You are on page 1of 16

Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

In the recent years there has been an increasing interest in research and
development of advanced smart phone technology. But as technology evolves so are the
problems associated with it, and one among those is the fast draining of battery. Almost
every smart phone user wishes he had more battery life. Now, imagine your phone getting
charged where ever you go. This is possible by Piezo electric wireless power transfer
mobile charging technique. The keys to this technique are the piezoelectricity and
Wireless power transfer (WTP).

Harvesting mechanical energy from human motion is an attractive approach for


obtaining clean and sustainable electric energy. Piezoelectricity is electrical energy
produced from mechanical pressure (such as walking, running). When pressure is applied
to an object, a negative charge is produced on the expanded side and a positive charge on
the compressed side of the piezoelectric crystal. Once the pressure is relieved, electrical
current flows across the material. Wireless power or wireless energy transmission is the
transmission of electrical energy from a Power source (piezoelectric Power) to a load
(such as any electrical device) without any physical connector such as wires or
conductors.

Energy is harvested from the human movements and is transmitted wirelessly


thorough wireless power transfer technique and is used to charge the mobile battery. It
can also be used in dance floor, roads etc. With the help of the piezo electric material we
can charge mobiles, Bluetooth headset, torches, camera batteries etc. In future piezo
electric material will be one of the means for the generation of electric power.

In future Piezo electric material will be used as a material for the generation of electric
power which make lots of effect less

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 1


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

CHAPTER 2

DESIGN
2.1.Block Diagram

The Design consists of two units. Generation - transmission unit and receiver - charging
unit

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 2


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

Fig.2.1 Block diagram [1]

The Design consists of two units. Generation - transmission unit and receiver -
charging unit. The Generation - Transmission unit side consists of the Piezo electric
generator, capacitance bank, oscillator, and transmitter TX unit. This unit is integrated
inside the shoe.

Receiver and charging unit consists of capacitance bank, rectification circuit and
charging circuit. This can be either designed mobile independent or embedded inside the
mobile. The receiver receives the power and this power is converted to DC supply using a
rectification process and the output is fed to a battery of a device (mobile) through the
charging circuit.

2.2. Piezo Electric Generator Design

The Piezo electric generator is placed inside a Shoe. A shoe has two points where
the pressure exerted in maximum and they are the heel and the toe, and this is the exact
place where the piezo electric unit is placed. Fig. 2.2 Shows the arrangement of the
piezoelectric generator inside a shoe.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 3


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

Fig.2.2 Arrangement of piezo electric material in a shoe[1]

The design consists of a pair of array of piezo electric generator units connected in
series. The Font panel has the array of piezo electric generator in a linear arrangement and
the rear panel with a circular arrangement. The receiving and charging side collects
intermittent or continuous energy input from the piezo generator and efficiently stores
their energy in the capacitor bank. During the charging process, the capacitor voltage is
continuously monitored. When it reaches 5.2V the module output is enabled to supply
power to a Rectifier and charging

2.3. Wireless Power Transfer

In the early 20th century, before the electrical- wire grid, Nikola Tesla devoted
much effort towards transferring power wirelessly. However, typical embodiments (e.g.,
Tesla coils) involved undesirably large electric fields. The past decade has witnessed a
surge in the use of autonomous electronic devices. As a result of this development,
interest in wireless power has emerged. In recent years, there has been increasing interest
in research and development of wireless power technology to eliminate the last cable
after Wi-Fi becoming widely accepted.

Wireless electricity technique used here is based on strong coupling between


electromagnetic resonant coils to transfer energy wirelessly between them. This differs
from other methods like simple induction, microwaves, or air ionization. The system
consists of transmitters and receivers that contain magnetic loop antennas critically tuned
to the same frequency.

