Vol. 31, No.

2, Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 1

Fieldwork Under Difficult Circumstances
2 Regime Change at Practicing Anthropology
Ronald Loewe and Jayne Howell

4 Living and Working in a War Zone: An Applied Anthropologist in Afghanistan
Patricia A. Omidian

12 Are You With the F.B.I.?: Fieldwork Challenges In A Post 9/11 Muslim-American Community
Tony Gaskew

18 Who Burned Down Our House This Time?: Ethnography & Conflict in Timor Leste
Patricia L. Delaney

24 Unstable Relocations: Meeting the Other in Kurdolato
Bruno Anili

29 Turbulence Within the Cuban Diaspora in South Florida
Indira Rampersad

35 We Find Ourselves in the Middle: Navajo Relocation and Relocatee-Host Conflicts
Orit Tamir

2 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. 31, No. 2, Spring 2009

Regime Change at
Practicing Anthropology
By Ron Loewe the Journal of American Folklore, the be evaluated individually. Finally, we
American Anthropologist, and Culture, strongly encourage submissions from
and Jayne Howell Medicine and Psychiatry. His mother, practicing anthropologists as well as
recently deceased, says all the articles are professors and students.
F or obvious reasons, I did not
want our first issue of Practicing
Anthropology to go to press on the
really good, but that he should learn the
difference between a colon and a semi-
We are also contemplating some
changes, but don’t look for these in
colon. Hopefully, now that he is an editor, the first issue. One of the things we are
Ides of March, but the people who set he will. He is completing a book on na- considering is introducing a broader
production schedules are, undoubtedly, tionalism and identity in Yucatan entitled variety of submission categories: brief
less superstitious than cultural anthro- Making Mayas into Mestizos: National- comments on articles that were pub-
pologists, at least this one. Anyway, it ism, Modernity and its Discontents. lished in earlier issues; book, museum
is with a sense of optimism and a touch We should also mention that Krystal exhibit and film reviews; anthropologi-
of trepidation that Jayne Howell and Kittle, a graduate student of ours who cal humor, editorials/op-eds, or possibly
I release our first issue of Practicing is studying aging in the gay community a forum in which contemporary issues
Anthropology. We hope it is considered will be working with us. Krystal is a can be debated. These, hopefully, will
a good one, but please let us know what talented artist and musician as well as stimulate an ongoing dialogue between
you think by writing to our new address a good anthropologist, and will help us readers of Practicing Anthropology.
at anth-pa@csulb.edu. copyedit the journal. In any case, we do not plan to shy
As our first order of business, we away from controversy. In light of
would like to thank the previous editors the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and
of Practicing Anthropology, Jeanne
Plans for Practicing Anthropology
the Human Terrain System, there is a
Simonelli and Bill Roberts for their renewed interest in ethics in anthropol-
Some things about Practicing An-
stewardship of the journal, for giving ogy. As we begin our turn as editors,
thropology will stay the same for the
us a quick tutorial in editing, and for Terry Turner, professor emeritus at the
foreseeable future. Practicing Anthro-
lending Kristen Gentke from Wake University of Chicago, has proposed
pology will remain an editor-reviewed,
Forest University to us for the time be- reinstating the language in the 1971
as opposed to a peer-reviewed, journal
ing. Jeanne and Bill, in our estimation, AAA statement of ethics that prohibited
and will continue to publish relatively
produced many interesting issues of PA, anthropologists from engaging in covert
short articles (3,500 words) on topics
and we hope we can adequately fill their research or withholding research find-
of general concern to anthropologists
shoes. In any event, it seems as though ings from the population from they were
inside and outside the academy. We
editors are generally appreciated about obtained. The Network of Concerned
are interested in receiving case studies
as much as IRS agents or bill collectors, Anthropologists (NCA) supports the
in medical anthropology, education,
so we need to stick together. resolution. Most members of the Na-
international development, tourism,
As our second order of business, we tional Association of Practicing Anthro-
business, etc., which address important
would like to provide brief introductions, pologists (NAPA) oppose it. Wouldn’t
substantive, ethical or policy concerns
so our readers know who we are. Jayne this be an interesting issue to debate in
in the practice of anthropology. We
Howell joined the faculty at California the pages of Practicing Anthropology?
also invite submissions relating to
State University (Long Beach) in 1994.
anthropologically-oriented program
She is currently on sabbatical in Oaxaca,
Mexico, completing her book Rural
evaluation, social impact assessment, Fieldwork in Difficult Settings
and cultural resource management as
Girls, Urban Women on urban migration,
well as innovations in the teaching of While fieldwork has been fraught
schooling, and employment in this south-
anthropology. While articles do not with difficulty since the beginning of
eastern state. In addition to her research
require extensive citations, manuscripts modern anthropology, the present issue
on education, she has written about indig-
should discuss the methodology or highlights new difficulties which have
enous identity, US migration, domestic
methodologies employed and should emerged in the wake of the wars in Iraq
service and prostitution in Oaxaca, and
be well-grounded. We will continue the and Afghanistan, the Patriot Act and
domestic violence in the United States.
practice of publishing issues focusing the rise of anti-Muslim and anti-Arab
Ron Loewe joined the CSULB faculty
on a particular theme (when we receive prejudice in the United States. In the
in 2006. He has published a number
good proposals), but, as is the case first article, for example, Patricia Omid-
of articles in small, effete journals like
with other journals, each article will ian, a medical anthropologist who has

Vol. 31, No. 2, Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 3

lived and worked in Afghanistan for not insurmountable if one is open and hosts and newcomers. In this case,
seven years, discusses the need as well honest about his background. Kurdish immigrants not only found an
as the difficulty of maintaining a clear The article by Patricia Delaney, a economic niche in a community where
boundary between her work and that former Peace Corp worker who devel- native Italians were leaving in large
of the military. Omidian’s article also oped health education programs in East numbers, but are seen as an important
reminds us of the old adage that “truth Timor, provides another example of social asset that can help the local com-
is the first casualty of war,” especially the personal side of fieldwork during a munity maintain its vigor and evolve.
when the truth about negative maternal time of war. While most Americans are In a discussion of ethnic tension closer
health outcomes implicates the U.S. familiar with the atrocities carried out to home, Indira Rampersad discusses con-
military. Anyone who has followed the by Pol Pot in Cambodia, few Americans tinuity and change in the attitudes of Cu-
debate within anthropology about the are aware of the violence and famine ban-Americans toward the U.S. embargo
Human Terrain System (e.g., the use of that claimed the lives of an estimated as well as the Island nation itself. Through
anthropologists in military brigades) or 200,000 East Timorese, nor the role of an analysis of interviews with Cubans
the emerging discussion of the Minerva Indonesia and its US ally in this matter. living in the United States and Cuba, she
Research Initiative, a DOD grant pro- Delaney’s poignant recollection of the notes the emotional toll that travel restric-
gram to promote social science research fear she felt for her former co-workers tions have had on many families as well
in strategic hotspots like the Mideast, and fictive kin after she returned to the as the growing political diversity within
will find this paper of interest. US, serves as a reminder that our ethical the Cuban-American community.
The paper by Tony Gaskew, a crimi- ties to the people we work with do not Finally, we close this issue on a
nologist working in a Muslim commu- end once we leave the field. happier note by including Orit Tamir’s
nity in south Florida, shows that you do Bruno Anili’s study of the peaceful paper of the Navajo-Hopi land dispute,
not have to leave the U.S. to run into coexistence between Italian hosts and a dispute which finally appears to have
some of the same problems: suspicion, Kurdish migrants who settled in the run its course after more than one hun-
mistrust and expulsion. However, as coastal community of Baldolato demon- dred years.
Gaskew’s piece demonstrates, even strates that immigration can sometimes
difficult obstacles to field research are have very positive outcomes for both Ron Loewe and Jayne Howell n

C lassics of
P racticing A nthropology :
1978 – 1998
An exciting new collection of some of the best articles from
the first 20 years of Practicing Anthropology. Many selec-
tions come from the early volumes of the journal printed on
newsprint and no longer easily accessible. All the articles were
chosen for their enduring contribution to the history and prac-
tice of anthropology. Useful as a teaching aid or as a reference
work, Classics of PA provides a snapshot of the variegated
scene of anthropologists at work in the final decades of the
20th century.

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4 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. 31, No. 2, Spring 2009

Living and Working in a War Zone:
An Applied Anthropologist in Afghanistan
By Patricia A. Omidian anthropology hold ourselves give us ac-
cess to and credibility in local commu-

U nited States military initiated a nities through specific examples from
program to hire social scientists, my work there, as a way to address the
and particularly anthropologists, for problems of militarized anthropology.
their wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Action anthropology, as delineated
This paper is a discussion of action by Tax (1964) was an important con-
anthropology as it has unfolded for tribution to the development of anthro-
me in Afghanistan from 1998 to 2008 pology as a discipline. He advocated
and highlights examples from the field an approach that combined theory
between December 2001 and December with practice—that one’s work should
2008. Through examples of my work as be practical as it advances theory and
an applied anthropologist in Afghani- that it helps solve local problems (Hill
stan I will show how the role of the an- 2000). Public anthropology holds a
thropologist must be kept separate from similar perspective of doing anthropol-
any armed actors in the field in order to ogy for the public good, and not just for
maintain ethical integrity, standards for the sake of an academic career (Purcell
proper research and the safety of those 2000). These approaches highlight the
who are studied and of those who carry need for applied anthropologists to
work collaboratively with local popula-
Patricia A. Omidian
out the studies.
tions to help them solve problems they
identify as important. The Afghans with
Introduction or emergency aid worker, unlike the
whom I worked identified “responses to
violence” as one of the critical problems soldier or other military personnel, must
This paper is a discussion of action depend on the largess and the protection
they wanted changed.
anthropology as it has unfolded for me of the local community. Militarized an-
As an anthropologist it was important
in a region of the world that went from thropology subverts our work and puts
for me to stay neutral in order to work;
obscurity to the center of the world’s us on an ethical slippery slope. It also
therefore, I never carried a weapon,
attention in 2001 when the World increases the danger to us as the local
nor did I allow my staff or surveyors
Trade Towers were destroyed in the people with whom we work find it dif-
to be armed. When working in areas of
United States. By that time I was firmly ficult to distinguish between combatants
high conflict, having weapons or armed
entrenched in Peshawar, Pakistan, and non-combatants, the soldiers and
guards can increase the level of risk to
where I worked with both Afghans1 and the civilian aid workers—jeopardizing
myself and those with whom I work. It
Pakistanis and lived with an Afghan personal safety and development work,
sets up a power imbalance in the wrong
refugee family. When I started work- while increasing the likelihood of future
direction when doing fieldwork. In Af-
ing in the region in 1997 the US was violence.
ghanistan where tribal and or extended
not at war and Peshawar was a great
family relationships matter, using a
place to practice anthropology because
of issues around war, refugees and the
weapon to protect oneself can lead to a Without Guns: Living and Working
situation of subsequent retaliation. The In a War-Zone (2001-2006)
dominant culture of the tribal Pakh-
only person a gun protects in this kind
tuns. I traveled and conducted research
of situation is the person with the most After working with refugees in the
in Afghanistan from 1998 to 2001,
guns or the person who can garner the United States for 12 years, in 1997
before moving to Kabul, where I was
greater support from others. It also cre- I traveled to Peshawar, Pakistan on
based until January 2007. The data
ates a question among the beneficiaries a Fulbright Award. After completion
and experiences for this paper focus
of trust. of my Fulbright I remained in the
on the years (2001-2006) when I lived
Applied anthropologists struggle to region, sharing home and hearth with
and worked in Afghanistan and include
stay safe, build culturally appropriate an Afghan refugee family. During
insights I have gained on return trips
programs and to speak for those who this period I was employed through
(2007-2008). I will examine how
are without power or resources. The various consulting projects for interna-
the ethical guidelines to which we in
anthropologist, like the development tional non-governmental organizations

but of areas. adding gloves and boots ruined three-story structure: keep people from relaxing. By Christmas. many areas flattened by the internecine though safety was not one of them. in the walls of the third floor. it did not feel like war had a ghostly feeling about it that first the Russians in 1989 and the collapse because people seemed too frightened winter. As I walked through the narrow had no options. Adjustment was hard for all survey methods and gender awareness and foreign. I lived in the NGO office where 11. and village connections. As the war increased in and March. silent city it had been under the oppres. There were few cars and almost of the Najib government in 1992. For example. all the returning Afghans. and incredibly expensive—at over US ghan NGO that had development proj. We lived another two years opportunity to conduct health and liveli. priate programs in both Afghanistan and no glass left in the windows and The biggest problem faced by the Pakistan. I also traveled in Afghanistan children can fall through the holes residents of Kabul was where to house under the Taliban. Now there is nation. conducting participa. as we offices. public. I was in fabric for our office. women winter bitterly cold. in the whole city. Everyone shook my hand and to move the family that was there out lived between Kabul and Peshawar for asked me to come home with them for and repair the place. I had returned to the chadari back over their heads so that Before my Afghan “family” could Peshawar and flew almost immediately I could see their wonderfully smiling return to their home in Kabul they had to Kabul to join my colleagues there. it was no longer the houses that remained were old. summers hot and Taliban out of their country. Women’s head covering became was a problem in winter and I think I ing and the pain of seeing the nearly a topic of conversation at many expatri. with under the Taliban had many challenges viewing what was left of their collec. No. The or disheartened to fight. International tory trainings and research in a number aid workers can make do as I did. A bomb that when I went outside. sive Taliban. Working in Afghanistan each evening traveling around the city housing. until I moved out of tea. Kabul was destroyed. $10. conducting it was known as the best school that was important. drafty In 2001. city without a headscarf. I faces. Hope was high and six children. I shared my colleagues’ determined women in my office asked then would fade to a 2-4 hour period pain and joy of returning to Kabul me to wear a headscarf when I was in every third day in winter. as well as trainings in In December 2001 women. Yet. we were met by would be stored during the day and touch with my colleagues in Peshawar many women covered head to foot in brought out at night and placed by my as they waited for the US to begin the blue chadari (burqa) that became desk. In again. 31. This was a middle class area and spring. we all felt how difficult life was for the poor who school. there were enough several layers of clothing and a winter my colleagues cried as he pointed at a anti-government actions in Kabul to coat indoors. The children in many areas of the country. By the summer even the most regularly from March to July and memories. Yet. We did not have adequate miles of bombed out buildings with the south between the Americans and heating for the first two years. When I was a student. Their home was near the airport airport in Kabul that summer. pull the cloth of the dusty. I felt like I had a home they returned to their home near the and everyone was ready for change. I continued to live in my office Pakistan and based myself in Kabul in the mood of the place was celebratory. my bed was a cotton mat that sent back to the US to wait. Stories of people exploded in a nearby market injured freezing were constant reminders of There! See what is left of my high one of our office guards. Within days I was evacuated and traveled to a Kabul market for curtain I worked. For tive memories. become a very conservative and ner. of Kabul called Wazir Akbar Khan. when they arrived from March 2002. overcrowded gettable as a time of great excitement. One of opposition groups. The city of Kabul still conflict that followed the departure of the most part. At that time most Afghans the center of world attention under places to live but returnees and the poor wanted the US and coalition forces Taliban. never warmed up between November complete destruction of most of city: ate gatherings. Housing was scarce. but by the struggled with a school system that That first winter in Kabul was unfor. This took most of the next 4 months. Afghan apartment.000 a month in an exclusive area ects inside Afghanistan but was based The painful memories were contrast. parents the Afghan family from Peshawar when arrived in their place. Security . to come to Afghanistan and force the alleyways of the fabric market. Middle class people struggled for bombing. Heating after their years of exile: joy at return. Electricity in Kabul came hope and the sharing of bittersweet vous city. like we were contributing to a process lived without proper housing. no electricity. I continued to live with Taliban had just left Kabul and Karzai Peshawar—the whole family. traveled throughout the of us in the early days.Vol. the rebuilding of a research and designing culturally appro. to become a symbol of class the war. in Peshawar when the World Trade ed with the sheer energy and excitement where INGOs traditionally had their Towers were blown up on September of post-Taliban life. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 5 (INGOs) and UN agencies. until summer. 2. spring 2002 it was clear that Kabul had was barely functioning. I was working for an Af. Over the these areas the chadari was gradually in an apartment complex that survived course of the next two years I had the abandoned. and corrupt. mostly in the rural central We worked hard each day and spent local residents needed permanent highlands. would come to me. together before I moved into my own hood surveys. I wore whole neighborhoods destroyed.

or weapons. we left old man and the pre-adolescent boys exercise in each village. we hired four survey. by men dressed as police. two sister/brother teams (Fatima there. believed the whole survey would be as a nearby hill and pointed out a place tence agriculture (Badakhshan). and Nasir Khan. and because we beds. Nasir was pro-Taliban and pro-Al Qaida. We found that it worked best for it would have been a stomach wound. to guard all the women and children. In the evening of our first night interviews and mapping exercises and ors. stan. The areas of study we stayed. with one team He and the others had inadvertently she looked like a Hazara woman. as we settled into a routine. Nasir Khan conducted our interviews with them but and our safety. For example Fatima. I put more trust in his healed quickly and was ready to travel left as soon as we could. He areas we would be visiting were remote. The night before US troops up notes. to conduct area was getting us into more dangerous For four weeks the five of us traveled more surveys. As members of the NGO world. as fami- districts where verbal autopsies were world. leaving only one village men and conduct a mapping travel. We had time lines. No. Because the bad to worse as our luck ran out. In spite of all the hazards. I could not arrival we started to interview a group we would visit. but things had clearly gone from UN logistics had selected a village that recording the information. We were told there were security where a nomad camp had been bombed with access to urban markets or semi. Because of the tribal issues bumpy drive over dirt roads and river- the interviews in the morning and spent in this war torn area. not far from a dried riverbed and Nasir Khan and Kabir were to act as sitting talking when we heard shouts across from vineyards that had died be- escorts for their sisters and to conduct and fighting beyond the wall of the cause of the very severe drought. It was August yet each morning lies had relocated to other areas to avoid carried out by the quantitative team (cf. including participa. problems but we did not feel it. where we were to travel active war zone and we were intruders. ing azaan (call to prayer). an member acting as interviewer and other stumbled across a robbery in progress— ethnic group despised by the Taliban. killing most of the rural areas (Kandahar and Laghman) only problem was finding enough food men. Women who remained in Bartlett et al 2005). I trained the team in understand the dialect but it was clearly of women in a home when the Nasir survey techniques. The area was entered turned out to be about 5 kilo- mandated to do a qualitative study breathtakingly remote and gave one the meters from an Al Qaida training camp. curfews and robberies also with a driver from the NGO. and washing. he angrily told us that deal of time working on methods for turned.6 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. Fatima. The first village we (Omidian 2002). but we had come to the village and arrested done that day. overheard some of the village talking we had to get the information the first he blocked the knife with his arm or about kidnapping the UN woman who time. seeing Maiwand was dangerous even in 2002 impacted everyone’s lives. With the province of Laghman. close to Paki. Nasir Khan to head the survey team. The third province on our program out of frustration. Fortunately. UN logistics for Kan. Our by US fighter jets. Upon surveys with the men in the villages compound where we stayed. We conducted the help of the staff. We were again told the vil- viewer and Rana was quick with note local hospital where his wound was lage to visit and headed off on the long taking and observations. women and children in camp. After a sleepless night. a Japanese woman. to remote areas of Afghanistan by car dahar chose the villages for us to visit. I did this to eat in the local village. to leave immediately. 31. So did our hearts. person. of maternal mortality issues in five impression of being on the roof of the Most of the village was empty. we did not want to take deserted. but we were assured that the US forces large survey for UN and the CDCs Our first trip was to a remote area of were in control. was an excellent inter. possibility of angry people attacking us reports. men went out to get water for cooking The next day we visited another vil- Fatima and Rana had survey experience. our protection depended on to Maiwand district with a UN staff I was feeling that each day’s trip in this local knowledge and sometimes luck. and on our way. Fatima was close to panic as Khan called us out of the house and told tory methods like resource mapping and they listened to the voices. the left for the long drive back to Kandahar. and my NGO did not want us there. I assigned for Kabul as soon as we heard the morn. us to quickly get into the cars. semi-structured interviewing creased then stopped. and Kabir rushed Nasir Khan to the surveying. I cancelled The women wanted to talk to us so we giving him responsibility for logistics the survey for this province. rural easy. In this survey I was Badakhshan in the north. there was ice on the stream near where the fighting. We had so much fun that we the village took Fatima and Rana to included remote villages with subsis. Spring 2009 problems. was traveling with us. The noise in. as scribe/observer. Khan had been stabbed. We conducted bandaged. We also spent a great Within minutes the men of our group re. The men would interview had to wait till morning before we could every male over 15. Once in the cars and observation. The driver Our third day was no better for elder to Rana. We and urban groups (Kabul). we had good data from Kandahar and . some places that are no longer accessi. When we arrived the place was the entire afternoon each day writing were strangers. Rana and Kabir2). Being Japanese. During this period I conducted a ble because of the escalation of the war. discussing what was seen and the chance of further violence. them to work as teams. lovely fall weather. This was truly and we would be traveling without guards was Kandahar. trouble. Rana and I were lage. predicaments. 2. There was the local knowledge than in UN security again after a short rest. could not verify the story but it sent survey as a project within the Afghan Our next stop was in the eastern chills through all of us in spite of the NGO where I was employed.

