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19-2872; Rev 0; 5/03

300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based


ASK Transmitter
General Description Features

MAX1472
The MAX1472 is a crystal-referenced phase-locked 2.1V to 3.6V Single-Supply Operation
loop (PLL) VHF/UHF transmitter designed to transmit
OOK/ASK data in the 300MHz to 450MHz frequency Low 5.3mA Operating Supply Current*
range. The MAX1472 supports data rates up to Supports ASK with 90dB Modulation Depth
100kbps, and adjustable output power to more than
+10dBm into a 50 load. The crystal-based architec- Output Power Adjustable to More than +10dBm
ture of the MAX1472 eliminates many of the common Uses Small Low-Cost Crystal
problems with SAW transmitters by providing greater
modulation depth, faster frequency settling, higher Small 3mm 3mm 8-Pin SOT23 Package
tolerance of the transmit frequency, and reduced Fast-On Oscillator 220s Startup Time
temperature dependence. Combined, these improve-
ments enable better overall receiver performance when
using a superheterodyne receiver such as the MAX1470
or MAX1473.
The MAX1472 is available in a 3mm x 3mm 8-pin
SOT23 package and is specified for the automotive
(-40C to +125C) temperature range. An evaluation kit *At 50% duty cycle (315MHz, 2.7V supply, +10dBm output
is available. Contact Maxim Integrated Products for power)
more information.
Applications Ordering Information
Remote Keyless Entry
TEMP PIN- TOP
RF Remote Controls PART
RANGE PACKAGE MARK
Tire Pressure Monitoring MAX1472AKA-T -40C to +125C 8 SOT23-8 AALM
Security Systems
Radio-Controlled Toys
Wireless Game Consoles
Wireless Computer Peripherals
Wireless Sensors

Typical Application Circuit Pin Configuration

TOP VIEW
*

1 XTAL1 XTAL2 8

3.0V XTAL1 1 8 XTAL2


2 GND MAX1472 VDD 7
50 GND 2 7 VDD
ANTENNA 220pF 680pF MAX1472
3 PAGND DATA 6
PAGND 3 6 DATA
DATA INPUT

4 PAOUT ENABLE 5 PAOUT 4 5 ENABLE


13 STANDBY OR
POWER-UP
SOT23

*Optional power adjust resistor.

________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1

For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim/Dallas Direct! at
1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxims website at www.maxim-ic.com.
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
MAX1472

VDD to GND ..........................................................-0.3V to +4.0V Operating Temperature Range .........................-40C to +125C


All Other Pins to GND ................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Storage Temperature Range .............................-60C to +150C
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70C) Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300C
8-Pin SOT23 (derate 8.9mW/C above +70C)............714mW

Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Typical Application Circuit, output power is referenced to 50, VDD = 2.1V to 3.6V, VENABLE = VDD, TA = -40C to +125C, unless
otherwise noted. Typical values are at VDD = 2.7V, TA = +25C, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Supply Voltage VDD 2.1 3.6 V
VENABLE = VDD
5.3 9.2
(Note 2)
VENABLE = VDD,
fRF = 315MHz 9.1 16.4
VDATA = VDD
VENABLE = VDD,
1.5 2.1
VDATA = 0V
Supply Current IDD mA
VENABLE = VDD
5.7
(Note 2)
VENABLE = VDD,
fRF = 433MHz 9.6
VDATA = VDD
VENABLE = VDD,
1.7 2.5
VDATA = 0V
VENABLE < VIL, TA < +85C (Note 3) 5 350 nA
Standby Current ISTDBY
VENABLE < VIL TA < +125C (Note 3) 1.7 A
Frequency Range fRF (Note 1) 300 450 MHz
Data Rate (Note 3) 0 100 kbps
Modulation Depth ON to OFF POUT ratio (Note 4) 90 dB
TA = +25C, VDD = 2.7V (Notes 8, 9) 7.3 10.3 12.8
Output Power POUT TA = +125C, VDD = 2.1V (Notes 8, 9) 3.3 6.0 dBm
TA = -40C, VDD = 3.6V (Notes 8, 9) 13.7 16.2
To fOFFSET < 50kHz (Note 5) 220
Turn-On Time tON s
To fOFFSET < 5kHz (Note 5) 450
fRF = 315MHz (Note 6) 43.6
Transmit Efficiency with CW %
fRF = 433MHz (Note 6) 41.3
Transmit Efficiency at 50% fRF = 315MHz (Note 7) 37.6
%
Duty Cycle fRF = 433MHz (Note 7) 35.1