The principle of Evanescent Wave Coupling extends the principle of


Electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction works on the principle of a primary
coil generating a predominant magnetic field and a secondary coil being within that field
so a current is induced within its coils. This causes a relatively shorter range due to the
amount of power required to produce an electromagnetic field. Over greater distances the
non-resonant induction method is inefficient and wastes much of the transmitted energy
just to increase range. This is where the resonance comes in and helps the efficiency
dramatically by "tunnelling" the magnetic field to a receiver coil that resonates at the
same frequency.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 4


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

Theoretical analysis shows that by sending electromagnetic waves around in a


highly angular waveguide, evanescent waves are produced which carry no energy. If a
proper resonant waveguide is brought near the transmitter, the evanescent waves can
allow the energy to tunnel to the power drawing waveguide, where they can be rectified
into DC power. Since the electromagnetic waves would tunnel, they would not propagate
through the air to be absorbed or be dissipated, and would not disrupt electronic devices
or cause physical injury

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 5


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM DESIGN & CIRCUIT

3.1. Generation and Transmission Circuit

The schematic design of Generator and transmission side of the Piezo electric wireless
power transfer mobile charging technique is given in Fig 3.1

Fig.3.1 Generation and Transmission Circuit[1]

It can be noted from the circuit that the piezo electric generator is the source
which powers the whole circuit and the power is transmitted wirelessly using wireless
power transfer technique. The transmitter circuit consists of DC source, oscillator circuit
and a transmitter coil. Oscillator circuit consists of two n channel MOSFETS diodes.
When the DC power is given to the oscillator, current starts flowing through the two coils
L1, L2 and drain terminal of the transistor. At the same time some voltage is appeared at

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 6


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

the gate terminals of the transistors. One of the transistors is in on state while the other is
in off state.

3.2.Receiver and Charging Circuit

The schematic design and circuit of the receiver and charging side is shown in Fig
3.2 It can be seen that the receiver RX and the capacitance bank are connected in parallel
and a rectification circuit is also connected. This circuit converts the supply into DC form,
and the charging circuit is powered which in turn charges the battery in the device. A
regulator can also be connected between the rectifier and charging circuit if necessary.

Fig.3.2 Receiver and Charging Circuit [1]

Receiver circuit consists of receiver coil, rectifier circuit and regulator. When the
receiver coil is placed at a distance near the inductor Ac power is induced in the coil. This
is rectified by the rectifier circuit and is regulated to DC 5v using regulator. The rectifier
circuit consists of diode and capacitor of 6.8nf. The output of regulator is connected to the
battery. From this point we can charge our phone. Here is receiving part should be kept

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 7


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

close to the transmitting part. As the distance increases powers getting transferred get
less. So we need to keep the receiving part closer. As the distance increases we need to
increase the number of coils so as to get the desired current when an mechanical stress is
been applied to the piezo electric material

CHAPTER 4

OUTPUT & RESULTS

4.1. Output from Piezo

The outputs waveforms of several units in the simulation of the prototype is shown below

Fig.4.1 Output from Piezo (After rectification)[1]

The graphical representation of the output after rectification unit. The X axis
represents the time in Seconds and the Y axis represents the voltage in volts. Fig 4.1.
Illustrates the Output voltage after the power obtained from piezo electric generator is
rectified using a bridge rectifier. The voltage after rectification is 3 Volts DC. The
constant output obtained from the regulator is then converted to AC using a high
frequency inverter. The output from the high frequency inverter is shown Fig.4.1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 8


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

4.2.Input At Coil Tx After High Frequency Inverter

Fig.4.2. is the graphical representation of output at the high frequency inverter


circuit which is also the input for the transmitter coil of the wireless power transfer
system. The coils are magnetically coupled thus the voltage is induced in the Receiver
Coil Rx is represented in Fig.4.3.

Fig.4.2 Input at Coil Tx (Wireless Power Transfer) after high frequency inverter[1]

4.3. Output at Coil Rx

Fig shows the voltage at the receiver coil Rx. It can be seen from Fig.4.3 that the
voltage while transmitting is 3V, and the Voltage at receiving end is 6V, this is due to the
number of turns in the coil the turn ration is 1:2. This power is then rectified and
regulated from rectification circuit and regulation circuit. The voltage is boosted using a
Dc-Dc Converter.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 9


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

Fig.4.3 Output at Coil Rx (Wireless Power Transfer)[1]

4.4.Voltage Before Boost Converter

Fig.4.4 Voltage before Boost Converter.[1]

Fig.4.4 shows the voltage after rectification. The AC supply is rectified to DC


using a rectification circuit, here a bridge rectifier. Fig.4.4 is the graphical representation
of the output after rectification unit. The X axis represents the time in Seconds and the Y
axis represents the voltage in volts. The voltage after rectification is ~6 Volts DC. This

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 10


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

voltage is fed to the Dc-Dc boost converter, here the Dc-Dc Converter used is an
Interleaved Boost converter. A basic boost converter converts a DC voltage to a higher
DC voltage. Interleaving ads additional benefits such as reduced ripple currents in both
the input and output circuits.

