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# 3.1 Given: N2 is at an initial state at 800 K and 8 atm and final state at 400 K and 1 atm.

It behaves
as an ideal gas.
Find: a.) Calculate the densities (kg /m3) at both states, b.) Using the JANAF table for N2, calculate
h2-h1, u2-u1 , s2-s1 and c.) Select a suitable average value for Cp and then calculate the quantities
in (b) using the assumption of constant specific heats, d.) use the polynominal representation for
Cp and find h2-h1, s2-s1, and e.) which method is most accurate and determine errors of the other
methods
Solution: For N2 the molecular weight (see Table A-2) is MN2 = 28.01 kg/kmole, treat as IG
kg kN
kg kN 28.01  101 2
 808 2 kg kmole m kg
a 28.01 3.4027 3  2, IG   0.8507
1, IG 
kmole m  kN  m m3
kN  m
m 8.314  300 K
8.314  800 K kmole  K
kmole  K
b.) Using Table A-6 for N2 in Wark
T (K) h (kJ/kmole) u (kJ/kmole) so (kJ/kmole-K)
1 800 23,714 17,061 220.907
2 400 11,640 8,314 200.071
h = h2 – h1 = (11,640- 23,714) kJ/kmole/28.01 kg/kmole = -431.06 kJ/kg
u = u2 – u1 = (8,314- 17,061) kJ/kmole/28.01 kg/kmole = -312.28 kJ/kg
s = s2 – s1 = so2 – so1 –Ru/M*ln(P2/P1) = {200.071- 220.907-8.314*ln (1/8)}/28.01= -0.127 kJ/kg-K
c From Table A-4-1 for N2: Cp(T= 800 K) = 1.121 kJ/kg-K and Cp(T= 400 K) = 1.044 kJ/kg-K
Cp,avg = (1.121 + 1.044)/2 = 1.0825 kJ/kg-K Cv,avg = Cp,avg – Ru/M = 0.7857 kJ/kg-K
kJ
h  h2  h1  C p , avg T2  T1   1.0825 400  800K  -433.00 kJ/kg
kg  K
kJ
u  u 2  u1  Cv , avg T2  T1   0.7857 400  800 K  -314.27 kJ/kg
kg  K
 400   1  -0.133 kJ/kg-K
s  s 2  s1  C p,avg lnT2 T1   R gas lnP2 P1   1.0825 * ln   8.314 / 28.01 * ln  
 800  8
d Polynomial Table A-4_3 in Wark for a= 3.675, b=-1.208e-3, c=2.324e-6, d=-0.632e-9, e=-0.226e-12
 T2 b 2 T2 c 3 T2 d 4 T2 e 5 T2 
h  h2  h1  Ru aT T  T  T  T  T 
 1
2 T1 3 T1 4 T1 5 T1 
 b
2
3
c
 d
4
 
e 
 
h  Ru aT2  T1   T22  T12  T23  T13  T24  T14  T25  T15   12,072.85
 5 
kJ
kmol

T2
Cp P   T2 2 T T2
  P2 
dT  Ru ln 2   Ru a ln T  T2  bT T2  T 2
c d e
s    T3  T4   Ru ln 
T T

T1
T  P1  
1 1
2 T1 3 T1 4 
T1   P1 
 T  c
 d
  e 
  P 

s  Ru a ln 2   bT2  T1   T22  T12  T23  T13  T24  T14   Ru ln 2   3.545
kJ
kmol  K
  T1  2 3 4   P1 
h
h  = -431.02 kJ/kg s  s = -0.127 kJ/kg-K
M M
e Most accurate method is part b (JANAF tables) %error = (method – best)/best*100
% error h for method c = 0.45%, % error s for method c = 5.1%
% error h for method d = -0.01%, % error s for method d = -0.08%
1

