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The application of Time Domain Electromagnetic Method to

characterize the Keritis Basin, in Western Crete, Greece

(1) Laboratory of Geophysics and Seismology
Technological Educational Institute of Crete
and Center of Technological Research of Crete (CTRC)
3 Romanou, Halepa, 73133, Chania

(2) School of Earth & Environmental Sciences
University of Portsmouth
Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, PO1 3QL
Portsmouth, UK

(3) Geoelectromagnetic Research Centre IPE RAS
Troitsk, Moscow, RUSSIA

Abstract: - Time Domain Electromagnetic survey (TDEM) was undertaken in the Keritis basin region
of Crete, in order to obtain detailed information about the characteristics (geometry, etc) of the
hydrogeological regime (aquifer) of the area. In order to define the stratification, as well the faults of
the investigated area, 305 TDEM soundings were carried out. A strong correlation between the results
of TDEM survey and boreholes exists and indicates: a) the applicability of TDEM method for solving
hydrogeological problems, b) a high potential aquifer mainly hosted in the calcitic rocks of the area
under investigation.

Key-Words: - Aquifer characterization, TDEM, transient electromagnetic methods

1 Introduction resolutions and bigger depth according to
Effective management of groundwater constructed array geometry size [2,3]. Time Domain
resources is a well known problem in several areas Electromagnetic (TDEM) survey encompass the
around the world. Its importance is designated to generation of a primary magnetic field which is
areas suffering from the lack of fresh water. Detailed abruptly interrupted in order to produce induced
study of available aquifers has great interest eddy currents in the subsurface. These eddy currents
especially in islands. Crete is the biggest Greek will produce a secondary magnetic field which can
island and is considered to be a semi-arid region. be detected by an appropriate receiver coil on the
surface. The value and the decay rate of the
The average annual precipitation is estimated to be
measured voltage can be used to estimate
900 mm, the potential renewable water resources
resistivities in various depths if appropriate
2650 m3/yr and the real water used is about 485
inversion techniques used [3]. The final outcome
million m3/yr. The major water use in Crete is in
comes in a form similar to dc electrical resistivity
irrigation for agriculture (84.5% of the total
methods but having the advantages that mentioned
consumption) while domestic use is 12% and other
earlier. TDEM soundings were conducted in Keritis
uses 3.5%. The growing water demands make the
basin at Western Crete, in order to obtain detailed
water resources management extremely important
information about the geometry of the different
for sustainable development [1].
geological layers in the aquifer and depth to the
Among the different geophysical
basement. A total of 305 measurements were carried
techniques, the transient electromagnetic method has
out. Data from existing boreholes in the broader area
proved a valuable tool due its high sensitivity to
used to calibrate preliminary results.
conductive targets, impressive vertical and lateral

