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Journal of Ship Production, Vol. 15, No. 2, May 1999, pp.

73-81

A Study on the Prediction of Deformations of Welded Ship


Structures
Seung I1 Seo ~ and Chang Doo Jang 2

Welding deformations injure the beauty of appearance of a structure and decrease its
buckling strength. In addition, welding deformations cause errors during the assembly of the
structure and prevent increase of productivity. Welding deformations of real structures are
complicated and the accurate prediction of welding deformations has been a difficult
problem. This study presents a method to predict welding deformations of large structures
accurately and practically based on the accumulated research results. The presented method
uses the finite element method combining the inherent strain theory and the experimental
results for accurate and efficient analysis. The weld joint is assumed to be divided into 3
regions : inherent strain region, material softening region and base metal region. The
simplified elasto-plastic analysis method is introduced and representative material values
during the thermal elasto-plastic process are used in this method. It is revealed from the
analysis results for the simple welded model that the inherent strains are changed by joint
restraint as well as heat input and elastic modulus of the inherent strain region, and the
material softening region must be different from that of the base metal region. These results
have been supported by the experimental data. The method proposed in this study can be
combined with the commercial finite element analysis software to predict reasonably an
efficiently the welding deformations of large structures.

be attained by the accurate prediction of the welding


INTRODUCTION deformations and prior consideration of allowances.
Local melting, nonuniform temperature distribution
When structures are welded, heat is supplied to melt and plastic yielding are major process of formation of
the joint and nonuniform temperature distribution is welding deformation. During the process, mechanical
caused due to local melting and thermal transfer. As a properties of material are changed according to
result, nouniform thermal strains and stresses are caused temperature. In short, welding deformation is the product
and plastic strains remain after thermal cycle. Residual of complicated nonlinear behaviors of the structure during
plastic strains around welded joints are the cause of welding. Various factors affecting formation of welding
permanent deformation. deformation can be selected, but major factors can be
Welding deformations injure the beauty of structures divided into heat parameter, material factors and restraint
and decrease the buckling strength. In addition, welding parameter around welded joints. The heating parameter
deformations cause errors during the assembly of the can be divided in detail into welding voltage, welding
structure and prevent increased productivity. If welding current, speed, the type of electrode and the number of
deformations after cooling can be predicted precisely at passes. The material factors can be divided into yield
the initial design stage, the amount of strength stress and elastic modulus which depend on temperature.
degeneration can be considered before production and And also, the restraint parameter can be divided in detail
safety of the structure can be improved. And also, the into welding sequence, dimension and geometry of joint
prediction of welding deformations can prevent the trial- and so on. Many research papers on prediction of welding
and-error process during manufacturing and can save deformations have been published, but practical useful
production time. For precise construction of structures, the methods for prediction of general deformations of general
errors resulting from welding must be reduced, which can structures have not emerged because so many factors are

i Principal Researcher, Technical Research Institute, Hanjin Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea.
z Professor, Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Manuscript received by JSP Committee January 29, 1998.

MAY 1999 8756-1417/99/1502-0073500.43/0 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION 73


