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Strategic management II

TOPIC 1. INDIVIDUALITIES
Among the people in the organisation, we can find different characteristics
(biological, psychological…).

The biographical characteristics are those personal characteristics, such as age,
gender and marital status, that are objective and easily obtained from personnel
records.

The ability, intellect and intelligence are multiple intelligences from everyone that
surrounds us.

Ability: an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.

Intellectual ability: the capacity to do mental activities.

Multiple intelligences: intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social,
emotional, and cultural.

Social intelligence is how well we interact with people, deal with problems,
conflicts…
Emotional intelligence is very important, determines whether you are able to control
your emotions and project the adequate emotions in each moment, also detect the
others’ emotions.

WHAT ARE EMOTIONS?

Detect the others’ emotions help to detect
how they are going to behave. It is not the
employees’ fault, it is the managers’ fault
to well organise them and know them.
We need to understand that our employees
don’t necessary show what they really feel.

Emotional labor is a situation in which an
employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal
transactions.

Emotional dissonance is a situation in which an employee must project one
emotion while simultaneously feeling another. What people project doesn’t need to
be exactly what they feel. A manager needs to know that things aren’t always as
they seem, so managers need to go beyond the face value.

The fact of knowing what the rest feel helps managers to manage their workers
better. We need to observe how they behave, feel and interact with the team. The
emotional state is one of the most important determinants of the productivity of a
team.

The managers also need to control their emotions, and to know how and when to
display them. Employees are constantly reading the emotions of their superiors. If
the boss looks stressed, employees may believe that something is not going well,
and therefore they can start rumouring and the panic and stress among employees
can start.

Ability and selection: emotions affect employee effectiveness. Organizational influences: some organizations are more open. . the more difficult are to read. charisma. EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS Cultural influences: for example. There is a continuum in emotions. self-confident… . . You have to become a coach. but can be perceived by the rest as anger or fear. It is important to know how people perceives you as a manager. while in Europe it is most common to complain. capabilities. EMOTION CONTINUUM The closer any two emotions are to each other on the continuum. others are more hierarquical. ABILITY AND SELECTION Emotional intelligence is an assortment of non-cognitive skills. The emotions affect: . Strategic management II Felt emotions: an individual’s actual emotions Displayed emotions: emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. The more negative emotions are. close relation among employees and bosses. be self-aware. Emotional intelligence is a key factor to be a manager. UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONS The emotions are a key aspect influencing behaviour. that goes from happy to disgust.Leadership: emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders. the more likely people are to confuse them. which motivates them.Decision making: emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations. you need to show those abilities. and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in copying with environmental demands and pressures. You may be sad. leadership… it is more valued than the traditional skills.Motivation: emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked. people in America don’t tend to complain publicly. You need to empathise. .

self- reinforcement. there is learning. so you need to recognise it and adapt to each. Not to close in your office. people won’t tell you how well you are doing. by feeling… People is a key value provider in the firm. it is important to study and know the learning cycle and way of learning because each person has different learning styles. or that this time you like it.Is relatively permanent . you see vainilla cappuccino. You teach your employees so that their activities and behaviour is coherent with the organizational culture. We need to understand the specificities in order to better manage and teach them and to achieve the organization objective.Is acquired through experience You need to recognise how people learn. you want to test whether the problem was the coffee or the shop. you think that you will like it. For example. Every person learns different. you feel and observe something. From a manager point of view. LEARNING Is any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience. you need to find your own motivation. Learning involves change. then you try to understand and finally you test out to see if what you see is what you thought. To say the right things at the right time. so that people understands you and wants to follow you. so we need to motivate them. so previously it had been a problem of the other shop. that you don’t actually don’t like that coffee. Then 2 things can happen. so you test it. Strategic management II Self-management and self-motivation is the ability to put your own goals. Firstly. Managing them is very important. A manager wants to maximize the output of its team. Social skills are need to interact with employees.Involves change . Learning: . Learning is related to problem solving. If there is a change between behaviour before and after. then you think about it. Learning and problem solving have the same cycle. . Learning is a permanent change in behaviour as a result of behaviour. Then you see it in another shop. Some people learn better by doing. so you test it in that other place. but you don’t like it. others by looking.

. Strategic management II THEORIES OF LEARNING: Shaping behaviour Shaping behaviour is to systematically reinforce each successive step that moves and individual closer to the desired response. We can’t use reinforcement or punishment alone. Intermittent reinforcement: a desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.Some rewards are more effective than others. both of them need to be combined to get better results. TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT Positive reinforcement: providing a reward for a desired behaviour. Fixed-interval schedule: rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses. Extinction: withholding reinforcement of a behaviour to cause its cessation.Reinforcement is required to change behaviour. Punishment: applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behaviour. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Continuous reinforcement: a desired behaviour is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Social learning: people learn from what happens to others. . Negative reinforcement: removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behaviour occurs.The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Key concepts: . .