ei.1 of Monograph 9 (pp.786 kmolekJ  K Electronic energy mode: C p   2 d ln Q d ln Q  where Q  g exp  c2 i  o 2  T  2T   i   Ru   dT 2 dT  i  T  e evaluating the first and second derivative of ln(Q) gives   c2 i    i gi exp  d ln Q c2  2 i  T  dT T c    gi exp 2 i  i  T  2 and   c 2 i    c2 i     c 2 i    i g i exp 2   i g i exp   i g i exp T  2   d 2 ln Q  2c2  T  2 i c  T   c2 2 i    i dT 2 T3 c   T4 c   T4    c 2 i  2  g i exp 2 i   g i exp 2 i   T   T   g i exp T  i i i   2  c2 i     c2 i    i gi exp   i g i exp T  2 Thus C o   p c2  T   c2 2 i    22 i Ru  T c   2    c2 i  2 e  gi exp 2 i  T  T   g i exp T  i i   Table 1600 gives the 5 lowest electronic energy levels. For example. gi Section 6.2 Given: Atomic nitrogen (N) Find: Using the approach described in Ex. Thus we need to perform sums at EACH temperature.   c2 i  c   c   c   c   c    g i exp   g1 exp 2 1   g 2 exp 2 2   g 3 exp 2 3   g 4 exp 2 4   g 5 exp 2 5  i  T   T   T   T   T   T    c     c     c     c     c   c     i g i exp 2 i    1 g1 exp 2 1    2 g 2 exp 2 2    3 g 3 exp 2 3    4 g 4 exp 2 4    5 g 5 exp 2 5  i  T   T   T   T   T   T    c2 i  c   2 c   2 c   2 c   2 c     i gi exp   1 g1 exp 2 1    2 g 2 exp 2 2    3 g3 exp 2 3    4 g 4 exp 2 4    5 g5 exp 2 5  2 2 i  T   T   T   T   T   T  Using Excel to evaluate the sums at each temperature gives: 2 .3. and the degeneracies.1. 17-18) give the following equations for the contribution to the molar specific heat due to translational and the electronic energy modes of an ideal monotonic gas: Translation energy mode: C o p tr  5 2 Ru  5 2  8. 5-3 of your course notes calculate the specific heat for oxygen. Find a 4th order polynominal to Cp/Ru Solution: For N use table 1600 of the NIST-JANAF tables for energy levels.3144 kmolekJ  K  20.

92 0.786 298.0695 a = 2.481 b = 6.786 20.9435 6000 4.0010 19.0019 36.4435 3.0037 72.0000 0.474 2.0000 0.1230 1.37 15860962.786 2.0000 0.0000 20.26 0.0101 196.786 2.790 2.786 20.786 20.5000 500 4.786 22.963 2.0000 0.786 20.53 0.0000 0.0001 20.trans Cp.2123 1.786 20.5000 1500 4.0000 0.0000 0.809 2.786 20.elec Cp.0000 0.0171 58116.461 2.786 25.0000 0.786 300 4.786 20.0000 0.786 20.241 e-15 3 .0005 0.00 0.438786 Ru (kJ/kmole‐ 8.0000 20.786 2.786 200 4.18 4 4 28838.786 23.786 20.2123 1400303.0000 0.total/Ru 100 4.0000 0.0036 0.0000 0.0686 1348.0000 20.0000 0.0227 20.5048 3000 4.6876 20.5000 1000 4.786 20.0000 0.0000 0.31 4 6 T Q sum (e_i*Q_i) sum(e_i^2*Q_ Cp.0002 0.887 e-11 e = -1.5213 3500 4.786 24.0000 20.277 2.0048 0.48 0.0000 0.5695 4.786 21.0000 0.0000 20.5000 800 4.7123 5000 4.0000 0.826 2.786 20.0000 20.0000 0.0000 0.Nitrogen N 1600 c2 (cm‐K) 1.0002 3.786 2.0000 0.786 2.6750 20.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5000 400 4.0000 0.786 20.0039 20.0000 0.786 2.78 0.338 e-8 d= 1.1892 3639.1824 370475.786 20.0000 0.0590 0.786 20.0000 0.0000 0.786 2.27 8399348.0000 0.0000 0.5590 4000 4.786 20.786 21.3217 2.786 2.4910 20.0000 0.5000 700 4.786 2.0000 0.13 0.0000 0.0000 0.15 4.5000 900 4.0000 0.05 0.5000 2000 4.0400 20.46 6 3 19233.3144 e_i (cm^‐1) g_i 1 0.0000 0.1770 20.0000 20.0000 0.66 41714568.7654 20.0220 428.00 4 2 19224.1507 0.0000 0.86 26815840.0000 20.0000 0.0000 20.0000 0.781 e-5 c = -6.5000 350 4.786 2.6230 4500 4.0000 20.0000 0.72 0.786 20.0000 0.0213 0.521 3.0000 20.7348 20.0410 803.elec/Ru Cp.0000 0.8217 5500 4.0000 0.0000 0.786 20.total Cp.0000 20.92 2 5 28839.0000 0.5005 2500 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 20.786 250 4.1054 2083.551 2.0659 3821922.5000 600 4.