clin. province were forced to close. there were no PRTs actively working. Omidian and Lawrence over the wall without taking anything. This was important. Each year Afghanistan moved but AFSC’s work focused on building enter if her guards did not come with toward more chaos. military groups that tried (international workers) lived. Those who knew me. I was again dependent on the local education and mental health. Most NGOs (both with my Afghan family. Most of these areas are governed armed actors. proved too dangerous for from Kabul University. compound (which was actually on one in the south were already deteriorating ghanistan. I returned again highlands and in the mountainous In another incident. as identified communities as neutral. those would be targeted. we followed the same rules and some form of change. During that Unfortunately we were at an impasse. In 2008. In the three years as the country work (and even USAID) and civilian/ My neighbors protected me numerous representative for AFSC (2004-2007).f. State Department. This occasionally not without struggle. This work was no longer exists in Afghanistan. those traveling in armed caravans felt time I conducted numerous surveys No guns or soldiers were allowed in our safe. There was an active campaign by including all my neighbors in my apart. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 7 returned to Kabul. of the US military bases in Kabul). for example. once a armed. My greatest joy weapons. armed robbers enter the compound. trying to promote education and which allows us to be seen by local ghanistan. because of the war. security continued to deteriorate. Nation. not resist. Security conditions Service Committee (AFSC) in Af. Yet. That boundary as most aid agencies and did not allow by local communities. the robbers climbed back gerous and many NGO offices in that Miller 2005. knew I was not Afghan. thieves climbed to Laghman in 2003 to complete a dif. . and Papadopoulos 2002. including the PRTs. No. I non-governmental work. We would joke and say that if ons. Although the times by telling people who searched was able to travel throughout Afghani- idea of using the military to provide aid for “foreigners” that none lived in our stan. had we been military bid for Afghan “hearts and led to problems. wanted to visit our tered. the AFSC staff to visit. only thing the guards would do is offer age NATO from expanding the system. language ability and understanding of our agency in trouble with the local including the building of schools. ment block. War and chaos had travel to remote areas of the country. but to allow me the large families to support who make a procedure for NGOs to have signs on security of anonymity in a city that was low but steady wage) were instructed to their offices and cars prohibiting weap. which would have left to engage in reconstruction activities. thanks to the seven years government for wounding or killing ics or water systems. 31. guards then asked if we would sup- so that by 2006 Ghazni. the culture. Omidian were alerted and because of the noise By 2004. I moved into my own flat in an few dollars quickly. pound in the night. shortly after my visit time the psychosocial wellness pro. yet. with fewer areas schools in remote areas of the central her. 2007. 2008) for refugees in Peshawar No one was hurt on this occasion. allowed me to police. a sigh of relief that our guards were engulfed most of rural Afghanistan. the trust we developed with minds” means that there is no longer a consultant from the US. Many NGOs in Afghanistan had In 2004 I became the Country Rep. where roads were safe. But the the symbolic boundary that aid workers community for my safety. Our unarmed guards the office where I stayed was bombed. a clear separation between military bombarded with warnings of threats. the Shortly after starting work with after dark and had planned to make a US government and NATO increased AFSC. by the fall of 2002 and. gram that was developed (c. It was. At this the wall and entered our office com- ferent survey. Our ally. funded by US local communities would have been al- distinction between armed and non. our guards (local men with tors. The guns on the premises. As a Quaker organization. a short drive rural communities and with interns ply them with or allow them to carry from Kabul. 2. This period had its dangers and the them tea. We worked in areas where robbers were part of the local police. Omidian and they made. Laghman was far too dan. provinces. They thought our compound was empty manitarian aid. and consultancies for other agencies. the the NGO community to try to discour. It was standard to confuse locals. something Afghans do for any but it failed. We held the meeting elsewhere. a position I held until leav.Vol. from the west. sounds like a good idea. It was important to signal international community was constantly guest. staying in villages and working with not armed when we later learned the As areas became more dangerous for the people. northern province of Faryab. by 2005. was expanded and tested in schools. greatest joy was in working in remote (and anthropologists) need to stay safe As head of the AFSC office in Af. the delivery of reconstruction and hu. But we also breathed of Kabul was safe. I was looking forward to seeing by warlords with militias or traditional become one of the most dangerous her but the regulations for her safety tribal leaders who have an armed fol- countries for aid workers. be in sight of her armed guards when stickers on their cars showing that there resentative for the American Friends traveling anywhere outside of her office were no weapons in the vehicle. conducting surveys on health. Had our guards their use of Provincial Reconstruction area of the city where no other expats been armed someone might have been Teams (PRT). only ing the country in 2007. always insecure. Our office rule was that if armed local and international) worked hard to pass as an Afghan who had returned thieves came into the compound to rob distance themselves from military ac. as a US contractor demanded that she lowing. not the place. compound and she was not allowed to as well. it is removing area. My shot or killed. In 2008. Afghanistan has since office. no road out came when I would leave Kabul and answer was no.

ily. or at firecrackers. ” country where the average salary is less than $50 a month. The country is mountainous. guns would not alter the situation in a safely. such as sitting under bridges and scattered like that they said or did something against when Kabul erupted in violent riots that autumn leaves over a landscape that another ethnic or political (read ethnic) targeted INGOs. Since moving out of Kabul in Febru. cousin or son) or knew someone who had been kidnapped for ransom. I have known for many years and talked to a number of others. No. 2. It was time to leave. I find son was one of 171 missing youth in My Pakistani friends told me to stay in I return to visit friends and former that area of Kabul city. Something about Afghanistan and There is an absence of justice or safety. I realized Afghanistan.8 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. the place I ran to for security and drug trafficking in opium and heroin. trying to come in time the most worrisome because there was enough to return. Afghanistan 2007-2008 almost no accountability or rule of law cluded summer dust storms and freezing and remains in the control of warlords. 31. came close to being torn apart Corruption finds itself all the way positive way. Some were released. a place that feels modern and national and regional. to share in the Muslim holidays or a feeling in Kabul that ethnic divisions Life had felt normal in Karachi and just Persian New Year.   Even more frightening for families of the middle class were the kidnap- leaving easier. they were told that their violence in Pakistan calmed down. a hard existence that in. the victim was released to their family unharmed. The kidnappings were primarily for ransom. One family was asked to pay three million starkly beautiful. winters. while I was visiting Af. At that time security was uppermost on their minds. his kidnappers told the story that he was Pakistan. by the same forces that are destroying to the highest levels of the govern- In the summer of 2006. arid When one man (a distant relative of a ary 2007. and the people have been family I stayed with) was kidnapped. Spring 2009 and is. The country. and Pakistan fight their battles there and yet his family did not find the truth ghanistan for AKU at the end of 2007 and Iran uses it to overstretch the US until well after his body was buried. yet. The boy or man office colleagues and friends. At a deeper level it was the sense from the resiliency of the Afghan people In September 2008. and is based on conflict zone. A few NGO workers with stan. At the same time. Where some coun- the ages of 15 and 30. tanks flanking roads. I could side is devastated by the joint terrors of ping and murder of young men between no longer judge safety for myself or my war and drought. become steadily worse. These cases were Kabul until they let me know it was safe colleagues. about a week later. I visited Kabul many times in and remote. their hillsides. limited electricity and water. Each family had a family member “Where some countries have cans and bottles littering (uncle. These occurred frequently to their risk. I now live in Karachi at constant war—wars that are local. 2007 and 2008.000. ment. He was killed (AKU). Paki. Afghanistan sits at the crossroads remark about Ahmad Shah Masoud—a position at the Aga Khan University of trade and threat. flict. Most were killed with the excuse where my local friends hid me. silent group. Benazir Bhutto was killed and I had military by supporting the enemies When the family went to the police to to extend my stay in there until the of their enemy. I spent 5 days in all my Afghan friends of loss of hope makes for an unbreakable cord. the country has security issues. these kidnappings demonstrate a new kind of economic activity. In spite of the efforts of a few that I was burning out from the stress of well-meaning nations. In a conflict. sitting under bridges and scattered These cases tended to be men in their later years who had wealth or attracted like autumn leaves over a landscape that is barren and attention because of political status. suffers from war. The situation has file on the case. important to distance oneself and when I stopped jumping at the sound of The economy of Afghanistan also one’s agency from armed actors in any a car backfiring. I took a faculty time. who were tries have cans and bottles littering would be taken while on his way to willing to put their lives on the line their hillsides. Yet. My staying could add is barren and starkly beautiful. Afghanistan has burned out and rusted and if money was paid. Afghanistan has burned school. others killed. another US$40. reminders of 30 years of armed con- enough that all families felt at risk. work or shopping for the fam- for me. often at the same arguing with someone and made a rude filled with liveliness. . pulling Kabul and stayed with 3 families whom in the future of Afghanistan that made me back again and again. currently India war hero from the north. There were several incidents out and rusted tanks flanking roads. silent reminders of 30 years of armed US dollars.

where everyone was checked. groups are fully armed. 17). and anthropologist I work for the people I Before this. NATO and the US military. The to any field endeavor. generally. though people were afraid that if any of these scientists. Al Qaida. Many felt that ethnicity was this route. people would complain but has been arming local militias to help “study” not for those who pay my way. work for them in groups pulled out of Afghanistan the results would be catastrophic. . People were afraid I found the country growing steadily and grounded my work. When they found numbers tem (HTS). the war and have been for decades. now too tist) have stepped in to add to the confu. my safety and and openly talked about their fears. with military and intelligence of the Kandahar/Kabul road. The goal is to help the military expressed anger at the way the US continually failed to respect Afghan understand local communities and to reduce the number culture. Anthropologists’ engagements kill. One ticipant observation and a dependence method was to take the numbers from The US government has introduced a on those we study for our survival. were tired of every sector. Leaving aside the whole of the phone could be beaten or killed. pologists. in which social making things worse not better. The anti-government tion to the people with whom I worked. No. weaponry. as are the war. PRTs building schools or hospitals. Into harm. would add that the US needed to stay combat anti-government groups. including anthropologists. factions and violence. find the whole notion of a militarized he works. mafia groups or other powerful part of the aid sector as well. I the person’s cell phone to find where system called The Human Terrain Sys. anthropology to be inappropriate for of foreigners on the phone the owner including anthropologists. In 2008. with more the anthropological position to “do no criminals. Trust is hard to establish but critical but there was a major shift since 2006 lords. including Hazaras and communities and to reduce the number must consider is “who is being studied Panjshiris (those from the area where of deaths. All were seen as The Human Terrain System (HTS). tenser as armed actors operate from the safety of my staff through a connec- Afghans. drug lords and mafia groups. work for many reasons. one that anthropologists reputation of the discipline (2007: (sometimes Taliban dressed as police) must avoid. ” this trip it was unclear which of the various groups people feared most: the Taliban. they told me that the US “The US government has introduced a system called was making the same mistakes that the Russians made years before. drug lords. if action anthropology and what is the purpose of the study. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 9 motivated many of the issues around become especially contentious along to recognize the horrors of unintended security.Vol. them in Afghanistan and Iraq. The killing of civilians was unforgivable and played into the hands of anti-government groups (AOG). war- are seen by locals as having become it also damages the profession and lords. the first point one were also at risk. Many people told me horror stories anthropologists (and other social scien. Confusing non-military activities damage relationships of trust with of people to travel. Guns To do otherwise hurts more than myself. agencies have the potential to dangerous for anyone but the poorest sion. They Afghanistan and Iraq. Issues be- is fraught with problems and has been Interwoven in this is the whole issue of tween Pashtuns and other groups have criticized for an arrogance in failing trust.” Ahmad Shah Masoud lives). Yet. members of certain ethnic groups is to help the military understand local ogy as a discipline. As I talked to people I found no distinction being made between ISAF forces. People were worried but said consequences that result from our inter- being used to divide various groups in they could not do more than adapt to ventions. I actively avoided weapons US/Karzai policy. in which social scientists. As an applied toward American policy in Afghanistan. There were frequent with military actors is a dangerous the people studied as well as the roadblocks and check posts with Taliban slippery slope. They looked for signs that the person works Militarized Anthropologists Because our work is grounded in par- for the government or an NGO.” Peacock et al notes:   Ethnic divisions became more pro- this mix of military and para-military nounced and were used as an excuse to units. how much more so will this Afghanistan and that the divisions were these problems and get on with their critique sit on those militarized anthro- being supported by popular media and lives. On of deaths. The goal question of the reputation of anthropol- Also. 31. government has its army and police. 2. because the Karzai government would not be able to cope with all the prob- lems.

while I can leave when perspective. to provide disclosure help give them a voice so they can be the local person cannot act against— of one’s work and role / not to heard. jeep. a person with power and defense communities is grounded chances of survival was important. They were asked not to share The HTS of the military works by it with Americans. Taliban and anything else. this (though they did not go as far as I tant. lenge to do no harm as we work among being served. As with most research. the ally one day may become an enemy the onset of any project. The imbalance is so great that responsibility to those involved American) could be trusted to write that it is easy to overlook. I am not naïve and I If she/he did. this a “use of anthropology as a weapon ing my data and to report my findings. No. and those who may lack power in the global other information comes that is not definitions of a ‘counterinsurgent’ setting. To know that military gy? To enter a community as a member ment with US intelligence and action was negatively impacting their of the military. as the power inherent in the childbearing age in the areas we visited. 2. wounding and of power. possibly by foot. cannot carry out participant observa- we found one unexpected cause of horseback. though European invite me to stay a while. member of an HTS team. the information would be contributor to the death of women of know that there is a clear imbalance of questioned. The local community may or may of the community to offer a differing from my final report. We have to do the best we can The purpose of the study was to the problem with militarized to protect those whom we study. the next. a discipline that has an ethical chal- care that would target the populations tion. to trade anthropology is about a gross imbalance was to be used to develop culturally in hurt and injury. As an anthropologist different rules. document. power in any relationship I establish but relationship between the community I was asked by my contact person in the those lines of power actually work both and the researcher overrides any ability UN in Kabul to remove this information ways. The Afghan agency with whom I since any reaction can get them arrested deceive. How does members who are communists. Bickford rightly calls Conclusion I felt an obligation to be honest regard. In Kandahar that might be. ciaries were always clearly stated at was about trust and intellectual honesty. is fluid (Bickford 2008:8). But I come tion or even participatory research in maternal mortality that was not liked with a group of Afghan aid workers. we have to remember It was not for me to censor my work for (2008:5). and to maintain . Muja- et al 2005) with myself and my team the militarized anthropologist deal with hedeen. That terrain is fraught with the US donor. Consequently I want. information into my report. He goes on to state: that our work can be used against the fear of insulting the donor. car or van. intentional use of skills we owe our profession. it was people we study. how does a militarized anthro. it is by local transport. also. When do. I and my team were either.10 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. That is the nature of important to give voice to those whom I While one may inadvertently what we do and where we do it (Sider had met and interviewed. refuse to speak to me or the anthropologist leaves. that US military action was a leading a representative. roles are constantly shifting ing the study for the UN in 2002. that I (an or killed. The American Anthropologi- expected and may even be unwelcome. As the weight of the US army behind her/ in four basic principles: to do the anthropologist it was my task to him brings about a level of power that no harm. Our framework for evaluating the from occurring and how they dealt with pology fit our definition of anthropolo. by order to understand the more subtle by the agency funding the study. Had I been working for the US military. as well as the subversion of appropriate and critically-needed health death. fragmentation and destruc. 2009). Keep in mind that “coun. Based on what where I think the greatest problem lies and Canadian colleagues working in the is happening around me. The community can also ask danger for them and does not end when my study was not circulated with the me to leave. donkey. in one’s research. paid through the UN on a CDC initiated The second point in this debate re. 31. with understand maternal and infant deaths anthropology and the HTS is the whom we share lives and to whom in rural and urban populations of four knowing. It was invitation of the local community or by aspects of these family configurations. I can usually for the anthropologist who works as a area of maternal health were given the respond appropriately. cal Association clarified its stance on What we do with that data is impor. as I would not have been able to maintain in a very malleable social landscape described above. I refused. whatever tomorrow. And this is quantitative study. to uphold the primary worked needed to know. attitudes and practices village. The information and insights for combat. terinsurgency” is combat. goals and benefi. rather. The doing the qualitative portion that looked the imbalance of power? When I enter a enemy of today may become the hero of at knowledge. as it would upset not protect me. Spring 2009 In Afghanistan. in counterinsurgency operations” As we work. cause harm through fieldwork. A militarized anthropologist (KAP) (Omidian 2002). In order to survive each family has study of maternal mortality (Bartlett lates to power configurations. where families are complex social units. In the end it As the war in Afghanistan illustrates. The reason for this study was to If our task understand the day-to-day would have liked): understand how Afghan women and lives of people and we are to “do no their families tried to prevent deaths harm”. ethics of anthropologists’ engage- it when it did. Militarized areas of the country.

many ethical standards (including hu. Though we can. Participant ob. Andrew Berkeley’s joint program in medical our work to accomplish. Patricia A and Kenneth Miller to help address peace-building pro. 2. (9462):864 – 870. George Marcus. Militarized anthro. continuing conflict. The Folio: by those in power. No. I was speaking To Focusing: The Islam And Focus- share their lives with us. was referring to the way social anthro. when working in war zones or areas of in four districts of Afghanistan. Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban. 2008 Community Wellness Focus- be used against the community studied pology is just one more in the long list. subjugate the Sub-Continent and then Applied anthropology is aptly suited worked against the Muslims.Vol. Yet. program design. And ghans. Study in Four Areas of Afghani- accessible to others to enhance nity and become part of them. North currently an Associate Professor and lenses of observation. but cast of death: maternal mortality 1(1):43-50. What we as 2008 Report from the Field: Skin. Sciences. Sara for program development that meets Whitehead. word for a person from Afghanistan is refer to themselves nationally as Af. The Lancet. 1999—2002. room: A Case Study of a Training pologist tries to understand things from For Trainers. biggest contribution. As anthropologists we first half of the twentieth century. James (Chair). Monica Heller. 11(1): 5-8. Suraya Sider. of it as critique (Peacock et al In the declared “war against terror” 2007:14). but Critical Half 4(1):17-21.edu. Karachi Pakistan. Just as those who sights into ways international programs were perceived to support colonialism Omidian. David Price. and Alan their daughters but if you ask them in Goodman (ex officio) Iranian Farsi how many children they 2 Not their real names. She has worked as an anthropologists have to offer develop. ing: A Work in Process. the risk is increased. Robert Albro. anthropology. in British India. her. Linda A. Dalil. 2006 Addressing the Psychosocial cesses. Chadd Crouse. culturally specific criteria. The anthro. Health Sector. This is a slippery slope that reminds A Journal for Focusing and Experi- not control how our data is used once me that the damage may not show ential Therapy 21(1):291-303. 31. in-Solutions: Militarizing Medi. Shairose Mawji. from the University of California San ship. Omidian is mous. and assessment. Patricia A and Nina Papado- can be locally adapted. IRC Female Educa- the local point of view and this is our Notes tion Program. in Dari the same words ask how Engagement of Anthropology with many sons. good of the local community they study. we can control how we right away. Patricia A. Afghani is the name for Afghani. Khan University’s Faculty of Arts and thropologist can bring critically needed Omidian.omidian@aku. his question was fair. published. Peter Salama 2009 Can Anthropology Ever be Fieldwork carries risks when it is 2005 Where giving birth is a fore. Gerald M. implementation pology was introduced and used in the Needs of Women in Afghanistan. 365 Patricia Omidian holds a PhD (1992) There is always an imbalanced relation. cine and Militarizing Culture in and Pakistan since 1997. Innocent? Anthropology Now conducted in developing countries. 2007 “AAA Commission on the have. Peshawar Pakistan. poulos servation affords us the opportunity to pologists will be seen to act on behalf 2003 Addressing Afghan Children’s understand people in the way that other of the army they serve and not for the Psychosocial Needs in the Class- aid workers cannot match. applications in an active conflict zone. Kabul: CDCs and UNICEF the quality and potential effects a platform of mutual trust. building stan. making research implementation. the Head of Social Sciences for the Aga cultural relativism that the applied an. It is through the anthropological the United States Military. In this paper I at a seminar in Karachi in December ing Project Of Afghanistan. but we can overcome some of that Francisco and University of California by how we work and what we want Bickford. Kerry Fos- Afghan and the money is Afghani. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 11 transparency. Omidian. comparison and American Dialogue. Patricia and Nina Joy Law- man rights and freedom from torture) rence Any work an anthropologist does can have been set aside. I have not doubt it will 2007 A Community Based Approach maintain loyalty to the populations who come back to haunt us. This man Omidian. But it all comes together to allow Bartlett. Denisa Ionete. Laura McNamara. the militarized anthro. Sometimes the information References the US Security and Intelligence is as simple as how rude it is to slam a Communities” Final Report door. We live in a commu. The have tried to give concrete examples of 2008 when I was asked to explain Folio: A Journal for Focusing and action anthropological techniques and why anthropologists helped the British Experiential Therapy 20(1). applied anthropologist in Afghanistan ment work in these situations is enor. that Afghans do not necessarily dislike stan’s currency. She can be insights to program development and 2002 Qualitative Maternal Mortality reached at patricia. I cannot list all the times I had to let someone know that the 1 The people of Afghanistan generally Peacock. can offer a nation coming out of war in. n .