2 _______________________________________________________________________________________
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)

MAX1472
(Typical Application Circuit, output power is referenced to 50, VDD = 2.1V to 3.6V, VENABLE = VDD, TA = -40C to +125C, unless
otherwise noted. Typical values are at VDD = 2.7V, TA = +25C, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP PERFORMANCE
VCO Gain 330 MHz/V
fOFFSET =100kHz -84
fRF = 315MHz
fOFFSET = 1MHz -91
Phase Noise dBc/Hz
fOFFSET =100kHz -82
fRF = 433MHz
fOFFSET = 1MHz -89
fRF = 315MHz -50
Maximum Carrier Harmonics dBc
fRF = 433MHz -50
fRF = 315MHz -75
Reference Spur dBc
fRF = 433MHz -81
Loop Bandwidth 1.6 MHz
Crystal Frequency fXTAL fRF / 32 MHz
Oscillator Input Impedance From each XTAL pin to GND 6.2 pF
Frequency Pushing by VDD 3 ppm/V
Maximum Crystal Inductance 50 nH
DIGITAL INPUTS
Data Input High VIH VDD - 0.25 V
Data Input Low VIL 0.25 V
Maximum Input Current 2 nA
Pulldown Current 25 A
Note 1: 100% tested at TA = +25C. Guaranteed by design and characterization over temperature.
Note 2: 50% duty cycle at 10kHz data.
Note 3: Guaranteed by design and characterization, not production tested.
Note 4: Generally limited by PC board layout.
Note 5: VENABLE < VIL to VENABLE > VIH. fOFFSET is defined as the frequency deviation from the desired carrier frequency.
Note 6: VENABLE > VIH, VDATA > VIH, Efficiency = POUT/(VDD x IDD).
Note 7: VENABLE > VIH, DATA toggled from VIL to VIH, 10kHz, 50% duty cycle, Efficiency = POUT/(VDD x IDD).
Note 8: Output power can be adjusted with external resistor.
Note 9: Guaranteed by design and characterization at fRF = 315MHz.

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 3
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
MAX1472

Typical Operating Characteristics


(Typical Application Circuit, VDD = 2.7V, TA = +25C, unless otherwise noted.)

SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
13 1.9 13
MAX1472 toc01

MAX1472 toc02

MAX1472 toc03
VENABLE = VIH, VENABLE = VIH, +125C VENABLE = VIH,
12 VDATA = VIH, 1.8 VDATA = VIL, 12 VDATA = VIH,
+25C
fRF = 315MHz fRF = 315MHz fRF = 433MHz
11 1.7 11
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)

SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)

SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)


+85C -40C
-40C +25C
10 1.6 10
+125C
9 1.5 9 +85C
+85C
8 1.4 8 +125C
-40C
7 1.3 7
+25C
6 1.2 6

5 1.1 5
2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)

SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE OUTPUT POWER vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE OUTPUT POWER vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
2.2 14 14
MAX1472 toc04

MAX1472 toc05

MAX1472 toc06
VENABLE = VIH, +125C VENABLE = VIH, VENABLE = VIH,
VDATA = VIL, 13 VDATA = VIH, 13 VDATA = VIH,
fRF = 433MHz +85C fRF = 315MHz -25C fRF = 433MHz
2.0 12 +25C
12
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)

OUTPUT POWER (dBm)

OUTPUT POWER (dBm)

11 -40C
11 -40C
1.8
10
+125C 10 +125C
9
1.6 +85C 9
-40C
8 +85C
+25C 8
1.4 7

6 7

1.2 5 6
2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)

