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A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographical coordinate system at

which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, a prime meridian and its antimeridian (the 180th
meridian in a 360°-system) form agreat circle. This great circle divides the sphere, e.g.,
the Earth, into two hemispheres. If one uses directions of East and West from a defined prime
meridian, then they can be called Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere.

Gerardus Mercator in his Atlas Cosmographicae (1595) uses a prime meridian somewhere close
to 25°W, passing just to the west of Santa Maria Island in the Atlantic. His 180th meridian runs
along the Strait of Anián(Bering Strait)

A prime meridian is ultimately arbitrary, unlike an equator, which is determined by the axis of
rotation—and various conventions have been used or advocated in different regions and
throughout history.[1]

History

Ptolemy's 1st projection, redrawn under Maximus Planudes around 1300, using a prime meridian
east of Africa

The notion of longitude was developed by the Greek Eratosthenes (c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC)
in Alexandria and Hipparchus (c. 190 BC – c. 120 BC) in Rhodes and applied to a large number

The Tordesillas line was eventually settled at 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.of cities by the geographer Strabo (64/63 BC – c.[2] At this time the chief method of determining longitude was by using the reported times of lunar eclipses in different countries. Cabo Verde prime meridian . 24 AD). although his maps correspond more closely to the Cape Verde islands (22° to 25° W). His prime meridian corresponds to 18° 40' west of Winchester (about 20°W) today. This is shown in Diogo Ribeiro's 1529 map. although by this time it had been shown that the zero deviation line did not follow a line of longitude. a group of islands in the Atlantic which are usually associated with theCanary Islands (13° to 18°W). But there was still a hope that a "natural" basis for a prime meridian existed. São Miguel Island (25.5°W) in the Azores was still used for the same reason as late as 1594 by Christopher Saxton. But it was Ptolemy (c. now in the Vatican library Ptolemy's Geographia was first printed with maps at Bologna in 1477 and many early globes in the sixteenth century followed his lead. The main point is to be comfortably west of the western tip of Africa (17. AD 90 – c. Christopher Columbusreported (1493) that the compass pointed due north somewhere in mid-Atlantic and this fact was used in the importantTordesillas Treaty of 1494 which settled the territorial dispute between Spain and Portugal over newly discovered lands. AD 168) who first used a consistent meridian for a world map in his Geographia. Diogo Ribeiro's map of 1529.[3] 1571 Africa map by Abraham Ortelius. Ptolemy used as his basis the "Fortunate Isles".5° W) as negative numbers were not yet in use.

C. Cardinal Richelieu used the westernmost island of the Canaries. not 180°W to 180°E as is common today. Edmund Halley that enabled navigators to use the lunar method of determining longitude more accurately using the octant developed byThomas Godfrey and John Hadley. leading to the development of the chronometer by John Harrison. In his atlas longitudes were counted from 0° to 360°. "Maskelyne's tables not only made the lunar method practicable. This practice was followed by navigators well into the eighteenth century. His later maps used the Azores. other islands such as Cape Verde were coming into use." [7] In 1884. 22 countries voted to adopt the Greenwich[8] meridian as the prime meridian of the world. mentioning the Azores and the Bering Strait but eventually abstained and continued to use the Paris meridian until 1911. Unfortunately. 19° 55' west of Paris.[5] In the early eighteenth century the battle was on to improve the determination of longitude at sea. The French argued for a neutral line. But by the time that Ortelius produced the first modern atlas in 1570.[6] Between 1765 and 1811. following the magnetic hypothesis. List of prime meridians on Earth Locality GPS longitude Meridian name Comment Bering 168°30′ W  Bering Strait Strait offered 1884 as . D. John Flamsteed between 1680 and 1719 and disseminated by his successor. Nevil Maskelyne published 49 issues of the Nautical Almanacbased on the meridian of the Royal Observatory.In 1541. But it was the development of accurate star charts principally by the first British Astronomer Royal.. Even the French translations of theNautical Almanac retained Maskelyne's calculations from Greenwich—in spite of the fact that every other table in theConnaissance des Temps considered the Paris meridian as the prime.[4] In 1634. Mercator produced his famous forty-one centimetre terrestrial globe and drew his prime meridian precisely throughFuertaventura (14°1'W) in the Canaries. they also made the Greenwich meridian the universal reference point. so that it simply became the meridian of Paris disguised. Ferro. at the International Meridian Conference held in Washington. the geographer Delisle decided to round this off to 20°. Greenwich. as the choice of meridian.