05 2  0 5 2     r 2  R2  / E(t)/ I  t 5 2    3 (1) TDEM measurements with boreholes’ data at the Where μ0 is the magnetic permeability. ρa. where other geolectric methods failed. in order to briefly discuss the essential time interval required. The The exploration depth is mainly affected by method is described in detail in several textbooks the time interval between subsequent turn-off and [2].2 Data acquisition and processing coil can provide information about geoelectrical All measurements performed using TEM- structures at several depths. at features of the method. In a conductive medium. according to setup with square 50m x 50m. By using an excellent resolution of conductive layers at depth. This approach produces results less Aquifer presents a homogeneous geometry where its sensitive to errors of Tx/Rx geometry. In depth but without being the parameter that directly addition the current density in shallow structures control the exploration depth as happened in other decreases relaxing in this way the influence of them methods (e. the TDEM method has generates a primary. currents are whereas the resolution of resistive layers is limited induced to the ground according to Faraday’s law [7].8A and the time window of . primary signal and finally the Tx/Rx separation has small effect in exploration depth (in contrary to 2 Method and materials conventional controlled source methods) [6]. the measured voltage on Rx 2. Advantages of the TEM method are its Due to Ohmic resistance of the subsurface. primary field. We used single loop converted to apparent resisitivity. bigger depths and the measured secondary field will The size of Tx loop varies according to exploration depend more on the properties of deeper layers.[4]. This elimination of An increase in Tx loop initially affects (increases) near-surface resistivity variations is a unique feature the signal to noise ratio resulting to increase in of TDEM method resulting to high quality data exploration depth. early times. As an evaluation case. The transmitting following formula: current was 3. r=(l/π1/2) is the the subsurface structure. hydrogeological studies over the last 15 years. Based on this principle. In order to provide FAST 48 instrument [9] mainly due to its precision easier interpretation the measured voltage usually and rapidity of acquisition. a bigger given below. As the time system consists of a transmitter (Tx) loop and a interval increases. the induced currents are concentrated on The TEM method belongs to the category of upper layers leading to measurements that are controlled source EM methods. relatively low lateral resolution in (the Rx loop). high degree of coupling to manmade field depends on the distribution of the resistivity in conductors [8] and that the method is conceptually the subsurface. the field advanced.[3]. the measurement time of the transient response. That means that enabling to recognize the main geological we measure a secondary response in the absence of formations and the pattern of the aquifer bed. resistivity values highly correlate with the general The importance of TDEM method lies on hydrogeological condition in the area. stationary field. Comparing the results from  1 a   0. Therefore. Numerical 3. A typical TDEM sensitive to shallow structures only. Maps of E/I is the voltage (signal) by current [5]. The purpose of this study is to investigate 2 the feasibility of TDEM method to clearly identify shallow structures.1 The TDEM method features produce results with the highest lateral The TDEM method has been used in resolution. there is no limits clearly identified as well as the direction of its need for complicated tools in order to separate discharge. secondary magnetic field. abruptly on-off switching sequence. decays slower comparing to a resistive medium. thereby measured after the turn-off of Tx. In order to explore deeper. The decay rate of the electromagnetic general. the sensitivity to conductors at great depths and the current system will decay and further induce a lightweight equipment compared to VES. R=(L/π1/2) is investigated area lead to the same conclusions about the radius of the Tx loop (L x L). These 2. This field which is the Drawbacks of the TEM method are low resolution transient response is measured in by induction coil of resistive layers.g Vertical Electrical Sounding method). in the measured secondary field. the current intensity migrates to receiver (Rx) loop with equal or less dimensions. A current flowing through the Tx loop Consequently. As D modeling results provide useful information about already mentioned the induced voltage at Rx loop is the distribution of subsurface conductivity. Because of skin-effect. only a short description is next turn-on. we radius of Rx loop (l x l) SRX is the Rx coil area and produce the delineation of an aquifer.

Quartzites. time. at Crete Island and is T3-J1: Trypalion Carbonates .2). municipality of Chania. horizontal layering. By combining the 2D slices and projected them in different depths we are able to provide 3D imaging. N2. 100 depth (m) 120 140 160 180 004 200 1 10 100 10 3 Ohm-m Figure 2.measurement was varying from 4 to 1024 μs or from situated between 35o2450N to 35o3000N and 4 to 2048 μs in order to derive the best data set from 23o4959E to 23o5800E (Fig.1 Geological Settings The stratification and tectonic units that consists the RESISTIVITY vs. the best apparent resistivity vs. RESISTIVITY vs. time curve is selected (Fig. Data processing is based on the solution of inverse problem in time domain electromagnetic sounding using TEM-Researcher proprietary software. belonging to the same profile) 1D inverted models were correlated (interpolated) in order to obtain the 2D slices along individual profiles.3). Subsequent (i. DEPTH 0 geological structure of Keritis Basin. from newer to 20 older as shown in Fig. s Figure 1. Result of 1D inversion of resistivity curve shown in Fig. Initially.e. model (Fig. are (modified from [10]): 40 60 80 . Apparent resistivity curve (sounding over alluvial deposits) 3. The area is 136km2 each location. TIME 10 3 100 Ohm-m 10 004 Figure 3: An overview of the study area is 1 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 presented. according to signal-to-noise ratio.1 Figure 4: Geological Map of Keritis basin (Q2.1) in order to produce an inverted 1D. The Keritis basin is located on the K2: Tripolis Carbonates. Q1: 3 Study area Quaternary Deposits. for each sounding. P-T3: Phyllites. N1: Neogene Sediments.4.