4.5.Final Output

Fig.4.5. shows the output voltage of DC-DC Converter Interleaved boost


converter. The boost Converted gives the output of 12V at the output. Fig.4.5 is the
graphical representation of the output after boosting. The X axis represents the time in
Seconds and the Y axis represents the voltage in volts. This voltage is then further used to
charge the battery. Thus the output of the system is 12V DC, which is then regulated and
supplied to electronics devices.

Fig4.5. Final Output[1]

4.6.PROTOTYPE

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 11


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

Fig4.6(a) Phone gets charged when mechanical stress is applied[1]

Fig 4.6(b) Model of power generation shoe[1]

4.7.ENERGY GENERATED

The energy stored in a capacitor is given by the equation:

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 12


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

#
= 2
$

For our circuit, C = 220 F. When the multimeter shows 10 volts across the capacitor, the
amount of energy stored is

#
= 10$ 2 220 = .
$

If a single tap on the piezoelectric element increases the voltage from 2 V to 2.05 V, the
amount of energy generated for each tap is

#
= (2.05222)(220) = ./
$

A typical cell phone battery stores ~18,000 joules of energy.

If we replaced our capacitor with a cell phone battery to charge, how long would it take to
fully charge it?

18,000/ 0.000022/ ,,

You would have to press this piezoelectric element almost 1 billion times just to
charge your cell phone. If you tapped the piezo element 3 times every second, it would
take 8.66 years to fully charge your cell phone.

If we have a piezoelectric material that can increase the voltage across our
capacitor from 2 V to 12 V with a single tap, the amount of energy generated is now
0.0154 joules/tap, 700 times greater than before. It would now only take 1,200,000 taps to
charge the cell phone, which could be done in 4.6 days!

If our piezoelectric element could be pressed 10,000 times/second, it would take


22.8 hours to charge. Finally, if we combined both improvements, the phone battery
could be charged in as little as 2 minutes.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 13


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

Fig4.6(a) Phone gets charged when mechanical stress is applied and Fig 4.6(b)
Model of power generation shoe.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 14


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

In this work we have illustrated the design of system which can harness the power
generated by the human movements and transfer the power to a device wirelessly. We
believe that this research holds the key to an uninterrupted way of using smart phones.
This system can also be built shoe independent and as a compact version that can strap on
to any shoe. This humanitarian project holds the solution to the problem almost every
Smartphone used faces. Around 1.8 Billion people use Smartphone, and almost every
Smartphone user wishes he had more battery and a way to charge it anytime. This
research Project holds the key to an uninterrupted way of using smart phones.
Harvesting energy from human motions is an attractive approach for obtaining
clean and sustainable energy. This project has its root in all the areas of consumer
electronics. This project also extends Future work includes designing authentication and
monitoring systems for this project
As a future work, piezo electric material can be used in foot path for generation of
power for street lights. It can also been used in dance floor, roads etc. With the help of the
piezo electric material we can charge mobiles, Bluetooth headset, torches, camera
batteries etc. In future piezo electric material will be one of the means for the generation
of electric power
The limitation of piezo electric material is Power is somewhat wasted due to
mutual induction. It will work for very short distances only, as the distance increases the
power which we get is less. If you want to use it for long distances, then the number of
inductor turns should be more.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 15


Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A Mobile Charging Technique

REFERENCES

[1] Mr.Sakthi, Project Power Shoe: Piezoelectric Wireless Power Transfer - A


Mobile Charging Technique, IEEE 2015 Global Humanitarian Technology
Conference

[2] Mandip Jung Sibakoti and Joey Hambleton, Wireless Power Transmission Using
Magnetic Resonance, December 2011, Professor Derin Sherman.

[3] Andre Kurs, Aristeidis Karalis, Robert Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, PeterFisher,


Marin Soljacic, Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic
Resonances, (2008)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MITE, Moodbidri 16