REFERENCE SPUR MAGNITUDE FREQUENCY STABILITY TRANSMIT POWER EFFICIENCY


vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
-65 2 55
MAX1472 toc07

MAX1472 toc08

MAX1472 toc09

-67
1 50 -40C
-69
OFFSET FREQUENCY (ppm)
REFERENCE SPUR (dBc)

-71 +25C
0 45
EFFICIENCY (%)

-73
-75 315MHz -1 315MHz 40
-77 433MHz
-2 35
-79 433MHz +125C
+85C
-81
-3 30
-83 CW OUTPUT
fRF = 315MHz
-85 -4 25
2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)

4 _______________________________________________________________________________________
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)

MAX1472
(Typical Application Circuit, VDD = 2.7V, TA = +25C, unless otherwise noted.)

TRANSMIT POWER EFFICIENCY TRANSMIT POWER EFFICIENCY TRANSMIT POWER EFFICIENCY


vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
50 50 45
MAX1472 toc10

MAX1472 toc11

MAX1472 toc12
-40C +25C
45 -40C
45 40 +25C
+25C -40C
40
EFFICIENCY (%)

EFFICIENCY (%)

EFFICIENCY (%)
40 35

+125C 35
+125C
35 30
+85C 30 +85C
+125C
30 +85C OOK OUTPUT AT 25 OOK OUTPUT AT
CW OUTPUT 25
50% DUTY CYCLE 50% DUTY CYCLE
fRF = 433MHz
fRF = 315MHz fRF = 433MHz
25 20 20
2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
SUPPLY CURRENT AND OUTPUT POWER
PHASE NOISE vs. OFFSET FREQUENCY vs. EXTERNAL RESISTOR SUPPLY CURRENT vs. OUTPUT POWER
MAX1472 toc14
-40 12 12 10
MAX1472 toc13

MAX1472 toc15
fRF = 315MHz fRF = 315MHz
-50 POWER 9
10 10
-60
8
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)

OUTPUT POWER (dBm)

SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)


-70 CURRENT
8 8
-80 7
CW
-90 6 6 6
-100 5
4 4
-110
4
-120 50% DUTY CYCLE
2 2
-130 3

-140 0 0 2
10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 0.1 1 10 100 1000 0 2 4 6 8 10
fOFFSET (Hz) EXTERNAL RESISTOR () OUTPUT POWER (dBm)

FREQUENCY SETTLING TIME AM DEMODULATION OF PA OUTPUT


MAX1472 toc16 MAX1472 toc17

DATA RATE
= 100kHz
ENABLE
25kHz/div
TRANSITION
FROM LOW
TO HIGH

START: 0s 1ms 15%/div

ENABLE
2.5kHz/div TRANSITION
FROM LOW
TO HIGH

START: 0s 1ms START: 0s STOP: 20s

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 5
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
Pin Description
MAX1472

PIN NAME FUNCTION


1 XTAL1 1st Crystal Input. fRF = 32 x fXTAL.
2 GND Ground. Connect to system ground.
3 PAGND Ground for the Power Amplifier (PA). Connect to system ground.
Power-Amplifier Output. This output requires a pullup inductor to the supply voltage, which may be part
4 PAOUT
of the output-matching network to a 50 antenna.
5 ENABLE Standby/Power-Up Input. A logic low on ENABLE places the device in standby mode.
6 DATA OOK Data Input. Power amplifier is ON when DATA is high.
7 VDD Supply Voltage. Bypass to GND with capacitor as close to the pin as possible.
8 XTAL2 2nd Crystal Input. fRF = 32 x fXTAL.