counter terrorism training. and highlights the unique chal. regardless of race. Background shared my feelings of anger and fear Islam. just can-Islamic Relations 2007. in amazement as the events of 9/11 who looks Muslim? Are we (police) unfolded before my eyes. Muslims bombed the World appearance and name. This lack of knowledge and It began as any other normal day. what I knew field in rural Southern Pennsylvania. Tony Gaskew and potential issues of national security. I had never gone to a library and towards Islam. or even visited a mosque. and I’ve ing the impact of the USA PATRIOT witnessed my share of indiscriminate and Act. American communities today. more helpless feeling in my gut. and of Pittsburgh campus where I work today States. whose only crime with the goal of focusing my research entered the office and yelled. enrolled at Nova Southeastern Univer- a drug investigation I was conducting. To fill this transcript and taking some notes in as being “suspicious. I was describing anyone who remotely shared at me. on January 2002 I preparation for a criminal complaint on “suspects” were in fact innocent career. again? Who was responsible and more Establishing and maintaining trust and importantly. Were we going to be attacked United States in the aftermath of 9/11. gender. including a motivator for the 9/11 attacks. ficer witnessing the World Trade Center ences as an ethnographer and crimi.” Hundreds of tips and anger. 2.12 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. lenges and obstacles facing researchers Within minutes. 2001. yet I major crimes detective working at law to encourage citizens to report any was making opinions based on my fear enforcement agency in central Florida.B. that is. “Is this really happening?” always been the foundation upon which Over the next several weeks. collapse to the ground like a deck of nologist conducting sixteen months of cards. In my eighteen-year law enforce- field research among a Muslim Ameri. Every law enforcement agent I knew. ment career I had never experienced a can community in central Florida study. doc. when a fellow detective and co-worker tors. various fieldwork is built. alienation. shameless acts of violence in my life. 31. and a fourth had crashed into a According to the Council on Ameri- enforcement co-workers.” As well. conducting research the media. Spring 2009 Are You With the F. Four airplanes doing more harm than good in our had been highjacked. within Muslim American communities or credible sources of information on . An FBI Joint Terrorism conducted research on Islam. were called into our community hotline understanding towards Islam ate away a normal day in a police culture. one into the As was true of many of my law Pentagon. 2001. deep sense of mistrust. and professors. my fellow police officers did not have a single positive thing to say about Islam. None of these are unbiased as a professor of criminal justice. what could I do to help? I credibility with research participants has said to myself. I thought to events of September 11.I. creating more of an impact than reading through a telephone wiretap Middle-Eastern physical characteristics I ever could have imagined. oriented professionals: engineers. However. an estimated of Islam was primarily from word-of- a couple hours away from the University 6-7 million Muslims reside in the United mouth. No. read the On September 11. Are we really going to of Islam from my own perspective as a the office television monitor and watched waste our resources surveilling anyone law enforcement agent. two crashing into counterterror mindset?” Introduction the World Trade Center.” Many of these intellectual void.?: Fieldwork Challenges In A Post 9/11 Muslim-American Community By Tony Gaskew It is very difficult for me to describe my emotions as a law enforcement of- T his article is based on my experi. For ethnographers media pundits’ began offering their engaged in research within Muslim opinions on the religion of Islam. “suspicious activity. “we’re un- was to have a Middle-Eastern physical agenda on understanding Islam and the der attack…. they must presenting religion as “the primary overcome various hurdles. fear. or ethnicity. sity to complete my doctoral studies. I was a Task Force was formed and we began Qur’an. I felt Trade Center and the Pentagon…what are myself. my emotions ran be- conducting participant observations tween a cloudy fear and a deep uncontrol- within Muslim communities in the lable anger. “Things might be getting a little compelled to examine the complexities we going to do?” I immediately turned on out of control.

For criminologists like population. Ethnicity such as mosques. Iranian 4 . My Male 434 97.9% and to provide insight on how the USA Sudanese 2 .7% ine the social conflicts facing Muslim Arab 155 34.2% ship between law enforcement agencies . Hispanic-American 23 5. 2. frightening. it did trigger a has provided ethnographers with the jority of Muslims in the United States series of questions I was forced to con- ability to engage in participant observa.9% observation and interviews with both indigenous and immigrant Muslim Gender American community members. the majority of my professional career of research participants. Table 1. fear. often wear three distinct hats: as a crim- perspective. are indigenous African-American. as a law enforcement agent in Florida. ethnographer (though not always in that studied. Muslim communities in interactions between men and women. my front during my study. difficulties of nuances of group behavior and social all but closed the doors for researchers interviewing women were largely due to relationships. inquiry can be both exhilarating and unique risks that include legal.4% field research took place in various so- cial settings throughout the community. Historically. I tion and develop what is called an “emic research participants were predominate. cultural immersion Although statistically speaking. which prohibited me from being studied: a sort of criminological myself who have practical experience in engaging in one-on-one contact with verstehen. picnics. Each has its’ own unique role tember 11. and as an world through the eyes of the group being descent (Table 1). places of business. Today. included the use of electronic surveil. 2001. Although my previous Should I tell them the truth and possibly researchers must overcome various challenges. and credibility with research My assignment to the Organized Crime my study was the concept of open and participants has always been the foun. As a researcher. African-American 39 8. What if the research dation upon which fieldwork is built.2% The focus of my study was to exam. Task Force in central Florida during honest disclosure. and potential issues of national security. Unlike traditional research- and ethical dilemmas. and Muslim American communities. Participant Demographics Table 1: Participant Demographics The Setting Variable Number (n) Mean (%) From August 2005 through Janu- ary 2006. One of the first issues I faced in respect. Establishing and maintaining trust.4% Americans in the aftermath of 9/11. the ma. career had no direct correlation to my raphers.1% central Florida. criminologists with practical experi- I discuss here my experiences as a Researcher ence in the field of criminal justice often criminologist and former law enforce.9% Guyanese 6 1. as a social scientist. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 13 can pose unique challenges for ethnog.” or the ability to see the ly immigrants of South Asian and Arab inologist. including a deep sense of mistrust. community centers. I firmly believe America. my life before entering academics? may find this a daunting task. ticipant observation included countless order). Confronting My Own Role as a ers. South Asian 207 46. in my research agenda.6% Female 9 2. Although my par. emotional. I spent their responsibility to protect the rights in Florida in the aftermath of 9/11. Since the terrorist attacks of Sep. Bosnian 1 . 31. Caucasian-American 6 1. I conducted fieldwork in two Participants 443 (total) separate Muslim communities within Immigrant 381 86.4% homes. have conducted with women.Vol. current research agenda.5% PATRIOT Act impacted the relation. face ethical conflicts arising from their ment agent conducting ethnographic Prior to accepting a faculty position loyalties to their professional duties and research among a Muslim community at the University of Pittsburgh. faced with varying degrees of only a handful of my interviews were that in order to understand the hidden public and governmental scrutiny. which background and began to inquire about Muslims living in the United States. using female participants unless a male escort the use of ethnographic methods of ethnographic methods exposes me to was present. through participant Indigenous 62 13.8% restaurants. and shopping centers. For criminologists however. September 2001involved managing participants were curious about my Ethnographers engaged in research with “covert” criminal investigations. lance (wiretaps). No. the profession of criminal justice. one must use experien- regarding true cultural immersion with the customs and cultural nuances of the tial immersion to examine the subjects the community.

with representatives of CAIR. as a former law enforcement agent. sponsoring aware of my former law enforcement professor at a local university. and credibili. they as- this post-9/11 climate where the lives of nity was made through a scheduled visit sisted me with making several contacts Muslims in the United States have come at a mosque in central Florida. presenting my research agenda. ally introduced me to several well. “you have a choice…you can either Gaining Entrance into the could negatively impact any chance of conduct your research by showing up Community completing this project. Florida and began to asked. specifically an under such intense law enforcement with the imam (spiritual/community established Islamic community center. dized had I decided to be less than truth. These gatekeepers provided long-term fieldwork that examines the project. and it lives of “vulnerable populations” must explained in great depth about my past would have been impossible to conduct be based on trust. he referred me to a Muslim an extension of mosques. this and maintaining a continuous series of effect for producing new gatekeepers. scrutiny. mentoring and and a former law enforcement agent. providing a in this research once they were made American community leader who was a community center setting. Several various religious. After a series of ques. After within central Florida. respect. request posed no foreseeable problems. Without being prompted. I decided to be truthful tests regarding my honesty and desire to keeper’s referral. an ethnographer. cessful immersion into the community. I personally met I’m aware it could impact the voluntary my fieldnotes could ever reflect. “gatekeepers” become a requirement These contacts enabled me to establish Although the use of fieldnotes as my . the and commented.14 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. which I faced establish relationships throughout the demise. tral Florida. Although at times this became some. and education- career. “You can’t make-up would allow me to conduct fieldwork difficulties face when trying to gain this kind of stuff…a former cop wants at the local mosque and other settings entrance into US subcultures is less to experience first-hand how it’s like in the community. do I have journey. continuous intervention. I me with ready-made credibility. dozens of telephone calls a result of my decision. and after nature of participation in the study? In My initial contact with the commu. my relationship with my many a nationally recognized Muslim civil an ethical obligation as a researcher gatekeepers later formed into friend. professor initially thought I might have of weeks in what seemed like a con- keepers. surely some of my participants leader) and explained the basis of my Islamic centers in America have become would choose not to involve themselves research. to be a Muslim after 9/11…yes…I will use any video or audio equipment to However. 31. he person.” After a couple importance of having steadfast gate. and parent- with little or no guidance from previous tion of my background. Spring 2009 ruin my chances of finishing a very when conducting fieldwork within fieldwork location sites throughout cen- promising research project. it was were made by my gatekeepers to local confidence of my “gatekeepers” who also refreshingly honest and required a Muslim community leaders requesting were ultimately responsible for my suc. unique sense of personal vulnerability their “support” for my research project. since the attacks of 9/11 and introduce you into the community. who in turn intro. sports activities for children. the professor laughed tract negotiation. Upon a gate- tions. I reaffirmed the ethnographic research agenda. or One of the first things I discovered spy” trying to gather intelligence within you can humbly request the blessing conducting field research in a Muslim the community. several hours. effective throughout the duration of this research community. rationale that that Muslim Americans iar faces” that suddenly appear at the duced me to other Muslims throughout in the aftermath of 9/11 were a “vulner- mosque for daily prayers. From my perspective. resided in the area. I found myself in a unique situa. No. tion as a criminologist. days later. a smile? More importantly. this research without their direct and ty. 2. providing I did not frequently discussed in monographs. I was well aware that As one of my gatekeepers explained to my former law enforcement career me. I visited an Islamic about my law enforcement career if build and maintain a sense of trust with center in Orlando. Prior to entering my first fieldwork ful.” record any conversations. use of any electronic recording devices ized that Muslim communities have established Muslim Americans who during my study anyhow based on the become extremely weary of “unfamil. Although I lost a few participants as rent social climate and my aggressive setting. Activities such as weddings. turned out to be an in-depth examina. as a researcher. I met with the professor for al venues. I also contacted the Council brush off such inquiries with a nod and In fact. IRB at my university prohibited the toward Muslim Americans. I was informed they who conduct research abroad. Since the the increased law enforcement directed Within the following weeks. as I reflect on my 16-month on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). was the first of an on-going series of held at Islamic centers. and the meeting actually lunches and dinners. even if it resulted in the project’s the Muslim community. because I could unannounced and having the entire easily be perceived as a “government community treat you as an outcast. or rather Muslim American communities today. In contrast to ethnographers been Egyptian). Establishing central Florida resulting in a “snowball” able population” by IRB standards. This meeting ing and marriage counseling classes are research conducted under similar condi. what uncomfortable given the cur. which extended far beyond what ing telephone contact. I have real. social. rights organization. After first establish- to fully disclose my previous career if ships. all of which would have been jeopar. In the end. of a few key people and be granted ac- community in the United States is the tions about my ethnicity (because the cess to the community.

one and Islamic Center. I received a became somewhat angry because of the created a social climate for many of my Table 2. and that they were formally added. and dignity as a result of the USA practice of Islam. however. and subjected myself to what to spread misinformation regarding the mandatory fingerprinting. but had become for Muslims in America. many Muslim Americans are forced to of the USA PATRIOT Act (Table 2).Vol. I learned underlying message of this accusation. 2. determined to be an “elevated national information of everyone involved in den agenda or that it would not be used security risk” were required to undergo the study. . grant Muslims who resided in the area.B. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 15 only data collection instrument was a completely different reaction.B. quired by community leaders. Table 2: Social Facing Muslim Americans deal with in the after 9/11. based primarily on the withdrawing their support and participa. community?” By then. Social Conflicts Facing Muslim Americans in the Aftermath of 9/11 To confront and take a self-critical and To resolve long standing To overcome an environment of introspective look at traditions and ethnocentric attitudes and discrimination. I could not overcome this sense of fear sity IRB to all potential research partici. and agreed to every stipulation re- cards containing my contact information tioning and deportation of several immi. the personal contact wanted to ensure my project had no hid. seemed like a background investigation. 31. honor. tions and brief interviews at the mosque in fact an F. PATRIOT Act. and the contact information of my univer. “by requiring their signatures. fear of law enforcement. Problems Obtaining ticipant.I.I. what’s there to be worried about?” verifiable proof that I was a researcher cials under the National Security Entry. One of my consent form from a research par. honor. alienation. and dignity as a result informed consent form Conflicts (an IRB man. the how politically charged the climate allowing me to conduct field observa. law enforcement agency is conduct- a copy of my university transcripts and or what is commonly referred to as ing surveillance on the members of the research proposal outlining the purpose “Special Registration. cial status as a researcher and I was pre- examine the research project agenda. I strongly encouraged everyone between law enforcement agencies and ers. tempting to secure a signed informed pared to abandon the project. alien- tured and in-depth follow-up interviews Although I was very empathetic at first.” Under NSEERS. conduct surveillance on the mosque. and requested Exit Registration System (NSEERS). you implied that either you did not trust credibility of my gatekeepers. and a loss of respect. I could do to convince them of my offi- as a doctoral candidate and to closely Within a matter of hours after at. were tion from the study. I was contacted by a Muslim and explained to me the refusal to sign Informed Consent community leader and informed that I the informed consent was a reflection of was no longer welcome at the mosque their deep sense of fear and lack of trust During the onset of my fieldwork. Since part of my IRB ing and interviews. As my research findings suggested. I had provided and methodology of my study. fear of law systems of belief in relation to practices between immigrant enforcement. there was very little involved in the study to verify my status the local Muslim American community. gatekeepers insisted that I not give up. Special Agent attempt. or they should not trust you. Who cares if the F. I or any other community sponsored in people since the events of 9/11 and discovered the majority of my research activity. and a loss that required participants to sign an given the Islamophobic environment of respect. photograph.” At this point. col- several of the Muslim community leaders whom the State Department and the INS lege transcripts. environment of discrimination. participants. creating a climate of fear and mistrust and mistrust projected toward “outsid- pants. Several of informed consent with the interview if they’re not doing anything illegal. tedious and time consuming process. Aftermath however. No. me. extremism and violence within the and indigenous communities. “Special I had answered every question posed to mandate required that I provide business Registration” ultimately led to the ques. As such. the community members also required process conducted by government offi. informed by one of my gatekeepers that was at that moment I finally realized ence and were initially cooperative in several members of the community sus. as I began ing to cultivate “police informants” of the primary social conflicts Muslim to immerse myself into the community within the Muslim community and Americans face today is to overcome an and attempted to conduct more struc. or any other and doctoral candidate. practices of Islam. the participants associated signing the I asked myself “What’s the big deal… I was left with few options. I was immediately them. of 9/11 I quickly The events of September 11. pected that I was never a researcher. 2001 date from my university). I was told all foreign nationals from countries copies of my research proposal. However. ation.” It somewhat comfortable with my pres.

lived with this quagmire throughout a impact of the USA PATRIOT Act. and innocent American lives. I learned Muslim Americans. and marks in the United States. national security? What about crimes the university professor. He emphasized the benefits These incidents triggered another environment does one’s loyalty lie to the community of not only complet. and domestic policy towards Muslims. and was prepared to make some choose who would be allowed to exam. regardless of the and accused of plotting to destroy the and frustration with American foreign findings or the amount of time invested. After a few days of navigating through “shark infested” you can have the best of both worlds. and security of the United States? I voices of Muslim Americans regarding the lim Americans. 2000. which community that a “Muslim informant” were immigrant participants. No. always a myself into the community. and community) in the backdrop of a less party to acts of tribal betrayal. lence against the United States instead of were Egyptian citizens on Egyptian soil.” explained. members of were to have overheard a terrorist plot the Muslim community often described (which I did not) my loyalties would During the course of the study. I As a criminologist.” Other uncovered during fieldwork settings of the key Muslim community members participants felt these high profile arrests such as immigration violations? What and personally vouched for me jeopardiz. Many participants of the Muslim Brotherhood (an orga- for researchers to understand during silently shared their disgust with me nization outlawed in Egypt) who did periods of crises. as word spread throughout the criticisms of the U.16 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. 31. The wounds quent arrests of fellow Muslims. regardless Alexandria conversing with members than forgiving world. “the most pious thing would can Muslim Americans direct towards Fortunately. African-American being stigmatized as a “traitor” by some days immediately following the arrests in and Hispanic-American participants of my law enforcement colleagues. In fact. I was once again allowed to continue saturated with drug trafficking and police officers in Chicago have always with my field work and began to immerse violent crime for many years (Anderson reminded me. Even at the risk of New York for alleged terrorist plots. Bush in aggres. government spectives on their unique worldviews. which that highlighted the complexities of research participants or with the safety brings to the forefront the concerns and ethnographic fieldwork among Mus. cious or unusual behavior?” Although difficult choices if confronted with this ine the nuances of Islam and the lives of ethnographers have been successfully ethical dilemma. meetings between key community mem. I would have Seven. However. additional arrests immigrant Muslim participants shared a the protection and wellbeing of my of Muslims were made in California and belief in a government inspired “siege” research participants. situations? In this politically charged community. persuading his these Muslims who shared their angry hosts and provided me sensitive per. If I The Liberty City Seven During my fieldwork. option…not to just stop this single act… before it crosses the line into matters of tion of this project. government to belittle Muslims. Muslim Americans regarding the actions of this “police not bite their tongues when describ- have begun to “close ranks” in order to informant” insisting that as a Muslim. 2. but the “What if during my fieldwork I observe year and a half of very intense field- hypocritical tone it would set to pick and or overhear what I believe to be “suspi. Sears Tower in Chicago and other land. My initial gatekeeper.S. Based and anger directed towards the U. the national security of my country. Spring 2009 research participants where their defini. The on Islam. a the United States government and have fallen on the protection and safe- small group of Muslims law enforcement President George W. fieldwork settings in the United States As my brothers who are currently bers. I heard a similar type of frustration ties as Muslim Americans. I spent the major- and historic sense of ummah (Muslim than to discover “one of their own” is a ity of my fieldwork in Cairo. Florida were very tense in my fieldwork were just as vocal in their passionate tion of “trust” was being transformed setting. social scientist. As one participant The question becomes. how much anger as “outsiders. Luxor. terminated the study.S. I began to ask myself. had led to the investigation and subse. bitterness. in this case. perceptions of the U. regain their sense of trust and security. Although my participants were gracious committed to dialogue. as they have been forced be more devastating to the “assabiya” research project I participated in over to examine their own Islamic practices (social cohesiveness of the community) the summer in Egypt. openly described their anger.” Thus legally.S. was reflected in their transient identi. my loyalty lies with security are creating new concerns. Bourgois 2002) issues of national cop. During the should clarify that both indigenous and ethnographer. “once a cop.S. However.” and I was an “outsider.” was arrested in South Florida. That is. I . contacted several ing into multiple acts of violence. my loyalty must lie with next several months. “brothers” from committing acts of vio. It is important of the circumstances. nothing can government during a Fulbright-Hays United States.S. set of issues regarding national security with the protection and well being of ing this type of research endeavor. but to prevent this mindset from spread. government as both internally and externally. ing their bitter contempt for the U. my gatekeepers were have been to understand why these the government of the United States unwavering in their friendship and their brothers felt violence was their only or the president of the United States commitment for the successful comple. keeping of the greater community and authorities labeled as “The Liberty City sive and very unfavorable terms. work. “outsiders” would always be perceived assisting the police. he should have been more pious and government. of 9/11 run deep for Muslims in the on my fieldwork experience. were simply a “hoax” invented by the is my legal obligation to report these ing his credibility and reputation in the U.

