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You are on page 1of 24

A Quick Overview

26 May 2011

Presented by David Diehl

Quick Agenda

Dynamic Input Review

Results Review

Model Adjustments

Use as Acceptance Criteria

Close

1

5/26/2011

INTRODUCTION

Modal Extraction / Eigen Solution

let (radians/second) of this free

C =0 oscillation

F (t ) be harmonic

There is a matching shape to this

so oscillation

x = A sin t

&x& = 2 A sin t = 2 x There is no magnitude to this shape

2 Mx + Kx = F ( t )

This is important:

let Think of a mode of vibration (the &

F (t ) = 0 mode shape pair) as a single degree

(K M 2 )x = 0 of freedom system

so

x =0

or

K M 2 = 0

= K M

2

5/26/2011

Degree of Freedom

(DOF) System A two DOF System An n DOF System

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

Mode n

The pipe also has modes of vibration associated with shell distortion:

by J.C. Wachel,

Scott J. Morton and

Kenneth E. Atkins of

Engineering Dynamics, Incorporated

San Antonio, TX

Proceedings of 19th Turbomachinery Symposium

Copyright 1990

3

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Controlling the Analysis

4

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5

5/26/2011

Add a new

line below Delete

current selected

line(s)

Save,

Error Check

Check,

Run

Comment

(do not process)

Modifying Mass

6

5/26/2011

Modifying Mass

X, Y, Z or ALL

The affected

Or a range

TheA signed

zero or Node number

of Nodes

magnitude

eliminates

li i t the is

th RX, RY, RZ or RALL

summedmass. the

with

calculated mass.

Calculated Mass:

Node Node Node

Adding Snubbers

eliminated from the equation of

motion (C=0). Point damping

is simulated with a stiff spring.

Mechanical Hydraulic

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Control Parameters

Def=Default;

this is a button

Entry cell

(use F1 for help)

Nonlinear Considerations

Our equation of motion insists on a linear system that is, the stiffness, K, is

constant. ( K M 2 ) x = 0

In many cases, the operating state of nonlinear boundary conditions can serve

as the linear state for the dynamic evaluation.

8

5/26/2011

: Cold Position

A +Y

(resting)

restraint

Liftoff

Dynamic Model

(no restraint)

9

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No liftoff

Dynamic Model

(double-acting Y)

Friction defined;

Normal Load = N

Dynamic Model

X K

K

Z

10

5/26/2011

tool.

Larger

g normal loads ((N)) will p

produce g

greater restraint

This is NOT a 0 or 1! I use 1000 but values as low as 200 produce similar

results for the models I run.

This value will knock out frequencies associated with frictionless surfaces.

ASCE 7-10 para. 15.5.2.1: "Friction resulting from gravity loads shall not be

considered to provide resistance to seismic forces

(But were

we re not running a seismic analysis here

here.))

11

5/26/2011

No,

N nott for

f our purposes.

The lower (frequency) modes contribute the greatest structural response of the

system.

CAESAR II extracts modes starting with the lowest mode (lowest frequency).

seismic motion. This is the default CAESAR II cutoff frequency.

Piping modes of higher frequency (100+ Hz) may play a role in fast-acting

events such as fluid hammer.

loads (equipment vibration, acoustic vibration & pulsation).

A maximum frequency.

12

5/26/2011

For many years CAESAR II (like most analysis tools) ignored rotational inertia

and off-diagonal mass terms.

p mass.

Todays bigger and faster PCs can handle the fully-developed, complete mass

matrix.

vibration without adding more nodes (mass points) to the static model.

BUT more mass points may still be required to establish a proper mode

shape in the frequency/mode shape pair.

13

5/26/2011

14

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View the eigensolver as a search routine that finds system natural frequencies

from lowest to highest.

g

modes below the last frequency produced. If this count doesnt match the

eigensolver total, the program will state that the check has failed.

15

5/26/2011

RESULTS REVIEW

What Does It All Mean?

No Load

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5/26/2011

f t

cycles perradians

secondper second

seconds per cycle

Modes Mass Normalized the tendency of that modes contribution to the overall

response to a quickly-applied load, all other things being equal (i.e. DLF and point

of load application)

application).

Model Unity Normalized the typical mode shape. This is the same shape but

normalized to one.

Same shape;

different magnitude

17

5/26/2011

: Lumped Mass

Consistent Mass :

Input

Operating Position (Liftoff 30, Resting 40)

18

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Results Animation

MODEL ADJUSTMENTS

Is the Static Model Sufficient?

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5/26/2011

More mass points may be required to approximate the continuous mass beam

Reality:

CAESAR II:

10 20

Adding

g more nodes improves

p the calculation

hand

2node 2node 10node 10node 100node

Mode calculation

lumped consistent lumped consistent lumped

(continuous)

2 1.51 2.902 2.971 2.948 2.95

3 4.658 8.039 8.235 8.248 8.26

4 57.339 15.572 16.005 16.143

5 25.415 26.377 26.646

t=0.237 in better frequencies

***BUT***

length=50 ft

density=0.283 lb/cu.in More mass points may be

E=29.5E6 psi needed to develop the mode

shapes

20

5/26/2011

Add nodes (break pipe) so that the maximum node spacing is no more

than one foot ((300mm)) p

per nominal inch of p

pipe

p

Piping - John K

Piping K. Lin & Adolph T

T. Molin of United Engineers &

Constructors and Eric N. Liao of Stone & Webster

L = 4 9.2( D 3 t W )

An End in Itself

21

5/26/2011

The lowest natural frequency can be used to assess the risk of failure

associated with dynamic response

CLOSE

22

5/26/2011

Closing Points

Many systems are built for static loads (deadweight and thermal strain) by

providing Y supports alone, leaving great flexibility in the horizontal plane

modal analysis will uncover such oversights.

Modal evaluation is a quick and easy tool to learn more about your piping

system response.

PDH Certificate

23

5/26/2011

www.hexagonconference.com/ppm

Intergraphs International Users Conference

Orlando, FL, USA | June 6-9, 2011

www.cau2011.com

24

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