1VR134a m 2 mR134a    0.005 m3 kN 500  . If Tref = 0 K all material will be solids . Cp = 0.1) = 0.76 kJ/kg-K×300 K = 228.we are ignoring this here. R134a ×T R134a.005 m 3 PR134a .0 kJ/kg = 23.2 – TR-134a.1 = 0.1 = 3 kg ×115. The tank and R-134a are initially at equilibrium at 300 K.1 = Cv.10227 kg RR134aTR134a .2 – TT.T×(TT. this integral has to be evaluated in a piecewise fashion were latent heats are considered.886 + 57.1 = Cv.1 kN  m 0. melting. VR-134a = .1 = 0. and b.0815  300 K kg  K Specific heats at 25 C and 27 C (~ the initial temperature .) initial internal energy of R-134a and initial internal energy of tank assuming constant specific heats and Tref = 0 K Solution:  Assume pressures are absolute  Assume R-134a behaves as an ideal gas  Assume specific heats are constant over temperature range of process a.1 = m R134a × u R134a.8 kJ/kg = 347.1 = 300 K .R-134a ×(TR-134a. mT = 3 kg.T×TT.1 = TT.2 = 350 K.9 kJ UT+R134aU R134a + UT = 3.386 kJ/kg-K ~ Cv (solid!) UR-134a = mR-134a ×Cv.) PR-134a.8 kJ/kg UT.3 Given: Consider a 5 1iter copper container with mass of 3 kg that contains gaseous regrigerant 134a at 500 kPa. The tank and R-134a are then heated to a new equilibrium temperature of 350 K.300 K) R-134a (Table A-1): Cv = 0.76 kJ/kg-K.10227 kg × 0. for tank only and for R-134a & tank composite system.886 kJ UT = mT×Cv.1 = mT × uT.76 kJ/kg-K × (350 – 300) K = 3. Assuming constant specific heats: u T   C v T  Tref  Selecting Tref = 0 K gives u T   C v T Using Tref = 0 K initial internal energies for the R134s and tank are: u R134a.2 = TT. condensation).317 kJ uT.) change in internal energy for R-134a only. copper (Table A-3-B). TR-134a.3.10227 kg ×228. evaporation.786 kJ  UT is much larger than UR134a due primarily to the large difference in mass T b.) for incompressible solid or liquid and ideal gases: u T    C T dT v Tref Note: if there are phase changes (freezing.0 kJ/kg U R134a. TR-134a. Find: a.386 kJ/kg-K×300 K = 115.386 kJ/kg-K × (350 – 300) K = 57.4 kJ 4 .1 = 500 kPa.9 = 61. just to practice using this equation.1 = 0.1) = 3 kg × 0.