and ethical loyalties. and the moral life of the cans have the legal right and freedom to termath of 9/11 can pose unique challeng. and students at the Islamic Society of Central Florida and the Council on Islamic-American American Communities (2009) and has the University of Pittsburgh echoed a con.to research journeys. Acknowledgements Consortium for Educational Resources My deepest gratitude goes out to on Islamic Studies (CERIS). I under- augural address President Obama stated. Relations (CAIR) for their support dur- ing the course of my research. the Muslim world. New York: Cam- roles in this process. He is the My conversations with Muslim American author of the book Policing Muslims friends. and understanding just how far standing you’re willing to go in order to success. from the Graduate will be perceived not only in the United School of Humanities and Social Sci- States but globally. criminologists involved in ethnographic munities. and structural violence. ences at Nova Southeastern University. seeing cial justice. standing. 2009. Tony Gaskew is an Assistant Professor Muslims. we the safety and security of my country or future of Islam. As plethora of uncharted topics within Mus. During his in. including a number of insights into the dynamics the president of the United States. finding the 2002 In search of respect: Selling research. Anderson.Vol. drawn ing ethnographic fieldwork during their versity of Pittsburgh. the af. E. He is a Fulbright- from every end of this Earth…. No. New York: Oxford reject as false the choice between my research participants. based on mutual Diversity Fellow. bridge University Press. As of fieldwork in post-9/11 Muslim com. Barack Obama to be an effective ethnographer. volves knowing your role in the research Institute for Social Policy and Under- Conclusion: Finding the process. of their place of birth. citizens of the United States. of its elected political figures. He it as a “new chapter” in how Muslims all. I understand that in a post-9/11 world. United States of America. we seek a new a University of Pittsburgh Faculty way forward. T.we continue to examine the post-9/11 social are a nation of Christians and complexities facing Muslim Americans. we must recognize our own right balance between professional and crack in el barrio. Jews and Hindus. Norton harshly criticize the government and all es for ethnographers. 2. the lines between national security and research ethics might become cloudy and tough on the spot choices will have to be made. At the same. many “closed doors” President Obama He can be reached at tog6@pitt. n . Hays Fellow. ever these two worlds collided and one is we must recognize our own roles in this process. I would hope a researcher would choose to abandon find a happy medium between our legal. Muslim Ameri. For criminologists. and a member of the interest and mutual respect. an FDD Terrorism Fellow. and forced to make a decision. ” betraying the anonymity and confidenti- ality of the research participants. emotional. I would tute for Social Policy and Under- was sworn-in as the 44th President of the have to confront my own legal. regardless of the possible outcomes. and and to encourage other criminologists of Criminal Justice and Coordinator of nonbelievers.D. If “As criminologists involved in ethnographic research. Bourgois. 31. end the project rather than to jeopardize 2004 Western Muslims and the As for our common defense. 1-32. conducted research in Egypt and Israel sistent sentiment of praise and the admira. The Insti- On January 21. As noted throughout this article. Most of examining the Muslim Brotherhood. No study. We are shaped by to embrace the unique challenges of us.edu. our safety and our ideals…. P. and the project. I decided that in order American Community. and find a happy academic loyalties is essential. so- tion for President Obama’s speech. My goal is to University Press. regardless lim communities across the United States. and ethical fears. emotional. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 17 must provide a safe and secure platform had opened in just a matter of seconds for References for my participants to share their most future researchers seeking to examine a intimate perceptions of Muslim life. Criminal Forensic Studies at the Uni- every language and culture. This essay provided & Company. I can only wonder how who have given me their unwavering trust and participated in this project. fellow colleagues. stood my limitations. 2000 Code of the street: Decency. inner city. and was prepared to Ramadan. is worth crossing the line into matters of national security or ethical loyalties. emotional. medium between our legal. New York: W. This in. violence.W. I would like to thank the countless Muslim Americans in central Florida received his Ph. 2004 The USA PATRIOT Act: Right Balance fully complete the project and protect the Impact on the Arab and Muslim study participants.

and burned to the ground.1 of “stopping the spread of commu- poorest country in the region. mestiços (people of mixed al poisoned arrows appear regularly in which economic and political develop.” Similar sentiments were expressed by a Introduction rural village chief in 2003 who told me. al for the invasion. lian. and neighbors difficult to do ethnographic fieldwork in Timorese minority. Families. the country has the lowest This discussion stems from a variety political movement which came to be human-development in all of Asia.5 years. score settling. and Timorese scholars describe women between the ages of 15-49 are from January 1942 to August 1945 was the Indonesian period as “attempted malnourished. Methodology and Reflection:The became independent in November Even before the current crisis. urged Indonesia to withdraw and over aged 15 are illiterate. Whole sections of the country.” (You can’t he Timorese Ministry of Labor eat democracy. Many US. with a per Prior to independence. ment can happen. and men in every district of this The Timorese themselves. and specific regions. or Australia just before the Japanese lence. provided at least tacit approv- 50% of the population lacks access to occupied by Indonesia (1975-1999). The cumula. starting during the period immediately and the Indonesians used the rationale Timor is disadvantaged. No. Even of both “academic” and “applied” known as the resistance.18 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. killing ing to the UN Development Program thousands and sparking a cultural and (UNDP). persistent fear that they will never be World War II. continue to suffer tremendously from Patricia L. is a situation in which as UNDP put it: with Australian commandos during The massive resistance movement grew . The invasion compared to developing countries such research experiences in Timor Leste. of course. small country. with Conflict and Displacement sian army invaded East Timor. its people remain chained by poverty. Timor as well as specific neighborhoods in Dili. occupied by Japan provided Indonesia with most of its live only to the age of 55. Cambodia. relatively brief in duration but particu. and nitely worse for the Timorese people took over in Timor. It is by far the after Timorese independence in 2002. Just one month later. These camps. it is ancestry). Delaney “although politically the country is free. 31. larly brutal in execution. The had been colonized by the Portuguese clear that the United States.”(Jardine: 2002) ence food insecurity in an average year. 2. provide Timor” (which is just government speak shelter. took place at the height of the Cold War as Laos. The Japanese In April 1976. declared its intention to continue to tive result of these numbing statistics as punishment for their collaboration consider East Timor as part of Portugal. house burning. genocide. the Indone- in East Timor was difficult. for “don’t go unless you have to.000 people Security is maintained by a small (out of a total population of roughly force of Australian “peacekeepers” and 1 million) resided in camps for Inter- a slightly larger contingent of UN police nally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in May officers. friends. which sprung up but most foreigners have been warned in the immediate aftermath of politi- to “defer non-essential travel to East cal violence in May of 2006. 64% of people experi. killed. and Myanmar. Accord. spears. are “no-go zones” for people from returned to Portuguese control. Delaney and a handful of foreigners. It now appears capita income of just $370 per year. Austra- clean drinking water. Over during World War II. Fully one-third of The Japanese occupation of East Timor. themselves. and security to children. and things are infi. Hundreds of Timorese. Needless to say. and tradition- able to create a secure environment in Portuguese. Victims of rocks. the United Nations Over 50% of both men and women killed over 60. Spring 2009 Who Burned Down Our House This Time?: Ethnography & Conflict in Timor Leste By Patricia L. including Molotov cocktails. Portuguese and indigenous Timorese the National Hospital in the capital city. T “Labele han demokrasia. which had average Timorese person can expect to (from 1515 to 1974). After World War II ended.”) women. life Anthropologist’s Lived Experience 1975. and members of the Chinese- Dili. food. Thousands of homes have been the daily terror of gang violence. have been forced and self-selected displacement. revenge. Some elites. The level of violence fluctuates 2007. Timor Leste nism” in their backyard.000 Timorese civilians. escaped to Portugal have been torn apart in a cycle of vio- these conditions. or almost 13% of the total population.) estimated that over 175. and then brutally weapons.

most people supposed to help the Timorese transition would be ready to work with future maintain a strong ethnic/cultural identity to independence. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 19 and guerilla troops successfully fought much from the immediate post-refer. it was often mism. First Fieldwork in Timor Leste: larly. husband served as a UN Volunteer in only after you got to know someone that Hundreds were killed and over 250. former resistance different countries with at least as many Back in Dili. and excitement of inde- to help the Timorese begin to create a challenging both for us and for our pendent Timor. other expatriates in the country at the I walked to work or sometimes took After the triumphant return of time. the resistance movement and many felt left out of the economic traffic patterns for the capital. and a variety of to express their own opinion about the other military officials patrolled regu- future of their country. One continued unabated for the duration of and political development of the coun. nation lacked roads. I was working as an applied anthro- tion. few weeks later. into West Timor. we got caught up in the opti- successive UN administrations sought At the same time. The next week the Indonesian government claimed as a national language. and Leste. The decision to utilize Portuguese a typical two-way affair. My most didn’t talk about it openly. which fewer it was one-way going one direction. We lived you learned things like how many times Timorese were forced across the border and worked in the country for eighteen their house had been burned down. Director. came militias had destroyed most of the virtually all of the blame to the Indone- back to Timor and assumed important country’s infrastructure when they sian militias who ransacked the country positions in both the government and departed in a rampage in 1999. clan. reprisals. and resistance and the post.000 the Ministry of Environment. The political elites. . hope. I spent ethnic/linguistic group. day the street in front of our office was the Indonesian occupation. was a bureaucratic Peace Corps Volunteers on public health based on their region of origin.2 Connections to one’s Timorese were excited about the idea in the “forro” (the hinterland). telephone services. the UN held a popular con. elites).” Everyone had of the anti-independence militias. ing in the birth of a new nation and we destruction everywhere. but like most tional Peacekeepers guaranteeing that quickly developed a real affinity for the other malaes (and many Timorese Indonesian rule would not return. We snorkeled and ate at Thai ing electrical wires. a local taxi. legacy of so many decades of violence. The combined the other direction! Almost everything later referendum showed just the op. the independence challenges combined to was precarious. and schools are destroyed in hands of occupying powers. telephone as passive victims who needed our help Despite the fact that they joined wires. the people and cultures of Timor Leste. not scars. It was militias engaged in a campaign of terror. We saw evidence of past resistance leaders. Average Timorese. schools. The new in 1999. torture. A that only a small minority of Timorese than 10% of the population speaks. The trauma sultation about future of East Timor. The methods were a great help in my work and independence. Foreign peacekeepers.Vol. and to rebuild the country. three different transportation advisors off more than 40. My job was to develop health hands of the bapa (Indonesians) but After the vote. and with Interna. together to fight the Indonesian occupa. Timorese finally had an opportunity set the stage for the current violence. UN Police Officers. my husband and I fighters. We presumed that all of new nation. Applied Anthropology from still seemed shell-shocked. behemoth. we felt privileged to be participat. repression. 2. even electrical lines in many places. includ. Most were unemployed recommended three totally different Within Timor. the particularly rankled. It was an exciting time. The end result was often to one that was more integrated into of going into exile). the Indonesian-backed education projects in rural areas. attributed whom had been in exile abroad. the many indigenous groups in Jobs were scarce and many people pologist and I found that ethnographic Timor have maintained their autonomy suffered from tropical diseases. Dili. and lineage of being independent. No. Approximately 50% of months. but had little much of my time in the countryside remain important even today in Timor experience with actually governing. the I first went to East Timor in late horrific stories of displacement. endum period. 31. especially in Dili.000 Indonesian troops. and 2002-2004 described the psychological damage violence from the menacing presence as “scabs. was recent. and an actual Timorese neighborhood. and other atrocities at the ing numbers to vote for independence. Although some inter-marriage has The UN assistance mission. gang Timorese turned out in overwhelm. On August 30. one Timorese friend vividly Despite fear of repression. Like many the “unexploded ordinance beach”). many of Timorese colleagues. Although try. 2002 as the Associate Peace Corps rape. most malaes (foreigners) the infrastructure in the country. of the promise of a newly independent felt safe. bridges. it was one-way going people supported the resistance. Many of our Timorese colleagues 1999. The security situation in the country After decades of struggle. sometimes frustrating. and saw the Timorese people the UN administration. The Indonesian the violence was in the past. and those who remained in ideas about how to set up government moved from our first expatriate house Timor during the occupation (instead structures. full of people from dozens of projects. did not benefit as confusing. which was trying to identify communities that happened. country that had long suffered at the restaurants (although we did avoid bridges. irrigation systems. was like that. We never boring! In a one-month period. posite to be true. the militia violence. interviewing traditional leaders. full And yet.

seemed like to our landlords and eventually devel. I finally arrived in Dili. etc. policy fieldnotes. society. My key informants. The Peace to my research. After the death of one child and the ed in preparing the Timorese people to Ms. civil lian-born First Lady of Timor Leste was come godparents to their youngest son. I was largely lists. memorial and less stressed than they had been services. an article in the New York Times into daily life. family and in the forro largely con- as a success. tion. the Austra- birth of another. She saw me We maintain a close friendship with tear up as we landed. Just a little less had not accompanied me was beneficial situation had remained calm. at the Peace Corps asking for shopping ist destination confirmed what most In the first few weeks. room in the grandmother’s house. we were asked to be. Perspectives on Change Table 1: Perspectives on change Pros (in 2006) Cons (in 2006)  Better Communication Systems  Corruption (Prime Minister’s nephew)  Better Electricity  Roads in Dili (Prime Minister’s nephew had  Some new bridges. I was thrilled in the next 10 years. instead of living in In early 2006. The fact story. Spring 2009 increasingly spent our free time not summits. manage their own government. books. oped what anthropologists refer to as the subsequent “capacity-building” with After the grueling trip from the East a “fictive kin relationship” with them.” It did feel like I was coming home! Expectations of Normalcy I went to live with “our” Timorese Post-Independence Euphoria family. hopeful. although still  Military unrest (among Timorese military easily spooked force)  Less uncertainty about everything (roads. East Timor curred.” she responsibility for his welfare. and household were expanding their presence. meals. as I summarized them in my April 19th was cited as “the model UN success ginning of normalcy in Timor. In virtually everything ing power of the Internet. We can say we patriarch. The very fact that ning of the most recent political crisis in country. more empowered  One party state Timorese  Confusion nafatin (continues) about local  Oil Money government roles and responsibilities  No UN police/people still feel secure/less talk about security . saying: “I feel like it is becoming safe ily member in ceremonies. 2005). Our work. We became especially close ternational community and declared that could also focus on lotion. Preparations for Return and quickly replied “you too.” Dozens of papers. on the small plane with me. fieldwork. Coast of the US. and the funeral of the family here and tourism is about to take off between 2002 and 2004. The international peacekeepers and important. all of whom had been Table 1. 31. I moved into a Although we work with Peace Corps Fulbright grant to teach at the National took us away from Timor in early 2004. And. The country had continued to ing the country’s progress and spent to honorary oan (child) was satisfying develop. I ended to be returning and anxious to examine up having a front-row seat at the begin- were here at the beginning” (New York the positive changes happening in the Times June 5. could not only use the Internet. Table 1 reflects these thoughts to be an encouraging sign about the be. the Timorese civil service had succeed. No. both in the It was a great example of the globaliz. The fact that my husband much of the next year trying to figure had mostly departed and the security out a way to get back. but neighbors. and internal UN documents displaced during the Indonesian occupa- with malaes but with our Timorese heralded the huge investment of the in. the Transitional UN administration and a huge accomplishment. I e-mailed Timorese colleagues Timor Leste. It also seemed written from 2001 to 2006. Kristy Sword Gusmao. The young women in the office optimistic about the progress in the foreigners thought: the United Nations asked for lotion from Victoria’s Secret! “experiment” in East Timor was seen country. The University and conduct ethnographic symbolic move from malae (foreigner) my husband and I continued follow. the country was featured as a tour.) people have not forgotten  Fewer malae advisors. road repair contract to repair)  People don’t seem afraid anymore (not that  No jobs. and when I turned his family and a have a deep sense of Return to East Timor: to her and said “welcome home. and economy. as it turns out. I was awarded a the big rental house. that these women. This time.20 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. 2. I was quickly drawn than a year before the most recent Corps and other development agencies crisis.  Fear of refugees returning from West Timor/ phones. I participated as an honorary fam- Tourism section quoted an aid worker friends sounded optimistic. no economy to speak of previous high level of anxiety).