concerned with formation of welding deformations. method and the numerical method is proposed. The
Accumulated research results up to now as to complicated thermal elasto-plastic analysis is omitted by
welding deformations can be classified into the results by using the inherent strain method, and restrictions of the
the experimental method, the ones by the analytical classical inherent strain theory are overcome by
method and the ones by the numerical method. The introducing the finite element method. The transient
experimental method is composed of measurement of process of formation of the welding deformation is
welding deformations, arrangement of measured data by represented by one characteristic stage. That is to say,
the proposed parameters, and deduction of the relation time varying material properties during welding are
between the parameters [1]. The relation between represented by the specified representative values at one
parameters is normally confined to the specified instant. Experimental data for the simple structures are
deformation mode because the number of combination used for improving accuracy. Availability and accuracy of
between the parameters is so many and experimental the proposed method are revealed by example calculations.
results are limited by cost and time. As complex welding
deformations of real structures are the combined ones of NOMENCLATURE
basic deformation modes and the contribution of each
mode cannot be made clear by the limited experimental A = sectional area of welded region
results, the experimental method is only useful in B = overall breadth of plate, if B is greater than I Oh,
estimation of specified deformation of the simple structure. B is taken as 10h to consider effective mean
The analytical method is based on the classical temperature
theory of elasticity and neglects the thermal elasto-plastic b = maximum breadth of inherent strain region
process. The analytical method only considers residual b,, = breadth of plate to calculate mean temperature,
plastic strains, which are defined as inherent strains, and which normally can be considered as 5h.
assumes all the regions including the inherent strain b(z) = breadth of inherent strain region
region remain elastic [2]. Calculation of the welding C = restraining factor
deformation results in the solution of problems of the c = specific heat of material, which is taken as 0. I
theory of elasticity [3]. However, the analytical method 1 0 3 cal/kgC for mild steel
has shortcomings such that possible solutions of the d = maximum depth of inherent strain region, which
theory of elasticity problems are limited and the solution normally may be taken as b/2.
for the large structure is impossible. The region and E = elastic modulus of material which can be taken
magnitude of the inherent strain should be given by the as 20.6Gpa for mild steel.
experimental results, e = distance between the neutral axis of beam
Nowadays, the numerical method such as the finite section and the weld line
element method and the boundary element method are Ei~ = elastic modulus of inherent strain region in the
popular in almost all engineering fields because the direction normal to the weld line
simulation of behavior is possible [4], [5] and [6]. Eiy = elastic modulus of inherent strain region in the
Commercial general purpose software such as ABAQUS direction parallel to the weld line
[7] and ANSYS [8] based on the finite element method F = reaction force at the boundary between welded
enable simulation of the thermal elasto-plastic process region and material softening region
during welding. Specified software SYSWELD [9] for the f = portion of initial heat input to increase
welded structures enables more convenient analysis of the temperature of inherent strain region, which
welding deformations. However, the accurate thermal normally can be taken as 0.4
elasto-plastic analysis using the software requires very f~ = normal force of inherent strain region per unit
much computing time. Simulation of the welding process length
for the simple structure take hundreds of seconds by Fy = force at the end of inherent strain region parallel
supercomputer for the step-by-step analysis of a nonlinear to the weld line
problem. If an engineering workstation is used in the H = height of beam
simulation, several days will be consumed. For practical h = thickness of plate
purposes, accurate simulation of the welding process for I = moment of inertia of beam section
the real large structures by the finite element method is k = spring constant at the boundary
impossible, k~ = spring constant normal to the weld line at the
In this study, to overcome the shortcomings of the boundary between inherent strain region and the
developed methods mentioned above and for practical other region
prediction of welding deformations, a new method ky = spring constant parallel to the weld line at the
combining the experimental method, the analytical boundary between inherent strain region and the

74 MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION


the other region v = Poisson's ratio, which can be taken as 0.3 for
L length of welded region mild steel
L/ = length of restrained plate along the weld line p = density of the material, which is taken as 7.85
L 2 = breadth of restrained plate 10-3kg/cm 3for mild steel.
m x moment of inherent strain region per unit cry = yield stress of material, which can be taken as
length parallel to the weld line 245Mpa for mild steel.
My moment at the end of inherent strain region o-r~ = yield stress of material in the direction normal
normal to the weld line to the weld line
Q = heat input per unit length during welding crry = yield stress of material in the direction parallel
r radius of curvature of longitudinal bending to the weld line
deformation of beam (~ : b(z) ~c~~
S = translational shrinkage of plate normal to the (y : 6(z) E, cyj
weld line
Tc T.,- To S I M P L I F I E D M O D E L TO R E P R E S E N T T H E R M A L
T~m = T,,~)- To E L A S T O - P L A S T I C PROCESS IN W E L D I N G
T~ = T,,,~)- To
T~ = mean temperature after heat has been The restrictions of analytical inherent strain theory
transferred to material softening region and are that combination of deformation modes in large
base metal region structures is not possible and the effect of various welding
To,o~ : maximum temperature at which material loses parameters on deformation can not be shown clearly.
the capacity to resist deformation, which can However, Ueda et al have proposed a method to calculate
be taken as 830C for mild steel. equivalent forces resulting from inherent strains of the
Tin(x) : mean temperature in the thickness direction welded structure, and proposed a basis for finite element
Tm(y ) = men temperature in the plane of plate analysis of welding deformations [10]. But, their method
T,, = room temperature neglected the fact that welding deformations are formed at
T, : To,o~- To high temperature and equivalent forces causing
Y: = temperature change in the temperature deformations at high temperature are much less than those
decreasing stage at room temperature. And, also, their method has
T2 (max) = maximum temperature change in the shortcomings such that inherent strains do not depend on
temperature decreasing stage the degree of restraint around welded joints, which is
Z distance from the origin in the plate thickness supported by experimental results [2].
direction As the main idea of this study is to combine the
a coefficient of thermal expansion of the inherent strain theory with the elastic finite element
material, which is taken as 1.110-s/C for method and to predict practically welding deformations of
mild steel structures without neglecting the facts revealed in
angular deformation of plate experiments, a simplified model to describe thermal
~0 = angular deformation with constraint process during welding is proposed.
4 = free angular deformation The weld joint is assumed to be divided into three
g. total strain of welded region parts : welded region, material softening region and base
CpC~ = plastic strain of inherent strain region normal metal region. The welded region experiences rapid
to the weld line temperature rise and transfer of heat input. In the welded
~'po'~ = plastic strain of inherent strain region parallel region, which is called as an inherent strain region, plastic
to the weld line deformation occurs and plastic strains remain. Around the
cp/ = plastic strain of welded region during inherent strain region, heat is transferred and temperature
temperature increasing stage increases. The inherent strain region is the place where
~p2 = plastic strain of welded region during plastic strains are concentrated. However, there can be a
temperature decreasing stage region where plastic strains are not created but material
q~ = heat conduction factor in the direction normal properties are changed due to heat transferred from the
to the weld line to consider the geometry of inherent strain region. This region may be defined as the
q, = welded joint, which can be taken as 1 for flat material softening region. Material properties are softened
plate heat conduction factor in the direction in the material softening region due to high temperature
parallel to the weld line to consider the but plastic strains do not appear. Except the inherent strain
geometry of welded joint, which can be taken region and material softening region, the base metal
as 1 for the flat plate. region has the material properties of room temperature

MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION 75


and remains elastic. Rapid temperature changes of the
inherent strain region are restrained by the material er : -er~ (5)
softening region and the base metal region. The material
softening region may make little contribution to Plastic strain can be given by combining eqn (2), eqn(3)
restraining the inherent strain region because material and eqn (4) as follows.
properties and strength may be negligible in high
temperature. p2 : -6~T2 + cry + cry A (6)
E kL

Residual plastic strain after welding can be


considered as the sum of plastic strains produced during
temperature increasing stage and temperature decreasing
stage. The maximum temperature change during
temperature decreasing stage can be expressed as follows.
M2
~(,,,~) = T,,o~ - T,,, (7)

The expression of final residual strains can be given by


Fig. 1 Simplified model for describing welding process
err err A (8)
% : %1- %2 =- [ ~(Y,,,- Vo) + T +--~-1
Fig. 1 shows a body and spring model to represent the
mechanical process of welding [11]. The behavior of the
material softening region and the base metal region is From eqn (8), it can be known that residual inherent
represented by the spring of Fig. 1. Thermal stress is strain is determined by mean temperature after welding,
caused by the difference of temperatures and thermal material properties and the effect of restraint.
expansions between the welded region and the other During thermal elasto-plastic process, temperature
regions. Initial heat input makes the temperature of the and material properties are changed, but in simplified
welded region rise up to melting temperature, where the thermal elasto-plastic analysis, one characteristic value is
material loses the capacity to resist deformation and all assumed to represent the whole process for simplification.
the thermal expansion is converted to plastic strain. That
is to say,
DEFINITION OF INHERENT STRAIN REGION
C p I : _CtTl (1)
The region where plastic strains remain can be
While the heat input of the welded region is transferred to defined as the inherent strain region. At the temperature in
the material softening region, the welded region which material loses the capacity to resist deformation,
experiences temperature decrease and elasto-plastic the deformation of material is converted to plastic strain
process. The equilibrium equation of forces between the directly. The temperature can be defined as critical
welded region and the other region is as follows. temperature. The region where the temperature exceeds
the critical temperature becomes the plastic strain region.
era + F = 0 (2) Plastic deformation can occur in the region below the
critical temperature, but most plastic temperature occurs
Stress-strain relation of the welded region is given by within the region above the critical temperature. For the
simplicity, the region above the critical temperature can be
defined as the inherent strain region where plastic strains
er = E ( E - c t T 2 - Cp2 ) (3) remain. The shape of the isothermal curve of the critical
Reaction force at the boundary can be expressed as temperature is near elliptical, which is verified by theory
follows. and experiment. Though the inherent strain region can be
determined by the temperature distribution curves
F = kcL (4) obtained by the heat conduction theory, it can also be
determined by the following thermal equilibrium relation
When yielding occurs in the welded region, the stress (see Fig. 2).
becomes the yield stress of the material. That is to say,