C. D. 77°03′06. presumably NAD 27).55880 ″ W (NAD 83).194″ W (NAD 83) Washington 77°02′11.56258 White House meridian . D.C.3″. ″ W (NAD 83).0″ W. (NAD 27) or 77°04′01. D. If NAD27.07″ W (1897) or Washington 77°04′02. 77°02′11. the latter would be 77°03′05.276″ Washington W (both Old Naval Observatory meridian . 77°03′02.C.24″ W New Naval Observatory meridian .16″ W (NAD 83) 77°02′48.119″ W or 77°03′06. . possibility for a "neutral prime meridian" by Pierre Janssen at the International Meridian Conference [9] 77°03′56.

58″ W Greenwich 0° 00′ 05.3101″ Greenwich meridian Airy Meridian[17] . D. 77°02′11. later redefined [14] Ferro meridian Canary as Islands 17° 39′ 46″ W Rose to prominence with Dutch cartographers and Tenerife 16° 38' 22" W Tenerife meridian navigators after they abandoned the idea of a magnetic meridian[15] 9° 07′ 54. proposed as one possible neutral Fortunate meridian by Pierre Isles / 25° 40′ 32″ W Janssen at the Azores International Meridian Conference[13] El Hierro 18° 03′ W.57375 ″ W (NAD 83) Washington 77°00′32.862″ [16] Lisbon W [16] Madrid 3° 41′ 16.C. (NAD 83) Philadelphi [10][11] 75° 10′ 12″ W a Rio de [12] 43° 10′ 19″ W Janeiro Used until the Middle Ages.6″ W Capitol meridian . (Ferro).

used to Amsterdam 4° 53′ E define the legal time in the Netherlands from 1909 to 1937[18] [citation needed] Bern 7° 26′ 22.33″ W Bradley Meridian[17] Zero Meridian Greenwich 0° 00′ 00.4″ E meridian of Monte Mario Datum [19] Copenhage 12° 34′ 32.5″ E [10] Pisa 10° 24′ E Oslo [10][11] 10° 43′ 22.025″ Paris Paris meridian E [16] Brussels 4° 22′ 4.43″ at the Old Krakow Krakow Krakow meridian E Observatory at .5″ E (Kristiania) used in the Peters projection. W United Kingdom Ordnance Survey Greenwich 0° 00′ 05.8″ E Observatory[16] 19° 57′ 21. antipode o Florence 11°15′ E Florence meridian f a line running through the Bering Strait Used in Roma 40 Rome 12° 27′ 08.00″ IERS Reference Meridian 2° 20′ 14.71″ E [citation needed] Antwerp 4° 24′ E Antwerp meridian through the Westerkerk in Amsterdam.25″ Rundetårn[20] n E [13] Naples 14° 15′ E at the Stockholm Stockholm 18° 03′ 29.

[16] Warsaw 21° 00′ 42″ E Warsaw meridian [21] Oradea 21° 55′ 16″ E [22] Alexandria 29° 53′ E Saint 30° 19′ 42.69″ Pyramid of 1884 [23] E Giza [11] Jerusalem 35° 13′ 47. the Śniadecki' College mentioned also in Nikolas Copernicus' work "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres". but in "Kairekisyo" in Nishigekkoutyou- town in Kyoto.09″ Pulkovo meridian Petersburg E Great 31° 08′ 03. then .1″ E see also Mecca Mecca 39° 49′ 34″ E Time [24] Used from 4th century CE Indian Ujjain 75° 47′ E astronomy and calendars(see also Time in India). Exact place unknown.[25] Kyoto 136° 14′ E Used in 18th and 19th (officially 1779– 1871) century Japanese maps.

is placed very near this meridian and is the prime meridian that currently has the widest use. D. the IERS Reference Meridian. the capital. The modern prime meridian. Prime meridian at Greenwich . United States to be the common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the world. proposed 13 October 1884 on ~ 180 the International Meridian Conference by Sandford Fleming [13] International prime meridian In October 1884 the Greenwich Meridian was selected by delegates (forty-one delegates representing twenty-five nations) to the International Meridian Conferenceheld in Washington..[citation needed] Opposite of Greenwich.C.