Rumors circu.” More than one thoughtful Just two days later.S. (Delaney blog: tinues…. I was forced to evacuate the country. the Timorese were right and the malaes were the only ones caught down to $30 because she bought don’t” or if they were just “tauk tein” shoes for First Communion…. less chaos of IDP camps. 5/30/06: Lucia and kids still at reaction. on what People were hopeful and the country turned out to be the night before the seemed to have turned a corner. Ramos-Horta and ask for help to be the threat level. several times each day. completely unawares by the rapid disintegration into violence and chaos. I found myself nervously ing my work via email and telephone. 2. the in the US) demonstrate the incredibly prime minister. Embassy. I helped some members saw the planes and the flood- of the family evacuate preemptively and steal.Vol. threatening to expressed abject fear. a few government cars will be fine. All the while. They said they wouldn’t leave hills. know that there have been a few tense days in Dili. smuggled arms. On Sunday. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 21 The Timorese seemed lighter. On high level of the anxiety. Over the weekend. In contrast to earlier days. Ivete about the crazy rumors that were circu. the kets. They had done it scared and was crying. My “fieldnotes”(written from my house family as the head of the army. kids are sick. The malae community Lennon’s ‘Imagine’ was playing in the background.but fighting con- from Indonesia. res. John English muffin!). Approximately Ethnography in the Midst of 1/3 of the Timorese defense force Conflict (April 2006. the Timorese were also traumatized lights…gave them confidence that to a relative’s home in the hills above everything would be ok. as it Tia Madre’s (convent)…. I explained the situ- then. They’ve been staging summer hoping to return and continu- conflict. cried and laughed and told me The conflict simmered for quite a about rumors—ema Lospalos long time before it erupted into the I spent much of the North American . and security crisis erupted blog: and shattered the hopes and dreams of the Timorese people (and the interna. This week was different. Kids are fine. April 30th) broadcast a at the convent and are saying that virtually every Timorese person I talked people are at the gate. I stopped going out at Everything is calm now and for- eigners were never targeted…but lieved—almost excited. April 30th. I checked in the fifth day. burdened. Most of the older people stayed (again) and many ran away to the behind. And flashpoint event.malaes go right. burning mar. military. No.July 2006) was dismissed over one month Need Caption Here ago. 2006. marauding gangs.3 Foreign soldiers military. and. More importantly. 5/26/06: Spoke with Lucia: She’s their house again. The English word I heard over and April 30. taurant patrons included Timorese too. to the U. and some thieves took advantage of the chaos to rob worried about me coming! They At one point. and police officers crying in frustration. Timorese “know something that we turns out. Eventually. They are too many times. The television news tonight (Sunday. eventually. the They marched on government house for four days in a row. watching national television with “my” (mostly) peaceful protests ever since. and infiltrators have arrived…. There was a nascent middle and the renewed presence of interna- class. go left. (easily frightened). something seems to have snapped.sleep- political analyst wondered aloud if the ing on the veranda. Most seemed message of calm from the Prime Minister and then showed a very to come in if they don’t give up terrified in ways that seemed completely 1 individual…Asked me to call out of proportion to what I perceived depressing montage of images of fleeing people. The ethnographic research during an armed government called them insub- ordinate. (and I am sitting here eating an lated wildly about the government. almost literally overnight. The Troubles: Those of you that tional community who supported them) have been following BBC will once again. anthropologist). is fine—even joked that she was lating. shooters seemed to scratch its collective head. 2006) over again that weekend was “over. re- hand. 31. Australian night and started interviewing everyone troops have landed and everything I knew (both Timorese and malaes) rocks were thrown at government buildings. a politi. Dili. Of course. were burned. tional peacekeepers on the ground. and made sure we had stockpiles of food and water on 5/25/06: Lucia sounds happy. and to the various church compounds. uncertainty president all tried to calm peoples’ fears and fear among the Timorese (and the in the lead-up to the crisis. They were protesting what Although I had not intended to do they called discrimination. ation in the following way on my web cal.

the dominant discourse among the Japanese. Peace. The evidence of physical violence. impact that these events were having Her mother. a and words of encouragement from at a restaurant often frequented by long-suffering people. Why did they burn can be explained. “Everything abounded and most folks seemed to we worked for during four years was Participant Observation During a be strategizing about ways to leave gone in one day. As a Timorese colleague them psychologically. it has been to return to collect belongings. near the airport because they wanted After the immediate physical vio- fied. they only friend. 2. and throughout the chaos. daughter. people were being killed. matter of days. patience. But given the violent history of I learned that all of my former col. resistance. the matriarch of the but the collapse of international support on ‘our’ family…and I worked to help clan. 31. horri. wrap While most malaes talked inces. moved back to their looted (but It wasn’t just the harsh reality of life in I focused almost exclusively on the un-burned) house in early August. was living time. hope. and say our goodbyes. the anxiety that I felt was minor Conclusions discussed. Mostly. “Mana (Older of violence. tired.doesn’t see children. Timor went from being I was able to go back briefly in July. lence subsided. Be. “model UN success story” to just a run- for a heart-wrenching 3-day visit. casually asking for lotion from the had nobody to blame but the people of keeping Forces not doing much. talked about options for sending in the office because his house had and terrorized simply because of their money and for possible escape to been burned to the ground. “bad people”. something. physically.S. It is hard to imagine that the country permitted me to come in for a short tance) wanted to tell their personal will ever have the goodwill and support “trip. I was alternately heartbroken. Fingers were pointed at the as compared to the suffering of the one-party political system. and even we drove by one of the largest IDP been. and a leagues from the Peace Corps had been occupation. Everyone I met (whether South. Because I was so far away. but he 5 years) confided that he was not sure across the border with money… stayed because of his sense of duty to that the Timorese would ever be able to less talk of violence or threats to the Peace Corps Volunteers. the the profound disintegration of sympa- middle class and elites are thinking thy. or international community. dire. and living in regionally segregated Everyone expressed horror and nobody is working and stores are IDP camps. all Americans back in March. and incredibly frustrated by what her to finish the school year.. defiantly remained in her home for Timor. His eldest forgive each other for what had hap- the compound. the elected Timorese people. The Timorese. Spring 2009 (people from Lospalos) saying displaced from their homes. Just as in past crises. in part. I wanted to do Lucia and her children finally secure. have morphed carefree political leaders. Australia. who had been living with pened in a three-month period during him in Dili. and how “caught unawares” they had the Indonesians. and the family seemed felt like impotence.returned to house for exile in Australia with her three young flict: an ethnic division that had never the first time today…. by the mis- ing advantage of the lull in the crisis down my house?” takes and failures of the UN. or just acquain.” Unlike my flight in March. peo- that they will attack if Alkitiri three women who just last year were ple seemed shocked to realize that they (Prime Minister) is fired. that it enjoyed during the UN transi- one was not full of optimism. santly about how ‘surprised’ they were the previous waves of occupation from After the tears of reunion at the airport. the youth gangs. a young man who worked as a waiter tional period again. and terror to . Literally in a even Indonesia. They all seem in the Peace Corps said when I saw monetarily. the malaes and elites. Sister) Patricia. colleague. His wife region of origin.22 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. Portuguese. pulled me aside at from ‘hapless victims’ to ‘perpetrators flight was full of malae colleagues breakfast and asked. Another colleague. labeled a ‘home-grown crisis. No. and several children had escaped to who had lived in the country for almost lia)….. Needless to it.said people are still getting their native village in the East. don’t know where people are…. it seems that the Timorese camps right next to the airport. though. looting. Time and again I heard that this this time around. moved to the IDP camp 2006. the international community. maimed. Two of the variety of others.” People critiqued and analyzed and say. The current situation in Timor seems leaders. IDP camps and the lack of security…. The third woman is in amazement at the net effect of the con- all closed…. I was the Timorse was one of frustration and have nobody to blame but themselves shocked by the hundreds of white tents despair. I cried and driver for the Peace Corps.” He was describing Lull in the Conflict: Impacts and the country.’ Unlike up our affairs.4 For the first a solution or a way out. and anxious. depressed.’ Although the current crisis doing the same thing that I was by tak. and seemingly endless array of burned was “worse than 1999 because we did out houses along the road. A casual acquaintance. Rumors him in August of 2006. and understanding of the the Discourse of Blame (July 2006) about exile in Portugal. Embassy had evacuated everywhere. this horror story. Instead. my panic turned to depression. A malae colleague (one Indonesia (cheaper than Austra. the main been significant before. United States are now all unemployed Timor Leste. and burned out houses was of-the-mill basket case in the Global cause the U.

tional elections in May of 2007 brought Patricia L. Because the English-language version. with Peace Corps. The title of this article asks: Who assistance is back on track. Os. 1 The country is officially called June 5. or whether political leaders this tremendous social challenge. friends. More than Vermont. and ethni.C. economic and. 4 It remains an open question whether time around. cally diverse. and realm and she actively seeks to keep a return to Timor Leste once again. in touch with family and friends there. to complete some additional fieldwork sistance with mediation. The international community long smoldering ethnic tensions the hands of the Indonesians. eign Minister of the country. including worlds of academia and the applied In May of 2008.bringing students tensibly. but also new tensions 2 The indigenous peoples of East Timor social anthropologist. “family. Mydans. Mostly. Dozens of groups are ment practice and nudging development project. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 23 which the people have been subjected journey for both of us. most Timorese and Notes Like Bali’s but Few Tourists. I used the project as represented and each group exhibits its practitioners to draw upon theoretical an excuse to go back and check on our own culturally. and a after my applied research was finished. Jose Ramos-Horta was then For- low-level of post-independence conflict substantially. Unemployment is decreasing. and academic understandings in An- friends. I was finally able to Mumbai. it is pos. holds a position as Assistant Professor contact with the family. healing the nation by providing as.” New malaes lived in fear of further unrest. Makasai exist throughout the moun. No.A. Tokodedi.S.D. a dozen language groups. One might Life is starting to look like what I of my former status as a quasi-diplomat honestly expect the country to be much described in my fieldnotes back in 2006. Odonian Press. My husband and I remain References Timorese society. I was able hatred. Austronesian.S. and by encouraging the godson’s 5th birthday party while I was ment (the major development assistance national government to make effective there! I plan to continue my long-term arm of the US government). perhaps over an upcoming sab- the remainder of 2006 and through the batical year. Despite thropology. Papuan at St. this paper. Michael’s College in Colchester. She currently and waves of aggression. She holds a Ph. Because that we have seen to date. Matthew Postscript 2009 and I am already working on ways 2002 East Timor: Genocide in Para- to get back there for a more extended dise. York Times. We hope to return together in May of Jardine. Na. in Foreign Service from George- It was an exhausting and emotional describe some of the common cultural town University. Travel Section. the answer is clearly the cessfully returned to their communities the events of 2006-2008 tapped into Timorese…. Embassy. realize that they pulled out precipitously (lorosae) and western (loromono) East As Timor moves forward to address in 2005. Curfews were enforced by an interna. They are now committed to Timor. Tetun Terik. I returned again patterns found among most indigenous since the earliest days of colonialism. tional military stabilization force and República Democrática de Timor most UN agencies kept only “essential Leste. (and especially the UN) now seems to between indigenous groups in eastern tuguese and even Japanese at work. I was prohibited from traveling there by and Asian ethnic groups.Vol. linguistically. most importantly.S. and groups in Timor. 2. They trace their origins of Anthropology and Gender Studies leagues throughout this period. ping up previously non-existent ethnic continue to assist in the process of On a more personal note. linguistically. Patricia’s work straddles the the U.L. in Anthropology from U. foot in both worlds…. and so. foreign basis with him. sible to generalize to some extent and B. Seth whole of 2007. n . and col. and M. The crisis in Timor continued for time. maintaining a long-term presence in the manipulated their followers by whip- the international community should country.A. Delaney is an applied some new hope. use of the many talents of non-Portu. page 8. opted not to return to Timor Leste.but it is hard not to see of origin. The two 2006 Human Development Report: of continuing insecurity. My cially specific characteristics. but is referred to as East Timor United Nations Development Program personnel” in the country. although to Melanesian. 31. research and personal relationships in guese speakers and non-elites among Timor Leste. While violence levels 2005 “New Nation Has Beaches ebbed and flowed. I am on a first name more dysfunctional. Por. I went back to do some applied tainous half island that is modern to the world of international develop- research work on a USAID5-funded Timor Leste. I am very happy to say that the politi- try has only experienced the relatively cal and security situation has improved 3 Dr.” and colleagues. I attended our 5 U. and most burned down the house this time? This (but not all) of the IDPs have been suc. it is perhaps surprising that the coun. Peace Corps terms will be used interchangeably in East Timor. Agency for International Develop- development. for two weeks in January of 2009. husband joined me for a short vacation the cultural heterogeneity. I maintained are culturally.

The events on right to the great beast’s horn that were to gather media attention as the wind. I argue of seemingly irreversible decline typical Calabria as an ethnographic example. Spring 2009 Unstable Relocations: Meeting the Other in Kurdolato By Bruno Anili toleration (whose humane concerns often disguise the dominant desire of She climbs on the bull’s back. taking others). otherness and similar abstract T he increasing number of immigrants concepts. book II osophical revolution in conceptualizing identity. lometers from the historic center) have Introduction emigrated elsewhere.000 to 700 people according to and north.24 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. European attitudes towards is a typical village on the top of a hill Badolato to a death by outmigration. toward Italy or Spain and from there Founded in the XI century by the However. the girl into shallow water and As of the end of 1997. incorporating a dynamic tions in northern Europe. Badolato immobility that seemed to accompany Europe. and became aware of a different possibil- terrified now. A change and the emergence of different The population declined dramatically— similar pattern of expansion. by the end of the 20th century activists under the name of “Badolato . freshening. Badolato Marina (a neighborhood tion is typically defined by an attitude of located on the Ionian coast about six ki- mutual respect in which identity bound. 31. and faster. practical implications. Whereas tolera. a project centered can represent both a threat and an op. ally range from outspoken hostility important fortress in the defense of the In 1986 a provocative campaign was (often times embellished with unhid- coast from the attacks of the Saracens. which streams into pennants a forgotten town in southern Italy. Zeus under the semblance of a bull. marks the route on which some estimates—in few decades. on a study of the ideological domination portunity for contemporary Europeans. of the encounter with the other.” Using appears increasingly inadequate as the the experience of a group of Kurdish ideological script for concrete instances Badolato was experiencing a condition clandestine immigrants in Badolato. Bruno Anili for dealing with this social phenom- enon. various destina- evokes the forcible relocation of the boundaries.” in: and unlikely to produce any major phil- Ovid. beneath the desolating to the affluent countries of northern Normans of Robert Guiscard. whips and from all corners of Europe happened in tunic. westward situations. including to the aries are fixed and not to be transcend- ed. stricken with poverty and depopulation “The Rape of Europa. that a practice of hospitality of the kind of many small villages in southern Italy I argue that the paradigm of hospitality that I discovered in the course of my and in other areas of the country. or as a last Phoenician princess Europa. the industrial The eponymous myth of Europe possibility of creatively redrawing those areas of northern Italy. No. liberalism. Europeans then further out. I also became interested in While the principle of toleration might the experience of the encounter between appear both desirable and expedient the community of Badolato and a group of Kurdish clandestine immigrants. one behind her. launched by local political and social den racist overtones) to compassionate However. she looks way back ity associated with the relocation of at the distant shoreline and holds foreigners on their continent. it can be an inadequate modality While the liberal principle of toleration in encounters with “the Other. as clandestine immigrants embark in their The Kurds of Badolato the emptying of the town left behind a journey of hope from the Global South rearguard of old folks. being left alone. raped by element that makes it more adaptable to resort to Australia and the Americas. Those articulates a vast array of possibilities research in Badolato is more appealing Badolatese who did not find work in for rethinking inter-ethnic relations in both at the theoretical level and in its the village or in the newly constructed theoretical and political terms. Metamorphoses. 2. those unwelcome immigrants gener- that thrived for centuries and became an another type of change was occurring. In the process of writing my who reach Europe’s southern shores doctoral dissertation.1 from 7. not bothered by the and ambles gently along. hospitality carries within itself the bigger cities of the region.

and still others a Kurdish restaurant. but rather And then the Ararat arrived: a On the cultural level. Italian. but that was what However. However. some complementary case of Badolato soon came to be seen they were offered (Carroll 2005). the people of Badolato domination. The March 22.500 price as symbolized by baptisms on Easter stition.” rather than as a coherent set of moral Badolato. Here reli- structures all too familiar in the most giosity is perceived and experienced It was December 27. In this one priceless asset . is fundamentally based on the rimesse participated in collective efforts to help many. ties (as for example it was in Bosnia- counts the dramatic events of December It bears noting that at this stage in the Herzegovina in the aftermath of the 1997: Kurdish experiment in Badolato. 1997. but entiated and dynamic class structure. but for the villagers of “works of construction and cleaning. in a certain way. The Kurds nomic level. they had an embryonic tertiary sector that caters and canonical formulations. This context new arrivals were mostly under Muslim confession and. mostly from Switzerland case of the village that welcomed im. On tese houses were literally opened for only because it was the most conve. an overwhelmingly Catholic environ- experienced unexpected opportunities ing a few of them to stay to work in ment. to enduring practices of magic tag had deterred elderly Kurds night. The people of this In other words. worries about the foreigners. is one that does not had actively welcomed the guests with reached the tip of southern Italy with favor the emergence of a highly differ. did buy houses migration. primar. forcible nature of their conversion to and northern Europe. and Sweden. come. like that of most achievement in and of itself). if modest. reflections may help to refine the first as an interesting and largely success- impressions about these patterns of ful experiment. abandoned without indicating any plan to had attracted the attention of national As for the religious aspect of the to return to them. two days after seeming economic and ideological little village had not only passively Christmas 1997. “tradition. on Italy’s toe. 31. to residual particles of from making the journey.Vol. others opened artisan laboratories. the poorest regions. ranging from a diffuse super- earlier. of traditional religiosity in Southern At the end of the century. and the whole population nient landing in their journey to Ger. They had Calabrian villages. the newcomers establish viable and The Guardian continues: “Central and grants. Catholicism are not at all preposter- and made Badolato their regular vaca. are. to the affluent (yet sporadic) tourists context Catholicism is not necessar- […] from Switzerland and northern Europe. as a few crews came to report on the strange fabric of Badolato. This is the case with ing of the houses that the emigrants had (Carroll 2005). this was not the original group of 825 Kurds had tion of their baptisms does not take a solution to the problems of a dying left for their final destinations. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 25 paese in vendita” (Badolato Town food and money and promised to settle on a more or less stable source of in- For Sale). differentiate among various communi- 2000 English daily The Guardian re. human cargo to land. and television integration of the Kurds into the social only moderately successful. such an interpreta- tion destination. presumably. the enthusiasm peacefully coexists with a vast and Russian-made rustbucket that had with which the local priest welcomed dynamic substratum of alternative left Istanbul for Rome six days the new members of the community. and agriculture. into account the peculiar character community. The perils and £1. the contrary. ily Germany and Switzerland. those who can count economic subsistence. 2. ily an exclusionary force. An April 2000 . Badola. Boats inveterate practices of the immigration as one element of a larger picture of raced to the ship and ferried its were being reproduced. emerges as an identity marker used to a land of immigration. Yet. this subsistence economy the Kurds. signs of concrete hospitality.” not to be theorized per se. though. produced locally and independent Italian and foreign tourists who would ised them work in new enterprises that of the rimesse. In an area chronically plagued durable premises for sound. They had not planned to make were not seeking conversion to another duction of Muslim practices. The initiative was and international media. No. power dissolution of Yugoslavia). regional government gave the Kurds by unemployment. Officials prom. a life in Calabria. the newcomers were typi. but in light of the on their territory (what in many other Kurdish asylum seekers. The productive places would have been a remarkable received an expected warm reception system of Badolato. Badola- no intention of relocating there. However. by making sense of them tolerated the presence of the Kurds received the unexpected present of 825 not in the abstract. the efforts of local administrators and Italy’s villages. France. cannot obscure the fact that the and divination. Despite some legitimate doubts. After a few months. The Kurds specific local context. In a short time. beliefs. the Kurds. This was an effort to attract them in empty houses. Belgium. might also be hospitable to the intro- 40. and whose exercise is better under- were penniless and did not speak cally (but not exclusively) employed in stood as a series of ritualized habits.youth. it is not one in which religion for resurgence and reinventing itself as construction. While this is obviously this village plagued by emigration residents had succeeded in convinc. but locals from the Badolatese in return. On the eco. a invest in the maintenance and remodel. would make the most of their skills” privileged class. one of Italy’s religion. so the Kurds are predominantly of Sunni pre-Christian religiosity. (remittances) sent back home by emi. the majority of ous. cleaning.

” In both cases than hoping to meet people. I heard by different corners of the Euro. from the perspective of an active social a Muslim prayer coming from a win- pean Union about Italy’s lax attitudes worker. seemingly Badolatese had also started to use Kurd- reports and other mediated sources of oblivious to its simple. but. These disputes were of the kind that interesting question: “Could this be the spectives for the social experiment that is not at all uncommon among young answer for Italy’s other dying cities?” they represented looked now gloomier men. more serious mistakes face-to-face interactions and “snowball” appointment with Daniela Trapasso. despite the initial Created in 1990 under the patronage difficult to eradicate expectations that excitement and optimism. I also took notice of the cars’ Permanence (Centri di Permanenza of both the traditions. His perspective was coverage. The conversation that we had social and cultural impact of relocation. but especially as I was walking down a street. brought a set of questions for open-end- northern partners. clean streets. and the British accent of a young towards the problem of clandestine the relationship between the immigrants lady coming from the next balcony. also extremely helpful in delineating the tion of the national government. surveillance.26 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. were made too. complaints were raised institutional position. but the per. greet- information. By now I knew sider its policy of “friendly hospitality. bureaucratization came inefficiency and in the office of CIR was an extremely both as stimulated by the “Badolato corruption. ticipated in ceremonies and religious ed interviews with me. immigration. that on a hot. and in the generalizing from the Badolatese ex. ities. I learned that. On the end strengthened community ties. sunny day most people The majority of the Kurds were placed ing each others’ traditions. of CIR (Italian Council for Refugees). and of the breathtaking beauty of its ing the elderly in the deferential manner scenery. No. perience was supplemented by a more windy road to the top of the hill I expe. license plates: alongside the local ones Temporanea. The infamous “Welcome Kurdish counterpart did as a ritual of returning home in time for lunch. as a form of coexistence. in ways that made it rience. the two added to the peculiar character the Italian border were reintroduced on In particular. In fact. reality. and by the ar- in the Italian context. ish terms in their daily parlance. like day sunshine. While the Kurds had questions. A few years later this than ever. regardless of their ethnicity. Badolatese were likely to spend at least some in gated camps. Funerals had I spent the morning re-familiarizing created. Italy had to recon. of the immigration and aging population basic mission as: “to defend the rights I then met with a local historian and problems. When I returned to a temporary basis by both France and many instances in which members of Badolato in the summer of 2007 I had Austria. between the town’s keeper for a “gas bomb” (bomba a gas). much more rence in nearby towns. the proximity of into question and passport checks at realistically. From the vantage point of her rival of the Kurds. came the interested interven. perhaps I would have been “gas tank” (bombola a gas)… Unfortu- divided by the subsets “Badolatese” and better off taking pictures that day. soon to be followed by the even also been an occasion for encounters. in the climate of excitement and “immigrants to Badolato. I decided to do research in curve. standings had not been uncommon. When I finally reached my desti. and the local community not in abstract Neither would have been a likely occur- ence to the Schengen Treaty was called terms of integration. to think. 2006 I made a trip to Badolato. a quasi-Pavlovian sequence helpful introduction to Badolato’s social Town For Sale” initiative. Italy’s adher. rather nately. An area of special interest to me was basic concern: Was that experience rienced alternating feelings of hope and the linguistic contamination between the still in place? In order to answer such expectations of disappointment at each two communities. the newcomers. In the mid. slowly in the piazza. Explor. Spring 2009 news report from BBC asked a very normalization at that time. the the field. between the Ionian Sea and typical of the newcomers. Daniela was careful to define dow. As a result. Additionally. Minor alterca. Also. in Badolato Marina.cir-onlus. optimism typical of the early days of I recruited my interviewees through Luckily. 31. only a few people walked when a Kurdish man had asked a shop- As I was planning my research activ. and (Gilhooly 2000). or CPT).3 they never escalated into hostility ambitious question about the ability of Toward the end of the summer of between Kurds and Italians.” practices of the other group.org/chisiamo2. as well as Swiss. under strict police youths had crossed the fire like their time at the beach. rather than relying on news nation I found a sleepy town. With htm). I resolved to conduct open-ended two cafés: if that was Badolato. were to prove unreasonable in the long turned out to be the squaring of the circle sioner for Refugees. along with the media of refugees and asylum-seekers in Italy” cultural animator. studying the more the coordinator of the Calabrian section ity and generosity were bestowed onto recent developments of Badolato’s expe. and northern Italy. (http://www. 2. . Unconditional hospital- techniques. been learning Italian from the locals. CIR defines its run. mostly in relation to women. I started rather than for a much more innocuous interviews with a number of subjects. it had not of the United Nations High Commis. The Kurds who tions had involved young men of both there were quite a few from central had already settled in Badolato escaped groups.2 ‘Strongly encouraged’ by its one of the two communities had par. That very afternoon. she pointed to the of the phenomenon. I had already scheduled an this experience. Misunder- Doing Research in Badolato the Calabrian mountains. myself with the streets and sights of more infamous Centers of Temporary and many had incorporated rituals the town. So Centers” (Centri d’Accoglienza) were initiation into adult life.