76 MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION


/ j /
kA ~ Fy

(a) Welded plate


Z
b >
~heren~I~ainRe:Ion
Fig. 3 Shrinkage forces of the inherent strain region
X
along the weld line
, aterial SofteningRe'on
Base l~etal l~gion X / in the plate thickness direction. The mean temperature of
(b) Section of welded plate plates of medium thickness can be calculated as follows.
Q
Fig. 2 Definition of inherent strain region Tc~ - r/ (12)
c [3b m

7r
cp 4 bd(T"'~- T ) = f Q (9) As most welding deformations are formed while the
inherent strain region is in high temperature and elastic
modulus is low, the elastic modulus Eix of the inherent
The area of the inherent strain region can be strain region can be taken as follows considering
obtained by eqn (9) as follows. experimental results.
E
-rc- b d - fQ (lO)
Eix - 25 (13)
4 (T,,~, -To)
As yield stress as well as elastic modulus of material
A M E T H O D TO CALCULATE EQUIVALENT becomes low at high temperature state, the ratio of yield
NODAL F O R C E S stress and elastic modulus o-rx/Ei, of eqn (11) can be
considered constant. The spring constant k, of at the
The inherent strain region along the weld line is boundary between the inherent strain region and the other
shown in Fig. 3. In order to calculate the deformation regions can be obtained by applying unit loads to the
induced by shrinkage of the inherent strain region using boundary of the base metal region and calculating
the finite element method, it is convenient to calculate the influence coefficients of the structure. The spring constant
equivalent nodal forces corresponding to shrinkage due to can be varied according to plate thickness and position
inherent strain. Equivalent forces induced by the inherent along the thickness. The typical spring constant can be
strain can be divided into the forces and moments acting taken as the value at the surface of the plate. The detailed
in the direction normal to the weld line and those acting in expression of the spring constant is as follows.
the direction parallel to the weld line. Normal forces of
the inherent strain region per unit length can be calculated 1
by using the equation to calculate plastic strain of the kx - h2 (14)
simplified model as follows. e I + ~- e2

h/2 /b(X dz = Ei= [aTc(=) + Yr~ + ~Vxh]~r d Shrinkage moment per unit length mx of the inherent
f~ = E,~ f!w2 strain region can be calculated as follows.
Eix kxb ~ 4 (11)
1 ~rx Crrxh :r h
m x = Ei, f.h/~2bZ(xdz = E,x [aT~.(x) + - - + - - ] - - d ~
Forces normal to the weld line and moments parallel to Eix kxb 4
the the weld line are affected by temperature gradient in (15)
the plate thickness direction because shrinkage normal to
the weld line is dependent on the temperature distribution where, the center of the inherent strain region is taken as

MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION 77


h/5 for simplifying the calculation and considering the summarized as shown in Fig. 4.
experimental results.
Equivalent forces and moments of the inherent strain I Input of welding condition
region at the ends of the weld line can be calculated [
following the same procedure. The forces parallel to the ] Input of geometric shape of structure
weld line and the moments normal to the weld line which
come from temperature gradient in the direction normal to
I
Definition of inherent strain region, material softening
the weld line are acting on the ends of the weld line region and base metal region
because among the weld line shrinkage forces and I
moments cancel each other. The forces are calculated as Finite element modeling and input of material
follows. properties of the inherent strain region
h/2 _ crrv Cryyh , rc , , I
F v = E,v f:h/2ep~v)dz - E,v [ctTc(v) + ~ - + ~ v b J 4 0 a Calculation of spring constants from influence
. . . . Eiy . coefficients after execution of finite element analysis
(16) by applying unit loads
[
E~v is different from E,x because the mean temperature
Calculation of equivalent loads of the inherent strain
in the thickness direction is higher than the mean
region
temperature in the whole dimension. Welding
deformations normal to the weld line are formed at high
I
Calculation of welding deformations by combining the
temperature state and resistance of the inherent strain
influence coefficients obtained from the previous
region and the other regions is small, otherwise welding
calculation
deformations parallel to the weld line are formed
Fig. 4 A procedure to calculate welding deformation
continuously while temperature gradient between the
inherent strain region and the other regions exists. As a
The inherent strain region is obtained by eqn (10)
result, the characteristic value of Eiy in low mean
and the magnitude of inherent strain in each direction is
temperature state is larger than that of Ei~ in high mean
also obtained by eqn (8). As the material constants of the
temperature state. For simplicity and reasonable accuracy,
inherent strain region and material softening region in the
E~,.can be assumed to be as follows.
direction normal to the weld line are different from those
E (17) in the direction parallel to the weld line, the elements
E~v - 2 corresponding to the inherent strain region and the
material softening region are modeled as orthotropic
material. In finite element modeling, the inherent strain
In the section normal to the weld line, the mean
region is included in the elements representing the
temperature difference can be calculated as follows.
material softening region to prevent the case in which the
inherent strain region cannot include the whole thickness
Q of the plate and to simplify the model. The magnitude of
Tc~v) - c p B h rl-v (18) inherent strain depends on the restraining effect as well as
temperature distribution. So, unit loads are applied at the
boundary of the inherent strain region and deformations
The spring constant kv in the direction parallel to the
are calculated by finite element analysis. The spring
weld line can be calculated following the same procedure
constants are given by eqn (14). Equivalent loads are
mentioned above. Equivalent moments can be given by
calculated by using eqns (11), (15), (16) and (19), which
are the integrated values of inherent strain. Final
MY=- E ' v f ! ~ z- e P ( v ) d z = E ' -v [ aTc(Y) + ~iy. kyb 4 .9 deformations are calculated by finite element analysis for
the calculated equivalent loading case, but if the principle
(19)
of superposition is used, they can be given by combining
the results for the unit loading cases without performing
C A L C U L A T I O N AND DISCUSSION
full finite element analysis.
As a simple example, deformations of bead-on-plate
In the above, a method to calculate equivalent loads
welding shown in Fig. 5 are calculated following the
corresponding to welding shrinkage was proposed. A
procedure shown in Fig. 4. The results are shown in Fig. 6
procedure to predict welding deformations combining the
and Fig. 7, from which it can be said that the proposed
proposed method with the finite element method can be