who pressed for adoption of the Paris meridian abstaining) as the Prime Meridian of the world at the 1884 International Meridian Conference. At the latitude of Greenwich. it was defined by a succession of earlier transit instruments.Markings of the prime meridian at the Royal Observatory. One remote longitude ultimately based on the Greenwich meridian using these methods was that of the North American Datum 1927 or NAD27. The requirement that satellite-based geodetic reference systems be centred on the centre of mass of the earth caused the modern prime meridian to be 5. oriented via a plumb line along the direction of gravity at the surface. IERS Reference Meridian Main article: IERS Reference Meridian Satellites changed the reference from the surface of the Earth to its centre of mass around which all satellites orbit regardless of surface irregularities. the first of which was acquired by the second Astronomer Royal.[31] This was officially . a distance equivalent to roughly 0. Greenwich.[17] It was Airy's transit circle that was adopted in principle (with French delegates. It was set up in the extreme north- west corner of the Observatory between Flamsteed House and the Western Summer House.15 seconds of time. Main article: Prime Meridian (Greenwich) The modern prime meridian.[28] The position of the Greenwich Meridian has been defined by the location of the Airy Transit Circle ever since the first observation was taken with it by Sir George Airy in 1851.3" east of the astronomic Greenwich prime meridian through the Airy Transit Circle. Edmond Halley in 1721. then via radio time signals. Greenwich. now subsumed into Flamsteed House. then via telegraph lines carried by submarine communications cables. This astronomic Greenwich meridian was disseminated around the world. was established by Sir George Airy in 1851. this amounts to 102 metres. This spot. first via the lunar distance method.[29][30] All of these Greenwich meridians were located via an astronomic observation from the surface of the Earth. is roughly 43 metres to the west of the Airy Transit Circle. based at the Royal Observatory. an ellipsoid whose surface best matches mean sea level under the United States.[28] Prior to that. then by chronometers carried on ships.

Meridian (geografi) Meridian Utama di Greenwich. Circa 1999 the international reference meridian (IRM) passed 5. Due to the movement of Earth's tectonic plates. Greenwich. London. Airy's transit circle drifts northeast about 2.accepted by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) in 1984 via its BTS84 (BIH Terrestrial System) that later became WGS84 (World Geodetic System 1984) and the various ITRFs (International Terrestrial Reference Systems). would also take into account the effects of plate movement and variations in the way that the Earth was spinning. Inggris . the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF).[33][34][35] A current convention on the Earth uses the opposite of the IRM as the basis for the International Date Line.3 feet) at the latitude of the Royal Observatory. the ideal International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and its realization. the line of 0° longitude along the surface of the Earth has slowly moved toward the west from this shifted position by a few centimetres. the International Reference Meridian was established and is commonly used to denote Earth's prime meridian (0° longitude) by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. and of WGS84 and its two formal versions. depending on your point of view) since 1984 (or the 1960s).31arcseconds east of Airy's meridian or 102. whilst being derived from the Airy Transit Circle.5 centimetres per year relative to this Earth-centred 0° longitude. Based on observations to satellites and celestial compact radio sources (quasars) from various coordinated stations around the globe. it became possible to create a more accurate and detailed global map. With these advances there also arose the necessity to define a reference meridian that. towards the Airy Transit Circle (or the Airy Transit Circle has moved toward the east.[32] As a result. With the introduction of satellite technology.5 metres (336. which defines and maintains the link between longitude and time. that is.[33][34][35] [36] It is also the reference meridian of the Global Positioning System operated by the United States Department of Defense.

M.Matahari melintasi titik di atas suatu meridian yang merupakan titik setengah jalan lintasannya antara saat terbit dan tenggelam.Negara-negara yang berada pada garis meridian (biru) Dalam geografi.M. menghubungkan kutub utara dan kutub selatan. yang berarti "tengah hari" (atau "midday" dalam bahasa Inggris). Inggris. Akar kata Latin yang sama digunakan juga untuk menyebut istilah A. berdasarkan persetujuan internasional dianggap sebagai Meridian Utama atau Meridian Standar. Garis bujur . Meridian lainnya terletak antara 0° dan 180° bujur barat di hemisfer barat (barat Greenwich) dan antara 0° dan 180° bujur timur di hemisfer timur (timur Greenwich). Meridian pada sisi bumi yang berlawanan dengan Greenwich (yang merupakan setengah lingkaran lain dari sebuah lingkaran yang melewati Greenwich) adalah bujur 180°. Istilah "meridian" berasal dari bahasa Latin. Sebuah titik di suatu meridian ditentukan posisinya oleh lintang. Dengan demikian setiap titik di permukaan bumi memiliki meridiannya sendiri-sendiri. Meridian lainnya diidentifikasi dengan sebuah sudut yang dibentuk oleh perpotongan antara bidang meridian tersebut dan bidang Meridian Utama. yaitu setengah dari lingkaran besar bola bumi. tempat kedudukan titik-titik dengan bujuryang sama. meridies. meridian adalah sebuah garis khayal pada permukaan bumi. Setiap meridian selalu tegak lurus dengan lingkaran lintang. Tiap-tiap meridian memiliki panjang yang sama. Meridian yang melewati instrumen fundamental (lingkaran transit) yang ada di Observatorium Greenwich. Meridian ini memiliki arti bujur nol derajat. dan P. yaitu suatu pernyataan waktu untuk memisahkan jam-jam dalam satu hari ketika dinyatakan dalam sistem 12 jam.