Many strongly associate this strength that the party of Antonio refused. of whom was. others. Swedish ones. and pointed to their edu. some attachment to one’s own roots. while their early years in Switzerland frustration about the conditions and these two interviewees agreed on many or Germany had been marked by social limitations of his relocation. the newcomers. question: “Would you prefer to be richer they would have preferred that more Around 4:30 pm the roar of the first elsewhere. Tourists priest also added the sense of mission genuine.” and around twenty as “immi. but for their personal especially one in which the moral fiber community without having been born experiences. and few had even heard of it for free-floating conversations. hospitality. sus emerged on the fact that Badolato Not surprisingly. and the lack of a . food. It was time for me to start approach. young that characterized his vocation as an their own alienation in the big cities of immigrants. the category “im- ing somebody. 31. the town. lamented points. 2. and ence of being a part of Badolato’s cal information. and some people felt unprepared to answer mood permeated some holographic Latin America. As I few decades. I noticed that transformation was the object of much both homebuyers from elsewhere in some were at least as eager to talk to disagreement among my interviewees. one socioeconomic differences. Specifi- I met with a very loquacious priest newcomers. as it is among the locals. and The main focus of my interviews that specific community. Some went so nounced the end of the siesta. At first At one extreme. language. like one young man landless laborers. from Nigeria who voiced his intense of their different systems of beliefs. The Badolatese who had emi. My reassurance that in which the town had been economi. in ways that might have sounded marginalization and inadequate eco. not without had changed dramatically in the last migrants to Badolato” was a much some insecurity and shyness. to keep their traditions. The allure of material wealth foreigners relocate to the village rather started assembling. than Italians. most immigrants of them. some of my itous nature of their move to Badolato. answering belonging to returning emigrants. others echoed the frustration at followed the Vespas to the beach. Badolato. Almost all of my the lack of opportunities for both work the dominant mentality. the north by showing little warmth for benches that were left in the piazza. some ciation of values like health. surprising to observers less familiar with nomic remuneration. Italy and Europe. the issue of co-exis. opportunities for cultural contamina- playing cards and sipping soda in the tradition and especially the feeling of tion and an overall evolution of the cafés. The attachment to Badolato might around thirty I identified as “Badola. and lessons that I drew on how to conduct whether the arrival of the immigrants showed a degree of affection towards research is certainly another highly had benefited or harmed Badolato. and who had now returned to people commented enthusiastically from these conversations is hard to their hometown. They also appreciated the valuable aspect of my experience. was able to convince most and the demographic composition of the into it. cally self-sufficient. and education had represented for parallels the condition of Badolato na- interviews. generated an overwhelming majority relocated to Badolato. and then got inside and To this constellation of civic values. while a general consen. and the permanently. this than as a rigid grid to impose on my tion. the immigrants enjoy being able and with an equally talkative old performed valuable social functions. if not affluent. sounder. and underprivileged me as I was to listen to them. a strongly nostalgic immigrants from Africa. these two cated neighbors. communist. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 27 German. transporta. recognizing that they cally. as the former offer better shade on the piazza’s benches. were split on the issue of adapted to the new conditions. some sitting in the was much less attractive than the appre. Gramsci once enjoyed in that district of the immigrants now received assis. its small size. Some tended to sympathize with the lack of pressures to conform. not be as strong among the immigrants tese.Vol. ning my research. No. the isolation of Badolato. rather improved communication. In particular. From the perspectives tance and in some cases subsidies. Others resented the fact that sense of liberty with life in Badolato. It included started talking to people. a living testimony of the taking jobs that Italians would have religion. mostly males. the exact nature of the more heterogeneous one. Additionally. Small of answers in favor of being poorer in far as to say that they preferred having clusters of middle-aged and old men Badolato. reconstructions of an idyllic past. Despite the obvious my questions. took the apostle among his people. a centuries-old interviewees were careful to characterize and entertainment. As for the non-racist church’s stairs. tence. French. met with over fifty people. or poorer in Badolato?” Italians (as opposed to foreigners) had Vespas headed down to the beach an.” What I learned ment. and I did so. the disclaimers. Yet several grants to Badolato. some concoction of fatalism. as I asked the questions Badolatese population had been much interviewed underscored the fortu- that I had carefully phrased while plan. friendship. tives who had not chosen to be born in I spent several days in Badolato. their positions as non-racist. So my in the negative the question on whether to the new house buyers. Asia. However. whether seasonally or on the help that they received as they summarize in a few paragraphs. Also. On the other hand. local mentality. before relocating. I realized that they informants were more ready than others Virtually no one had chosen it delib- were most useful as a starting point to recognize the amazing progress that erately. obviously. Old women gathered on the “belonging” to a place and community. in most cases they sounded started praying before the mass. Paradoxically. grated to escape poverty and unemploy. groups shared the important experi- I was not looking for accurate histori.

Translated tives in Germany or Switzerland. J. The steady growth of the mary areas of interest in political theory same time that it is a realistic goal. if both the retrieved on 02/06/2009. europe/719423. lematic integration. albeit ironic.) issues of relocation can learn from the experience of References Kurdolato that the peaceful coexistence among mutual Author Unknown “others” can be a demanding political and social project. 31.html>. unproblematic integration. extended discussion of hospitality as a ford University Press. if phenomenon of clandestine immigra.” in BBC News. have rendered a number of these But is this really just a case of unsuccess. R.D.htm> illusion of a sudden. are centers for the temporary deten. <http:// www. and that Carroll.uk/population/ During the course of my interviews. Derrida and A. sic human rights in Italian CPTs.org/chisiamo2. or is there more to this too can learn from this experience.<http:// www. 2. Bruno Anili studied Communication ment agencies and NGOs working tion of foreigners who have entered Sciences at the University of Sienna. Frontièrs (Doctors Without Borders) and itching to get out of it? All in all. with issues of relocation can learn Italy illegally. together with vast inefficiencies he had no regrets about leaving his coun.” “Both government agencies and NGOs working with available at: http://www. Ph. and in the nickname of 1990. With all its difficulties. The Guardian. Both govern.” document retrieved on 02/20/20005. 2000 “Italy: Immigration or extinc- “Kurdolato”. and comparative politics. mistakes. of the uncompromising preservation of rigid identities 2000 They were God-fearing are renounced. the Island of Europe’s Forgotten Promises. candidate in Political Science at mutual “others” can be a demanding cannot be immediately expelled from the University of Oregon. Researchers centers overcrowded and unsafe for the ful immigration. Bowlby. Spring 2009 fast.guardian. and God knows we needed them. <http://news. and which for a number Italy. While both the illusion of a sudden. Dufourmantelle of Kurds was left.co. this unplanned abolition of checks at their common 19 April. 2009 Consiglio Italiano per i Rifu- giati. Electronic document retrieved on 02/20/2005. he was ready to go somewhere else. Several non-governmental story? Aren’t many young Badolatese registering and deciphering the elu. tion. for Refugees. problems. 2000.184291.28 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. this ties continuously renegotiate their and Amnesty International. by R. and that of the in the management of the existing try. both in the experience of the Italian Council 2 The Schengen Agreements of 1985 and Gilhooly. 02/22/2000. political economy. No.00. identities are renounced. Yet project of ethical responsibility. and highly rewarding.uk/1/hi/world/ spiration and potentially a model for 3 Instituted in 1998 by the Turco-Na.stm>. including Médecins Sans similarly fed up with life in a small town.2763. Wednesday. proof boundaries can be both challenging nounced the systematic violation of ba- of integration. pean countries. as occupants. Notes Story/0. organizations. sive signs around which fluid identi. signed by a number of Euro. He is currently a that the peaceful coexistence among ments of identification and nationality). as in the long run (2000) Of Hospitality provides an 2000 Of Hospitality.bbc. Dufourmantelle’s Derrida and A. I learned with some disappointment that no one from the original nucleus 1 J.cir-onlus. uncompromising preservation of rigid CPTs. establish “the gradual tion. have de- might be the ultimate. ” people like us. immigrants and natives provides in. their legacy had stayed behind. and at the the country. focusing mostly on semiotics and from the experience of Kurdolato of reasons (including lack of docu. (See for instance Amnesty International’s document “Italy: Lampedusa. n . Electronic document and at the same time that it is a realistic goal. 21:09 Electronic experiment in encounters between borders. reliable Internet connection.org/ en/library/asset/EUR30/008/2005/en/ dom-EUR300082005en. 1990-2007 Diciassette anni di storia del CIR. the CPTs contemporary societies.html. Stanford: Stan- they had all preferred to join their rela. unprob.amnesty.co. with his pri- political and social project. the encounter with the “Other” in our politano law on immigration.

Cuban Migration to the United (Zebich-Knos and Nicol 2005). Cuba policy may not be forthcoming.S. newspapers. ideology” of the Cuban community . States: 1959 to the Present and by the end of the 1960s many had Data were collected using a mixed begun to prosper. I conclude by affirming that the 2008 transfer of power from Fidel Castro to Raúl Castro. Others ernment sponsored flights from Havana ally contacted initially by email. four major waves of Cuban immigra- tion to the U. Though these later migrants now constitute a “moderate majority’ in South Florida. He told me in an and semi-structured elite interviews interview at his office at the Center for conducted in the U. This first search project examining U. between 2005 and rise to power on January 1. presidential election.Vol. signal that the Indira Rampersad much anticipated radical change in U. No. and participant observation and in July 2005 that because of the influ- interviews in Cuba and Florida during United States between 1959-1962.S. visiting methods approach including content There are 1. the U. 2006. favored reform of the corrupt old regime. Two hundred thousand Cubans left for the International Policy in Washington D. York and Washington D. The disproportionate impact that the earliest immigrants had on U.” times followed by a phone call to arrange but felt betrayed by the communist An estimated 260.S.3 million Cuban Ameri- cans in the United States today. magazines been closely following the Cuban migra- and websites and a series of unstructured The turning point in immigration to the United States came with Fidel Castro’s tion waves to the U. to Miami called the “Freedom Flights. and former Chief of the U. wealthy immigrants. Many of these “Cuba seems to have the same effect viewees include scholars. Inter.S. Wayne Smith. wave of exiles began life anew in Miami. with professor at Johns Hopkins University analysis of major American newspapers. This article is part of a broader re. Interest archival research on official documents. Section in Havana (1979-1982). some.000 Cubans took a face to face interview in Miami.S.S. combined with a reconfig- uration of the power structure in South Florida to which President Obama seems poised to pander. had books.-Cuba pol. the 2008 U. gov- staff. tling primarily in Miami.S. Most had lost everything to the This first wave continued until 1973.C.C.S. 2. the Castro government’s policies.-Cuba relations has created a deep social. political and economic schism between this group and the later waves. and Cubans. Cuban revolution and these sentiments were the remnants of the social and ducted via the phone from the University came to define the political or “exile economic elites and in later years much of Florida. leaders of both exiles were associated with the Ba- on American administrations as the full hard-line and moderate Cuban American tista dictatorship and were upper class moon has on werewolves. 1959.S. these immigrants 2008 interviews were generally con. icy from 1961-2006 (Rampersad 2007). The 2006 and all hostile toward Fidel Castro and the In the early years. set- ence of these early. journals. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 29 Turbulence Within the Cuban Diaspora in South Florida By Indira Rampersad U nites States-Cuba policy has varied significantly during the five decades since the first waves of Cuban immigrants came to the United States. They were advantage of this policy and emigrated. they nonetheless endure a double mar- ginalization because of their alienation at both the state and community levels. New ideologies of the revolution. identified historically. 31.” groups and their staff members. The 2005 interviewees were gener. members of Congress and congressional Cuban Revolution and were angry with Between 1965 and 1973.

not including the immediate a resolution to the bilateral conflict government’s generous assimilationist relatives of U.S. Many members under the powerful anti-Castroite. The first group arrived in 1991 The second. Cuban were allowed into the U. They have ing of 1000 on the number of refugees collaborated to consistently tighten the remained consistently hostile toward the admitted from Cuba (Croucher 1997). This wave of mi- have been the most privileged of all the balsero crisis. the ma. 2.466 arrived in 1996 (Wasem 2006). Miami that “dialoguero” is a derogatory by the Cuban government and included Castro exiles continuously advocate word. affluent.000 immigrants from Cuba rapprochement with Cuba. Members of this immigrant communities. annually.S. situation of uncontrolled Cuban immi. This schism good.500 left in They espouse a more centrist ideol- comprising numerous professionals and a large-scale exodus between 7th August ogy and are more open to dialogue business people.S. The significance on official U. American administrations which have Cuban American community.S.S. munities were led economically and than age 40. 20 per cent of these rafters friendlier relations. racially opposed to the Castro regime.203 Cuban rafters attempting to cross mixed sector of the community which This first wave was considerably the Florida straights. It is estimated that 40 commented from Miami in a phone percent or 50.000 were blacks or mulat.937 through negotiation and dialogue. was unwilling to they have been able to foster substantial hostile elements. However. who advocated friendlier relations and and the exile community have been quite To avoid a future mass immigration of more dialogue with Cuba. 26. most of has been experiencing since the col. Ideological Schism Within the to the exile community. The early wave of predominantly interview in 2006 that “it is only in tos. came a significant policy. agreed to admit 21. Jorge migrants. jority. The members of CANF President Reagan. sharp contrast to the later waves of Cuban Americans vary in their views on government adjusted to this change by poorer. branded “dialogueros” (those willing to in the Mariel boatlift of 1980 when negotiate) who are perceived as traitors 125. and placed a ceil. anti. darker and moderate factions Cuba itself and relations between Cuba being less welcoming to the marielitos. The airlift of 1965-1973 was of this group are members of moderate Más Canosa. of this generation and Cubans in Cuba It had a relatively high educational gration. and are The second wave of migrants came 26. and are opposed to the embargo. politically by the oldest post-Castro women.S.S. most of whom have ing the island in order to recover political balseros or rafters who left Cuba after relatives in Cuba. accept Cuban migrants as refugees since relations with Cuba at a non-state or ers and musicians who were opposed future rafters would be returned as illegal civil society level over time through to Castro’s hardening cultural policy in aliens (De Vise and de Valle 2004). At the height of the mittee for Democracy. different from subsequent waves.30 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. tremely close alliance between the small for ideological reasons constitute the bulk tial treatment of people from communist hardline community and successive of the upper crust of the contemporary states including Cuba.-Cuban have been quite good. including a few writ. familial ties. and improved in level. the National Foundation (CANF) which quotas agreed to between 1981 and 1989 Cuban American Alliance Education he founded in 1981 under the Reagan first by President Carter and later by Fund (CAAEF) and the Cuban Com- administration. 31. 1994. white. These policies and power and property expropriated by the . Alfredo Durán grants were poorer and darker than their Cuban American Community of the Cuban Committee for Democracy predecessors. pro-embargo. Clinton agreed to admit no grants also seems more inclined toward generations of exiles with regard to both less than 20. regularized and successful applicants organizations such as the Cuban Ameri- tion known as the Cuban American were able to leave in accordance with can Commission for Family Rights. Spring 2009 of the Cuban middle class. The U. non-elite. They are deeply patriotic to and administrative personnel associ. Clinton signed the U. These early exiles organized The last wave consists of legal tarian organizations. Because of 1990 due to the economic crisis Cuba the antagonism of the hardline com- cultural and family affinities. Some were sent as ‘undesirables’ white.S.S. migrated mainly for economic reasons. elite sector who migrated mainly Refugee Act which eliminated preferen. third and fourth waves exiles—those who were most strongly when the U. but from this group which harbored many of this is that the U. Everyone else view dialogue and the mentally challenged as well as some a hardline policy to Cuba. Both com. President Carter passed a has been widening because of the ex.S. Most policies (Franklin 1993). who led an organiza. 17. policy toward Cuba. These immi. The arduous tion syndrome of the generally ignored some established a Cuban community conditions of the crossing resulted in moderate faction. as well as the military and 14th September. Out of this with Cuba. 2. Coast Guard intercepted constitute a larger.700 balseros group do not have much direct influence opposition to Castro’s revolution came held in Guantánamo. 86 percent of the rafters being younger to repeal the embargo through warmer. remittances and humani- the sixties. New Jersey. consisting of about 31. relentlessly struggling in Union City. and relations between members ated with the previous Cuban regimes.000 entered the U.000 moderate faction. No. citizens. embargo to the detriment of the larger Castro regime and they dream of invad- The third wave consisted of 33. Members of the predominantly this nature. munity produce a double marginaliza- these émigrés settled in Miami. This is in discourse as something positive”. Strongest the U. and prefers wealth and as beneficiaries of the U.000 with criminal records. though lapse of the Soviet Union. surpassing the median for most Agreement of September 1994 in which the post-Cold War era. To prevent a Cuba. In 1995.