Detailed Description Power Amplifier


The PA of the MAX1472 is a high-efficiency, open-drain,
The MAX1472 is a highly integrated OOK/ASK transmit-
class-C amplifier. With proper output matching network,
ter operating over the 300MHz to 450MHz frequency
the PA can drive a wide range of impedances, including
range. The IC includes a complete PLL and a highly
the small-loop PC board trace antenna and any 50
efficient PA. The device can also be easily placed into
antenna. The output-matching network for a 50 anten-
a 5nA low-power shutdown mode.
na is shown in the Typical Application Circuit. The out-
Shutdown Mode put-matching network suppresses the carrier harmonics
The ENABLE pin is internally pulled down with a 15A and transforms the antenna impedance to an optimal
current source. If the pin is left floating or pulled low, impedance at PAOUT (pin 4), which is about 250 .
the MAX1472 goes into shutdown mode, where the When the output matching network is properly tuned,
supply current drops to less than 5nA. When ENABLE the PA transmits power with high efficiency. The Typical
is high, the IC is enabled and is ready for transmission Application Circuit delivers 10.3dBm at 2.7V supply with
after 220s (frequency settles to within 50kHz). 9.1mA of supply current. Thus, the overall efficiency is
The 220s turn-on time of the MAX1472 is mostly domi- 44%. The efficiency of the PA itself is more than 52%.
nated by the crystal oscillator startup time. Once the
oscillator is running, the 1.6MHz PLL loop bandwidth
Applications Information
allows fast-frequency recovery during power-amplifier Output Power Adjustment
toggling. It is possible to adjust the output power down to
-10dBm with the addition of a resistor. The addition of
Phase-Locked Loop the power-adjust resistor also reduces power con-
The PLL block contains a phase detector, charge sumption. See the Supply Current and Output Power
pump, integrated loop filter, VCO, 32X clock divider, vs. External Resistor and Supply Current vs. Output
and crystal oscillator. This PLL requires no external Power graphs in the Typical Operating Characteristics
components, other than a crystal. The relationship section. It is imperative to add both a low-frequency
between the carrier and crystal frequency is given by: and a high-frequency decoupling capacitor as shown
fXTAL = fRF / 32 in the Typical Application Circuit.
The lock-detect circuit prevents the PA from transmit-
ting until the PLL is locked. In addition, the device shuts
down the PA if the reference frequency is lost.

6 _______________________________________________________________________________________
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
Crystal Oscillator Output Matching to 50

MAX1472
The crystal oscillator in the MAX1472 is designed to When matched to a 50 system, the MAX1472 PA is
present a capacitance of approximately 3.1pF between capable of delivering more than +10dBm of output
the XTAL1 and XTAL2 pins. If a crystal designed to power at VDD = 2.7V. The output of the PA is an open-
oscillate with a different load capacitance is used, the drain transistor that requires external impedance
crystal is pulled away from its intended operating fre- matching and pullup inductance for proper biasing.
quency, thus introducing an error in the reference fre- The pullup inductance from PA to VDD serves three
quency. Crystals designed to operate with higher main purposes: It resonates the capacitance of the PA
differential load capacitance always pull the reference output, provides biasing for the PA, and becomes a
frequency higher. For example, a 9.84375MHz crystal high-frequency choke to reduce the RF energy cou-
designed to operate with a 10pF load capacitance pling into VDD. The recommended output-matching net-
oscillates at 9.84688MHz with the MAX1472, causing work topology is shown in the Typical Application
the transmitter to be transmitting at 315.1MHz rather Circuit. The matching network transforms the 50 load
than 315.0MHz, an error of about 100kHz, or 320ppm. to a higher impedance at the output of the PA in addi-
In actuality, the oscillator pulls every crystal. The crys- tion to forming a bandpass filter that provides attenua-
tals natural frequency is really below its specified fre- tion for the higher order harmonics.
quency, but when loaded with the specified load Output Matching to PC Board Loop
capacitance, the crystal is pulled and oscillates at its Antenna
specified frequency. This pulling is already accounted In most applications, the MAX1472 PA output has to be
for in the specification of the load capacitance. impedance matched to a small-loop antenna. The
Additional pulling can be calculated if the electrical antenna is usually fabricated out of a copper trace on a
parameters of the crystal are known. The frequency PC board in a rectangular, circular, or square pattern.
pulling is given by: The antenna has an impedance that consists of a lossy
component and a radiative component. To achieve
Cm 1 1 6
high radiating efficiency, the radiative component
fp = 10 should be as high as possible, while minimizing the
2 Ccase + Cload Ccase + Cspec lossy component. In addition, the loop antenna has an
inherent loop inductance associated with it (assuming
where: the antenna is terminated to ground). For example, in a
typical application, the radiative impedance is less than
fp is the amount the crystal frequency is pulled in ppm. 0.5, the lossy impedance is less than 0.7, and the
Cm is the motional capacitance of the crystal. inductance is approximately 50nH to 100nH.
Ccase is the case capacitance. The objective of the matching network is to match the
Cspec is the specified load capacitance. PA output to the small loop antenna. The matching
components thus transform the low radiative and resis-
Cload is the actual load capacitance. tive parts of the antenna into the much higher value of
When the crystal is loaded as specified, i.e., Cload = the PA output, which gives higher efficiency. The low
Cspec, the frequency pulling equals zero. radiative and lossy components of the small loop anten-
na result in a higher Q matching network than the 50
network; thus, the harmonics are lower.

