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International Shipping

Conventions

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Overview
Recent international shipping conventions
International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
International Ship and Port Facility Security
Code (ISPS)
International regulatory regime

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Recent international shipping
conventions
There are currently 53 IMO and over 30 ILO
conventions, protocols, and amendments available
for accession that relate to maritime issues.
Some of the important ones include:

SOLAS
MARPOL
STCW
ISPS
ISM
MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Recent international shipping
conventions (continued)
Some of the important ones include:
Safe Containers,
Load Lines,
Tonnage Measurement,
Collision Regulations,
GMDSS,
SAR,
Salvage,
Suppression of Unlawful Acts (SUA),
Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, Oil Pollution
Preparedness, Response & Co-operation.
MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


International Maritime Organisation (IMO)

IMO is the United Nations specialized agency


responsible for improving maritime safety and
pollution prevention from ships.
universal organisation
164 member countries

Its purpose is to provide machinery for the cooperation


amongst governments in the field of government regulation
and practices affecting shipping engaged in international trade.

The IMO conventions can be considered under four main


headings: Legal, Environmental protection, Safety and Trade.
MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


IMO shipping conventions: a summary

LOS Law of the Sea Convention (1982) INTERVENTION convention relating to intervention on the
PAL The convention relating to the carriage high seas in cases of Oil Pollution Casualties (1969)
Legal
of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea (1974) CLC Convention in Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (1969)
SUA Convention for the Suppression of IOPC - Convention on the establishment of an International
Unlawful Acts against the safety of maritime Compensation Fund for Oil Pollution Damage (1971, 1992)
navigation (1988) LLMS Convention on the Limitation of Liability for
Maritime Claims (1976)

FAL The Convention


on the Facilitation of
Trade
IMO Environmental
Protection
MARPOL The Convention on the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships
Maritime Traffic (1965) (1973/78)
SALVAGE The International Salvage
TONNAGE The Convention (1989)
Convention on the OPRC The Convention on Pollution
Tonnage Measurement Preparedness, Response and Cooperation
of Ships (1969) (1990)

Safety

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SAR Convention on Maritime Search SOLAS The Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (1974)
and Rescue (1979) STCW The Convention on Standards of Training, Certification
LL The Loadline Convention (1966) and Watchkeeping (1978)
CSC The Convention for Safe COLREG The Convention on the Prevention of Collision at Sea (1972)
Containers (1972) INMARSAT The Convention on the International Maritime
Satellite
SPC Regional Organisation
Maritime (1976)
Programme
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
Generally regarded as the most important of all international
treaties concerning the safety of merchant ships.
The first version was adopted in 1914, in response to the
Titanic disaster.
The SOLAS Convention incorporates the following Codes,
Guidelines and Regulations:
ISM International Management Code for the Safe Operation
of Ships and for Pollution Prevention
IBC International Code for Construction and Equipment of Ships
carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk
IGC International Code for Construction and Equipment of Ships
carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk
ISPS International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
HSC The International Code of Safety for High Speed Craft
MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


The International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

Deals with the sources of ship-generated pollution


There are five annexes (outlining specific regulations)
currently in force and one still waiting for ratification.
Annex 1 - Prevention of pollution by oil
Annex 2 Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk
Annex 3 Prevention of pollution from harmful substances carried
by sea in packaged form
Annex 4 Prevention of pollution from sewage
Annex 5 Prevention of pollution by garbage form ships
Annex 6 prevention of air pollution from ships

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Convention on Standards of Training,
Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW)
1978 Convention
prescribes minimum standards related to training,
certification and watchkeeping for seafarers on an
international level.
Important feature: applies to ships of non-party states when
visiting ports of states which are party.
1995 Convention
Places more emphasis on competency than knowledge
Stipulates in detail the required competency levels for tasks
Hands-on training (simulators, lab training equipment, etc)
Verification of implementation process done by IMO
issuance of white list.
MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


International Safety Management Code
(ISM)
Purpose of the Code
provides an international standard; safeguards the shipmaster;
provides appropriate organisation of management; and
commitment from the top.
Requires a shipowner to implement a shore-based and shipboard
Safe Management System (SMS).
Functional requirements of SMS (required of every company)
Safety and environment policy
Instructions and procedures to ensure safe operation of ships and
protection of the environment
Defined levels of authority and lines of communication between shore-
based and shipboard personnel
Procedures for reporting accidents
Procedures for responding to emergency situations
Procedures for internal audits and management reviews.
MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


International Ship and Port Facility
Security Code (ISPS)
ISPS Code has been in force for state parties to
SOLAS since 1 July 2004.
Its entry into force is based on the review of
measures and procedures to prevent acts of
terrorism which threaten the security of passengers
and crew and the safety of ships.
(same applies to ports accommodating such
shipsrisk/threat assessment exercise)

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


International Ship and Port Facility
Security Code (ISPS)
Applicable to passenger ships, cargo ships of 500
gross tonnage and upwards engaged in international
voyages and port facilities servicing such ships.

Not applicable to fishing vessels, warships, naval


auxiliaries and vessels used by government or non-
commercial service.

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Terror on board Achille Lauro (1985)
first acts of terrorism at sea

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Torpedo attack on MV Limburg
(6 October 2002)

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Functional requirements of ISPS Code

Gathering and assessing information on security


threats.
Requiring maintenance of communication protocols
for ship and port facilities.
Preventing unauthorized access to ships, port
facilities and their restricted areas.

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Functional requirements of ISPS Code

Preventing the introduction of unauthorized


weapons, devices or explosives to ships and port
facilities.
Requiring ship and port facility security plans based
upon security assessments.
Requiring training, drills and exercises to ensure
familiarity with security plans and procedures.

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


International Regulatory Regime
Increasingly, requirements and implementation time
frames are set with little apparent regard for the
challenges they impose on developing nations.
Many of the international conventions have
significant cost implications in terms of compliance,
focus on larger vessels and do not relate to fishing
vessels.
It is necessary for countries to both ratify or accede
the international conventions and to both enact and
give practical effect to the requirements contained in
these conventions.
MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme


Conclusions
Recent international
shipping conventions
IMO and its shipping
conventions
SOLAS, MARPOL,
STCW, ISM, ISPS
International Regulatory
Regime

MSP Marine transportation system, ports and shipping Lecture Day 2, April 2005

SPC Regional Maritime Programme