec. Jump up^ "About. 118. Jump up^ Barrett.1207/s15327 051hci0101_3.M. Proceedings of the Australian Telecommunications Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC'08). The New York Times. Jump up^ RFC . The New York Times. A. D. Retrieved 2014- 01-09. 39–44. Webdevelopersnotes. 2013- 12-19. Message Tracking Model and Requirements 122. 124.

132. 1979) 134. mit. Ars Technica 127. Jump up^ "Can Technology Save The U. Jump up^ James Bovard.. Jump up^ "Outlook: Web Bugs & Blocked HTML Images". FedTech. Jump up^ "Why the USPS Is Taking Cues from Silicon Valley". 125. The Evolution of ARPANET Email. Jump up^ In re Request for declaratory ruling and investigation by Graphnet Systems. 131. Postal Service?". 133. CATO .The Tech".com. History Thesis'". Ron Amadeo. 126. 129. Fast Company. 130.. Ian R. concerning the proposed E-COM service. BostInno.S. slipstick. 128. m. Jump up^ "Could Email Save Snail Mail. . University of California at Berkeley 135.". The Law Dinosaur: The US Postal Service. Jump up^ "'Dear USPS . . Jump up^ "Can an MIT professor save the USPS? . FCC Docket No. Or Is The Internet Too Reliant on the USPS?". Jump up^ "Gmail blows up e- mail marketing. 1996-05-13. Dec 13 2013. Retrieved 2014-01- 09. 6 March 2012. MIT Comparative Media Studies/Writing. Inc. Jump up^ Hardy. 79-6 (September 4. Jump up^ "Shiva Ayyadurai: USPS can save itself"..

Jump up^ "Jay Akkad. Jump up^ "The Mac Observer – This Week in Apple History – August 22–31: . 144. Jump up^ "Implications of Electronic Mail and Message Systems for the U.ucsb. Spaceref. Jump up^ "Email History. Livinginternet. Jump up^ Robert Cannon. Jump up^ Robert Cannon. 138. The History of Email". 1996-05-13. August 1982" (PDF). Jump up^ "US Postal Service: Postal Activities and Laws Related to Electronic Commerce. Postal Service . "Internet History".edu. Jump up^ Cowing. Jump up^ Cybertelecom : SPAM Reference Archived Sep tember 19.S. 2014. "2001: A Space Laptop | SpaceRef – Your Space Reference". Cybertelecom. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Congress of the United States. Retrieved 2014-01-09. GAO-00- 188" (PDF). 141. 137. How Email was Retrieved 2014-01-09. Cs. Living Internet". Office of Technology Assessment. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 139. Policy Analysis (February 1985) 136. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 143. Keith (2000-09-18). Cybertelecom. 140. "Can Spam Act". at the Wayback Machine.

Calif. Macobserver. IBM. Apple confidential 2. 2. Berlin: IEEE Computer Society. "First Tweet from Space". Artech House.). Internet Email Protocols: A Developer's Guide. ed. Standards and Implementation. Introduction to X. John Wiley & Sons. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.: No Starch Press. Nick (January 22. ISBN 0- 201-43288-9.0 : the definitive history of the world's most colorful company ([Rev. Owen W." Too Late to License". ed. "The Technical Development of Internet Email" (PDF).400. Seriously.  Marsha Egan. Artech House Publishers. Essential Email Standards: RFCs and Protocols Made Practical. Jump up^ Linzmayer.]. Acanthus Publishing ISBN 978-0- 9815589-8-1  Lawrence ISBN 0- 89006-939-5.  Partridge. "Welcome. "Inbox Detox and The Habit of Email Excellence".  Kevin Johnson. Addison- Wesley Professional. (2004). Further reading[edit]  Cemil Betanov. Retrieved 2014- 01-09. 30 (2): 3– . San Francisco. Craig (April–June 2008). 2004- 10-31. The New York Times. 2010). ISBN 0- 471-34597-0. Internet e-mail Protocols. ISBN 0-89006-597-7. ISBN 1-59327- 010-0.  Pete Loshin. Jump up^ Bilton. 146. 145.