Tidak seperti lintang yang memiliki ekuator sebagai posisi awal alami. Oleh karena itu. Paris. Pisa. referensi lainnya digunakan di tempat yang berbeda.C. namun sebenarnya garis-garis bujur tersebut merupakan setengah dari sebuah lingkaran besarbumi. yang nampak melengkung dan vertikal pada proyeksi ini. Pada1884. Philadelphia. Kopenhagen. Longitude diberikan berdasarkanpengukuran sudut yang berkisar dari 0° di Meridian Utama ke +180° arah timur dan −180° arah barat. . Meskipun kartografer Britania Raya telah lama menggunakan meridian Observatorium Greenwich di London. Roma. sebuah dasar meridian harus dipilih. dan Washington. Yerusalem. Tiap lokasi di bumi dapat dinyatakan dengan garis bujur (tegak) dalam satuan derajad (yaitu letak timur atau barat dari garis 0° Greenwich(kota London) Bujur kadangkala dinotasikan oleh abjad Yunani λ. menggambarkan lokasi sebuah tempat di timur atau baratBumi dari sebuah garis utara-selatan yang disebut Meridian Utama. D. termasukFerro. tidak ada posisi awal alami untuk bujur.Peta Bumi. memperlihatkan garis-garis bujur. Konferensi Meridian Internasional mengadopsi meridian Greenwich sebagai Meridian utama universalatau titik nol bujur. Saint Petersburg..

Di dalam geografi. garis lintang adalah sebuah garis khayal yang digunakan untuk menentukan lokasi di Bumiterhadap garis khatulistiwa (utara atau selatan). Garis Meridian sendiri adalah bujur 0 derajat. namun sebenarnya melingkar dengan radius yang berbeda-beda. Nama-nama ini tidak dijumpai dalam bahasa Inggris. demikian pula bujur di sebelah timur Meridian diberi nama Bujur Timur (BT).Dalam bahasa Indonesia bujur di sebelah barat Meridian diberi nama Bujur Barat (BB). Garis lintang Peta Bumi yang menunjukkan garis lintang yang pada proyeksi ini lurus horizontal. Posisi lintang biasanya . Bujur Barat dan Bujur Timur merupakan garis khayal yang menghubungkan titik Kutub Utara dengan Kutub Selatan bumi dan menyatakan besarnya sudut antara posisi bujur dengan garis Meridian.

Posisi lintang merupakan penghitungan sudut dari 0° di khatulistiwa sampai ke +90° di kutub utara dan -90° di kutub selatan. Garis Balik Selatan (23°27′ LS). Lintang Utara Lintang Selatan menyatakan besarnya sudut antara posisi lintang dengan garis Khatulistiwa. Khatulistiwa Ekuator bumi . Pembagian Setiap derajat lintang dibagi menjadi 60 menit (satu menit lintang mendekati satu mil laut atau 1852 meter. yang kemudian dibagi lagi menjadi 60 detik. Lingkar Arktik(66°33′ LU). Ko-lintang adalah tambahan dari lintang. Dalam bahasa Indonesia lintang di sebelah utara khatulistiwa diberi nama Lintang Utara (LU). Hanya antara kedua Garis Balik matahari dapat berada di zenith.dinotasikan dengan simbol huruf Yunaniφ. Hanya di utara Lingkar Arktik atau selatan Lingkar Antartik matahari tengah malam dapat terjadi. demikian pula lintang di sebelah selatan khatulistiwa diberi nama Lintang Selatan (LS). Nama- nama ini tidak dijumpai dalambahasa Inggris. Untuk keakurasian tinggi detik digunakan dengan pecahan desimal. dan Lingkar antartik (66°33′ LS). Garis Khatulistiwa sendiri adalah lintang 0 derajat. Lintang yang penting lintang yang cukup penting adalah Garis Balik Utara (23°27′ LU).