78 MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION


method in this study considers properly the effect of restraints, in case that the elastic modulus of the inherent
welding conditions revealed in the experimental results strain region and the material softening region is the same
[1]. as that of the base metal region, the angular deformation
ratio of Fig. 9 is not affected by the restraint coefficient.
Therefore, from the results shown in Fig. 9, it is revealed

I
that the magnitude of inherent strain is affected by the
external restraint and as most of the bending deformation
of plate occurs at the high temperature region, the elastic
modulus of the inherent strain region and the material
softening region is much lower than that of the base metal
region. The proposed method of this study is revealed to
have good applicability to reflect the phenomena shown in
the experiments.

q ----i~Calculated results /
30 ..... '

S 25

E "~20
Fig. 5 Deformation of bead-on-welded plate
~'15
As the second example, a plate restrained around the a~5
boundaries shown in Fig. 9 is chosen to reveal the effect g~
c
of external restraint. The calculated results are shown in < 5
Fig. 9. Restraining factor C of Fig. 9 which represents the
0 1 I I
restraining effect of members around the plate is defined
0.0 0.5 1.0 1,5 2.0
as follows [21.
Heat Input Parameter ( Q / h * * 2 * 1 0 * * ( - 3 ) ,
cal/cm**3)
1 re4 II s (l-v)
- - ~ r - (~)]
~ l1
(20) Fig. 7 Angular deformation of bead-on-welded plates

~Od2 . 5 4 "''ll*"~l~'ECx;;Vil~::trb:Us::heta' F

0
2
O9
1:3)
1.5
,n,~ ,tBI
C
XL 1 ,,,u' "
O9

m
0~ 0.5
./
C

b'-
0 i n
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
Heat Input Parameter (Q/h**2*10**(-3), Fig. 8 Plate with restraining beams
cal/cm**3)

Fig. 6 Transverse shrinkage of bead-on-welded plates


Longitudinal bending deformation of long built-
If the magnitude of inherent strain is not affected by up members shown in Fig. 10 can be calculated as shown
external restraint, the ratio of angular deformations of Fig. in Fig. 11. The formula proposed by Tsuji [2] from the
9 will show a nearly straight line according to the experiments and theoretical analysis is as follows.

MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION 79


J - - - "0 . . . . C a l c u l a t e d Rsults by Tsup's Formula
1 a e + C a l c u l a t e d Results by Author
r - 0 . 4 -cp
-1Q (21 )
v 6
From the results shown in Fig. 11, it can be said that
the deformation prediction method proposed in this study 5
can be applied to the analysis of longitudinal deformation.
~4
Results E
I '~O'~ Expen mental E cons,dered) 03
- 'Ill" " -Calculated Results (Reduction of
1_
-- -A-.- - Calculated Results (Reduction of E not considered

1.2 -g 2
E
o 1
.... -a- ....
rm
0 i i i i
go.8 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Heat Input (Q-10-*(-3) cal/cm)
~0.6 Fig. 11 Longitudinal deformation parameters of the

~ 0 . 4
edge welded beams

-0.2 ........ -I . . . . . . .