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 7
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
Layout Considerations
MAX1472

Functional Diagram
A properly designed PC board is an essential part of
any RF/microwave circuit. On the PA output, use con-
trolled-impedance lines and keep them as short as
DATA AND
possible to minimize losses and radiation. At high fre- ENABLE
GATE
quencies, trace lengths that are on the order of /10 or VDD
longer can act as antennas.
Keeping the traces short also reduces parasitic induc- MAX1472
PA PAOUT
tance. Generally, 1in of PC board trace adds about
20nH of parasitic inductance. The parasitic inductance
can have a dramatic effect on the effective inductance. PAGND
For example, a 0.5in trace connecting a 100nH induc-
LOCK DETECT 32 x PLL
tor adds an extra 10nH of inductance, or 10%.
GND
To reduce the parasitic inductance, use wider traces
XTAL1 CRYSTAL-
and a solid ground or power plane below the signal OSCILLATOR
traces. Using a solid ground plane can reduce the par- XTAL2 DRIVER
asitic inductance from approximately 20nH/in to 7nH/in.
Also, use low-inductance connections to ground on all
GND pins, and place decoupling capacitors close to all
VDD connections.
Chip Information
TRANSISTOR COUNT: 1430
PROCESS: CMOS

8 _______________________________________________________________________________________
300MHz-to-450MHz Low-Power, Crystal-Based
ASK Transmitter
Package Information

MAX1472
(The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information
go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.)

SOT23, 8L .EPS
SEE DETAIL "A"
SYMBOL MIN MAX
b e
CL A 0.90 1.45
A1 0.00 0.15
A2 0.90 1.30
b 0.28 0.45
C 0.09 0.20
D 2.80 3.00
CL CL E 2.60 3.00
E E1
E1 1.50 1.75
L 0.30 0.60
L2 0.25 BSC.
PIN 1
e 0.65 BSC.
I.D. DOT
(SEE NOTE 6) e1 1.95 REF.
0 0 8
e1

D
C
CL

L2

A A2
A1 GAUGE PLANE

SEATING PLANE C

L 0
NOTE:
1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS.
2. FOOT LENGTH MEASURED FROM LEAD TIP TO UPPER RADIUS OF DETAIL "A"
HEEL OF THE LEAD PARALLEL TO SEATING PLANE C.
3. PACKAGE OUTLINE EXCLUSIVE OF MOLD FLASH & METAL BURR.
4. PACKAGE OUTLINE INCLUSIVE OF SOLDER PLATING.
5. COPLANARITY 4 MILS. MAX.
6. PIN 1 I.D. DOT IS 0.3 MM MIN. LOCATED ABOVE PIN 1.
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
7. SOLDER THICKNESS MEASURED AT FLAT SECTION OF LEAD TITLE:
BETWEEN 0.08mm AND 0.15mm FROM LEAD TIP.
PACKAGE OUTLINE, SOT-23, 8L BODY
8. MEETS JEDEC MO178.
APPROVAL DOCUMENT CONTROL NO. REV.
1
21-0078 D 1

Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are
implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.

Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 _____________________ 9

2003 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.