070 km. Bagian bumi yang dilewati garis khatulistiwa ini kebanyakan samudra. Beberapa tempat yang dilalui khatulistiwa adalah: . garis khatulistiwa (dari bahasa Arab: ‫ )خط التستواء‬atau ekuator (dari bahasa Inggris equator) merupakan sebuah garis imajinasi yang digambar di tengah-tengah planet di antara dua kutub dan paralel terhadap porosrotasi planet. Maka durasi masa siang hari sama sepanjang tahun kira-kira 12 jam. bagian bumi paling utara di mana Matahari dapat berada tepat di atas kepala. Garis lintang ekuator adalah 0°. Antara equinox Maret dan September.Negara-negara yang berada pada garis khatulistiwa (merah) Dalam geografi. latitud bagian utara Bumi menuju Matahari yang dikenal sebagai Tropik Cancer. Panjang garis khatulistiwa Bumi adalah sekitar 40. matahari berada tepat di atas kepala pada tengah hari dalam equinox. Bagian selatan Bumi terjadi antara equinox bulan September dan Maret dinamakan Tropik Capricorn. Garis khatulistiwa ini membagi Bumi menjadi dua bagian belahan bumi utara dan belahan bumi selatan. Di khatulistiwa.

Kalimantan Barat. garis khatulistiwa melintasi daerah-daerah berikut: Koordinat Negara. Garis khatulistiwa melintasi daratan atau wilayah perairan 14 negara. atau laut Catatan 0°LU 0°BT Samudra Atlantik Teluk Guinea . wilayah. Dimulai dari garis bujur 0 derajat ke timur. Indonesia.Tanda penunjuk khatulistiwa di Kenya Tanda penunjuk khatulistiwa di Kota Pontianak.

Sao Tome dan 0°0′LU 6°31′BT Ilhéu das Rolas Principe 0°0′LU 6°31′BT Samudra Atlantik Teluk Guinea 0°0′LU 9°21′BT Gabon 0°0′LU 13°56′BT Republik Kongo Republik Demokratik 0°0′LU 17°46′BT Melewati 9 km di selatan Butembo Kongo Melewati 32 km di 0°0′LU 29°43′BT Uganda selatan Kampala Melewati beberapa pulau 0°0′LU 32°22′BT Danau Victoria di Uganda 0°0′LU 34°0′BT Kenya Melewati 6 km di utara Kisumu 0°0′LU 41°0′BT Somalia 0°0′LU 42°53′BT Samudra Hindia Melewati antara Huvadhu Atoll dan Fuvahmulah di Maladewa Indonesia Pulau-pulau 0°0′LU 98°12′BT Batu. Sumatra dan Kepulauan Lingga .

0°0′LU 104°34′B Selat Karimata T 0°0′LU 109°9′BT Indonesia Pontianak. Kiribati Melewati 21 km di selatan Pulau . Kalimantan 0°0′LU 117°30′B Selat Makassar T 0°0′LU 119°40′B Indonesia Sulawesi T 0°0′LU 120°5′BT Teluk Tomini 0°0′LU 124°0′BT Laut Maluku 0°0′LU 127°24′B Indonesia Kayoa dan Kepulauan Halmahera T 0°0′LU 127°53′B Laut Halmahera T 0°0′LU 129°20′B Indonesia Pulau Gebe T 0°0′LU 129°21′B Samudra Pasifik melewati 570 m di utara T Pulau Waigeo. Indonesia Melewati 13 km di selatan Aranuka atoll.

3 km di utara 0°0′LU 75°32′BT Kolombia perbatasan dengan Peru 0°0′LU 70°3′BT Brasil Amazonas Roraima Amazonas Pará Amapá Pará . di 0°0′LU 80°6′BT Ekuador dekat Mitad del Mundo Melewati 4.kepulauan di mulut Sungai Amazon Samudra Atlantik 0°0′LU 49°20′BT . Baker. Amerika Serikat Pulau Isabela di Kepulauan 0°0′LU 91°35′BT Ekuador Galápagos 0°0′LU 91°13′BT Samudra Pasifik Melewati 24 km di utara Quito.