ISBN 1-56592-479-7. O'Reilly. ISBN 1- 55558-165-X.  John Rhoton. ISSN 1934-1547  Sara Radicati. 29. X. POP. a collaborative effort that also cites this page. ISBN 0-07-051104-7. doi:10.2008. Electronic Mail: An Introduction to the X.3 2.  The History of Electronic Mail is a personal memoir by the implementer of an early email system  A Look at the Origins of Network Email is a short. ISBN 1- 55558-212-5. Programming Internet Mail.400 Message Handling Standards. Elsevier.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols. IMAP. the free dictionary.1109/mahc. Programmer's Guide to Internet Mail: SMTP.An Emerging Global Threat.  IANA's list of standard header fields  The History of Email is Dave Crocker's attempt at capturing the sequence of 'significant' occurrences in the evolution of email. Mcgraw- Hill. and LDAP. FBI [show] . yet vivid recap of the key historical facts  Business E-Mail Compromise . Elsevier.  David Wood. External links[edit] Look up email or outbox in Wiktionary.  John Rhoton.

Computer-mediated communication [show] Email clients D: 4191427-2 L: 00576450 Categories:  Email  Internet terminology  Electronic documents  History of the Internet  1971 introductions Navigation menu  Not logged in  Talk  Contributions  Create account  Log in  Article  Talk  Read  Edit  View history Search Go  Main page  Contents  Featured content  Current events  Random article  Donate to Wikipedia  Wikipedia store Interaction .

 Help  About Wikipedia  Community portal  Recent changes  Contact page Tools  What links here  Related changes  Upload file  Special pages  Permanent link  Page information  Wikidata item  Cite this page Print/export  Create a book  Download as PDF  Printable version In other projects  Wikimedia Commons Languages  Afrikaans  Alemannisch  ‫العربي ة‬  Aragonés  অসমীয়া  Asturianu  Azərbaycanca  বাংলা  Bân-lâm-gú  Башҡортса  Беларуская  Беларуская (тарашкевіца)  भोजपुरी  Български  Boarisch  བོད་ཡིག  Bosanski  Brezhoneg  Català  Чӑвашла  Čeština  Cymraeg  Dansk  Deutsch  Eesti  Ελληνικά  Español .

 Esperanto  Euskara  ‫یف ارس‬  Føroyskt  Français  Frysk  Furlan  Gaeilge  Galego   ગુજરાતી 贛語  한국어  Հայերեն  िह ी  Hrvatski  Bahasa Indonesia  Interlingua  IsiXhosa  Íslenska  Italiano  ‫עברית‬  Basa Jawa  ಕನ ಡ  ქართული  Қазақша  Kiswahili  Kurdî  ລາວ  Latina  Latviešu  Lëtzebuergesch  Lietuvių  Limburgs  Lingála  Lumbaart  Magyar  Македонски  Malagasy  മലയാളം  मराठी  Bahasa Melayu  Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄  Монгол  ြမန်မာဘာသာ  Nāhuatl  Nederlands  Nedersaksies .

 नेपाली   Norsk bokmål 日本語  Norsk nynorsk  Occitan  Олык марий  ଓଡ଼ିଆ  Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча  ਪੰਜਾਬੀ  ‫یپنج اب‬  ‫ت وښپ‬  Patois  Piemontèis  Tok Pisin  Plattdüütsch  Polski  Português  Română  Rumantsch  Runa Simi  Русиньскый  Русский  Саха тыла  Scots  Shqip  Sicilianu  ංහල  Simple English  ‫سنڌي‬  Slovenčina  Slovenščina  Soomaaliga  ‫ین دەن او ي یک ورد‬  Српски / srpski  Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски  Basa Sunda  Suomi  Svenska  Tagalog  த ழ்   ไทย  ᏣᎳᎩ  Türkçe  Українська  ‫اردو‬  Vèneto  Tiếng Việt .

By using this site. .  Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. at 22:48. a non-profit organization. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Inc. additional terms may apply. Võro  Walon  Winaray   吴语 ‫ייִדיש‬  粵語  Zazaki  Žemaitėška  Edit links 中文  This page was last modified on 20 February 2017..