No. resulted in a heated confrontation be. Using the 2004).cafc. He Cuban American Commission for Fam- parcel deliveries and remittances have himself supports the sanctions on trade ily Rights. Generally rightest in angered the community to the extent to Cuba to pressure the Castro regime their political orientation.Vol.S. Wilhelm and her organiza- to Cuba (www. protesting Cuban Ameri. García admitted in our Miami saying “Bush: Don’t Divide the Cuban the measures and continue to voice their interviews in 2005 and 2006 that CANF Family” were members of groups such displeasure with the new measures. el Comandante.” He affirmed that “some interview in Miami that a “tiny dog is between moderate and hard-line Cuban Cuban Americans are stuck in Cold War wagging a very big tail in Miami. “it is mission’s first report was published in car. 2. In our 2006 In December. twenty-. namely. ex-employee of the Cuban who resigned as Executive Director of Instead. particularly on CANF). the breakaway faction of the Miami Arena to deliver a speech Fisk. highly educated Commission did not receive the flurry Democratic Party in the 2004 elections. academic and cultural travel intense finger-pointing (Nielsen 2004). this “softening”of his hard- the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961. more conservative Cuban Americans.S. tween an angry. However.-Cuba Policy in the Post. The members of the Commis. This conflict has intensified politics as reflected in the Elián drama confrontation with Lincoln Díaz-Balart in recent times as moderate Cuban Amer. but does not advocate restrictions on economically and politically powerful. highly likely that soon the issue of the May 2004.” The Americans. the nephews of tances. is not monolithic and the members have as Cuban Americans for Change and the The 2004 restrictions on family travel. Cuba policy and increasing family restrictions to Cuba (Lovato with a barrage of protests from both antagonism toward hardliners. traditional.and forty-something of media attention as did the 1992 Cu. Fidel. and a close ally of the hardline Cuban The ideological conflict between the ly the seedbed of anti-Castro activities in American community. President Bush arrived at in the Bush administration. which oppose the travel and . who migrated after 1980 come to full sion for Assistance to a Free Cuba. During my 2006 interview bargo activists attribute the recent tight- can administration to legislate hard-line with Joe García (who is still a member of ening of the embargo to the fact that Jeb policies against Cuba. Dan erty Council.” cal drama that will climax when new to tighten the embargo legislated via the The 2004 restrictions on family travel generation Cuban Americans and those 2004 and 2006 Reports of the Commis. Amongst these is Joe family travel. the realpolitik of Calle Ocho. was married to Fidel Cas- who were especially incensed with its fateful June afternoon. to speak truths to power. García blamed tro’s sister. he outlined the new contours of is the brother of President George Bush election years. and Jose actions of members like Joe García. they are also that even former hardliners vocifer. Lincoln family and academic travel and remit. is now packaging itself as a moderate in 1998. the report met toward U. referring to the handful of powerful tional and community level in the United and we care about much more than just hardliners. embargo”. making the rabidly right- proposals for renewed restrictions on Díaz-Balart for giving bad consul to winged congressional brothers. Silvia Wilhelm who founded mission for Assistance was established they pursued him to the parking lot and the Cuban American Commission for by the Bush administration. Max Castro. Described as Joe García’s actions are further evidence tion have even launched frontal attacks “the dumbest policy in the face of the of a softening in attitudes within CANF on Díaz-Balart for his role in the 2004 earth” (Heuvel 2004). thirty. porters slowly turn away. which rise of Jeb Bush as Governor of Florida have managed to retain a lock on U. President Bush on the 2004 restrictions and Mario Díaz-Balart. Lustily waving Burton Law .S. former Executive Director of the However. asserted in our July 2005 States leading to direct confrontation the embargo. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 31 Cuban government. ously reject them. Miami: “We’re not single-issue anymore. organization. Cardenas. proposing new restrictions son yelled amid a frenzy of shouts and family will supersede the issue of the on family. spilled their venom as he stood beside his Family Rights reiterated that. but the American public has moved past was only one public incident in a politi- icans vigorously protest recent measures the Cold War. They once rabidly extremist Cuban American line position was counteracted by the are also well organized politically and National Foundation (CANF).S. several newly sification of Cuban Americans (Aguayo American and Cuban flags and placards formed and existing groups protested 2004). was in direct response to the aimed at rallying support among older. The CANF and opted to campaign for the a group of younger. himself. groups is being played out at both the na. 31. Díaz-Balart’s father. political maturity as they register and can mob and Representative Lincoln vote in the next decade. 2003. Jesse Helms.gov). American and Cuban American citizens vigilant media to full advantage on that Don Rafael. Cuba policy. sion included leading Cuban Americans The formation of the Cuban Lib. Incidentally. Several analysts and anti-em- policy that influences successive Ameri. the first Com. he was greeted outside where American National Foundation. varying views on U. They constitute the force which backed García. fellow staff member of former CANF. It seems that U. When the protesters spotted Díaz-Balart. The Com. The move was perceived by the New Cuban American protesters who came ban Democracy Act and the 1996 Helms York Times as a signal of political diver. In 2004. staff member. on family travel (Nielsen 2004).Cold Díaz-Balart at the Miami International the cracks within the community are War Era airport on June 29th. the day before the widening as former Republican sup- new travel restrictions to Cuba kicked in. “You’re dividing families!” one per. interview.

“Whenever she came he be. the family crisis has sup. told me in our interview at the “inhumane” regulations which Watch. position in society was determined by every month. Romero’s absence was ties. your medicine to her father.hrw. money and medical supplies. The 2004 the medicines. sister who had cancer. Lorena Vasquez. which they needed dicate what your class was. With and sister died in 2002.32 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. and. medical supplies. her bers of CANF such as Joe García and very delicate condition. aunts and uncles. She later realized long org/reports/2005/cuba1005/index. and even She would lie next to him and talk to tory that deemed itself fit to define what worse for those with multiple family him. told Human Rights Family Rights. Cuban Americans in visiting Cuba. As Human charge of going and finding what medi- Safran. of people traveling had been reduced. “She won’t last three years. the the 46 year embargo that has been ce. The Cuba-America Jewish Mis. After several months. Romero hired two helpers and new laws prevented me from doing so” children. he knew who she was.htm) Romero could no longer visit with tro regime via the embargo. sion. “It is rather ironic that the Cousins. father. Nelson Espinoza told was her father who was too ill cash to melt as reflected in the softening of Human Rights Watch that “I can’t wait checks or sign them over to someone ideological position of prominent mem.hrw.” We were waiting for saying that young people who traveled mary objectives of these family visits is Mari to come. know what’s going to happen. bring money and sup. In relating the sad story of Marisela Fund (CAAEF) told me in our phone ily travel remittances and parcels to Cuba Romero and her ailing father. notes that Romero actually became proactive in resisting and Cuban American. delays in its arrival because the number Delvis Fernández who heads the The most contentious issue. before her father died in January 2004. cuba1005/index.hrw. After both her mother the embargo because of the restrictions abuse of fundamental human rights. families hurt by this policy. can no For many moderate Cuban Ameri. such as iodine and learned that what you owned did not in. An irate Alvaro Fernández. embargo should be tightening in the post- nieces are excluded.” the nephew told longer send youth groups to Cuba as cans. Her last trip was moderates.” Lorena Vasquez said. Jorge Mas Santos.” It also became much more The new restrictions have resulted larly. Human interviews in 2006 and 2008 that he which many challengers. Sandra Sánchez had been sending hydrogen peroxide. Several could send remittances to members of there are visible cracks in the icy wall other Cuban Americans had visited Cuba her “immediate family. President and interviewed a number of Cuban came very contented. Human Rights with the love and care he so desperately a security threat to the United States”.S.… Administration was the first in U. “After the restrictions. however. 31. saying goodbye to a family member the old man and my husband was in tween American and Cuban Jews. the issue is not so much about Human Rights Watch. Under the 2004 regulations. June as helping him/her to live. For these includes a host of poignant examples of the new restrictions. their relentless quest to topple the Cas. plies. in some cases. No.” acutely felt by her nephew and his wife. and grandparents. Cuban American Alliance Education seems to be restrictions imposed on fam. her cousin and imposed on him and many of his fellow the new restrictions. Executive Director. So we had to endure able lessons: “The children were more restrictions have made it increasingly rough times. nephews and could pay them. see her again. 2. The Human better”http://www. who had cancer. in May 2004. goods for her. relative in Cuba who fit that definition Yet. “I was alone with part of its program to strengthen ties be.htm). org/reports/2005/cuba1005/index. “Because even though he had in Miami in July 2005 that “the Bush are entirely inadequate for people Alzheimer. earlier have to wait three years to return. She operatives is beginning to unglue and mother who is also seriously ill. who visited Cuba difficult and expensive to send supplies in a tense relationship between Cuban in 2004. made frequent trips to Cuba so that she he asserted. they serious about their education and more difficult for Cuban Americans to send began to run out of diapers and basic tolerant of people because in Cuba they remittances and supplies through couri. because I don’t nephew did not qualify as a member of its leader. in Berkeley. But she couldn’t come to Cuba before the Treasury Department to provide ailing relatives in Cuba with and she couldn’t send the Pampers and changed the rules in 2004 learned valu. regulations prevented her from send- mented by exile patriarchs and ex-CIA but is now forbidden from visiting her ing money for his medical care. “I visit once every three years and visits are tives who could take care of her ailing wanted to visit an elderly relative but the limited to immediate family – parents. siblings. her “family.” Marisol Claraco. The result is that Saray Gómez had visited her family to visit again until 2007. who is in a else. the ice is beginning In another case.” Simi. Rather. to clean his bed sores” http://www. For example. both American Rights Watch (2005). so she was not allowed planted the embargo. A Cuban family at . view as a flagrant left Cuba in 1992. his- with relatives in poor health.” but the only which once characterized exile politics. In effect. ers. is quoted as Rights Watch affirms. perhaps provide her father Cold War era when Cuba no longer poses On these grounds. three years to see my sister. of the Cuban American Commission for Americans who expressed their outrage her nephew’s wife. cines he could.org/reports/2005/ passionate fervor as the hardliners in Rights Watch website (http://www. what you could achieve” (Perry 2006). California. Spring 2009 remittance restrictions with the same members who are ailing. “It’s likely I won’t traveling to Cuba and willing to carry Amongst those most affected are chari.htm). Watch joined the torrent of protests needed. and he would feel her love and get comprised a family. was very concerned about her as it became harder to find other people American civil society and the state. relatives can only his wife were the only remaining rela. one of the pri.

the Latin South Florida’s ideological battles may even as their own demands for imported American Working Group. during the heat of his elec- Silvia Wilhelm.com/nation/38155294. low for unlimited family visitation and un-American and anti-Cuban. denies Americans the implications for U. (www. incensed that the American George W. and it that Congress end the Cuba travel ban the Cuban and U. the rights of free speech. 2008. Barack Obama pre- made every Commission member’s humanitarian aid such as such as the sented an almost identical position on blood boil over. restricts a market important to the 2008 election year. both brothers on deaf ears. founder and Executive can Scholars and Artists. of the moderate majority.S. restrictions on as President on 20th January.S. American farmers and impedes the cre. the icy walls around very hopeful that they will materialize Center for International Policy. Joe García. ican President of the United States. The turbulence in The glacial confrontation between the regime with a clear choice: if you South Florida concretely materialized old and newer waves of Cuban Ameri. there was On the other side of the Florida ation of American jobs”. the impending changes underscoring the need to boost cans who are angered by restrictions on demise of the older. As if to add fuel to the the power structure in South Florida. that Obama “not only had a very to counteract perceptions that the first the former Executive Director of good background as a political leader. Interestingly. include a budget of $80 million for the in Florida’s 25th congressional district.html). had other organizational co-sponsors (www.” For Raúl Castro. protest of the new restrictions. Obama “seems to be a good man. Trinidad Sunday Guardian. has been provoking intense criticism revealed that he was in full support Barak Obama was just inaugurated from several Cuban American and of the removal of U. 2. been writing a regular column for the by securing justice for Cuba’s political forchange. The restrictions have released an Post-Script: U. Barak Obama. The participants growing speculation that the new voice Straits. more than 700 Americans makes way for the first African-Amer. soon crumble leaving behind the rubble consumer goods increase. report was nothing but an “American CANF. So this would not their fundamental right to travel and free under the new presidencies of Barak come without preconditions since Obama access to humanitarian support. Indeed. Fidel and Raúl Castro had kind words for fire. Obama declared community. Anti-embargo tion campaign in Miami. Even before for the “captive nation” of Cuba. I wish next two years to ensure a “transition” running against incumbent hardliner. Toward But the protests seem to have fallen into stark relief the reconfiguration of the end of January 2009. Cuba policy fair” (Moynihan 2008).” remittances to the island.S.” He was supported by Emergency Network of Cuban Ameri. organizations have also increased in “an immediate change in policy to al- described the measures as “anti-family. It was a day of advoca. May. The 2008 election campaign brought relations with the United States.C. The to Raúl Castro suggested potential very slow in coming and Cubans are not Day’s activities was sponsored by the change. right-winged con. the 2008 election campaign. Thus. 2006.com). administrations and must lead to elections that are free and that “divides families. him luck. The report view with Joe García in August. with articles prisoners. 2006 startribune. who in our activism amongst both new and existing García when he said that he would seek phone interview in December. Raúl Castro announced potential also included over 100 Cuban Ameri. House of Representatives ing absolutely sincere. ner. 2005. These changes have been Representatives Flake and Delahunt. Obama’s policy on Cuba seems avalanche of indignation and angry After Fidel Castro and ambivalent at best. No. The recommendations for the U. was the Democratic candidate but also that he was a man he saw as be- occupation plan”. and sociological configuration. 31. ton Office on Latin America and fifteen of old exile politics in a new political Acting President. harms Obama and Raúl Castro. we will take steps to begin traveled from thirty five states to partici. take significant steps toward democracy. the Commission for Prominent members of the of the former Obama.Vol. and the world price for basic food products including Senators Bacchus and Enzi and the transfer of power from Fidel Castro Cuba imports. I can assure you that the measures with restrictions on academic travel and trade. 2009.cafc. cal prisoners. Fidel Castro told the Argentine Assistance to a Free Cuba issued a right-winged CANF supported the President.-Cuban Relations Yet. Bush that “I will maintain the embargo…. It government should decide who their provides us with the leverage to present immediate family is. be raising hopes to high” (http://www. I have pave “the road to freedom for all Cubans Day” in Washington D.people. throughout would only “accept libertad (freedom)” Cubans. salaries and raise domestic food produc- family visits. a free cy on Capitol Hill organized to demand that assess the potential changes in both press and freedom of assembly. The activists were joined servative generation (including a visible tion to substitute for massive increases in by several Congressmen and Senators softening of attitude within CANF). into a storm of protests when on 27th cans continue as the administration beginning with the freeing of all politi- April. in July 2006. humanitarian organizations concerned family travel and remittances but not on and it is yet to be seen whether he will . Cristina Hernández de Kirsch- 93-page second report which attempts Democratic party. leadership (www. Since 2006.” but added that Obama “may rather than a “succession” of Cuban Republican Mario Díaz-Balart An inter. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 33 that. Despite his overt op- outbursts amongst the Cuban American position to the embargo. Raúl Castro. normalizing relations… I promise to pate in what they called a “Cuba Action the Democrat. Obama echoed Director of the organization.S.com).gov). expressed hopes for normalization of peopleforchange. The Washing.S.

a graduate diploma in 2005 Families Torn Apart. Electronic docu. Ruth Ellen References cessed February 7. Social Movements.thenation. and Cuban Travel Re.S.unt. ton Books.startribune. The High www. accessed January 29. Electronic 2009 Castro Brothers Have Nice the University of the West Indies. accessed December 2. http://www.htm. No.. ment. Elec. In short.miaminewtimes. Electronic document. document. 31. Augustine. Electronic docu- the three hardline Republican candi. Aguayo.reason. St. php?showtopic=22482.htm. n . http://www. New Times. Wasem.com/doc/20041101/ International Relations and a Master Cost of U.S. http://www. one of which Cuba 2004 Politics and Policy. The of Philosophy in Latin American Author Unknown Nation.net/index. 2009. http://www. She has been awarded two Fulbright scholar- Commission for Assistance to a Free Nielsen. Lon. 2009. Heather Nora Heuvel. accessed dad Sunday Guardian and the New Studies February 7. http://www. Zebich-Knos.com/ accessed February 7. ac. 27. edcut/1440/the_dumbest_policy. Human Rights Watch 17:5. org/2004/1in/noticias-FNCA/2004. 2009. Victor and James Moynihan. Cuba policy Charlottesville: University Press of 2007 Down With the Embargo: including complete removal of restric. She has been a political columnist for Dunkerly 2008 Obama’s Overlooked Cuba the Trinidad Guardian and Trinidad 1999 The United States and Latin Speech. sep-02-exile%20leader. 2006 Cuban Migration Policy and Issues. crs/permalink/meta-crs-9147:1. Katrina Vanden 2005 Foreign Policy Toward Cuba: Author Unknown 2004 The Dumbest Policy. Virginia. Making Up Is Hard To Do. Electronic document.S. main research focus is on U. York based Guyana Journal. February 6. Ethnic the 2008 elections. the newer waves or moderate majority the political flavor of Florida. ment.htm.edu/govdocs/ Democrats. accessed and Lincoln Díaz-Balart.gov/ Words for Obama But for Cuba. http:// 2006 Exile Leader in Miami Join 1993 The Cuba Obsession. a Master 2004 Rocking the Cuban Vote. http://www. retained their congressional district in 1997 Imagining Miami. Kirk ships for study in the U. Contentious tions on family travel. 2005. Gainesville in 2007. http:// Literature. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. Niko Science/International Relations at 2006 Report to the President. Her accessed June 10. Florida.htm. Cuba Policy trade under an Obama presidency may De Vise Daniel and Elane de Valle (1960-2006). accessed February 5. still uncertain if and how he can sway cessed December 9. tions. Michele and Nicol.S Cuba 2006. http://canf. Rampersad. Trinidad. cessed February 7. Spring 2009 initiate relaxation of the embargo. 2009. Progressive. http://www. St.S. accessed She holds a Bachelors degree in February 6. Bulmer-Thomas.htm. The Isolation Or Engagement? Lexing- 2005 Cuba Action Day April Nation.org/ CNews/y04/sep04/03e12. 2007. CRS Report for Congress.html.compuserve. the much Politics in a Postmodern World. accessed Star Tribune. http://www. 2009. lovato. com/2004-07-29/news/politics. ac. ac. Indira touted changes in U. University of Florida. remittances and Politics and U. New York Times.thenation. U. 2009. Trinidad. policy. Electronic document. Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Michael C. she attained from the University of gov/cafc/rpt/2004/c18166. http://ourworld. Elec. of Philosophy in International Rela- strictions. Cubanet.com/ dates. Terry Franklin.com/ writes a regular column for the Trini- don: Institute of Latin American news/show/126750. document. 2006. It is cafc/rpt/2006/c18232. homepages/JBFranklins/canf. Electronic Express newspapers and currently America: The New Agenda. Roberto Language and Literature.library.34 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. each of whom Croucher. Electronic document.D dissertation. all from the University of the West Indies. and Mario nation/38155294. Augustine. Rampersad is currently Commission for Assistance to a Free employed as Lecturer in Political Cuba Price. be longer in coming than is expected by 2004 Cuban balseros helped change Department of Political Science. and-policy/. 2007. of Cuban Americans. Jane Electronic document. Indira Rampersad was born in the peopleforchange. Sheila L. Dr. Miami facilitated the pursuit of her Doctor of 2004 Report to the President. Reasononline. The digital. People for Change. 2. 2009.cafc. Ph. Lovato. 2009.cafc.S. December 9. accessed November 8.cubanet. Philosophy in Political Science which tronic document.com/blogs/ tronic document.html.

Alterca- tions over land increased in frequency after President Chester Arthur signed an Introduction Executive Order on December 16.000 Navajos. and have recently Districts on the two reservations (the and Hopi people to the Colorado River concluded a study on a four-year cycle of Navajo reservation and the EOA) for Indian Reservation. On August 1. By between the two tribes. This gradually outnumbered the Hopi. II period incarceration of over 110. 2. Public Law 85-547.000 peoples had evaporated. and the Navajo comments on the long term impacts of pastoral lifestyle compelled scores of the land dispute and the forced relocation. This has been the largest O nly relatively recently have human forced relocation of American citizens migration and resettlement processes in the United States since the World War been studied in an effort to understand. In essence. a fac.” The state the Oraibi road that on that particular day of affairs was exacerbated with expan. I have continued to visit the to the Indian Reorganization Act 4. focuses on the relations between Navajo Navajos and Hopis lived side by side relocates from the Former Joint Use Area. The Hopi Tribe with friends and acquaintances. Due to increasing tensions turned into a soup of clay-mud. why don’t they (whoever ‘they’ are) surrounds the 1882 Executive Order (P. Indians as the Secretary of the Interior At the Hopi Cultural Center I turned into may see fit to settle thereon. the that ensued. 31. Navajo living on the EOA to promote cooperation between the here? (Field notes.L.Vol. tion of land disputes between the two to personally observe changes and visit trict Six.5 million On a cold rainy October 1987 day acres of land “for the use and occupan- I was driving my Cutlass 442 toward Orit Tamir cy of the Moqui (Hopi) and such other Pinon. Jones. was identified as an exclusive sought and got legislation from Con- Hopi district located in the south-central gress. comprised of about 631. No. 85-740) in 1950 that was intended pave this road? What on earth am I doing Area (EOA). and of more than 10. tribes by providing federal funding for was my introduction to consequences of tor that widened the scope of local land the construction of infrastructure includ- the Navajo-Hopi land dispute that resulted disputes (Tamir 1999:71). in the Black Mesa region of northern their initial relations with their Navajo Arizona for centuries. In . followed by “20 years later” regional slave trade. authorizing Roots of the Navajo-Hopi portion of the 1882 EOA. flared up from time to time. I lived in Pinon for a little 1940s as a result of an action taken by authorized funds for the development over two and a half years. Arizona (the Navajo Reservation). I never really the Secretary of the Interior pursuant of off-reservation employment oppor- went away. 1958. October 30. The Hopi under the authority of P. Congress passed in a number of languages. 1987). Cursing sions of the Navajo reservation. hospitals. All remaining districts were as. the effects of resettlement on people of Japanese ancestry—most of the relocatees and their hosts. This paper whom were American citizens. the various disputes Spanish arrival to the Southwest. Land disputes between the pas- in the context of forced relocations cases toral Navajos and the dry farming Hopis from around the world. The Act also Navajo people. Navajo people to move closer to Hopi This paper than examines the Navajo case villages. radio and tele- in the forced relocation of over 10. partici- The Secretary established 21 Grazing for the continuing relocation of Navajo pate in their ceremonies. By 1957 hopes the Sun Dance in Pinon.000 Land disputes intensified in the phone communications. both tribes to sue one another for title Land Dispute that was the first partitioning of the to the 1882 EOA. I asked my- 1934 the Navajo reservation completely the Navajo and Hopi Rehabilitation Act self. My frequent vis- livestock control and to improve range for cooperation and amicable resolu- its provided me with ample opportunities management and soil conservation.940 households. The 16th Century reservation hosts. ing roads.000 in depth. acres.L. the Hopi Tribe sued the Navajo Tribe The Navajo-Hopi land dispute had signed to the Navajo Tribe. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 35 We Find Ourselves in the Middle: Navajo Relocation and Relocatee-Host Conflicts By Orit Tamir 2. 85-547—the led to the involuntary relocation of over Tribe protested the establishment of case is known as Healing V. District Six. EOA. Dis. 1882 setting aside approximately 2. tunities for members of both tribes and people who became my fictive kin.