O.0 0 . ~ e s t r a i n t F Od t2or 0.3


Fig. 9 Angular deformation ratio of the restrained
plate

Weld line Fig. 12 Shape of the stiffened plate structure

t
CONCLUSIONS

Fig. 10 Longitudinal bending deformation of the long Welding deformations of real structures are complex
welded beam because various basic modes are combined and factors
governing the modes are complicated. The accurate
As the final example, a typical stiffened plate of a prediction of welding deformation has been a difficult
ship block is selected. The welding deformations of the problem. In spite of many research results, the theory
plate shown in Fig. 12 are the superposed results of which is capable of including various factors concerned
several deformation modes. The deformed shape obtained with welding deformations and predicting accurately the
by following the proposed procedure of Fig. 4 is shown in welding deformations of large structures has not been
Fig. 13. It is revealed that the proposed method can developed. This study presented a method to predict
analyze the complicated deformations of the real welded welding deformations of large structures accurately and
structures. practically based on the accumulated research results. The
In Fig. 13, one element covers the breadth of the presented method uses the finite element method
inherent strain region. The structure is modeled by shell combining the inherent strain theory and experimental
elements with 3-dimensional translational and rotational results for accurate and efficient analysis. A simplified
degrees-of-freedom. Calculated nodal forces and moments elasto-plastic analysis was introduced and representative
are applied to the nodal points of individual elements and values during the thermal elasto-plastic process were used
summed. in this method. It was revealed from the analysis results

80 MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION


ANSYS 5~2
J A N 30 1997
09:54:3!
P L O T NO. 1
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP-1
SUB =i
TiHE=I
UZ
TOP
RSYS=0
DMX =.091987
SMN =-,002665
SFiX = , 0 8 9 2 0 3
-.002665
.007542
.01775
.027958
.038~65
l~ ,048373
.05858
.068788
1 ,078995
.089203

Fig. 13 Deformed shape of the stiffened plate structure

for the simple welded model that the inherent strains are finite element analysis method", ,Journal o/" the
changed by joint restraint as well as heat input and elastic Japanese Welding Society, Vol. 42, No. 6, 1973.
modulus of the inherent strain region, and material 5. Masubuchi, K., Analysis of welded structures,
softening region must be different from that of the base Pergamon Press, 1980, pp. 148-188.
metal region. These results have been supported by the 6. Moshaiov, A. and Vorus, W. S., "The mechanics of the
experimental data. frame bending process : Theory and applications",
The method proposed in this study can be combined Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1987.
with the commercial finite element analysis software to 7. ABAQUS User's manual, Hibbit, Karlsson &
predict reasonably and efficiently the welding Sorensen Inc., Farmington Hills, Michigan, 1993.
deformations of large structures. 8. ANSYS User's manual, Swanson Analysis System Inc.,
Houston, Pennsylvania, 1992.
REFERENCES 9. SYSWELD Technical Description, Framasoft+CSI,
Paris, La Defense, 1995.
1. Satoh, K. and Terasaki, T., "Effect of welding 10. Ueda, Y., Nakacho, K. and Moriyama, S.,
conditions on welding deformations in welded "Compressive ultimate strength of rectangular plates
structural materials", ,Journal of the Japanese Welding with initial imperfections due to welding (4 th report)",
Society, Vol. 45, No. 4, 1976. Journal of the society of Naval Architects of Japan,
2. Watanabe, M. and Satoh, S., "Effect of welding Vol. 159, 1986.
conditions on the shrinkage distortion in welded 11. Tsuji, I. And Yamaguchi, K., "Distortion and
structural materials", Welding Journal, Vol. 40, 1961. shrinkage stresses in edge welding of beams", Journal
3. Fujimoto, T., "Residual stresses in rectangular plates of the Western Society of Naval Architects of Japan,
with slit-type butt welded joint", .Journal of the Vol. 42,1967.
Japanese Welding Society, Vol. 40, No. 5, 1971.
4. Ueda, Y. and Yamakawa, T., "Analysis of thermal
elasto-plastic behavior of metals during welding by

MAY 1999 JOURNAL OF SHIP PRODUCTION 81