locally well as black crystalline fragmented lime stones of brecciated and the lower members consist of small thickness.a Upper Nappes (Allocthonous series)  Tectonic nappe of Tripolis zone (K2) The formations of this layer cover a broad area at Chania country. main categories according to permeability of ii. Hydrolithological map of Keritis basin. Inside these deposits we can meet marls. Quaternary deposits (Q2. The upper layers consist of limestones with colour from black to ash-black Figure 5. organogenic limestones. I. . sandstones and materials from between upper Triassic until Lias. Triassic. These formations are overlaying on the Plattenkalk 3.2. Their age is between Permian and upper to Pliocene to middle-upper Miocene age.2 Alpine and Pre Alpine Rocks 3. 3. 3. Q1) limestones. inside This is the majority at western part of of which the karstic limestones of Tripolis Chania country.2 Hydrogeological settings connected.1 Hydrolithology at major river beds. II. Its  Impermeable rocks (Category IV) consist of basic occurrence is at Omalos area at Lefka Ori. dolomites and dolomited limestones. limestones.2. This is the first tectonic layer of Crete. phyllites-quartzites. at small internal basins as well The investigated basin can be distinguished in four as side detritus and stream terraces. alluvium mantle of multiple compositions according to their origination which are from loose to coherent 3. Neogene sediments (N2.1. In these rocks. N1) geological formations (Fig. The rocks that exist are marbles. quartz of significant which include Quaternary sediments belong thickness. breccias. usually biogenic marls-  Tectonic nappe of Trypallion (T3-J1) marly limestones. They exist mainly at basins open to sea. The conglomerates and the recent brackish alluvial deposits exist mainly at Chirospili area (southern of Agia) and at Topolia area. interpolates under the form of lodes as bedded. They are usually biogenic and recent brackish alluvial deposits from coastal areas made which are uniformly distributed layered deposits with thickness from several centimeters to 1-2 meters. quartz i. The thickness can reach 400 meters and its age is clays.1. Blue solid lines denote the drainage network.1 Post-Alpine Rocks limestones. white grey clastic. sericitic-chloritic phyllites and quartz  Medium permeability rocks (Category II) meta-bluestones. highly tectonized with karstic attributes and cavernous in texture. sandy argyles and conglomerates. Occasionally black thin-bedded and  Low permeability rocks (Category III) fragmented crystalline limestones are intercalated in which include Neogene Sediments belong these rocks. They made up of loose argil-sand materials. quartz of significant The upper members consist of marly thick- thickness. The lower layers consist of dolomites-dolomitic limestones.1. It is usual to find them highly fragmented due to tectonism. small thickness.b Lower nappes (Autochthonous series) III. interpolates under the form of lodes as to Holocene as well as to Pleistocene. 3. In these rocks. The usual formations are carbon and Trypalion are comprised.2.1. Their color is form ash to ash- white. These well as black crystalline fragmented lime stones of are complex clumps and durable limestones.5): The made up from alternating layers yellow-yellow white marls and clastic marly limestones. IV denote categories (details in text)  Tectonic nappe of Phyllites-Quartzites (P- T3)  High permeability rocks (Category I).

8): a West East profile which is on the western part of the basin. Initially a set of formations we can perform the grouping that preliminary soundings is taken over four existing denoted in Table 3. be found in Table 1. The 1D calculated model directions. (200 to 300Ω-m) Upper Triassic) Marly Limestone and conglomerate D Limestone . These tectonics formations characterize produced using inversion codes is suitable for local the boundaries between the geological and characterization only. (15 to 80 Ω-m) Q1 (Pleistocene) B Neogene Sediments N2 (Pliocene).Lithological description of calibration wells (100 to 200Ω-m) N1 (Middle-upper Well Depth Description Miocene) (m) C Phyllites Quartzites P-T3 (Permian – W1 93 the first layer from 0-27m is Clay. K. 6. From each one of 305 soundings a complete The tectonic regime of the investigated area set of apparent resistivity and its inverted characterized from faults NW-NE and E-W transformation is derived.Dolomites T3-J1 (Upper and the second layer from 27 to 93m (500 to 1000Ω-m) Triassic – Lias) is Limestone-Dolomite X Sea water intrusion W2 100 clayey-sandy and gravel deposits (0. southern area. A detailed lithological description can A Quaternary Deposits Q2 (Holocene). northern area  Section #3 (Fig.1 2D TDEM modeling Three geological sections carried out using all the soundings with the following details:  Section #1 (Fig.1 to 10 Ω-m) with consecutive layering in loose connection. In the current study where we hydrolithogical units as shown in Fig. Table 1.7): it is a North South profile which passing the centre of the basin  Section #2 (Fig. W3 110 Limestone-Dolomite W4 115 alternation clays with gravel from limestone and schist . The notation of the next three figures is described in Table 2 Table 2: Sections’ symbols legend Symbol Description Black dashed line Formation boundary Figure 6. wells in order to calibrate crucial parameters for data acquisition and modeling processes. Description Age Vozinakis). Solid red Black dashed line Fault lines denote faults where yellow dashed lines denote Black dotted line Sea water intrusion boundary concealed faults triangle Sounding location arrow Fault disruption 4 Results and Discussion 305 TDEM soundings were carried out By correlating the resistivity values with existing covering the whole study area. 4. only 2D and 3D model projections will be produced.9): a West East profile which is on the western part of the basin. Tectonic map of Keritis basin. primarily interested for the subsurface description and aquifer delineation. Geological logs for the calibration wells were taken from the Water Table 3: Sections’ letter legend management authority of Chania Perfecture (Dr.