I interviewed catees who lost their entire traditional subsequently amended in 1980 (P. was supposed to be completed in 1986. members of all relocatee households. After years of catees spoke only Navajo. the exception of District Six (which It also established the Navajo and Hopi Pinon relocatees were relatively remained exclusively Hopi). education attainment) vis-à-vis the rest of the population in the community. 102-180) and 1995 (P. it seems I got drastic reduction of Navajo livestock originally slated to relocate to Pinon. outside of District Six became known as as the executive arm. that she can run her sheep and These actions failed to resolve the land cember 1990) 47 relocatee households goats and come into my house any dispute. Public Law (57%) were relocated in five group 93-531—the Navajo and Hopi Indian moves (Navajo families that have relo.36 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. buffers often resulted in host-relocatee (P. 31. We physical violence.L. with a median age of 18. holds—73% of the total number of land disputes that ranged from verbal . Eleven of these Arizona ruled that the Navajo and Hopi the JUA between the Navajo and Hopi households provided home-sites to re- tribes have undivided equal rights to the tribes and the relocation of people resid. as land use area. 2. 1966. Disappearance of with one acre home-sites due their own restricted land base. but older relo- of initiatives by the Hopi Tribe aimed at ditional twenty odd years. all but disappeared for relocatees who lost Some relocatees felt that their kin- hosts were reluctant to provide them their entire traditional land use area. socio-economic fabric of Navajos living Act that calls for the completion of the Another relocatee recalled a similar in the JUA. ment pattern. and a number protecting the JUA’s grazing resources delays Senator John McCain (Arizona) of children spoke only English. District Court in Prescott. Twenty-seven households house is hers. and infrastructural devel. Disappearance of these 96-305). all but disappeared for relo- and Hopi Tribes in the JUA and was within close proximity). 2008. commercial.S.7 years. In 1972 proceed.L. an Arizona District Court ordered Seventy-one Navajo households were one acre. Finally. and restricted construction in the JUA to At the time of my initial ethnographic Dela Bahe (the host) still thinks developments approved by both tribes. 7. Traditional territorial buffers be- Land Settlement Act (the Act). The Act cated as a unit from Hopi Partition Land tween residence groups that have been intended to facilitate a settlement of all (HPL) to Navajo Partition Land (NPL) an integral part of Navajo settlement of the rights and interests of the Navajo and whose replacement homes are pattern. customary land use area. A young relocate these buffers often resulted in host-relocatee land disputes explained: My aunt sort of did not want to let that ranged from verbal assaults. a tribute to their rela- tive employability (younger with higher groups that have been an integral part of Navajo settle. a U. Congress passed. experience: of Indian Affairs froze all residential. Navajo Relocatee-Host Disputes The Commission just move you opments in the JUA unless the Hopi out (of HPL) and that’s it. The area Relocation Commission (Commission) young. to ” people move here because she had sheep and horses grazing here. You Tribe approved them. she said OK and signed the papers. the rates of employment and income among “Traditional territorial buffers between residence relocatees were ogenerally higher than the norm in Pinon. on December 22. through vandalism. The Relocatees have no place to go except this ings. No. both English and Navajo.L. stuck right here in this one acre. 104-15).’ While at the time of the research unemployment in Pinon was higher than that of the wider Navajo reservation.S. the Bureau relocation by September 30.L. Most re- resulted in a sequence of federal actions introduced a bill that resulted in a 2006 locatees described themselves as ‘tradi- that had serious consequences for the amendment to the Land Settlement tional. 1991 well as members of 293 other house. Spring 2009 1962. 1974. 1988 (P.3 years. to Pinon. You know. Most reloacees were fluent in Following the court decision a series Instead it has been limping along for ad. She acts as if this hearings. had no place to move and we had to move. the U. The Act ordered equal partitioning of households in Pinon. After a series of congressional (171 individuals) had already relocated time she wants. locatee households who lost their entire surface and subsurface of the EOA with ing on land partitioned to the other tribe. On July 1. The relocation and the average education attainment of the Joint Use Area (JUA). 100-166). fieldwork (October 1987 through De.

That relocation house. and and by Navajo relatives of ours. On the contrary. through vandalism. (HPL) long before the reloca- locatees already got new hous. moved here because my old home tell us not to use the land for or to otherwise accommodate reloca. But once the house built for them over there. an elderly window frames in the living room. They want us to take place in traditional Navajo social hier. and and no form of transportation provided do not visit with relatives. so he In one case the hosts. the woman to me saying that they are going from that house is married into the to be taken away. each other. and I did. my es. We reduction. insisted that The problems started when the (re. It is not right. ous home. Before to move because the Hopi were would be sharing their customary land that they wanted very much that forcing people out of the land over use area as well as occupying the one we move out here. know that they are going to move house was completed. but they asked her to pay for rides and our sheep somewhere else ad not archy and their customary rights to the for helping her hauling wood and coal: graze around here. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 37 assaults. you stay away from here. only 18%. We found ourselves in the The Hosts the outlying areas of Pinon. was burned down by scared to go out to improve our Hosts were typically elderly—all some drunks. here. the prob.” Those who homes. They only look a house built for them there and at me from inside their big homes We do not get along very well I approved. So I signed (the home site lease) family: They asked me if they could have papers for them. over the grazing. the other related hardships. women. They are all Another relocatee complained about family. host families ex. No. At times we are even tees’ grazing needs. no They (relocatees) were crying communication with them. authenticating both women’s catees do not help her with daily chores. Later. (with the hosts) because we are house over there. construction freeze. living conditions. (HPL) fence. cabin about 10 miles from a paved road. Our hosts also complain about They were not compensated for the I was told to move out of this area our livestock. vandalism that she attributed to the host that a house should be built there. She was bitter that she herself of bad words about us. 31. Some of our land. them in daily tasks. A middle age relocatee blamed traditional territorial buffers and did to only 38% of the households in Pinon the disputes on the relocation: not experience disputes with members and indoor plumbing was available to of the host community. The Commis. the man is my having problems. That why it was decided my youngest sister’s children. They say “you re.” But we cannot even herd their livestock holdings to fit the new application was turned down… I sheep around here.Vol. I told him too (hosts) will probably get running to go ahead and have a relocation They (relocatees) never let me water and electricity. Even though I am his sister lems started. The other relocation all day. calls me shinali (paternal grand. We brought with us All host households were headed by She complained that not only the relo- only a few sheep from our previ. mother). in one place. but I just from their own cultural land use areas did not qualify for relocation home: let it be and do not bother with to each of the relocatee households. gan ((traditional Navajo octagonal ence disputes still felt crowded: “my pated that utility services promised to one-room home) near their new neighbors are good to us. Elderly Navajo hosts who lived alone it does not mean he can just go expected the younger relocatees to help ahead and move. I hear a lot families provided one acre home-sites relocatees. there. so we just stay but one were in their sixties or older. The homes middle. but why hate other JUA residents. Our relatives carrying capacity of their grazing land. but we are relocatees would also extend to their house since I was twenty-one. Like in her seventies lived in a tiny one room the same blood. Eleven host several home sites for a group move of hate still continues. to physical use area retained at least some of their infrastructure electricity was available violence. some were forced to further reduce tion begun. it.’ I . in the other sheep camp. They broke our oldest brother’s grandchild. But too close to one another. typically close kin of relocatees who none had running water. 2. There are Navajos who hate Most hosts’ homes were located in us. unwanted by the Hopi The host families in Pinon were were small. At the perienced the impacts of the livestock had no electricity. woman and her daughter. only six had electricity. land they provided. present time it is the same. This was significant since after they (relocatees) told me ‘this is moved within their traditional land years of freeze on construction and mine. He said that he wanted they were not aware that relocatees location) house was built. They also antici. I live in this Ho- Relocatees who did not experi. A host who was We (relocatees and hosts) have provided home sites for them. A host explained: relatives turned against us. no running water. where he lived with his wife acre they had provided: sion said that when we move they near her relatives.

We have road. The next thing we know. Three Gorges Dam on China’s Yangze was scared and run away. 1973. Just ruts and “wash board” surface during crowded. and boy was away from the house we substance abuse. On one move to Flagstaff or even Phoenix in hand are claims of increased multi-di. behavioral and eco. Pinon is remote and populated by result of Navajo traditional land use pat- on one acre lots and they have no very traditional Navajos. and disturbances. the 2005 . feel comfortable at and that every. drinking of alcohol and of hair ated along the major paved and graded was afraid to go alone. Spring 2009 hope one day they will move away on human populations bring to the fore to off-reservation boarding schools or from here. homes are situ- her to check it out because she about. 54. public school was expanded to include Goldsmith and Hilyard 1986. After rain or snow these and some still lack electricity or indoor We found out that one of her sons roads often become impassible due to plumbing.7. Most Pinon families the right to use the land. and three other outlets). that was ini. local populations—all for the “public dents who did not provide home sites Also during the 1990s Pinon’s K-9 good” (Hansen and Oliver-Smith 1982. are 1. Before the Navajo reservation. On the other service Indian Health Service clinic and unhappy with the relocatees.38 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol. order to provide their children with The case developed into a long and mensional stress. and lots of complaints cooking. and revitalization of beliefs According to the 2000 census. have cement or dirt floors. hand. The median went to check where the sheep phetamine. holds are still widely dispersed. there where they lived on the customary and practices. One paved terns. Most of relocation. No. a wide range of mixed results. Major development project such as was herding sheep not far away from tion. our birth with neighboring chapters and with live in small wood-frame houses and in places are on this land…. More recently a full bitter dispute. tive activities is “Pinon village. spread to Pinon where the poverty line. along school-bus routes. associated housing opened in December clude the family of her married brother ties. who moved from another community structure. Cernea 1999). the Aswan Dam in Egypt. and better education. a senior In another incident the host’s daughter citizens’ center. The Context ed there are the chapter house. improved housing. Presbyterian. for relocatees. mud or flash floods.. Scudder a high school.1% is under the she [daughter-in-law] was running as well. hogans (traditional Navajo octagonal or other relocatees fighting with The rest of the roads are graded and round Navajo homes) which they build people over land. Most of the busi. Navajo Housing project. Natural disasters Pinon Twenty-Years Later ment that eased the burden of children such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami spending hours every days en-route to that caused widespread devastation Long term cultural. nesses opened during the mid 1990s.3% under the age of 18). benefits. We hear the Agency Town of Chinle. recently we lost our sheep herd. toward us with a big rock.271. She recalled: within the former JUA. can Indians. The average household size in the right to use other land. dry months. a much needed develop. improved infra. a Laundromat. 2. with youth gangs have been spun out Pinon’s population. There is also a marked rise in dirt roads. Most households use wood took them up to the mountains. promises of anticipated way of life for a new big house echoed few Navajo homes. her brother separated from Pinon is the fact that the chapter lies this population was born and raised in his wife and moved out. The rate of Navajos the place where my daughter was its focus is on addressing youth related living below the poverty level is the sitting. When the spray. We still fight un-graded dirt roads notorious for their themselves. Navajo Route 4. Of were. 52. The hub of political and administra- thing will be healed.S. I hope that one day they substance abuse and gang problems highest in the U. the Houses built for relocatees are tion. even among Ameri- will move out to a place they will (Tamir 2006). some leaving an estimated 230. There is visible and coal for heating. Out of the total population. a mini strip-mall (a supermarket. 92% land use area of his wife’s family—as The single most important compo. the construction of the Kariba Dam in her uncle’s relocation home when sud.7% of those under the age of 18 and we could even move she hit the tially a reaction to the forced relocation 100% of those 65 and older live below windshield of our new truck near from the JUA.” Locat. and fro Chinle High School. a gas sta. which in.000 people nomic consequences of forced relocation parents prefer sending their children dead and scores homeless. especially metham. Since nent determining the present status of (46. parallel to power lines. and the forced relocation of the sentiments of some other Pinon resi. Arizona. Still. Many homes are over- with her (daughter-in-law). River produce major environmental that the relocatees sold their land and Mormon).190 people living in Pinon. Compared to Pinon and vicinity and many house- other chapters on the Navajo reserva. and denly shots were fired in the air—she the Bureau of Indian Affairs dormitory. The elderly host was very the breakup of families. 2006. and butane for My daughter asked me to go with evidence of. She charged three missions (Catholic. of the population is Native American customary in Navajo tradition. a post office. 31. Zambia. are new employment opportuni. substance abuse. When possible. and problems associated income of a household is $19. connects Pinon community is 4. The Sun Dance movement on poverty line.

5 million people without provision of clean water. ” conflict.’ few moved into zation.Vol. 59(2). and the spread of various Frisbie.). 2000). Hansen. O’Laughlin. Since then some of the relocatees and Review of Anthropology. than 100 Navajo families still living Effects of Large Dams. Regge. The forced relocation that resulted from the “The Navajo-Hopi land dispute has played out for over Navajo-Hopi land dispute is unique: it more than 100 years. Thomas C. sanitation. the widespread methamphetamine and of Charlotte J. DC: The and ethnographic CRM work. 32. Armed conflicts such as the Arab-Israeli dispute. Her Navajo-Hopi land dispute is that the World Bank. Cordelia T. the forced relocation experi- the JUA. The federal government also ence. Snow (Eds. term field research among the Navajo The bad news is that the original esti. Dreams—The Sacred Mountains the Hopi and “such other Indians. It is primarily the result of a land dispute between two tribes. A close look reveals that vajo Housing Authority homes in Pinon’s of Relocation. and a clinic also blame western Interludes: Papers in Honor creating grazing districts that perpetu. enhanced by courts with the creation of land dispute. which included the Navajo inhabitants altogether. and. Children of 61. Are Living Her dispute when it created the EOA for the land using area of their spouses. Annual death of as many as 100. The Archaeological Society District 6 that in turn were further juvenile delinquencies in the area on the of New Mexico . Michael on the consequences of resettlement of forced relocation upon them (Tamir 1999 The Economies of Involuntary and associated socio-cultural changes 1999. Japanese-American million. 2000 Assessing Success / Failure resolution. change. Washington. Human Organi- the federal government created a legal version of a ‘project. Thayar people lost their lives also forced scores 1973 The Human Ecology of Big of people to relocate. 1. cation of their parents left them with no 1999 What Happened to Navajo Re- The Navajo-Hopi land dispute has cultural land use rights of their own. The good news about the Resettlement. populations.000 people day. The Navajo Nation was primarily interested in avoiding massive relocation of its relocatees are in limbo—the forced relo. 2. Nicholas Hilyard Indians in particular. and the 2008 It has been 20 years since I first arrived Projects: River Basin Develop- Cyclone Nargis that may result in the to Pinon on that dreary and wet October ment and Resettlement. and participated in a collabora- tive project in The Gambia. Legal aspects of the land dis. and it is not an outcome of an armed and deadlines for conflict resolution. 1993. No.” Orit Tamir (Ph. ated individualism and relocation from alcohol abuse. and on related loss of “Navajoness. Arizona State grossly underestimated the number University) is a professor of social and of Navajo and Hopi households that References cultural anthropology at New Mexico would be forced to relocate. No. and homes. They locatees from Hopi Partition Lands played out for over more than 100 are landless in a culture where “being in Pinon? American Indian Culture years. Edward. with multiple missed opportunities is not part of a development project. with multiple missed oppor. and the fewer 1986 The Social and Environmental ests include the effects of development. tunities and deadlines for conflict land use area.D. Art. and over. In Wiseman. Anthony Oliver-Smith Indians of Arizona as well as short-term mated cost of the relocation was $40 1982 Involuntary Migration and field projects with various Indian tribes million. while pleased with having a supermarket. the war in Iraq. Theoretical inter- pute have been settled. 2:45- in Myanmar (Burma) also left about all the hosts have passed on. it did not result from a natural disaster. 2006. Orit conducted long- ing the land or preparing to relocate. Some of them live in Na. She concentrates looked the multi-dimensional impacts Cernea. n . The cost of human suffering is Responses of Dislocated People.836 Conclusions Scudder. Boulder: Westview Press.” others have left Pinon and the reservation Dinè Sun Dance. Orit people. cisco: Sierra Club Books. survivors of World War Two internment incalculable. and globalization on micro- on Hopi Partition Land are either leas. 31. ethnographic focus is on North Ameri- tribes are no longer at daggers down can Indians in general and Southwest over it. Spring 2009 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY 39 Hurrican Katrina where at least 1. The govern. South- ment compounded the land dispute by K-12 schools. and the Darfur conflict in western Sudan resulted in the displacement of millions of people. San Fran. camps. and Theodore R. Tamir. Many in Pinon and vicinity. and who lived in the EOA. Navajo” is directly tied to one’s cultural and Research Journal 23 (4). the actual cost exceeded $480 Resettlement: The Problems and in the Southwest. Highlands University. Goldsmith.

2010. and vision for the journal. and/or editorial board experience 2. constitute an Editorial Board. Publications Committee Chair (nesch@uky. A strong record of publication in applied social sciences 3. A history of involvement in applied social science research/practice Persons interested in applying for the position should provide the Publications Committee early on with a letter of intent. ideas. David Griffith and Jeff Johnson. associate or guest editor. A copy of the candidate’s vita or resume 5. The initial term of service for the new Editor-in-Chief will be three years. a journal that has been recognized as a leading scientific publication in applied anthropology since its founding in 1941.O. The successor’s term will begin on January 1. Additional letters of support from colleagues and professional associates 4. The term of the current co-Editor team. No. and offer editorial expertise and direction. A proposed budget Additional material may be requested by the Publications Committee at a later date. . teacher/graduate assistants. and so on 3. OK 73101-2436 Questions concerning the position can be directed to Nancy Schoenberg. computer support. Experience as a journal editor. Applications should be sent to: Society for Applied Anthropology. promote and cultivate the journal. In addition to making at least a three-year commitment to the journal and to serving on the SfAA Board of Directors. candi- dates for the position should be able to secure release time (where possible) and other institutional support to supplement SfAA resources. Human Organization The Society for Applied Anthropology announces a search for a new Editor-in-Chief of Human Organization.40 PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY Vol.edu). The term is renewable for one additional three-year period. A letter of from the candidate’s institution that demonstrates commitment to provide resources such as course release time. which can help initiate discussion and provide potential applicants with necessary information. HO Editor Search. A letter of interest that indicates the candidate’s experience. and any support (such as release time. 2. The Editor-in-Chief of Human Organization also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of the Society for Applied Anthropology. Spring 2009 Editor Search Editor-in-Chief. 31. The actual application should contain the following: 1. space. ends in December. The application deadline is September 15. It is published four times annually and is directed toward interdisciplinary as well as anthropological audiences. P. 2011. 2009. The search is being initiated now to provide for a smooth transition. office equipment.edu) and Jeff Johnson (JOHNSONJE@ecu. equipment and editorial assistance) that will be available from the host institution 2. Box 2436. We especially encourage interested individuals to contact current editors David Griffith (GRIFFITHD@ecu. Additional criteria include: 1.edu). Oklahoma City.