2 1. so that’s why we have that interpretation.1 2.7 and Fig. 10000m from the beginning of geological units based on geological logs and the profile. 7000. 3926000 In this section three faults also identified: 1100m 3925000 from the beginning with direction NNE-SSW and from 1750m with the same direction as well. 4. Geoelectrical section #2.9 1. Also at 3924000 2525m we have fault with direction NNW-SSE 3923000 3922000 488000 489000 490000 491000 492000 493000 494000 495000 496000 0. On that profile we recognize the sea water intrusion In section #3 one fault identified in 4300m because on that sounding we were very close to the with the direction NNW-SSE. coastline.9 Also on this profile we can identify three main (correspond to logs W1 until W4) show the different faults: at 4200. NW-SE and E-W.5 1. Resistivity of rock at layer 1 (0-25m).3 0. everything is confirmed in the geophysical section. A set of four independent slices is produced according to depths as follows: 3930000 3929000 3928000 3927000 Figure 8.2 3D TDEM modeling In order to have a clear picture of the aquifer area that we are interested we performed a 3D projection.8 2.6 0. Geoelectrical section #3.7 3 log10 (  m) Figure 10. with directions E-W. Figure 9. Electro-stratigrahic horizontal slices obtained by means of the combined interpretation of TDEM surveys and their 3D interpolation.Figure 7.4 2. Dots denoted sounding positions . Geoelectrical section #1. The filled sketches at Fig.

These high values on the SE directions occurred because of the Tripoli nappe. Resistivity of rock at layer 3 (50-100m).6 0 0.4 2.8 -0. When Figure 12. In the upper zone from North due to alluvial deposits and Neogene sediments low 3926000 resistivities were identified By going deeper one can clearly identify a 3925000 conductive zone on the northern part of the basin and in some areas on the central of the Basin. Resistivity of rock at layer 2 (25-50m). Dots denoted sounding positions Dots denoted sounding positions 3930000 At the first layers we can see the highly resistive zone on the SE and SW of the investigated 3929000 area.2 0.4 3 5 Conclusions TDEM is a rapid and cost effective method log10 (  m) for identifying subsurface geometry.6 1.6 1 1. The 3922000 independent conductive zones at the central areas are evidences of fresh water.4 0 0.3930000 3930000 3929000 3929000 3928000 3928000 3927000 3927000 3926000 3926000 3925000 3925000 3924000 3924000 3923000 3923000 3922000 3922000 488000 489000 490000 491000 492000 493000 494000 495000 496000 488000 489000 490000 491000 492000 493000 494000 495000 496000 -0. 488000 489000 490000 491000 492000 493000 494000 495000 496000 -0.8 1.6 2 2.2 1. In addition we can also identify high resistance values on the SW part because of the 3927000 Phyllites-Quartzites. combined and calibrated with existing data (wells. especially the 3928000 limestone-dolomite.2 -0.4 1. Dots denoted sounding positions previous studies) is capable of provide high quality reconstruction of the subsurface.4 0. Resistivity of rock at layer 4 (100-150).2 0. As the depth increases the conductive central zones increased in size.8 2.8 2.2 2. The combined use of wells data and TDEM soundings in the Keritis basin provides important information about the geometry and delineation of the aquifer boundaries as well as the tectonic regime. The 3924000 conductive area on the northern part is due to small 3923000 sea water intrusion from of NE side since the coastline is a few hundred meters away.2 1.6 3 log10 (  m) log10 (  m) Figure 13. In the examined area two main zones are depicted: one is identified as a . Figure 11.8 3.

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